Автор: Серов Д.О.  

Теги: отрасли права   история   правоведение  

ISBN: 978-5-94373-161-7

Год: 2009

Текст
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CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I C5I 1-1 JJ;OnOJlHRJlC5I CBbllUe 20 pa3 1 . BoT 1-1 B HblHe JJ;ei'icTEJYIOWI-1i'i ynK - no COCTOHHI-1IO Ha 2007 r. - y)/(e OKa3aJlOCb BHeceHO OKOJlO 450 nonpaBoK 1-1 JJ;OnOJlHeHl-1iP. Me)l(!lY TeM, B l.Jepelle "3MeHeHI-1H, KOTOphlM TO " JJ;eJlO nOJJ;BepraJIC5I OTe<1eCTBeHHhll1 CYll, OT'leTJII-1BO Bblpl-1COBbIBalOTC5I HeKHe nepHO.llbl BpeMeHH, Kor.aa nOllo6Hb]e H3MeHeHI-151 «crYWaJlI-1Cb'», npl-1HI-1MaJIl-1 Mac- lUTa6Hblf1: xapaKTep. TaKl-1e nepl-10.llbl Tpaal-1111-l0HHO npI-1H5ITO HMeHOBaTb CYAe6Hb]MH pe<tJOPMaMK AKTYaJlbHOCTb 1-13Y4eHI-1JI cyne6Hb]X pepM O'-lemUlIlli. 3r11 Pe4>oPMhl 51M5IIOT c060H nOBopoTHhle TO'-IKH cYAe6HOH HCTOpHH JII060H crpaHhl. BcecropoHHl-1e pa3blCKaHIDI KaCaTeJlhHO 06cT05l- TeJlbCTB npOBeneHH5I cYAe6HblX pe<tJopM - OT I-1X JaMblCJl8 AO PeJyJIbTaTOB - n03BOJl5l1OT. C O.llHOi'i CTOPOHbl. npH6J1"3HTbC5I K nOHl-lMaHI-1IO Me}l(BeKOBblX 3aKOHOMepHocrei'i YHKl.lI-IOHHpOBa- HI-151 HallI10HaJlbHOi'i cyne6Hoi'i CI-1CTeMbl. C npyroi'i - K nOHHMa- HI-1IO 3aKOHOMepHOCTei'i B nOCTH)((eHHH KaK n03J11THBHblX, TaK 11 HeraTI1BHblX HTorOB caMHX npeo6pa30naHI1H. 6e3 BWIMeHH5I OTMe'-leHHhIX JaKOHOMepHOCTeH. KaK npellCTaM5IeTC5I. 3arpYAHHTeJlbHO Bhlpa60T8Tb B nOJIHOH Mepe OnnfMaJIbHYIO crpcrrenflO lI8JIbHeHlUero COBepweHCTBOBaHH5I POCCI1i'icKoro npaBOCYAH5I B XXI BeKe. Ha CerOllH5IWHI1H lIeHb OTe4eCTBeHHbli'i HCTOpH'leCKI-1i'i onblT CYAe6Horo peopMHpoBa- HI-1f1 HeCOMHeHHO JacJIY.Ai:I1BaeT CKOJlb my6)((e 6bITb HCCJlellOBaH- HblM YlJeHbIMH. CTOJlb 11 lUl1pe 6b1Tb BOCTpe6onaHHbiM JaKOHO- naTeJleM. K lleneHanpaBJIeHHOMY t13)'4eHHIO t1CropJ.fl.1 poccHHcKOH cy- ne6Hoi'i CI1CTeMbl nepBb]M B HalUef1: crpaHe 06paT11J1C5I TI-IM04Jei'i CeMeHOBI1'l I\tIa.r]bfHH. Era He60JIbWOe CO'-lHHeHl1e «OnblT t1CTO- pl1<1ecKora I1CC11e.1l0BaHI151 H Ont1CaHI151 CrupHHHhlX cyne6Hbix Mecr PoccHiicKoro rocynapcrB8» YBHlleJlO CEeT B CaHKT-neTep6ypre B 1803 r. KaK CnpaBe.LLJ1HBO OTMenlJl T. C. I\tIa.r]b(l1H B npelll1- CJlOBI1H, «flCHoe t1 T04Hoe CBe.lleHHe 0 cywecTBOBaHI1I1. o6pa3e H Ka'lecrBe cYA eooblx MeCT B roCYAapCTBeHHOM npaBJIeHHH eCTb 1 c.bll(OJ/UH A. C LOReTCKoe cynoycrpoiicrno: tICTO'JHI1KI1. CI1CTeM3TH- JaUI1j.J, Jllrrep.:nypa II I1CTopI1KO-IOpl11ll1'JeCKl1e I1CCJlellOlJaHt1.11 npaBOBb[X I1HCT(11)'fOB 11 rocynap<:TBeHHbIX Y'[pejf(j}eHI1H CCCP: Me)l(B}l3. c6. Ha)"J. TPynOB. Caep.nnoBCK. 1986. C. II; Ko6-lwc()fJ A. C. 3aKoHHocTb - KOH- CTHTYUItoHHblH npl-f-lUHn COBeTCKOrO yronoBHOfO cYliOn1X'J113BOLlcTsa. M. 1979. C. 135. !1lJ_B.B. KoppynuH.II B POCCHI1 II focynapcrBO 11 npano. 1007. .N II. C. 24. 
BBe}:IeHLoIe seCbMa HeMaJlOBa)l{HM I1CTOpl1'leCK35I CTIlTb5I. CJ1Y)f(flJ.J.ra51 BepHblM JHaKOM... CTeneHI1 6JJaroy.Ipeil<.ll.eHI15II1 6JJarocOCTOHHI15I. K<DKnoro 6JJaroycrpOeHHoro rocvn.apCTBa» I . H3blCKaHI1Sl THMOt]>eH MaJlbn1H8 6bIJ111 aKTHBHO npOllOJl- >KeHbl B 1840-1850-e rr. BOnpOCbl I1CTOpl111 OTe'/eCTBeHHOrO cy- n.OYCTPOHCTBa 11 CYllonp0l13BOLlCTBa nOJ1y.IWTI1 Torn.a no.n;p06Hoe OCBellleHl1e B MarHCTepCKI-1X JJ;I1CcepTaQI1SlX K. iJ,. KaBeJ1I-1Ha 11 11>. M. nMmpl1esa, ManlCTepCKOH 11 nOKTopCKOH nl1CcepTaUH5IX M. M. MI1XaMJ10Ba (ony6J1I1KOBClHHbIX B caMble rOllb[ 3allll-1T B mUle MOHorpac1mii), a TaICKe B Bblllep>KaBwei1 llBa 113D.aHI151 KHI1- re K. E. TpOliHHhI 1 . OllHaKO nocne BbIXO.na TpYllOB H83BaHHhlX aSTopOB TeMbl no I1CTOpl111 POCCI1i1CKOro cy.na HMonro OJGna- JlI1Cb Ha nepl1$:pl1l1 BHI1MaHI1Sl YlJeHblX (B 1.f:aCTHOCTI1, D./ISi OTe- 1.f:eCTBeHHbIX llI1CCepTaHTOB YKa3aHHble TeMbl yrpanUlI1 BCSlK)'fO aKryaJlbHOCTb no CaMb]X 1960-x rr. J). KaK 6bl TO Hili 6bUl0, B pyc- J1e npOTSIHysweHc5I C «OnblTa» T. C. ManUI1Ha HCTopl-1orpac1m- 1.f:eCKoi1 Tp3l1I1U I-1I1 K HaCTOmueMY 8peMeHI1 no.n;roTOBJleHbl y)({e I MaJ/txUH T. C. Onb[T I1CTOpl1'JecKOJO (1cCJ\ellOBaHI1H 11 Onl1CaHI1H cm- pl1HHblX cyne6HbIX MCCT PocclilikKOro rocy.napcrBa, 11 0 Ka'JCCTBC n(111 11 .nen B OHb[X. cn6.. 1803. c. I. nO'IT11 OllHOBpeMeHHO C TI1M$eM MarlbfHHb[M pmblCKaHIUI no HCTopH(1 OTe'leCTBeHHoro cy.na npe.nl1pl1HfLfI 11 3. A. fo- pIOWKHH. TaK 11 He onyfuJI1KOBaBW(1ii. o.nHaKO. HI1KdKOll paOOrb[ Ha .flY TeMY (/JoIJ/HCKUUH. H. 3ID.aplti1 fOPJOWKHH - 3a'II1H:JfC11b pycCKoii HaYKH o cy.ne II BeCTHI1K MfY. 1951. NQ 7. C. 146, 148). 1 Knee lUll K.fl. OCHoBHble Ha'Jana PYCCKOro cynoYCTpol1cTBa 11 rpIDKllaHcKoro cynonp0l13Bo.ncTBa B nep"o.n BpeMeHI1 OT YnO)l(eHI1.11 no Y'Jpe>K1leHI1H 0 ry6epHI1.11X. M.. 1844 ITO )f(e: Ko.6f!JUI/KB CofpaHl1e C01.JI1HeHI1H. Cn6.. 1900. T. I. Cm. 205-418]; Muxau/l06M M. I-1CTOpl1.11 06paJOBaHIUI 11 paJBI1TI1.11 CI1CTeMb] pyccKoro rpIDKllaHcKoro cy.nonpoI1J- BOLlCTBa no Y'lO>KeHI1.11 1649 r Cn6. 1848; OH :lIce. PyccKoe rpa>K1laH- CKoe cy.nonIXl113110LlCTBO B I1CTOpl1'JecKoM ero paJ1I11T1111 OT YJlO)l(eHI1S1 1649 r.no l13.llaHI151 CBO.lla3aKOHOB. Cn6.. 1856;P.MumpuefJ (]J. M. HCTO- pl1H cyne6Hb]X HHCTaHlI(1ii 11 rpaJK.ll<lIiCKOrO aneJ\J]j.JUI10HHOro cy.nonIXl113- 1I0.nCTBa OT Cy.ne6HI1Ka no Y'Jpe>K11eHIUI 0 ry6epHIUIX. M.. 1859; Tpo/.(u- I/O K. E. I1cTOPI1Sl cyne6Hb[X )"Jpejf(j}eHI1f1 B POCCI1I1. Cn6.. 1847 ITO )f(e. 2-e 113Ll Cn6.. 18511. JCM. Marl1CTpcKl1e H D.OKTOjJCKl1e mlCce)JTaUH(1, JaWI1IUeHHb]e Ha tOPIUlI11.JCCKHX $lKYJlbTnJ.." YHI1Be(JCI1T1:'roB POCCI1i'ICKOH I1MnepH(1 (1755- 1918). 6I1WII10rplK!JI1'J. YKa:JaTeJ\b I COCT. f. f. KpI1'leBCKHii. CmBponOJlb, 1998. 6I1W1I10rpatbH'JecKHi1: cnpaB04HI1K mlCce)JTaUHi1 Ha COIICI\.:lHl1e }'4e- HOi1 CTeneHI1 KaHlllUuna 11110KTopa KlpIUlI1'1OCKJI>: Hd}'k I COCT. B A. Pax- neBcKHii. K r. 6opI1COB. D,ywaH6e, 1965. 
10 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I MHOCl-1e neCnTKI1 pa60T, YBeH'laHHb]e 4JYHllliMeHT3JlbHbIM WeCTJ.'I- TOMHI1KOM «Cyn.e6H8.11 M8CTb II POCCHI1»]. 00-I1HOMY CJUIa.1lblBa./lOCb t13YlJeHt1e poCCHI1CKI1X cYlle6- HblX pe<t>oPM. OepBble t1CCJlellOBaHH5I, COllep)l(aBlllHe ueJIOCTHblH aHaJlH3 OTe<JeCTBeHHbIX CYlle6HblX npe06pa30BaHHH, nOHBIDIHCb TOJ1bKO II 1990-e rr. TaKORO" UeJ10CTHbl(1 aHaJlI13 - xonr 11 C He- O.nHH8KOB0i1 CTeneHblO neTalll13aUI1(1 - Cnelll1aJ1bHO npennpH- mum 11. C. CI1MKHH, H. H. EcppeMoBa. A C. K06J1HKOB, n. Co- llOMOH. C. A. n<illll1H. HaKoHeu, Y.>Ke II HblHelllHeM BeKe 6bUlO ony6JlHKOBaHO y-ie6HOe noco6He C. B. J10HCKOi:i. nOJIHOCTbJO nocmllueHHoe HeT0P«" cyne6HbIX npeo6pa30BaHHH II POCClfti l . KpoMe TOro. B Ha'laJIe XXI 13. n05lBIDIHCb nile IU1CCepTaUl10HHble pa60TbI, 8BTOpb l KOTOpblX nOnblTaJll1Cb (BnpO"leM, II paBHoH Mepe 1 Kl'motjHm 0. E., fle6erJe6 B. M. CeMUi'UH f. JO. Cy.ne6HaH BiIDCTb B POCCI1I1" I1CTOpHH: D.0KYMeHTbl. M.. 2003 T. 1-6. CI1CTe\fID'H'lecKI1H (XOTH 11 He I1C'JepnbIBatOillHj.i) nepe'JeHb JC(;lJe.llOBaHI1ti no I1CTDpHI1 OTe4eCTBeH- HOro cynoycrpoHCTBa, ony6;JI1IWBaHHbIX B Haweii CTpaHe c 1840 no 2U04 r.. CM.. HCTOpHfI OTC'IeCTBeHHb]X OprdHOB npaDocynH.II. npoKYJXITYPbI (1 npe.n- 1k1pI1TeJ1bHOro CIJeJlCTBII.II: El16nlllorpaqm4. noc06He I COCT. 11.. 0. CejXIB. HOBOCI16I1pcK. 2005. C. 11-14. CM. TalOKeo630pHb[e CTaTbHB. H Ea6eHKo 11 H. n. Cn060.1l5lHtOK. nOCBHweHHbie I1CTOpl111 lH)"JeHI1.11 UJeIreC11IeHHOro CY1JOYCTPOi1CTrnI 11 cYlionpoH:mollCTBa COOTBCTCTOCHHO B XI XV BB. 11 BO BTOpOi1 nOJlOBJIHe XVIII - nepIJoi1 nOnOBI1He XIX B. (liD6eHfwB. H. njXI- fureMb] CTaHOllJleHI1.11 11 paJBHTI1.11 aJIMI1HItcrpa11tBHo-cyne6HblX opraHoB .ilpeBHeti PyCI1 B OTe'JeCTBeHHoi1 I1CTOPI10rplK!J1111 II HCTOPI1.H cYDe6Hb!X )"Jpe>KlleHI1H POCCI1I1: C6. 06JopoB 11 peI1>ePaTOB. M., 2(X)..1.. C. 8-39; 00- 600J/HIO« 11. n. Cylle6HIDI CI1CTeMa D POCCl1ijcKOi! I1Mnepl111 BO mopoH no- JlOBHHe XVIII - nepBOi1 nOnOBI1He XIX B B OTe4eCTBeHHoi111 Japy6e)l(HOH 1IJl.  Ie'a'p-:: B njXIUL10M 11 HaCTOfiweM II Ho- BblM Ml1p. 1992. NQ I. C. 207-219; Ei/JpeIlO8OH. H Cyllc6Hb]C pe4x:!pMb[ D POCCI1(1. Tpa.IUJUHI1, HOBa.UI1I1. npo6..rJC:\Ib[ II focy.napcTBo 11 npaSO. 1996. NQ II. C. 85-91; Ko6/UK06A. C. Cy.ne6Hb]e pe<PoPMbI B POCCI1I1 113aKoH- HOlTh. 1998. N2 3. C. 49-54; Solomon P COUI1S and Their Refonn 111 Rus- sIan History II Refonnll18 Justice In R. 1864-1996' Power. Culture and The limits of legal ordcr N. Y., 1997. P. 3-20. flawuH C. A. KpaT- KHH 04epK cy.ne6Hblx peqJOpM 11 peBQJJlOUIIIW B POCCI1I1 II Ore<lecTBeHHble 3an11CKI1. 2003. N2 2. C. 161-182; J!OHCKl1!1 C. B. POCCI1HCKl1e cy.ne6Hble pe<tJopr.tbl XVIII-XX BeKOB. Y'Je6. noc06l1e. KaJlI1HI1Hrpa.u.l003. Mo)l(HO 6bUlO 6b! TaIOKC UJ"MC"fiffb KOJUlCKTI1DHYIO NOHOfJJ34JH1O 1996 r. «BnacTb 11 pe4x:!PMb!: Or caMollep)l(3BHoi1 K COBeTCKOii Poccm:!". nOMellleHHoe B 3TOM amop(1TeTHOM Tpy.ne o6<npeHl1e OTe'JeCTBeHHblX cyne6Hb[X npe06pa- 3OBaHI1f.i BlllUlTCfI. o.nHaKo. nOBepXHOCTHblM (eM B.acTb 11 pe4JopMbr: OT caMOllep)l(aBHOH K COBeTcKoi1 POCCI1I1 I nO!! pe.n. E. B. AHaHbl1'Ja. cn6.. 1996). 
BBe}:IeHLoIe 11 cosepllIeHHo Heyna"lHO) npoCJielll1Tb OT1l;eJlbHble acneKTbl OTe'Je- CTBeHHOfO cyn.e6Horo pe$opMl1poHaHI1J'1 C n.peBHei1:llII1X BpeMeH n.o H8CTOJ'llllero BpeMeHH I .  1. Cy.Qe6HaJi pe<f;lopMa: nOHfln1e. npe,QnocbIIlK.... 4eIlb npOBeeH"'JI B "leM.>Ke CMblCJ1 npOBeD;eHI151 cYlle6Hbix pect>oPM? 113-3a 'Jero B03HHKaeT He06xODl1MOCTb B I1X npoHelleHI1H? KaKOEJO Boo6lUe con.ep>KaHl1e nOH.\lnm <'l)Yk6HOR pet/Joplda..? '-IT06bl nOllcl)Inl1TbCH K OTBeTaM Ha 3TH BonpoCbl, KaK npenCTaBllSleTCH. CJle11YeT Ha"laTb C pacCMOTpeHHJ'I npo6J1eMbl ueJiH cyn.e6HblX npe06palOBaHHH. HTaK, KaKOBa ueJib npoBelleHHSI cYlle6HbiX pect>oPM? B ne- pe"ll-1CJ]eHHbIX BblllIe cneUI-1aJ]bHblX pa60Tax non.o6HblH Bonpoc 3aTparl-1BaJlC5I Jll1llIb OTlJ8CTIil. no MHeHl-11O 11. c. CI1MKI1Ha. 06- lllei1 UeJlblO CYlle6Hbix pect>oPM SlIJJISIJIOCb q:.opMl-1pOBaHl1e B H8- llIei1 CTpaHe «caMOCTOS!'J'e11bHoro npmmcyDJIS!». OTn.eJJeHl1e cyn.a OT aIlMHHHCTpamm. C TOlJKH 3peHIDI H. H. EqJpeMoBoH, CKB03- HaS! UeJIb pect>oPM 3aKJIlOlJaJIaCb B C031laHI1H «paBHOro. cnpaBen.- J1HBOro. J}'MaHHOro CYD.a»2. Ore'-leCTBeHHbIM 3aKOHOll8TeJleM ueJib cyn.e6Hoi1 pe$opMbl 6bUIa. KaK npellCTalJJlSleTCSI, BnepBb]e C$JpMYJ1l1poBaH8 B npe- aM6YJle K I1HCTPYKI1.I1I1 peKeTMei1cTepy OT 5 $=BpaJISI 1722 r. B llaHHoi1 npeaM6YJle neIp I OTMeTl1Jl, "lTO npelmpl1HSlTble 11M YCI1J1I1S1 no npeo6pa30B8HI11O cyn.OYCTpOHCTBa 11 CY1l0npoH3Hon- CTBa I1MeJll1 ueJlblO. '.JTo6bl «Ka.JUhw)' no ux de-10M eye! 6bl11 npa- 6eiJHou u 6ecnpoOo"JK:UIIJe..lHOU,)3. nOBTOpHO K OnpelleJIeHMIO ueJiH cyn.e6HOH pe<!x>pMbl oTe'-leCmeHHblH 3aKOHO.LIaTeJlb BepHYJlCH B I1MeHHOM YKaJe OT 20 HO.ll6p.ll 1864 r. 0 BseneHl-111 B n.eHCTBl-1e Cyne6Hb]X YCT aBOB. B 3TOM YKaJe roBOpI1JIOCb. B "l8CTHOCTI1, 0 I CM: flaI'lt!HK06 B. n. OcHODbl cy.noyl."1J>OJ1C1&I no cYllc6H0i1 pe4x:!p- Me B POCCHi1:CKOi1 (!)cllepaUHIII (06111CTeqJCnI'ICCKHe 11 I1CTOpHKo-npaBOBble aCneKTb]): D,HC. no KaH1I. fOpHJI. HaYK. I3oJ1rorpa.n, 1001 1M.: PfE. 1003. 3J1eKlpOHHblW pecypc 113 4K>H.nOB POCCI1HCKOH rocYJIapCTBeHHOH 6H6J1110- TeKI1J; 3olOl/llJpt'fI B. B. OpraHI1JaUl10HHo-npaBOBb[e OCHOBb[ npoBeJJ.eHI1.11 cyne6HbiX pe4x:!pM B POCCHI1: D,HC. no KaHIl. tOP111I. HaYK. M.. 2006 1M.: PrE:i, 1007. 3J1eKl]JOHHb[i1 pecypc 1134K>HD.OB POCCI1HCKOit rocy.napcTBeH- HOW 6116n(1OTeKH). f:;:'b' blC.riaLJ;iCtJB;;CeKI1}j. M.-J1.. 1945. T. I. C. 342. 
12 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I ClpeMJIeH111-1 BepXOBHOH BJI3Cn1 «BOllBOpHTb B POCCHI1 cyll CKO- pblH, npaBb]l1. MWlOCUJBblif 11 paBHbli1 DJ]SI Bee).»[. CnYCT.l1 'lyrb Gonee nOJlYBeKa ueJIb O'-lepellHOI1 L)'ne6Hoi:i pe$JpMbl 6bUla 0603Ha'leHa nO-HHOMY. B nYHKTe «r)>> m>CTa- HOBJTeHHSI nOJU1T6JOpo UK PKn(6) OT llleKa6pH 1921 r. (Ka- KOBblM 6b]JlO nOJlO)({eHO H<I'laJIO no.n;rOTOBKe cYLJ:e6HOH pe$JPMbl 1922 L) 3Ha'JJ.UlOCb: «...CYllb] YCI1JUfTb>o2. HeCKQllbKO n03,lJ,Hee LleJIb YKa3aHHOH pe<t>oPMbl OKa3an8Cb pa3BepHyro nponl1C8Ha B n. 17 pe30JU0Ul111 XI Bce(X)cCI1i1cKoH KOHclJepeHUl111 PKn(6) OT 22 n.eKa6pH 1921 r. B paMKa'L IlOCntJKeHHSI Gonee o6weii UCJlH - «BOllBOpeHlliI. BO Bcex 06JlaCTHX )Ki-13HH cTporHx H8 peBOJlJOlU10HHOii 38KOH- HOCTH» - XI BCepOCCHHCKa5I KOHclJepeHuHH PKn(6) onpelle- InfJla: «CY1le6Hble YlJpe>KJleH(1S! COBeTcKoif pecny6JUlKI11l0J]}KHbl 6bITb nOllHSlTbl H3 COOTBeTCTBYJOll\YJO Bb]C01)'o)J. OCTaeTC5I 11;0- 6amHb, 'ffO B nOCTaHOBJIemU1 BePXOBHOro COBem POt>CP N2 1801-1 OT 240KTSl6p.ll 1991 r. 06 yTBep)l(1leHl111 KOHuenUl1I1 cy.ne6Hoi-i pe$JPMbl B POt>CP 0 ueJlI1 ee npoBe.neHlliI. He CKa3a- HO HI1 CJlOBa. npl1 3TOM B CT. 2 11 3 03Ha<1eHHoro nOCTIlHOBJIeHIDI nepe'lI1CJ1eHbl weCTb «rJlaBHbIX 3M8<J& 11 wecn «BillKHef1WI1X Ha- npaBJTeHI1f1» pe<txJPMbl: OT «oGecne<:leHI1SJ cyaepeHHoro npaBa PCeDCP Ocyll.{eCTBJTSlTb npaBOCYJIl1e H yrOJlOBHoe npeCJIeJJ;OBa- HHe Ha cBoef1 TepplffOpl1l1& .no «COBepllleHCTBOBaHI1S1 CIilCTeMbl rapaHTI1i1 He3aBHCI1MOCTI1 CYJJ;ei1&4. npl1Be.neHHble $JpMynHpoBKH UeJll1 cyne6Hblx pe<tx>PM npellCTaRflSJIOTc SI 3aBe.nm,tO He I1MelOlllHMI1 YHI1BepCarIbHoro xa- ] POCC(oIi1CKoe JaKOHOllaTe.'lbCTBO X-XX BB. T. 8. C. 28. AErrOpoM 3TOI1 xpeclO\I:rrn:i1HO (oIJBCCTHOi1 $pa3bI. BCpoHTHce scero, CJ1ellYeT npnJH:JTh TomawHero MI1Hl1CTpa IQCTI1UI1I1 D.. H. 3aMSlTHI1Ha. no Kpai1HeH Mepe, Bbl- CTynaH B anpeJ1e 1866 r. Ha OTkpblHII1 CaHKT - nerp6yprcKI1X cyn.e6Hoi1 naJIaTbl 11 OI..pyJI<J-IOfO cyna. D.MI1TPI1i1 3aMJrrni1H npHBeJ\ B CBoei1 pe'Jl1 QH- TwpoBaHHb]i1 $paJMel-IT 6e3 BCHKOi1 CCblJ1KH Hit ArreKcmillpa II (MI1HIIICTep- CTBO IOCmUl1I1 Ja CTO lIeT. 1801-1902: I1cTopH'JeCKI1H 04epK M. 1001. C. 1)(}-I3I). 2j]eHuH B. H nOJlHoe co6pdH(oIe C04I.JHeH(oIf! M.. 1964. T. 44. C. 567. B llaHHOM nYHKTe 6blJla n.OCJlOBHO BocnpoH3BeLleHit $opMYJll1poBKa. npe.n- JlO)l(CHHIDI TOrnaWH(1M rnaBOH COBeTCKOro npamrreJ1bCTBa B. 11. J1eHI1Hb] (TaM>Ke C 261) JKOMMYH(1CTI1'JeCKID1 napTHR CoBeTCKOro COIma B pe3OJllOuH.llx 11 pe- WeHI1S1X C"be1OOB. KOH$epeHQI1i1: 11 nJ1eH}'MOB UK. 9-e 113D.. M.. 1983. T. 1. C. 471-472. 41knoMOCTlll CHI{ PC<l>CP. 1991. NQ 44. CT. 1435. 
BBe}:IeHLoIe 13 paKTepa. B caMOM nelle, ynoMSlHyroe OTnelleHl1e cy.na OT allMI1- HI1CTpaW'II1 (paBHO KaK 11 YCl11leHl1e polll1 cyneGHblX opraHOB) MO)I(HO pacCMaTpl1BaTb KaK O.nHY H3 KJ11O'-IeBbIX 3a.na"l, HO Hii B Koei:i Mepe KaK oGrnyJO uellb pe$JpM. Uellb YCTaHOBJIeHHSI eyna «paBHoro» nOllHOCTblO OTBe'laJla B033peHliSlM OTe'leCTBeHHoro 3aKOHO.LIaTeJ1fI BTOpoi1 nOllOHI1Hb] XIX-XX HR.. HO HI1KaK He 33- KOHo.naTellSl, CK8.)I(eM. nOCllellHej:j "IeTBepTI1 XVIII BeKa. EClll1 "ITO BO Bce BpeMeHa 11 BOJiHOBaJlO 3aKOHO.LIaTellSl (no npl1polle 113Be'JHO CKJ10HHOrO K nparMaTI1Jt.ry) nplilMeHI1TeJibHO K cyn.eGHoii c<t>epe, TaK 3TO, n.YMaeTC}[, 3$PeKTI1BHOCTb npaBO- cyn.I1.1!, "IeTKOCTb H 6ecnepe60iiHocTb YHKUHOHl1pOBaHI1.1! cy- n.e6HOM CI1CTeMbl. .upyroe n.ellO. ":lTO TaKOBa.l! }$<PeKTHBHOCTb pacCMaTpHBaJl8Cb 3aKOHOll8TelleM CKB03b npl13MY O'leBHl\HbIX D.JlSl Hero npl1Hlli1nOB npaBOCYJII1SI - KOTopble OTHIO.nb He OCTa- BaJlI1Cb HeI13MeHHb]MI1 H8 npOTSI)((eH1111 BeKOI!. BOT nO'-leMY, Ha B3rJ]JUl aBTopa H8croHll.lej:j pa6OTbl. eJ/b lJUe6HblX petjJop.u - 3mo iJocl1llDlCf!HUe mOK020 yp06HR 31xjJeKmu6- Hocmu tjJyHKUOHUpo60HWI c}rle6Hoii cucmeMbI, npu KOf1lOJJOw 06e- cne'fUealDCb 6bl MGKCUMaAbHllf/ nOJ1HOmD peaAU30UU npuHuno(J np060CJ.mI11, DKmYaAbHblX iJJlR 30KoHooome 111 e coom6emcme}'faW,uu ucmopu<ieCKUU nepuoiJ. Tenepb HMeeT CMblCJT nepei1m K BOnpocy. ":lTO }l(e TaKoe Boo611.1e cyneGHa.ll pec}JOpMa. I1TaK, KaKoe onpelleJleHl1e MO)((HO D8Tb caMoMY nOH5ITI1IO «cyneGHIDI p$pMa»? KaK HH yn.I1BI1TeJibHO. B YKa3aHHbix Bblwe CneUl1aJ1bHblX pa60Tax no HCTopml cyn.eGHblx npeoGpa30BaHI1H 03Ha'leHHbli1 Bonpoc He CT8BI11lC5I KaK TaKOBoi1 He 6bUlO cifJop- MYJ1l1poBaHO OnpelleJieHI151 cyneGHoj:j pe<t>oPMbl HI1 BO BnepBb]e 1131laHHOM B 1999 r. cneUl1aJ]bHOM I1CCJle.nOBaHI1I1 B. 11. Pa.n'leHKO «Cyn.e6H851 peopMa B POCCHMCKOii 4Je.nepaUI1H», Hii B oc06oM pa3.1leJle <,CYJIe6Ha51 pe$JpMa KaK rocynapcrneHHoe 11 nOJlID1'l'le- CKoe COGbITHe» CTaTbH B. C. KOM8POBCKOro H M. 10. MI13YJ1HH8 2003.-. 1 11I1Wb B HeKoropblX pa60Tax 1960-2000-x rr. nOBeJlOCb BCTpeTHTb pa3po3HeHHbie C)I)K!leHHH. "ITO xe CJle.nyeT nOHHMaTb nOll eYJIe6HOii pe<t>oPMof1. ICM.: o B. H Cyne6l-ffiH pe$Jp'td B POCCI1I'!CKOH C1>ellep<l- UI1I1. HeKOTopble TeopeTl1'JecKHe 11 npaKTLoI'JecKHe np06J1cMbl II Pad'fell- KG B. H. Cyne6HID1 pe4x:!pMa B Poccllli1cKOii (]JenepauHH: C6. cnueii. M.. 21:105. C. 34-87. KLJlWP06CfWU B. c., Mtap.JUIi M 10. Koma 11 KaK Ja- BepWI1TCH cYlle6H!lH pt4x:!pMa? II Ore><eCTlJeHHble 3anI1CKH. 1003. NQ 2. C. 99-100. 
14 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Tal<, B. M. CeMeHoB ynoM5IHYl1 0 «peopramnamu1» OTe'le- CTBeHHO cy.n.e6Hoit CHCTeMbl. «nOJ1Y'-lHBwei1: H83BaHHe «Cy.n.e6- HaH pe$JpMa 1922 ro.1la». AMepHKaHcKHH )"-IeHhl" fl)f(. f11H3- 6yprc onpelleJII1JI 3a.na'1Y cBoero I1CCJlellOBaHHH «COBeTCKasI CYlle6H8H pe<t>opMa 1956-1958 rr.» B TOM, 'no6bl pacCMOTpeTb «opraHI13aUHOHHble (13MeHeHIm B CYlle6Hoj:j CHCTeMe CCCP» 3a COOTBeTCTBYIOWHM nep(1o.n l . CXOD.Hb]M 06proOM B. n. DQ)KbeB 11 J1. fl. nep110B OTMeTI1JIH. 'lTO CYJ];e6HIDl peifJopMa 1922 r. «6bUla ocylllecTIDIeHa n0J10)f(eHHeM 0 cynoYClpoi1cTBe POPCP, npH- IDlTbJM BUliK II HOH6pH 1922 r.». COBeplllcHHo B TOM )ICe nyxe n03LlHeC D.B<UK1lbI BbICKa3aJI- C5I 11 A. C. CMbl«aJlHH, YKa3aBWHH. '1TO nOJlO)({eHHe 0 CYllO- ycrpOHCTBe PC<J:ICP OT II HOH6pH 1922 r. «BOWJ10 B HCTOpHIO KaK cYlle6Ha.ll pe$)pMa 1921 r.» 2. B CBOJO O"lepellb. B MOHorpa- 1111 1991 r. J1.11. ne-rPYXHH aKueHTl1pOBaJI BHHMaHHe Hf! HHOM npl13HaKe cyne6HoH peifJopMbl: «Cyne6Ha5I p$pM3 - :no KO- peHHoe npeo6pa30Bam1e, 3 He 'IacTHOCTI1, nOnpaBKI1 11 .nonOJl- HeHl1.I1 K)')Ke CYllleCTBYlOllieMY 3aKOHY". n03ll.Hee. V}Ke B XXI B., J1. 11. ncrpYXIIH YKa3aJJ.. <ITO cyne6Ha.SI peifJopMa - «:no npeo6- pa30BaHl1e He TOJ1bKO cynOYCTpof1CTBa 11 cynonp0l13BOnCTBa, HO 11 npellBapl1TeJ1bHOro paCCJlellOBaHHSJ. npOK)'popCKoro HaLl30pa 11 OnepaTI1BHO-P03bICKHOf1: neSlTeJ1bHOCTJ.'I»J npHBe.neHHb]e TpaKToBKH nOHSlTIUI cyne6Hoi1 peifJopMbl (33 HCKJllOlJeHl1eM OOCJ1ellHei1) npe.nCT<lBJUlIOTCSI XOUII1 Heocno- pI1MbIMt1, HO He I1C<IepnblBaJOWI1Mt1. COBepweHHO O<IeBI11lHO, <ITO cy.ne6Ha5I pe$Jpr.rn He MO.JKeT 6blTb CBelleHa HI1 K peOpraHI1- 3aID111 cy.nOYCTp of1CTBa, HI1 K CI1CTeMHOM)l xapaKTepy 113MeHe- ] Ce.lleH06 B. M. CYll 11 npaBocy.nHeBCCCP: Y'JC6HI1K. M., 1976.C. 96; Ginst:urgs G. Soviet Court Reform. 1956-1958 II Soviet l..8w after Stalin. 1-",! ;;B..h8i1;: litj/tl'1'Je JaKOHO.lJaTeJlbCTBa 0 cynefiHoM ynpaBJIeHl111 B CCCP II COBeTCKIDI IOCTHUI1.11. 1967. N2 II. C. 14; C\fI>l- KaIUH A. C. OpraHb[ CYlle6HOfo ynpaBJICHI1H PC<DCP B nepH01l c 1912- 1929 rOllb]: ABTopetj:J. ll11C. no Kal-Ul. tOpHll HayK. CBeplUIoBCK, 1981. C. 10; OH 'rne;;JKl1.ff=='plPe4x:!PM. M. 1991 C. 41. OH JJCe. Cync6HIDI pe4x:!pMa II YrOJlOBHo-npoueccydJIbHoe npaBO POCCI1itCKOi1 (])e;repaUHI1: Y'Je6HI1K. l-e 113ll. M., 1007. C. 35. CXO.nHb]M of:pooM (XOTH 11 MeHee KaTeropH'JHo) Bh]CKaJaJICH TalCKe B. H Paa'JeHKo B ynoMHH)'ToH pa60Te 1999 r no ero MHeHl1tO. cyDe6HIDI pe4x:!pMa <'CTaBI1T Bonpoc 0 pe- 4x:!pMl1pOBaHI1I1 CMe:>KHbIX npaBOBblX ceKTopOB: npo"1'P31YPbl 14 aIlOOI<dT)'- pbl, a TalCKC CJlCllCTBH.II" (PmJotelllro B. J1. YKa3. C04. C. 81). 
BBe}:IeHLoIe 15 HI1i1, ocyWeCTBJUleMblX B XOlle ee npOBellemUI, HI1 K 3THM JIBYM npl13H8KaM BMeCTe B3}iTbIM. A BOT TO'-lKa 3peHH5I, >jTO cYJIe6- HIDI pe$)pM8 BKJlJO>j8eT npeo6pa30BaHMfl ewe M B 06J18CTM npo- KYpOpCKOro Hwnopa 11 onep8TMBHo-P03blcKHof1 JIelTeJlbHOCTM, npeJICTaBJmeTCfl" 113JU1WHe pacllmpI1TeJlbHoi1. CTJ.1paJOwef1 rp8Hb Me>K.!l.Y CYJIe6Hoi1 pe$)pMoi1 H pe$)pMoi1 npaBOOX]18HI.fTenbHOM CI1CTeMbl l . K MHeHHfl"M, BbICK33aHHbIM npe.nwecTBeHHI1KaMH. BKlUtTCfl Heo6xollHMbiM n06aBI1Tb CJlellylOWl1e co06pa)l(eHI1JL Bo-nepBblx, BHOCI1Mble B XOlle peifJopMbl I13MeHeHI151 II cynoYCTpoi1CTBO H cy- JIOnp0l13Bo.llCTBO JIOJl)I(Hbl HaxomtTb JaKpCJUleHl1e B HopMaTHB- HblX npaBOBblX 8KTaX, HCTOpH'1eCKJ.1 HMeBlllHX YPOBeHb He Hl1)1(e COBpeMeHHoro ifJellepaJIbHOrO 3aKOH8. npl1 3TOM. BO-BTOPblX. I13MeHeHIm:. BHOCI1Mble B CYJIonpOH3BOLICTBO. JIOJl>KHbl JaKpe- JUlfl"TbC5I B TOM '-IHCJle 11 KQllnifJHKallHOHHO. .lJ.pyrm.m CJlOBaMH, 1u06851 cyne6Ha51 peifJopM8 JIOIDKH8 COnpOBO>K1lliTbC5I npHH5ITHeM HOllblX npolleccyaJlbHblX KOlleKCOII (11.1111 I1CTOpl1'-1eCKI1 COOTBeT- CTBOBallllJl1X HM CII01l011 npoueCCYaJlbHOrO 3aKOHOllaTeJlbCTBa). H8KOHeu, B- TpeTbItX, OnpelleJlfl"fl, <ITO >Ke TaKOe CYJIe6H851 pe$:>pM8, Heo6xoJIHMO npHIDITb BO BHI1M8HHe H XpoHOJIOrH<ie- CKHM 8CneKT. B C8MOM lleJIe. eCJIH HOpMaTHBHoe 3aKpenJleHHe npeo6pa30BaHHM B cifJepe CYJIOyCTpOi1cTlJa H CYJIonpOH3BQ1lCTIJa pacT.IIfl1BaeTC.II H8 HeCKOJlbKO JIeC5ITI1J1eTHM. TO TaKl1e npeo6pa30- BaHHSI, nYM8eTC5I. HeB03MO)l(HO C'-IeCTb peifJopMoi1. CTaJlO 6b1TL, Heo6xOllMMO HMeTb B Bltny 3alle1l0M)'1O orpaHl1<IeHHOCTb CpOKOB npoRCllCHI151 cyne6HoH peifJopMbl. T81G'1M 06pa30M. C)'MMHpY51 BblllleCKa3aHHoe. MO)I(HO npe.n- JlO>KHTb CJTe1lYlOwee OnpelleJleHHe. CyiJe6HllfI pet/Jop.';fQ - 3mo C06OI..}'IlHOCmb e30U'ltOC6i/JOHHb/X, CUCmeVHb/X, HopMomueHO 30Kpell- fieHHb/X I/O o6w,eeocyi}opcmeeHI/OM J'fJOBI/e (6 mo,\! IJllC1e U KOiJU- f/JUKQUOHI/O) U3MeHeI/UU 6 oO.:Jllcmu cyiJoycmpoilcmeQ u cviJonfJt)- u16OiJcmeo, npeanpUl/lImb/X c 14eJ/blO OOCmUJiCeHUfi MOKCU.\ltLlbHOli 3f}xf;eKmU6I/OCmU fj;yHK14UOHUP060HUlI cyiJe6Hoii cucmeUb/ U ocy- w,ecm6 Jel/l/bIX 6 ucmOpUlJeCKU 02pOl/u<tel/l/biU nepuoiJ. OnpelleJleHHe cyne6Hoi1 peifJopMbl Bl11llffCn YMeCTHb]M .no- n01lHMTb OnpelleJleHl1eM cYlle6Hoi1 KOHrppe$:>pMbL 113 npellwe- I '-ITO)I(e.no npenr:rO)!(eHHoro 11 11. ne1]JYXllHblM OTHeceHHH K cy.ne6HOH pe4>oP\te npeo6pa30BaHI1i1 B cpe npe.nBapI1TeJ1bHoro paccne1lOOi1.Hl1.11, TO TaKOBble npeo6paJoBaHI1.11, llYMaeTCH, O'\BJfblBaIOTCSI pe4>oP1I1poBaHl1eM B 06JJacrl1cynonpoI1JBOJlCTBd. 
16 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I CTBylOllil1X 8BTOpOB DaHHOrO BOnpoCa KOCHYJI8Cb e.rU1HCTBeHHO M. B. HeMbITI1H8. no ee MHeHi'IIO, «TepMI-1H «cy.ne6HIDI. KDHTp- pe<t>opMa>' npHMeHl'IM J1Hlllh B TOM CJ1)"-1ae, eCJIl'l OH xapaKTe- pM3)'eT o6paTHoe pe<t>oPMe no CYlliHOCTHblM xapaKTept1CTIlKaM npe06pa30BaHHe»l. HeCMOTpH H8 TO. 'ITO M. B. HeMhlHIHalIarJa onpe.LleJTe"He KOHTppe$JpMb] npMMeHHTeJ1bHO JTHWh K onya- LlI-U1 c nepeCMOTpOM Cy.ne6Hb1X YCT3BOB 1864 L. ee 4IoPMYJlI1- pOBKa npellCTaBJl5leTCfI B ueJIOM BepHoH, XOTfi H He HC'lepnbl- BalOme". D.yMaeTCfI. 'lTO no.n. c)'iJe6Hoii KOHmppetJJopvoii c.JletJyem 110- 1/UMOmb c06oKynHocmb mOKUX U3MeHeHUU 6 o6.10cmu C)0oycmpou- ell/eo u cyiJonpmu6odcmea, Komopbie npueoiJRm K j1UK8UOauu C03- iJaHHblX 6 xoiJe cyiJe6Hoii pet/JrJfJ."'b[ npa606bIX uHcmumJ'III06. 6Mecmo KOmophlX J1u60 1ID06l1(e He c03iJmomcfI HOBbie UHcmum\'1I1bl. J/lfflo eOCCmaHOeJJU60lOmCfI iJopetJxJp'Jti!1/1/ble. Bo Beex OCTIlJlbHblX CJlY'-/a- fiX, KaK npe1I.CTdBJIJleTc5I, CTOHT rolJOpl'ITb 11JJl.1 0 KOppeKTl1pOBKe pe$JPMbl. 111111 0 nO.1lroTOBKe peifJopMbl HOBOI1. KaKHe >Ke c06bITH5I B I1CTOpl.J11 POCCI1I1 cJle.1lYeT TpaKTO- BaTb leaK cy.ne6Hble pe$Jpr..fbJ? He BlU\B:.UICb 31leCb B ymy6JJeH- Hoe paCCMOTpeHl.Je 03H8QeHHoro Bonpoca «no 6blJlO ClleJIaHO B paMKax I.JHO" pa6OTbI 2 ). I.JMeeT CMblCJl JlI1Wb KOHCfaTl.JpOBaTb. "lTO. I.JCXOJI.SI 113 BblWenpl1BelleHHoro onpe.neJleHIm. B I1CTOpl111 OTe'-leCTBeHHoro rocy.napcTBa I.J npaBa COCTO.IUIOCb wecmb cy.ne6- HblX peifJopM: nel"pa I, Emrepl1Hb] II (1775 rJ. AiJeKc8Hllpa II (1864 r.), 1922 r., 1956-1964 rr. J 11 1990-x - Ha'laJla 2000-x rr. KpoMe TOro, n pelICTaBJUleTCH HeCOMHeHHbIM. '1TO B I1CTOpl111 1 Hellblf1lllllf1 M B. Cyn B POCCHI1: BTOpIDI nonOBHHa XIX - Ha'laJIO XX BB. CapaTOB, 1999. C. 71. 2 Cepnfl fl. O. CKOJIbKO 6bVTO cyne6HbIX petfxJpM B HempHI1 POCCI1I1? (OnblT I1CTOpI1KO-npaBOBOro aHaJlI1Ja) II POCCI1S1 KaK UHBL1,l13aUI1S1: C6. HaY'-!HbIX CTaTei1 HOBOCH611JX:K, 2008. C. 146-170. J CneUl1aJ1bHoe pacCM<rrpeHl1e o6cTO$ITeJ]bCTBC)i1f6Holi pe4x:!PMbl 1956- 1964 IT. (noHb!He HC BbLUCJlHBwei1C.II B UfC'ieCTBeHHOH ItCTOpI-IKO-npaBOBOM H3}'Kf') eM.: CejXJ6 fl 0. 3a6bITa.II CTpaHl1ua llCTOpltl1 rocynapcma 11 npasa CCCP: Cyne6Ha.II pe4x:!pMa 1956-1964 rOlIOB II I3eCll-lI1K HOBOCl..J6I1pcKO- TO rOCYDapcT8eHHoro YHI1Bepcmern. Cep. "npaBO». 2006. T 2. Bbln. 1. C. 43-53. YMCTHO JaMCTHTb. 'ITO B Japy6e)I(HOM npaOOBClleHl111 UfnCJIbHb]e CTOpoHbJ pe4x:!PMbl 1956-1964 IT. OK."\3aJII1Cb no.np06Ho OCBeweHb[ B OCTaB- WI1XCH MaJl0l13BeCTHblMI1 B POCCI1I1 pa6araxLJ.;.K. fl1H36vprca 11 LJ.;.K. foproHa (Gor,gone G. Soviet Juri'>lS m the legIslative Arena The Refuml0f Cnmmal Procedure, 1956-1958 II Soviet Union. 3 Pittsburgh. 1976. N I. P 1-35; Ginsburgs G. Op. cit. II Soviet Law aftcr Slalin. Part I. P.77-104). 
BBe}:IeHLoIe 17 HaweiJ ClpaHbl I1MeJ1a Mecro o.lIHa HeCOCT05lBilla5lCSI cyne6Ha51 pe<1>oPMa - Ha'laJIa XX B., HOPMaTl1BHo.iJ o.CHo.BOiJ KOropOiJ nOJDKHa 6bUla CmTb Ho.Ba51 peD.8MUISI Cyne6Hblx YCTUBOB, pa3- pa60TaHHa51 KOMI1CCl1eH H. B. MypaBbeBa. 113 'Iero B03HHKaeT He06Xo.lIHMo.CTb npOBelIeHHSI cyne6- HblX pe<1>oPM? Bo.n)X'lc KaCaTeJlbHo. 06WHX npe.n;no.CblJ1o.K cYlIe6- HblX npeo6pa30BaHl1iJ o.KaJaJlC5I, KaK HH CTpaHHo.. o.6o.iJ;J,eH B npe.n;weCTBYIOll.leiJ JIHTepaIype. KaK npt'.ACT3BJ1S1eTC5I, o.CHo.BHo.iJ npe.n;nOCbUlKOH cyne6Ho.iJ peifJoPMbl cnenye-r npl13H8Tb OCo.3Ha- HHe 3aKo.Ho.n;aTeJ1eM CHl1)I(eHH.\1 no. HeKoeii KpHTH'IeCKOii crene- HH TOM caMoH 3<txt>eKTHBHOCTH 4>YHKllHOHHpOBaHIDI cYlIe6Ho.H CHCTeMbl. I1HblMH CJ1o.DaMH, HCXOIIHo.e YCJ1o.BHe OCYllieCTBJleHIDI CYlIe6Ho.H pe$JpMbl .Qo.J1}1(HO 3aK./lIO'JaTbCSI B YfTCHeHHH 3aKo.Ho.- JJ;aTeJ1eM KplGHCHo.ro COCTo.5IHHSI npaBOcynHSI. CnyqaJIl1Cb }l(e KpH3HCbl npaBo.CYJI.H5I B HaweM Ore'leCTBe. YBbl. HeOnHoKpaTHo.. «HDM cue 6e.n.MU 3030PHO. limo... U Y 6YCYPMOH cyd IIUHHm npOffedeH, a Y Hac 6epa CffHmWl, 6AOi!OIIeCmU6aJi, 0 c:yd- HaJi pocnpOffO HUKydblHe 2CXJHQR1o, - CeTOBaJI ewe B 1724 r. npe.n- npHHHMaTeJ1b 11 n)X'l}l(eKTep J1. T. nOCo.WKo.B I . «CymlJIHll.la H cy- llbH B He)'BIDKeHHH, no.llo.3penaJOTCH n M3110HMCTBe...». - nHCM B 1820 r. TYJIbCKHf1: reHepM-()'6epHaTOP A.ll. DaJlaWOB B o.T'-IeTe AiJeKC8H1qJY L «Bee cynb] y HaC B )({aJlKOM nOJ1o.)I(eHHI1», - pe- 31OMHpOBaJI B 1858 r. o.6ep-ceKpeT8pb OllHOro 113 MOCKOBCKHX nenapraMeHTo.B CeHaTa K. n. n06eno.Ho.CUeB!. «HacTmlwee nOJ1Q)KeHHe cyne6HoH 'I8CTI-1 Bo. MHo.fOM Hey- llo.BJleTBo.PHTCJ1bHO», - no.ll'leplOlBaJI B llo.KJIa1le AneKcaHllPY III MHHHCTP JOCTHW1H H. B. MypaBbeB B 1894 r. «B pa6<ne cyne6- HblX o.praHo.n ClpaHbl B HaCTo.SlWee npeMSI npo.llo.J1)({aJOT o.CTaBaTb- CSI fJly6o.Ko. YKopeHI1BWl1eC5I Hello.CTaTKH; MaCCOBble HapyweHHSI 3aKOHOB npl1 paCCMOTpeHl111 cyne6Hb]X nen, 6e30TBeTCTBeHHocTb cynef1: 3a 3TH Hapyrnemm. MHOrOlJI-1CJ1eHHble CJ1yqal1 3JlO}Ino.lpe- 6J1eHI1i1 no. nOJ1)I(HOCTI1 11 nHCJq)C.IDrr.aUHI1...» - o.TMe'laJlOCb B 3anHCKe, nOllroTo.BJleHHOH B YnpaBJIeHHH Karr.po.B UK BKn(6) B 1946 r. {Po. 60cTb cynoB. BOJ10KHTa. 6e3llYMHoe 11 6e31I.YWHoe I /locoun..06 H T KHl1ra 0 CK}'nOCTHI1 6or.rrcme. M. 1937. C 171. !UHT. no: BopoHCJKCKUe ry6epHaJqJbl 11 BHue-ry6epHaTopb[. 1710- 1917: I1CTOPHKO-6I.IOfJJd!1JH'JecKHe OLJepKH I COCT. A. H. AirnHbWHH. Bo- POHliH: ': 1 ;T. C. 132; 3tmzuHI(e6 A f. OP..W6 10. f npl1roBOpeHHble BpeMeHeM: poccHi1cKl1e 11 COBeTCKl1e npoKY- POpb]. 1937-1953. M.. 2001. C. 143. 
18 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I OTKJlOHeHIUI JKaJ106. OTHOIUeHHe K nOncylll1MOMY KaK K npecryn- HI1Ky!)} - YD.PyqeHHo KOHCTaUJpOBaJlOCb Y)f(e B 1991 r. 1 UHTl1poBaHl1e non06HhlX c)l)KD.eHld-i 1'.10)1(1-10, paJ}'Mecrcj.J, ner- KG npanQIDKIfib. OnHcamuo poccHikKHX cyne6HhIX HenOp.ll1l.KOB 6bU1blX BeKOB nOCllillileHbl MHOfl1e crpaHHUbl yJeHbIX TPYllOB. Me- M)lapOB, c$l1UHallbHblX llOK)'MeHTOR, ny6J1MUHCTW-JeCKI1X CO'fHHe- HH(1. np(1 ::ITOM HeJ1h3.11 He OTMe'TJ.ITb, 'fTO 06p(1coBaHHb]e npe.ilwe- crny101lI;l1MI-1 aBTopaMH KapTI1Hb] HenpaBOCym.U[ 1840 - 1850-x IT. MaJlO 'leM OTJlI.1'JaJOfCS! OT KapTl1H HenpaBocymm 1970 - 1980-x 1T. 1 HeMMo BHI1MaHlliI y.neJ1W111 npo6JIeMe He6naronon}"-lIDI B 06naCTH yr0J10BHOro cyn.onpomBO.ilCTBa 11 cocraBJ-lTeJll1 ynOM.IIH)'TO KOH- uenUl111 cYlle6HoH pe<!>oPMbI B PC<DCP 1991 r., nepBblH pa3lleJ1 KOTOjX)H HeCJ1Y'-laMHO 03amaRITeH -«KpH3Jl/C Kx:ll1UHH»J. Lla H crapl1HHhle noroBopKH 3aI1KCHpOBaJn1 n04TH HCKmo- "lIffeJ1bHO HeranmHoe, CKenTlf'leCKH-He1l0Bep4I1Boe OTHorneHHe H8ceneHJ.UI K OTeCTBeHHOMY cyny. «'imo Mile 3aKOHbt, KOJIU cyiJbU 3HaKO.MbI». «M3dolO, limo Y3rJOlO, o6pamUWb CyrJblO 6 C6010 601110». «(CyrJeUCKUU ICLJpJK1H, limo ymuHblu 306: U "0fJMY He pm6upaem U Cblmocmu He 3Hoem». <l3aKOH, limo KOHb: KyiJa XOl/ewf>, myiJa U noo('ponIUWb». ((B CyO HOl(1lI - e KapMaH pYKo{m. ((CyiJbe pbl6a, a npocumeJ/1O IJeWYf/». «C bI.M cyoumbCf/ - J/Y'lwe e MOpe \'1110- numbCfh). <10m eopa 6eoa, om cyiJa - cKyiJa [6e.n;HOCTb]»4. Ha no- JI06HOM $:me CTaHOBI-1TC5! nOH.IITHb]M, nO'-leMY OTe'-leCTBeHHb]M JaKOH011areJ1b C 33BltilHOM peryJ15!p(10CTblO OC03HClBaJl He06xolll1- MOCTb O'-lepellHOH cYlle6HOM pe4x>PMbl... HCJlb3H CKaJaTb, BnpO<leM, liTO PYKOBOllCTBO CTpaHbl nblTa- JlOCb H3JIe<lHTb H3Bbl npaBocymUI 01lHHMH TOJlbKO l.npenKa npH- MeHHBWHMHC5! pe4x>PMaTopCKHMI-1 MeT01J.aMH. Pa3Hoo6pa3Hble YCI-1JlI1Sl. HanpaBJ1eHHble Ha nOBblweHHe 31xPeKTHBHOCTH <!JYHK- LlMOHMpOBaHMSI CYIle6HOM CHCTeMbl, npe.nnpMHMMaJlHCb 143 1"O1l8 I flempyXUH H. Jl. npalJOCYILHe: BpeMH pe4>oP1. C. 46. !B :ITOM OTHOWelil11'1 nop.1.3IITeJ!bHO 1J3<lI'IMHoe C1IOJJ1:TIJO paJD,eJleH- Hb[X 60J1ee 'leM CTOJleTHeM 3nI130.nOB. npl1BeJleHHblX B Tpyne 11. B. fecceHa I90S r. 1111 MOHOflXI!1JItI'lI1.JL neTjJYXI1Ha 1991 r (FecCeH H B. Cyne6HIDI pe4xJpMa. cn6., 1Q{)5. C. 18-13; cp.' flempyxllH H.Jl npaBOCYll.l1e: BpeMH pe!!>opM. C. 41-41). }KoHuenul1.11 Cyne6HOO pe!!>opMb] B POCCIIIHCKOii (JJellepaUI1I1. M., 1992. C. 8-16. 41OpKlUNOC1Jfe nOCJlOBI1Ubl 11 nOfOBopKIL. C. 11. 15; C60PHMK JX!C- CI1i'"ICKJ.I>: nOCJlOIJHll 1-1 norooopoK I COCT. 11 11. 1:Lrui1OC1p01J. KweB, 1904. C.13, 84. 332, 335, 367. 
BBe}:IeHLoIe 19 B m.n;. 1I,JU' npl1Mepa MO.>KHO npl1BeCTI1 Bblllep.>KKI1 113 XpOHI1KH 60pb6bl C roiJ .>Ke BOJlOKI1TOH. 1719 ro.n;, IJ»eBpaJIL: pacnOpfl.IKeHI1C IOcTl1u-KwLIlenu1, B KO- TOpoM MeCTHblM cYIle6HblM OpraHaM npennHCbIBaJlOCb paCCMa- Tj)HBaTb IleJTa <ve3 MeHbUJeu 60JlOKumbi». 1767 roll, Mail: HMeHHoiJ YKa3 «0 CI<.-opeliweM peweHUU npucyiJcm6e1fHbl},j ,wcmaM ()e I 0 1(0- /lodHUKO\...... 1921 roll, CeHTIl6pb: nl1CbMO R 11. JleHI1Ha HapKOMY JOCTl1u(oI(oIlll1. KYPCKOM}' C "Ipe60BaH(oIeM. «'-IT06b1 KapaJIl1 BO- J10Klrry clpo)[(e». 1952 roll, ceHTIl6pb: nOCTHHOBJIeHl1e nJ1eHYM8 BepxoBHOTo cy.na CCCP «06 ycrpaHeH(oI(oI <tJaKToB BOJTOKHTbl B IlefITeJTbHOCTt1 CYIlOB»'. Bce 3m peWHTeJlbHble J1HCbM8. YKa3bl, pacnOpH)[(eHWI, no- CTaHOBJIeHHH (p8BHO KaK H MHorne .apyrne) He llaBa/lI1. o.n;HaKO, )];OJDKHoro pe3YJ1bTara. B more Ha OOBeCTKe JIH.II BHOBb OKa3blBaJTCH BOnpoc 0 Heo6xonnMOCTI1 npHHJHt15[ Mep CHCTeMHOro KTepa. Ha mpl130HTe tlliHHMa BHOBb MM'-II1Tb cYlle6H851 pe$opMa. npe!IJl8raeM8}[ BHI1M8HHlO '1HT8TeJleti MOHorpac1JHJl nocml- meHa HCTOpi1H nepBoH H3 pocCHHcKHX cyne6HbIX pe$:>PM - ocy- meCTBJleHHoH B nepBoH 'lerneprn XVIII B., no HHHUHaTHBe H nOll PYKOBOJJ;CTBOM nerpa I. AnTOP CTalUUI ueJiblO )];06i1TbCH KOMnJleKcHoro. MHoroacneKTHoro paCCMOTpeH(oISj o6cToJITeJlbCTB pe<\x>pMb]. CBoero poLJ;a «roJIOrpa4JH'IeCKoro» OCBemeHI1f1I13}"-1ae- Mom flBJleHIUI. COO6pa3HO TaKoMY 3aMbICJIY, JJ;aHHoe I1cCJ1ell.oBa- Hl1e Bb]CTpoeHO Ha CO'-leTIlHHI1. B3aI1MHOM nepeCe'leHl111 CI1HxpO- HHljeCKoro 11.nt1a"(XJHl1ljeCKOrO nOllXOllOB B Ont1CaHt1H cy.ne6Hoti peifJopMbl nCTpa I. C OIlHOH CTOpOHbl - B pyCJIe CHHxpoHHlleCKoro onl1ca- HHfI - B KHt1re npellnpt1HflTa nOnblTKa C MaKCt1MaJlbHOH nOJTHO- TOiJ YCTaHOBI1Tb '1epeLlY c06bITHM. HenocpellcTBeHHo CB.II3aHHb]X C Ha3BaHHoiJ cyne6HOM peifJopMok OT CKJlMblBaHIUI (oICXOJI.Horo 3aMbICJIa peifJopMbl )];0 J1I1KBI1lJ.aUHI1 npaBOBb]X t1HCTI1TYfOB, C03- .QaHHbIX B xOLJ;e ee npOBelleHH}I. C npyroti CTOpOHbJ - B pyCJIe I nOJ1Hoe C06paHl1e 3aKOHOB. T. 5. N2 3198. C. 648; 3aKot-truiaTeJ1bCTBO EKaTepI1Hbl II I nOil pe.n. 0.11. '-II1CTHKoBa 11 T. E HOBI1UKOi-i. M. 1001. T. 1. C. 901-911: fIeliuH B. H. nOJiHoe c06paHl1e CO'U1HeHI1H. M.. 1964. T. 53. C. 164; CooPHI1K nocTaHOBJICHI1HllJ1eHYWI BepxoBHOJO CYlla CCCP. 1924-1970. M., 1970. C. 10-11. YMeCTHO llofiml.hb. 'JTO, KaK 6bUlO KOH- CTIITl1posaHO BllOKJIaJJ.e YnOJiHOM04eHHoro no npaBaM 'IeJlOBeKa B POCCI1H- cKOii (JJellepaUI1I1 Ja 2005 r.. «OllHI1M 113 Cepbe3HblX HellyroB COBpe}.1eHHotl cy.ne6HOIi CI1CTeMbI JlBJ1.11eTCfI BOJlOKI1Ta C paccMOTpeHl1eM neJ1» (POCCI1H- CKaH rdXTa. 2006. 19 mOHR. C. un. 
20 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I onHcaHHSI m1aXpOHI1<1eCKOrO - npe.nJlpHH5ITa nOJlb]TKa npoCJ1e- D.I-1Tb eynilly OCYllleCTBJIeHHb]X II Kone peifJopMb] cynoycrpoit- CTBeHHblX H cynonpol13BOllCTBeHHhiX HOBOBBelleHld-i Ha nponl- )l(eHMH BTOPOH <IeTBepTI1 XVIII-XX liB  2. OTepMIIIH0J10J'VI1il AIls:! o6o:3HiNeKtR HOpMantBHblX npaBOBblx, CYAe6HblX III bHblXaKfoB nepBO 'iE!TBeprn XVIII B. 3aBepllIasi. BBeneHl1e, BWlHTC5i Heo6xo.D.HMblM KpaTKo ocraHoBHTbC5I Ha Bonpoce 06 HCn0J1b3yeMoH D.aJlee I1CTopI1KO- IOpiW.H'IeCKOH TepMHH0J10D1H. npe:>K1le Bcero. CTGHT OroBOpHTb ynOTjJe6J1eHHe TepMHHoB. KaKOBble 6y.uyr npl1MeHflTbCSI II Ha- CT05lll(e(:J pa60Te JU]JI HaHMeHOBaHI1J1 HopMaTHBHb]X npaBOBbIX. cYJle6Hbix 11 pacnopswnJellbHblX aKTOB XVIII B- B HCTopHKo-npaBOlJoi1 HaYKe Bonpoc 0 TepM(1HOJiOn.J'Ie- eKOM 0603H8'lemU1 aKTOB me'leCTBeHHOfO 3aKOH0.1l8TeJ\bCTBa XVIII B. n.OHbIHe paCCMaTp(..JBaJ]CSl rJlaBHblM o6pa30M B paMKax np06J1eMbI KIIaccHqJl.1Kamm $JpM .naHHblX aKTOB (npH 3TOM pe'lb lUJ1a HCKllto'nITIJ1bHO 0 KIIaccH<!JHUHpoBaHHH 3aKoHoB). nepBYIO TaKoBYIO KIIacCH<!JHKaUHIO ewe B 1880-e rr. npe!lJ10)f(KJ] M. <D. BJ1aIIHMHPCKHi1-Ey.naHOB. KOTOpblH BbllIeJ1KJ] TPH paJ- HOBHllHOCTH 3aKOHOB XVII I 8.: YCT3Bb]. perJIaMeHTb] H YKa3bL CXOllHYIO KIIaCCI-1<!JHK3.mnO npHleJI H B. H. J1aTKI1H B Cnem18J1b- HOM yqe6HoM noco6ml 1899 r. npl-1 3TOM. K TpeTbeH pa3HOBJ.f)I;- HOCTI1 3aKOHOB. Hap5l.ny C yK33aMI-1, R H. J1aTKHH OTHec TafOKe HHCTpyKUHH H MaHl-1cpecTbl l . OrOH1i.51 OT KIIaccH<!JHKaUHH M. <D. BJTa!lHMHPCKOfO-Ey- .naHOBa H B. H. J1aTKI-1Ha. 0. A. OMeJlb4eHKO B pa60Te 1989 r. BblCKa331l MHeHHe. 'ITO 4JoPM8MI-1 3aKOHo.n;aTeJlbHbIX 8KTOB B XVIII 8. 51BJUlJIHCb TOJIbKO MaHHcpeCTbl H I-1MeHHble YKa3b] (KO- Topble «Hepe.nKO D.OnOJlHHTeJlbHO COllep)({aJlH yCTaBb], pef1l8MeH- Tbl, yqpe}l(lleHH5I»)1. HaKoHeu, B HCCJlellOBaHH5IX nOCJIe.nHero BpeMeHH K 3aKOHOllaTeJThHblM aKTaM XVIII B. 6hUlH OTHeceHbl. Bo-nepBbIX, YK a3bl, BO-BTOPbIX, YCTaBbl (aprnJ<yllbl), B-T)JeTbHX, ] B"CI(Ju.'vupcKUu-EydUH06 M 0. Ot:i:!op I1CTopl111 pyCCKOJO npaBa. 8-e 111!L POCTOB HID. 1995. c. 174-175, flamKUlIB. H. Y'Je6HI-1K JCTqJHI1 PYCCKOro npasa nepl1o.na I1MnepHI1 (XVIII 1-1 XIX BB.). 3-e 1131l. M., 2004. C 16.14.28. !{fte.1b'IeJiFXJ o.A. Koru«)JIn:aUH.II npaBa B POCCI1I1 B nepl1ona6cOJlIOTHOR MOHapXHH (BTOpaH nOJlOBI1Ha XVIII BCKa). Y'!c6. noco6uc. M.. 1989. C. 5. 
BBe}:IeHLoIe 21 per.naMeHTbl, yqpe)KlleHI1S!, 06pa30BaHI1S!I. Me>KLIY TeM, Bce no- nblTKJ.1 KJlaccl1J.1UJ.1pOBaTb 3aKOHO.1l8TeJlbHbJe aKTb] XVIII 6., uc- XOdR U3 ux CaMOH038anuu, npenCTaBJUlIOTC51 my6oKo cnopHblMl1, nOCKOJIbKY HeT COMHel-il'lf1, "ITO TOmarnHI1f1 3aKOHo.n.aTeJlb or- HlOllb He PYKOBOllCTBOBaJlC5I KaKI1MH-J1H60 TBepllblMH npaBl1J1a- MH npH HX HaHMeHOBblBaHHH. B 3"fOi;j CB5I3H CTOI1TBcnOMHHTb, 'lTO erne R H. JIarKHH cnpa- BelumBO 3aMeTI1JI. 'lTO B XVIII B. OTe'leCTBeHHafi IOpI1.IlH'leCKafi repMI1HOJIOrl151 «He OTl1H'lMaCb oc06eHHoiJ OnpelleJleHHOCTblO 11 YCTOi'I'lHBOCTblO, nOlJeMY C TeM lUJH I1HblM HaJ.1MeHOBaHl1eM. no.ll KOTOpblM S!.R/!5I./ICfi B CBeTe .1l8HHblf1 3aKOH, He CBfI3bIBa..HOCb Bcer- IIa OllHOro onpe.neJleHHoro COllep>KaHI1S!.,}2. Lla H H. M. KOPKYHOB BnOJTHe 060CHOBaHHO BbICKa3aJTCSI B MOHorpa<tnm 1894 r.. 'lTO B POCCI1H no Ha'laJIa XIX B. He 6bU10 Bblpa6oTaHO «onpeneJleHHoiJ OTJ1H'lIffeJlbHOiJ (]>oPMb] 33KOHQ!J;aTeJ1bHb]X aKTOB»J. Ii eCJm omeceHHe K 'lI1CJlY 3aKOHOB XVIII B. aKToB, 060- 3Ha'leHHbIX B nOlUJl1HHI1Ke TepMI1HaMI1 <<Jlcm06», «peVlClMemn» Ii «Ylfpe:JlC()eHue». Blilll1TCfI B npl1HUl1ne 1l0nycnlMblM, TO cHTyaUIDI C IIOJCyMeHTaMH, oJarJ1aBJ1eHHbIMH KaK «1'KO.1», BblrJUllll1T no- HHOMY. C ollHOf1 CTOpOHbl, B OTMe'leHHbliJ nepHoll TepMHH «YKa3» B caMOM IIeJle ynoTjJe6J1S1J1cSI BreMS! OT BpeMeHH D.llSI 06ooHa'le- HI1S!. 3aKOHo.naTeJlbHbIX aKTOs. K npl1Mepy. 3aKOH OT 17 MapTa 1714 r. 0 I1CKaJlbCKOiJ CJlY)l(6e neTp I ooar.naBHJl: «YK03 0 qJUc- KaJ/OX U 0 ux cJan.;JICHOCmU u deucm6uu»4. BMecre C TeM. B nepBoti lJeTBeprl1 XVIII s. repMI1HOM «yKa3» HepellKo HaJ.1MeHOBblBaJlI1Cb TaJ0Ke HCXOllliBWHe or MO- Hapxa aKTbl paCnOp5IllHTeJTbHoro xapaKTepa. TaK. 15111OH5I 1713 r. neTp I coocmeHHoPY'IHO HanHCM «YK03 Konumony-nopym'iUKY CeHJI8uHY», B KOTOpOM llUJa pe4b 0 nOllroToBKe K noxoL\Y Kopa6- J1eiJ, 6a:mpoBaBwl1xcSI B PeBeJle. A B BblrnellrneM 113-nOll nepa uapSl «)'Kfl3e CeH am)'» OT 91leKa6pS!. 1717 r. roBOplUJOCb 0 Heo6- L Po'oWUi06 P. A. npo6nem COOTHOllieHlII.II nOH.IITI1H «nJllBO'> 11 .-.J:lKOH» p=l1e21W{t;::? 3_."j{;::H=::r'1t3a3' KOHb[ POCCl1HcKOit (1MnepHI1: npo6neMb[ nOHIilMaHI1H 11 KJIaCCII$tKaUI1I1 II HCTOpl1H rocynapcTBa III npasa. 2007. N2 8. C. 18. Kcra1'H. B npHBeJJ,eHHb]X K.I1acCI14JI1K!111I1HX 4x:!PM kU<.OIiO.naTeJ1bHbtx aKTOB XVIII B. OCTaJll1.Cb, KaK HI1 crpaHHo, HeyITOMHHYJ1>IMI1 TaKl1e yrIOTpe6J1.11BWI1eCH B 1720-e rr. 060- 3Ha'ieHIUI ]aKOHOB. KaK _doJ."lJUKXnu,.. 11 _I1WKl1IIb 1 flamKUH B. H YK!I]. C04. C. 16. ::bV:T[3:;a C.It c. 300. 
22 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I X01ll1MOCTI1 M,rrepHMbHoro 11 KaIlpQBOra 06eCne>leHI-UI «MaiJop- CKJ1X» CJlellCTBeHHblx KaHUeJUlpI1M[. npI1Me'-laTeJlbHO, 'lTO B 1720 r. neT)) I npelUlpl1HWI Clll1- HI1'1HYJO nonblTK)' KJ18CCM(]>t1UI1POBaTb aKTbl, H31taBaBWHeCH B $JpMe HMeHHbIX yJ<a30B «<yIW3b1... 3G HGWelO noiJnuCb/O"'». Ca- maCHO HMeHHOMY YKa.JY OT 29 anpeJUI 1720 r. 03H8'leHHb]e aKTbl no.nP<l31'eJI.IIJlMCb Ha ABC rpynnbl: Komopble epe'Jtl!1/1/bie» 11 «Komo- pble 6 nOCmal/OflileHUe KGK020 0e,1{]»1. C AOJleH yCJIOBHOCTI1 8KTbi nepsoi1: rpyJlnbl MO>KHO -rpaKTOBaTb, nYMaeTCSI, )«IK paCnOpJUlI1- TeJlbHble 8KTbl, a aKTbl BTopa" rpynnbl - KaK 38KOHbL OnHaKO TepM"H «YKa3» I1CnOJlb30BaJlC5I B XVIII B. He TOJ1bKO lUHII1/'.fCHOBaHHSI aKTOB. I1Memlll1X MOHaprnyJO nO.1InI1Cb. npellwe- CTBYJOWHe 8BTopbl COBepweHHO BbmYCTI1JlH 113 mw:y TO OOCrOH- TeJTbCTBO. '1TO -repMHH «yJ<a3» "MeJT B XVIII B. 3Ha'lIfl"eJlbHO 6Q11ee Wl1pOKoe 3Ha'leHl1e. KaK .IIBCTBYeT "3 apXI1BHblX HCTO'lHHKOB 11 MHoro<JI-1CJ1eHHb]X nyfuUIKaUI1i'i M8repl1arlOB MMHHl1crpan1BHoi'i H cy.ae6Hol1 npaKTI1KM. TepMI1HOM «YKa31> II .aeJlOnp0I13BOllCTlJe XVIII II. 0603Ha'laJIl1cb lloo6we oee doKj'III!HmIJI, 1ItlIIJXlfJ...JJIfJUIUI!Ul U3 6bIIlleCmORU(eeo opcouo 6.Ilacmu 6 HUJlCeCmOJlU(Uu. CoomcrcrneHHO. n nepoof1 <JemepTH XVIII B. "yJ<albl>} Mor- 1m HCXOllHTb B TOM 'lI1CJle H OT C}'Ile6Hb]X opraHOB. HanpHMep, 24 aBryCTa 1723 r. 5IpOCJlaBcKHi'i HMBOPHb]i'i C}'Il HanpaBJ.Ul no- wexoHcKoi'i npOBI1HUHaJlbHof1: KaHueJlJlp1111 YKa3 C Tpe60BaHI1- eM KOM.uump0BaTb B cyn llJIJI OTlJem HNlCMOTplUl1KOB 11 nHCUOB KpenOCTHblX neJI. A B NlpeCOBaHHOM BoeHHOi1 KOJIJlenm YI<aJe BhlwHero cYila OT 18 HHBapH 1725 r. COllep.:KaJlOCh npe.nnl1CaHI1C COO6WHTh 0 XOlle pa36HpaTeJIbCTBa IleJIa no 06BHHeHHfO CaHKT- ncrep6yprcKoro KOMeHll.8HTa 51. X. DaXMeOTona 3 rJly60KO nOKaJaTeJlhHO. 'jTO B nepBOf1: 'IeTilepTI1 XVIII B. Me>K1W opraHaMH MacrH, CJI}"JaJIOCb. pa3b]rpb]B8J]HCh 6fOPO- KpaTH'IeCKHe KOHJII1KTb]. CB.II38HHhie C BonpocOJ'o.1 0 IlonycTH- MOCTI1 HanpaM}JTb Ilpyr npyry yJ<33bl (nOCKOJlhKY npl1W1H1e K I1CnOJlHeHl1fO «yKaJal> 03Ha'laJ!0 npH3HaHHe CCJO'I1JeTl"'I"BYfOlllHM opraHoM CBoero HIVKeCTOSIlUero CTal)'ca). Cepbe3HhIH KOHJIHKT TaKOro pona I1MeJl Mecro B 1723 r., Koma MOCKOBCKaij KOHTOpa IOcTHU-KOJlJlerl1l1 nOnhlTaJTaCb OTl<a38TbCij npl1HHMaTb YKaJbl OT I nl1CbMa 11 6YMam MMnepaTopa nerpa Benl4Koro. M.. 1003. T. 13. Bb!nifaKHie T1 rc. it 3 . JpfAllA, 4J. 9S2. NQ 19, n. 17, PfBI1A, 4J. 8, on. I/S9. NQ 25, n. I. 
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24 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I I1cxo1l5l 113 Bb]llle(13J]O)f(eHHOm. aBTOp nOJJar-aeT ueneco- 06Pa3HbIM HCn0J1b30BaTb n.a.rIee B HaCT05lweil pa60Te npl1Me- HHTeJlbHO K 8KTaM XVIII B. TepMt1HOJlOflHO. MOKCUMaAbHO npu- 6AUJ/{'eHHYIO K C06peuel/l/OU. COCJTBeTC11>eHHO, nOlI TepMHHOM «JaKOH», He3GeUCUMO om CO\tOHU380HWI, 6yDYT nOllpa3}lMeBaTbC5I Te HOpMaTHBHble npaBOBble aKTbl. KOTopble OTRe<lalOT HbIHeWHe- MY nOH(1MaHI1IO 3aKOH8 (TO eCTb I1MeJH.1 BblcrnylO IOpWI.W-IecKYIO CJ.UlY. 6bUJI1 np(1HJlTb] ynpanoMo4eHHbiM opr-aHOM BJIaCTI1. cOJJ;ep- }I(3JI11 HOpMbl npaBa. 6bUll1 0651JaTeJlbHbl rom HeonpelleneHHoro Kpyra 11HU 11 paCC'lI1T8Hbl H8 HeO.DHOI<p3THoe npt1MeHeHl1e). AKTbl, t1CX01U1BUJHe OT MOHapxa lUU1 BblCllll1X opraHOB BJIa- CHI, He COllep)({aBWJ.1e HOpM npaBa (ti npH ::iTOM He JlBJlSlBllU1e- C5I cy.ae6HbIMJ.1 pellleHI1J1M(i) 6yD.YT B llaJTbHeHllleM o603Ha1.JaTbC5I TepMHHOM «)IKa3». AKTbl. I1CXOlU1BlllHe OT LleHT)XlJ]bHblX opraHOB BJIaCTJI( (B TOM 'H1CJle (1MeBlllHe HOpM8n1BHb]H xapaKTep). 6y- nyr nMee 0603Ha'J:aTbC5I TepM(1HOM «pacnOp.ll.>KeH(1e». TepMI1Hbl «np(1fOBOp» 11 «perneH(1e» 6ynyr I1CnOJlb30BaTbcn B HaCTOHrneH pa60Te TaJOKe B COBpeMeHHOM 3Ha'leWII1 - D.JUI 0603H8'leHlliI. COOTBeTCTBYIOW(1X cyne6HbIx aKTOB. D.Mee CJ1e.11YeT OroBOp(1Tb TepMHH0J10rmo. KacaJOIllYIOCfI Pa3HOBI1.llHOCTeH opraHOB npaBOCYlll1fI. D,JUI 0603Ha'leH(1fI cyne6- Horo opraH8. nOBellOMCTBeHHOCTb neJI KOTopOMY npJlMO He orpa- H(1'leH8 B 38KOHOllaTeJIbCTBe, 6yneT I1Cn0J1b30B8TbC5I BBelleHHblH KOHcunYUlleH PiP 1993 r. TepMI1H «cyn 06rneH JOP(1Cll(1K.UJ.'II1»I. 4TO KaCaeTCfI cyne6Horo opraH8, K nOllBellOMCTBeHHOCTH KOTOpOro OTHcceH8 orpaHI1'leHHaJI KaTeropl151 neJI. TO B neH- CTBYfOllleM pOCCI1HCKOM 3aKOH0.1l8TeJ1bCTBe lI.JI5I 0603H8<feHI151 T8- KOBOro opraH8 I1CnOJIbJyeTC5I TepMI1H ('CneUI1aJ1H3I1pOOaHHbl}1 cyn»2. KpOMe TOro. B COBpeMeHHOH npaBOBO}1 JII1Teparype 03Ha- 'leHHble cynbl npI1H5ITO Bapl18THBHO (1MeHOB8Tb «cneUl1aJ1bHbIMI1 cynaMI1». «cyn8 M(1 CneUI1aJ1bHOH JOpI1CJl11KUI1I1». a B I1CTOpI1KO- I O:mpeMeHHyJO 1p8KTOBK)' npl1JHaKOB cy.na 06weH IOpItclIIIKUI1t1 eM : OOP06CKuii M B. Cynbl 06weH tOpt1CllI1KUHI1 B PocCl1i1(.M)I,i fJ)e.nepauVltI. npo6JJeMb[ 11 nepcneKJI1BbI: ABTope. .nI1C. no Kal{1l. IOPI1ll. HayK. M.. 1000. C. 8-9. 2 CooTBeTCTBeHHO, TJlailI1UI10HHb]MI1 Kj)IITepI1HMI1 lLfIH OTHeCeHl1f1 cy- nOB K 'U1CJ1)' CneUI1aJI113HpoBaHHbiX .IIMJleTCfI orpaHI1'JeHl1e I1X nOLlBe.nOM- CTBeHHOCTI1 JlI160 no KPYry nl1U, nl160 no Kj)Yry .nen - '1TO B COBpeMeHHOW JlI1Tepa1)'JJe I1MeHYl"fOl TaJa<e Cy6"beKTHbIM 11 npe.nMeTHb[M Kj)I1Tepl1f1MI1 (pteHlIJ) P.. I: CneUHaJlI1311poRaHHbie CYllbl B CI1CTeMe opraHOF! CYlle6HOH BHaCTI1. reope11lKo-npaBOBoe ItCCJIellOBaHl1e' ABTopetfJ. .nI1C. no KaH.n tOpl1il HayK. M.. 2002. C. 8, 12). 
BBe}:IeHLoIe 25 npaBOBOH JlI..rreparype - ewe «OC06bIMI1 cynan1» 11J111 D.IDKe (CJle.nYJI TepMI1HOJIOrml BOBce XIX B.) ..oco6eHHblMI1 cy.naMI1». B HacTofllllei1 pa60Te D.JIfi 0603H8'lemrn cyn.a c orpaHI1'leHHoH non.BellOMCTBeHHOCTbJO n.eJl H81160Jlee UeJlecoo6pa3HblM npell- crawmeTcH t1CnOJlb30BaTb npt1HHTblH B COBpeMeHHOM 3aKOHOn.a- TeJlbCTHe TepMt1H «cneUl18JlI13t1pOBaHHb]iI CYlI». H8KoHeu, CTOI1T orOBOpt1Tb t1 TepMI1H, KaKOBb]M KOppeKT- Hee ocero 6yneT 0603Ha'l8Tb rocynapcTBeHHYIO neHTeJlbHOCTb no p}KOBonCTB)' Cyn.aMI1. Jm 0603H8'leHI1}[ TaKOBoil neJITeJlbHO- crl1 - H8 npCmDKeH1111 COBeTcKoro nepl1011a - I1CnOJlb30BaJII1Cb, KaK 113BeCTHO, HeCKOJlbKO TepMt1HOB. TepMI1H «cyn.e6Hoe ynp8B- JleHl1e» (BnepBble ynOTpe6J1eHHblH B CT. 8 OCHOB 38KOHOn.a- TeJlbCTBa COlO3a CCP 11 COlO3HbiX pecny6J1I1K 0 CYllOYCTpoHCTBe OT 29 OKTfl6pfl 1924 r.) IUl1pOKO npl1MeHJlJlCJI B 3aKOHOD.aTeJlb- CTBe CCCP 11 PODCP BO BTopoil nOJlOBI1He 1920-x - nepBoH nOJlOBI1He 19S0-x rr.. 6ynY'-l11 3aTeM BblTeCHeH TepM(1HOM «op- raHI138Ul10HHOe PYKOBOllCTBO Cyn.aMI1» (KaKoBoil. B CBOIO o'-le- penb, B 1989 I. OKa3aJICfI H8 HenpOnOmI<HTeJlbHOe BpeMSl 38Me- llleH TepMI1HOM «opr8Ht13allHOHHDe 06eCne'-leHl1e n.e5lTeJlbHOCTH cynoB»)I. Y'I(1TblBaSl. 'lTO H8 ceron.HSlIUHI1H n.eHb Bce T))t1 H8- 3BaHHbiX TepM(1H8 (KaK 11 caMO OXBaTblBaeMOe I1MI1 nOHSITHe) yrpanlJlI1 8K1)'anbHOCTb, 8BTOp H8CTO.llllleil pa60Tb] nOJIaraeT B03MO}f(HbIM JJ;anee (1CnOJlb30BaTb llJISi I1CTOpl1'1eCKOrO 0603Ha- '1eHI1J1 lleJlTeJlbHOCTI1 no rocynapcTBeHHoMY PYKOBOllCTBY cyn.a- Mt1 (He3aBHCt1MO OT nepHon.a) H8H60J1ee paHHI1H TepMHH «cyne6- Hoe ynpaBJIeHl1e». 11 nOCJ1eJJ;Hee. 0 'I.eM XOTeJlOCb 6bl CKa3aTb BO BBeJJ;eHI1I1. 4TO KaCaeTCSl BeCbMa B03MO)f{HblX HeliOCTaTKOB H8CToHllleH pa60Tbl. TO I1X 8BTOp BCeUeJ10 OTHOCI1T H8 C06cTBeHHblil C'IeT. He I1CKJ1IO- '1aeMb]e }f(e nOCTOI1HCTBa pa60Tbi aBTOp nOJ1HOCTbJO CB.II3b1B8e-r C roil npocpeccl10HaJ1bHOil (1 MopanbHoil n01l.1lep)((KOH. KOTOpylO OH nOJlYlJaJ1 B xone nOMOTOBKI1 KHl1rl1 OT CBQ(1X KOJlJ1el. COCJ1y- >KMBlleB 11 H8craBHI1KOB. B 3T0i1 CB5I3H OC06eHHYlO npI13HaTeJ1b- HOCTb 8BTOp XOTeJ1 6bl Bblpa3t1Tb D. A CaBlleHKo, A K. ABep- 'leHKO, B.D. C blCOeBY. O.A DOHCKI1X, O. E. KOlUeJIeBOH. 10 npl1MeHeHl111 repMI1HOB «Cync6Hoe }11paBJ1CHl1e» 11 «opraHI1JaUI1- OHHoe pyKOBO.nCTBO cynaMW> nOlipooHet CM.: CVWCU,1lIH A. C nOHHTHe cyneoHoro ynpaRlleHI1.11 (TeopeTH'leCKl1e 11 I1CTOpI1KO-npaBOBble acneK- Tbl) II npaBoBble l1llel1 11 rocynapcrneHHble )"Jpe>K1leHI1S1 (I1CTOpI1KO- IOjJI1llH'JeCKi1e I1CCJle.1l0BaHI1.11): Me>KBY3. c6. Ha)"JH. TPy.nOB. CBepaJIOBcK. 1980. C. 143-148. 
26 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I 11 C3MOe nOCJlellHee. HeJ1b351 He npiBH3TbC.II. '1TO 113 seeM J..ICnOJlb30BaHHoi1 np" Han11C3H1111 KHl1rl1 JlHTepaTypb] HB I1HO- cTpaHHblx H3blKax aBTop caMOCTOHTeJ1bHO nepeBO.DJ1Jl elll1H- CTBeHHO aHrJlO5i3bl'JHble pa6OTbl. 03H8K0W1eHHIO >Ke C "J..I.:Ke- npHBo.LlHMbIMI.J TeKCTaMH H8 WBe.11CKOM " HeMeUKOM H3blKax aBTop 06S1JaH 11. A KaHaKHHY 11 A A rHeclO I1Th.llR/leH(1eM BceMepHoit 6JJaro.napHocHI 03Ha'JeHHb]M }muaM XOTeJlOCb 61>] 11 3aIUlJ04J.'lTb BBelleHHe. 
rnaBa 1. .nIo1TepaTypa Io1Io1CTOI.IHIo1KIo1  1. M3YlJeHMe CYAe6HO" pe4X>PMbl neypa I B XIX - HalJaJ"Ie XXI B. OCYWecTBJleHHb!e  PUCCHH B neplloH <ieTBepn1 XVIII Ka cyne6Hble npe06paJOBaHHfI Ha'IaJlH npHBJleKaTb BHHMaHI1C ytC- HblX aBTOpoo Cll.le B cepellHHC BeKa XIX-ro. I1MCHHO TorJ]a K YrJJy6nCHHOMY I13y:JCHI1IO HaJBaHHblX npeo6paJOBaHH(:1 06pan1- JlHCb npaBOBellblK.D, KaBeJIHH,K. E. TpOUJ.'lH8 H <1J. M. D,M(1- Tp(1CB. OnHpaflcb nO'-lTH HCKJUOlJHTCJ1bHO H8 M8Tep(1aJibl «nOJl- HOro c06paHHfI JaKOHOB Poccl1HcKoH HMnCpHt1 C 1649 rolLa>" HaJBaHHblC npaBOBe1lb1 n.a.rIH OTHOCIHeJlbHO nOlLpo6H)'1O - XOTfI H OT'leTJlHBO (]JparMeHTapHYIO - XapaKTept1CTHJ<y paJBHTI1f1 OTC'-ICCTBeHHoro cy.na B nCTpOBCKYIO 3noxy. np51 3TOM, CCJTH K. E. T POUHHa orpaHH'-IJ.U1CfI TOJ1bKO paCCMOTpeH(1CM TOr.naWH(1X ncpeMCH B cynoycTpof1:CTBe. TO K. D,. KaBeJ1I1H H <1J. M. D,M(1- Tp(1CB OCBenUl51 ClUe (1 HOIxU.lI1H B o6naCTI1 cynonpOH3BOllcnm l . XapaKTepHo. O.DH8KO, <iTO HI1 K..J. KaBeJ1I1H, HI1 K. E. T pOUt1- Ha, HH <1J. M. D,MHTpHCB He t1HTepnpeTHpOBaJil1 paCCMorpeHHble I1MH cYlle6Ho-npeo6paJOBaTeJlbHblC MCpbl neTpa 1 KaK cYllc6- HYIO p$pMY. I Kaee..1uH K.D.. YKa3. CO'I. C. 213-215. 391-419; OH.JICe. YcrpoMCTBO Ipd)KlIDHCKl-IX cynoB OT YJlQ;iKCHI1H uap.ll ArieKceH Ml1xai1.rJOBI1'!a 1lO nCTpa BeJ1I1KOro II JOpHllI1'JeCKl1e JanI1CKI1. 11311aBaeMbie nerpoM Pel!KI1HbIM. M.. 1842. T 2. C. 83-119; TpIJU,lIHO K. £ YKa3. C04. C 123-186. D..vumpu- e6 (/). M. YKa3. C04. C. 441-450. 483-487. 501-506, 535-580. 
28 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I KpoMe TOro, IJ 1859 f. BblUlJl8 B CBeT craTb5I n. 11. I1B3.HOsa, B KOTOpoi1 BBTOp BnepBble CneUl1aJ'1bHO OCBenUl ct>YHKUI10H(1po- BaHHe B nepooM l.JeTBeprn XVIII B. npaBl-rreJlbCTBVIOrnero CeHa- 'fa, B TOM <1HCJ1e 11 cyne6H)'fO llemeJlhHOCTb :noro opraJ-18 BJ18Cm l . B 1860 - 1880-e fr. (1CTOpIDI JX}CCHf1CKOro cy.ua nepBOM <JeTnepTl.f XVIII B. OKa3aJlaCh HaH60J1ee o6CTomellbHO 3a"JPOHYT<I B pa60- TaX C. A neTpQBCKoro, M. n. P03eHrej:jMa, n. O. 606poBCKOro 11 AA rOJ1y6eBa. npaB.1la, nOll06Ho n.M. I1BaHOB)', OTMe<JeHHb]e 8BTOpbl COcpellOTOlJ1UJ11 BHI1MaHHe H8 60nee 'l8CTHbIX BOnpocax, I1CCJlenOBaB I1cropmo PacnpaBHof1 naJ13ThI np" CeHare, a TIUOKe pe<t>oPMl1poBaHl1e B neTpOBCKoe BpeMS! CJ.1CTeMhl BoeHHhlX CYIlOB. Ha nPI.JHlli'lnl1aJlbHO HOBblH YP()BeHh H3Y'leHHe cYHe6Hblx npeo6pa30BaHI.JH neTPa I BhlUlJ10 B H8<JaJle XX BeKa. 11 npoH3o- UUJO 3TO. B nepB}'lO o4epe.nb. 6JIafO*,p51 TpYJJ;aM 6YJlYll(ero aJ(3- neMHK8 M. M. DOrOCJ10BCKoro. B35IBWI1Cb (B paMKax nonrOTOB- KI1 M8mcrepcKoi1 D,I1Ccepmlll1l1) 3a BceCTOpOHHl1e H3blCKaHHfI no HCTOP"" peopraHI13aUl111 MeCTHb]X (1 pentOHaJlbHblX opraHoB BJIa- cm B xone II ry6epHCKOH pe4>oPMhl. M. M. DoroCJ10BCKHH cYMeJ1 BOCC03JlaTb }'HI.JKaJlhH)'1O - KaK no llmpare c06paHHoro MaTe- pl.JaJla, TaK H no my6HHe ero aHaJll.J3a - Kapnmy ytlpe)lQ]eHI.JH I.J (]J}'HKW10HHpOBaHI1H nepBhlx OeCTBeHHhIX cYlle6HhlX opraHOB 06wei1: IOpHC1lI1KUI111: ropo.nOBb]X, npoBHHUHaJlbHhlX H H<VI.BOpHbIX cynoR nOCB.IIweHHa5I .1TOMY CIO;.KeTy TpeTh.ll rIl8Ba - .<06J1<iCTHb]e cyneGHb]e y<lpe)l(1leHHSI» - H3JlaHHOi1: B 1902 r. nI1CCepnlUHOHHoi1 MOHOrpHH M. M. DOrOCJlOBCKoro .<06J18CTHaH pe$:lpMa nerpa BeJ1HKoro»3 6eccnopHo coxpaHWla Hay<lHYIO ueHHOCTb no HaWI1X MeH. Klx>Me TO ro, B CTaTbe 1903 r. M. M. 60roCJIOBCKHi1 npl.JBeJ1 1 H(J(JH06 n If CeHaT IlpI1 nerpe BeJlHKOM II )f(YPHaJI MI1HHCTepCTBa IOCTI1UI1I1 1859. T. I. KH. I. C. 34-70. ! flemfXJ8CKUU C. A. 0 CI:HaTe B UapcTBOBaHl1e ncrpa BI:J1I1KO- ro: I1CTOpHKO-tOpHllI14ecKoe HCCJlellOrnlHl1e. M.. 1875 C. 148-156 ITo >Ke: Onl1CaHl1e .nOK}'MeHTOB 11 6v\4ar rvtAMIO. M., 1876. KH. 31; P03eH- zeii.M M n 04epKl1 I1CTOpl111 BOeHHO-Cy.nHb]X )"Jpe>K!leHl.Jii B POCCI1I1 no KOH4I1Hb] neTpa BI:J1I1KOro Cn6.. 1878. c. 56-200; Eo6ponclCuu n. 0 80- eHHoe npHDO B POCCI1H npl1 ncrpe lkilI1KOM. Cn6.. 1886. Eb][] 1. C. 185- 105. 578-596; FOJIy6e8 A. A. PacnpaBHIDI narraTa npH CI:HaTe II Onl1CaHl1e no""VMeHfOB H 6vMar MAMIO. M.. 1888. KH. 5. Om. 2. C. 103-148 ") Eo<uao8c.KUU M M. 06.'1acTHIDI pe4x:!pMa neTpa BeJIl1Koro: npoBHHUHH 1719-27 rr. M.. 1902. C. 164-156. nepBoHa'JaJlbHO DaHHa\! MOHorpa<pIHI 6b[}Ja onyfuJl1KOrnlHfI B nep1101lH'JeCKOM I1Jlli!HI1I1 I1MnepaTDpCKoro 06llie- CTrnI MCTOpl111 11 D,peBHOCTeH POCCHi1CKI1X npl1 MOCKOBCKOM yHI1BepCI1TeTe (CM.: ljOl11lP. 1902. KH. 3. C. I-XVI. 1-208; KH. 4. C. 209-522). 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 29 I1HTepeCHeHllme CBelleHIUI KaCSTeJlbHO cyne6H0(:1 KOMnereHll1ll11 MeCTHblX OpraHOB BJl8CTI.J B 1700-1719 rr. I HetaJlOBmKHhIHBKJlan.BI13Y'1eHl.Jecyne6HOHI1CTOpl1l1l1eTpOH- CKOf1 POCCI.JI1 BHec B HaljaJIe XX B. 11 B. 11. BepeTeHHt1KoB. 060- CHOBaBWHHC5I nepBOHa'laJIhHO B I1MnepaTOjx:KoM XaPhKOBCKOM }'HI1RepCt1TeTe Y'feHI1K aKalleMHKa A. C Jlanno-,UaHI1JleOCKoro, BaCt1Jlt1(:1 BepeTeHHHKoB nOCKOHaJIbHO H3yYI1Jl Bonpoc 0 B03HI1K- HOBeHl1l1l1neJITeJIhHOCTI1 TSHHOH KaHUeJI5Ip(1(1 - OllHOrO (13 KJlJO- '-JeBblX OTeLJeCmeHHblX CneUHaJll13l1pOBaHHblX cyne6HbiX OpraHOH nepBOH TpeTI.J XVIII B. C06paHHhie n.aHHhle B. 11. BepeTeHHI1KOB OnyWJHKOBaJI B 1910 r. B Bl11le MOHOrpa<tJHI1 c;l1cropllil. TaiiHoH KaHUeJI5IPI1(1 neTpOOCKoro BpeMeHI1»l. CnyCT5I roll nOCJle BblXOlla «I1CroPHI1 Ta(:1HOH KaHueJT5IpHI.J}) ysl1L1eJT CseT J06l1J1diHblH n.IITJ.ffOMHI1K «I1cTOpHJI npaBKreJlbCTBY- JOll.lero CeHaTa 3a JUleCTI1 JleT)'. B nOllroTOHJleHHOM np*ccopoM MOCKOBCKOro }'HI1BepcJ.ffeTa, 8BTOpoM OllHOro 113 nepBblX Y'fe6- H(1KOB (1CTOpl1l1 pOCCHii.CKOro npaIk1 A. H. <1Jl1Jll1nnOBblM pa3l1eJTe o CeHaTe B nepooH lje'mepTH XVIII B. cO.nep)KMI1Cb naparpa<tJbl, nOCB5IllleHHble ynoM51HyroH Bblllle PacnpaBHoii naJlare. a TalOKe CYLle6HoH KOMneTeHl.lI1t1 Torn.allJHero CeHaTa \ Ho ::ITO Bce 6bUJI1, KOHe'-JHO, TOJTbKO WTpHXH K noprpery cyne6HoH CI1CreMhl 3nOXl1. f OpaJ,!J;O 6Q11bWe BHI1MSHHJI neTpOBCK(1M BpeMeHaM YlleJl(1- JlH .mTopbl ellle O1JHoro J0611J1eHHoro C60pHI1Ka, COCTaBJIeHHOrO Y>Ke no CJJY'f81O 50-J1eTI1}I Cyne6HbIX YCTaBOB 1864 r. OcywecT- BlIeHHhle B npaBJleHt1e neTpa I npe06pa30BaHl1fl B cynoycTpoi1- crBe t1 cynonpol13Bo.ncTBe n0J1)1'-IHJ[11 B OTMe'leHHOM C60pHI1Ke ymy6J1CHHOe, XOT5I 11 pa3HOaCneKTHoe OCBeweHHe B pa31leJIe 6. 11. ChlPOM.llTHt1KOBa «O'lepK I1CTOpl111 cyn.a B npeBHeH t1 HO- 80(:1 POCCI1I1» 11 B pa3.!leJTe 10. B. fOTbe «OTneJleHHe cyne6HoH BJIaCTH OT aIIM I1Hl1cTpaTHBHoH»4. .D.OCTO(:1HO oco6oro ynOM(1Ha- IlXRoc.106C1<.UU M M l1cCJ1ellOBaHI1H no I1CTOpl111 MeCTHoro ynpaBJIe- HI1.11 JTpI1 nerpe BeJ1I1KOM II :>KMHn. 1903. N2 9. C. 60-61. 69-70. 110- 113,IUH19. 1 Bepemt!llHUKOO B. If I1CTOpl1H TaHHOW K:JHlleJIHpHI1 nerpoBCKoro Bpe- MeHIII. X'lpbKOB., 1910. 3 C/Ju.lUnnoe A. H npaBI1TeJIbCTBytOWHH CeHaT B WlpCTBOBaHl1e neT)Xl BCJlI1KOro II I1CTOpl1.11 npaBHTeJ1bCTBYK>lliCrO CeHam 3a IIBCCTH neT 1711- 1911 n. Cn6., 1911. T. I. C. 159-167.316-331. 4 ChlpoWRmHUJ((J(I E. If. O'lepK I1CTOpHl1 cy.na B D.peBHeHI1 HOBOi1 PocCI1I1 (.no l13D.aHI1f1 CBODa JaKOHOB) II Cyne5HaH )Je(}>op\.!a I n01l pe.n H. R JJ.a- BbL'lOBa 11 H H nOJl.llHCKOro. M.. 1915. T. I. C 149-161; rombf! 10. B. Or- neJ1CHl1e cyne6HOO BlJaCTI1 OT .w.MHHHCIpalMBHOi1 II TaM >KC. C 186-195. 
30 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Hi'lfi. 'lTD, HaCK01lbKO YllaJiOCb yCTaHOBHTb. I1MeHHO 10. B. fOTbe BnepBble ynmpe611JJ B 03H8<1eHHOM pa31I.ene q.opMYlll1POBKY «cy- iJe6mlJl petJJoplJlll IIempa IkAlIJ«Nm.l. Ooenc npI.JXO.D.8 K MaCT" 60JlbWeBMKOB t1CCJle.1l0BaHlie CYlle6HbiX npe06pa30Bam'lii nepooH ..,eTlepTH XVIII B. yrpa- TWlO 8Kl}'aJlbHOCTb. I1cTOpI10rp<K]J14yeCKaH: naY3a 3aUIHYJ1aCb B JIaHHOM CJl}l"lae Ha 40 JleT 1 . OepBblM COBeTCK(1M 8BTOPOM. KO- TOPhi" BHOBb CneL013JlbHO 3a1pOHYl1 paCCMaTpl1BaeMYIO TeMY, CTan M. A 4eJIbUOe-6e6yroB. Ho TeMa OKa3aJ18Cb He npoeTO 3aTpOHyra. B ony6JU1KOBaH- HblX BnepBhle B 1957 r. xpecTOMaTH"HblX «Ol(CpK3.'\ no J.1CTO- pl1H eyna 1-1 yroJ10BHOro npouecca B pa60BJ1aneJlb ' leCKt1X, (]>eo- .u.aJlbHblX 11 6yp)f(}'a3HblX rOCYD.8pCTBax» M. A. 4eJTbUoB-Eie6yroB nOMeCTl1Jl OC06b]j:j naparpa «CYAe5HIDI pe<tx>PMa 1719 roJI.a>}3, B KOTOpOM COCJ1aJ]CJI Me.JK.!IY HHOro H Ha OTMe'leHHYIO Bb]We pa- 60ry 10. B. r on,e. TeM caMblM np0l130llUlO «CMbIKaHHe» JapO)/(- DaHill""CH COeeTCKOI1 TpM(1UJ.U1 (13y'JeHml pe<}:loPMbl C npeD.we- CTBYIOluet1. KpoMe TOro, '1eTblpbM.Sl ro..r:raM(1 paHee. B 1953 f. B Mo- CKOBCKOM YH(1Bepc(1TeTe COCTOHJl8Cb Jauurra KaHllI11J.aTCKOii D.I1C- cepTaUJ.m Y"!eH(1Ubl HCTopHKa (1 npaBOBelia r. H. AHn(1J1oroBa H.6. rOJl(1KOOOM «nOJl(1HI'IeCK(1e npOl{eCCbl np(1 neTpe I». He KaClliICb Hanp.llM}'IO TeMbl 0 Cy.ne6Hb1X npeo6paJOBaHHflx nepBoM 'IeTBepru XVIII 8., H. o. rOJmKOBa npo.nOJl)l(11JI8 (1CTOpHorpa- (]Jl1'lecKYIO n(1HmO B. 11. BepeTeHH(1KOBa, o6pamBwHch K TOM )l(e CTopoHe neTpOBCKOH cy.ne6Hoii pe$opMhl - 3apO>K1leH(1JO H pa3BHTI1JO CneUH8J[(13(1pOBaHHhlx cy.ne6HhlX opraHoB, (1MeB- W(1X B nO.LlcYllHocTI111eJIa no roCYllapCTBeHHhlM npeCTynJ1eH(1.11M. npaBlla. B OT]] I1'1(1e OT 8.11. BepeTeHH(1KOBa, H. 6. rOJlHKOBa ] Tomb(! 10. B. OrlleJIeHl1e cy.ne6How BIIaCTI1 OT aD.MI1HI1C1paTIlBHow. C. Ia BaI1aCb, ecrecrneHHO, B 113Y'-1eHI111 He TOJIbKO cy.ae6Hoi1 pc4xJpMb]. HO 11 Boo6111e B 60JIbwHHCTBe tillnpaBIICHI1i1I1CTopHKo-npaBOBb[X ItccnenoBaHI1H 0 nerpoBcKOH 3noxe. Ii. Ii. Ka4.eHrayJ. HeCOMHeHHO, HMeJI oce OCHOBaHI1H KOHCTaTl1posan B o63ope 1947 r.. '1TO «MapKCI1CTCKa.!l pm- pa60TKa Bonpoca 0 rocYDapcTBe npH nerpe I 11 I1CTopHI1 rocynapcT8eH- HblX Y'lpejf(j}CHI1J:1: e.nBa Ha'JaTIl» (/(n(fJeHmyJ E. E. 3nm.d neTpa BeJ1I1Koro B OCBeWeHHI1 COBeTCKOH I1CTOpwJeCKOO HaylOl II ncrp BeJ1I1KJ.1H. C6. CT'dTei1. M'-J1rk: M. A. Kypc yrolIOBHO-npcuecqanbHOro npasa: 04ep- KH no I1CTopl111 cYDa H yrOJlOBHOro npouecca B pa60F\JJa.aeJIb'JeCKI1X, 4>00- llaJIbHb!X 11 HblX rocYll.apcmux. 2-e HE. Cn6.. 1995. c. 701-704. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 31 3aH5IJlliCb I1CTOpl1CM He T aMHOM KaHUeJUlpl1l1, a B03HI1KWCCO 3a Tplll D.eCSlTlllJleTWI. no Hce npeo6pa>KCHCKOeo npHKa3a. nBe ncpBhlC .-naBbl D.HCCCpTaum1 H. o. rOJlI1KOBa nOCBflTl1- Jla paCCMorpeHI1JO BonpOCOB KaK 06 OpraHI13aUI1M npeo6pmKeH- CKOeo npl1Ka3a, TaK 11 0 HOpMaTMBHOM peJ}'Jll1pOBaHI1I1 eeo ne5l- TeJlbHocm. Hap5l11Y C 3TI1M, om1pa5lCb Ha 06Wl1pl1blH apXI1BHblH M8Tepl1aJl. H. 6. rOJlI1KOBa npoaHaJll1311pOBaJIa YHKLlI10Hl1pO- BaHl1e npl1Ka3a KaK opraH8 npaBOCYD.l151 B 1690 - 1700-e rr. 1 B 1957 r. M8-repllliJlb] 11I1Ccep-ramm BblllUll1 B CBeT B BI1[JC MOHO- IJX1(]JI1I1, B KOTOpOH 6w1I1 BOCnpOH3BeneHbl B TOM ljl1CJlC 11 Bhl- rneOTMelleHHble .-naBbl l . 4TO KaCaeTC5I TaHHoH KaHueJUlpl111, TO ee I1CTopl151 OKa- 3aJTaCb 3a nOCJTepeBOJ1JOUI10HHoe COpOKaJTeTHe JaTpOHYfa enHH- CTBeHHO B CTaTbC B. 11. CaMOM.nOBa 1956 r., nOCB5Ill.lCHHOM. Bnpo- '-JeM, COBCeM Y3KOMY CJO;.KeI)' - HaXOllI1BweMYC5I B np0113BQJl,CTI3e KaHUeJl5lpl111 B 1718-1720 n. KOHKpeTHOMY yroJTOBHOMY lle JTy 3. B UeJTOM )f(e ocYlUecTBJlcHHoe neTpoM I npe06pa30BaHI1C cyna no rocynapCTBeHHblM npecT)'IUlCHI151M 6bUJO paccMOTpeHO H. o. ro- JlI1KOBOi1 B nOJl}l"lI1BllJci1rnl1pOKOC npl13HaHI1C (]J)'HllaMCHTaJlbHOH CTaTbC 1964 r. «OpraHbl nOJlHTWICCKOro CblCKa 11 I1X pa3BI1n1e B XVII-XVIII BB.». J1HHI1JO no H3}1"1eHI1JO neT]JOBCKHX cneumUU1- 3I1pOBaHHbiX cynoB npo.nOJT)«HJ1 M. 11. C(13I1KOB, 3aTpOHYBumH B CTaTbe 1970 r. Bonpoe 0 nepBOH8'la11bHb]X cyne6Hb]X nOJ1HOMO- <lmlX nOJ1I1UMCHCTepcKOH K,;lHUeJl5lpI111 4 . B cepelll1HC 1960-x rr. H8<1aJ'1 yrny6JIcHHo W3)"-JaThCSI ClUe onl1H acneKI cync6Ho H PCt1>oPMhl ncrpa I - C031l8HI1CTaKOro He I1MCBWC- I rDi/UK06U H.5. nOJlIHI1'JecKHe npoueccbI B uapcTBOBaHllle nerpa I no MaTepitanaM npe06p:ueHCKoro npHKa:>a: AirropeQJ. .nI1C. ... KaHIl. I1CT. H1. rm,,3it5n'I1T11'JecKI1e npoueCCb! JTpI1 nerpe I: no MaTepl1a- ./illM npeo6pa;+;eHcKoro npl1Ka3a. M.. 1957. C 8-68. CTOI1T:J:J. 'JTO BnepBb]e Ha BOnpoce 0 cy.ne6HoH KOMneTeHUl111 npeo6pa;KeHcKoro IlpI1- KaJa OCTaHOBlu.IC.II B 11. BepeTeHHI1KOB (lJepemeIfHUK06 B. If YKa3. C04. C. 2fc;;JOO B. If. 0 nepBbIX Y3HI1K£1X neTponaBJIOBCKOH KpenOCTH II CooercKOe rocy.napcTBO 11 npaBO. 1956 NQ 10. C 119-121 4 rUlIII\flI3G H. 5. OpraHbI nOJllml'JfCKOfO CbICKa 11 I1X paEmle B XVII- XVIII BB. II A6cOJltonlJM B PoccIIH (XVII-XVIII B8.): C6. CTaTCH. M., 1964. C143-180; CU3UK06M.If. 0 CYHblX $yHKIlIIRX []QI]IIIUMeH- crepcKHX 1H B PoccHI1 B nepooii 'JeTBep11'l XVIII B. 1100000011Kacnl1- paHTCKIN pa6OT. Cl!eplLlOO."K, 1970. Bbln. II. C 87-88. 91-91. . 'ITO HI1 IIQ!lH0i1113 1OUlI1"( pa60T no 11ClqJI111 opraHOB nOJ1I1Ul111 PocCI1I1 XVIII B. M. 11. CHJI1KOB HC B(JIDp.IUJdllCR 60JJec KD.3HHOH lCWIIlIKC 
32 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I ro npe)l(Jle aHMOra UeHIpaJIbHoro cyne6Horo opraHa, KaK IOcnm- KOMenm. 3aCJ\yra B OTI<pb]TI1I111 lliNaJlbHOi1 pa3pa6orKe 3'f011 TeMbl npHHa11J1e)({JfT MOCKOBCK0M)' npaBOBe1IY 11. A CTeweHKo. Pe3YJlbTa- Tbl H3blCKaHMii 11. A CTerneHKo HallliU1 oTpa)KeHHe B CTaTbe 1%6 r. 06 OCHOBaHI1I1IOcrMU-KOJlT1enm 11 B pa3.1leJIe -«KOJUIenrn JOCTHUI1H'} 60JJee n03.LlHd::j MOHOrpaI1I'" «rocy.uap::meHHbl51 crpof1: B Poccm1 B nepBOI1 'leTBepTl1 XYHI B.»I. OC"raercJ1 JI.()i5amrrb. 'IT{) 3BOJ1IOUHfi orelJecrBeHHoro npoueccyrlJlbHOro npaBa B nel}XJBCKoe BpeMfi no- JIY"!HJ18 OCBewemle B OTMe>leHHOM -.pYlIe M. A '-IeJ1bUOHa-Eie6yroBa 1957 r.. B Bblwe.n.weM B 1961 f. He6onbWOM 0630pe 0.11. '-II1CTJ'iKO- &1, a TaIOKe B KpaTKOM O'lepKe B. n. HillKHMOBa l . Me:>KllY TeM, nOMHMO Ha3BaHHbiX pa60r H. E. rOJU1KoBoi1, M. 11. CH3HKOBa. 11. A. CTeweHKo. O. 11. 1..IHCTJ'iKOna 11 B. O. Ha- >Kl1MOBa, B 1960 - 1970-e IT. B Hawei1 crpaHe He nO.llBJ.U1OCb 60- nee I1CCJle.LlOBaHHit, B KOTOPb]X paccM8TpI1BaJ]I1Cb 6bl BonpOCbl pa3BI-1TI1H me4ecrBeHHoro cynOYClpoi1CTB8 Ii cynanpQl13BOllCTBa B nepooi1 'IeTBepTl1 XV] II B. nOKaJaTeTJbHO, 'JTO cyneGHM pct}:Iop- Ma neTpa 1 OKa3aJlach HH CJIOBOM He ynoJl.ffiHyra B nOlLroTOB- nCHHoii CCKTopOM HCTOpHH rocynapCTBa, npaBa H nOJIHTH'-lecKHX Y'leHHii I1HCl1fl}Ta rocyn.apCTBa H npaBa AH CCCP «lIOJ1rocpo'l- HOH nporpaMMe KOMnJICKcHof1 HCCJlelLOBaTeJlhCKOj:j H HaY"lHO- H3,I1aTeJlhCKOf1 JIC5ITCJlhHOCTH B 06J1acTH HCTOpHH rocyJJ;apcTBa 11 npaBa. nOJIHTI1<jCCKl1'1( 11 npaBOBblX Y'lCHI1f1», peaJIl13aUH5I KOTOpof1 npelInOJIaranach B 1981-1990 rr. J nOJJ;oGHM I1CTOpI10rpl1<jc- CKa}1 CHT)'awUl nepeMCHI1JIaCh EO BTOpOH nOJIOBI1He 1980-x rr. npc)J(fle BCCro, 31lCCh He06XOlL1fMO OTMCTHTb nyGJIHKa- UHIO B 1986 r. CTaTbH npaBOBena H. H. E(j>PCMOBOii «OCHOB- Hhle 3Tanhl pa3 BHTi1f1 CYJJ;eGHoj:j CHCTCMbl B POCCHH B XVIII B.». ]CmeunIKoJLA. 06PaJOBaHIilC KOJIJIerHI1IOCTHW111 (1719-1725 IT.) II BeCTHI1K MfY. Cep. <,npaBO». 1%6. NQ 6. C. 63-69; Qne/JJI!HKoJLA., Co- t/JpooelflW K A. focYD.apcTBeHHbJi1 CT)JO B POCCI1I1 B nepBOf.i 'JeTBepTH XVII!;9'YKa3. CO']. C. 708-715; '1ucmJlK08 0. If. na- M.IITHI1KH npoueCcyaJlbHOfO npaBa BseneHl1e II naMHTHI1KI1 p}'CCKOro npaBa I no.n pe.n. K. A. OxppoHeHKo. M., 1961. Bb]n. 8. C. 567-570; Ha- J/CWlI06 B. n Tl1nbl. 4x:!PMbll1 BMb! yrOJJOBHOro npouecca. KanI1HHHrpa.a. 1977. C. 58-64. JCM.. I1cTopl1KO-npaBOBble HccnenoBaHI1H: npo6neMb] 11 nepcneKTHBb]. M., 1982. C 7-8.LL.II nOJ1HOTbl Ka))THHb! crom ll06aBI1Tb, 'JTO B n. 1.3 pa3- DeJ1a E .naHHo nporpaMMbJ 6hLIJO BHeceHO CJ1ellYtOwee HanpaBJIeHl1e I1C- CJJe.1JOBaHl1i-i: «IOpH.nI1'JeCKl1e )"JpeJK1JeHI1I! B POCCI1I1 II nepl10Il neT)JOBCKI1X pc4x:!PM» (TaM )l(C. C. 7). 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 33 B llaHHo(:J cmne H. H. E<ppeMOBa OC}!llteCTB1UJ8 - BnepBb]e no- CJle M. A '-IeJlbUOBa-l)eGyTOBa - lleJlOCTHbl11 (XOTSI. " KpaTKH(:J) HCTopHKo-npaBoBoH aHaJlH3 neTpoBCKHx npeo6pa30BaHHH B 06- JlaCTH cyn.OycTpOHCTBa. fon. cnYCTSI. 3TH)lCe npeo6pa30BaHHSI. (3a- OllHO C cyn.onpOHJBOllCTBeHHbIMH) 6blJ1H BHOBb - HO 6oJ1ee no- BepxHOCTHO - OXapaKTepHJOBaHbl HCTOpHKOM.n. H. BllOBHHOH B pa311eJ1e «npaBO H cyn:» KOJUJeKTI1BHOH MOHOrpa(tmH «OlJepKI1 PYCCKOH KYJlbrypbl XVIII BeKa»l. HaKoHeu, npoueccyllilbHb]e aCneKTb] paccMOTpeHH5I neJl no roCYlllipcTBeHHblM npecrynJle- H"SlM B KOHue XVII - nepBoM 1JeTBepTH XVIII B. 3aTpOHYJl B BeChMa COllCp)ICaTeJlhHoi-i craTbe 1989 r. H. H. nOKpoBcKHi.fl. B 1990-e rr. H3}I'IeHHe cyn.e6Hoi1 pe<t:>oPMbl neTpa I JaMeT- HO aKll1BHJHpOBaJlOCh. 11, KaK H npe)((Jle, OC06eHHoe BHHMaHHe HCCJTeOOBaTeJTH yneJTI1JTI1 B 1)' nopy TeMaM. KaCaBWI1MC5I npeo6- pa30BaHHfI cyne6Ho(:J CIilCTeMbL Hal160JJee 0606weHHo H non- P06HO 06cro5lTeJlbCTBa peopraHI13a1l1111 OTelJeCTBeHHoro cyno- ycrpoHCTBa B nepBo(:J 'IeTBepTlil XVIII B. 113J10.JKHJl8 B MOHOrpac}:>1111 1993 r. H. H. EcMJeMoB8, nOCB5ITHBwa5I 3TOi1 TeMe nm.terneHHhle B rJlaBY I  2 «Pe<poPMhl neTpa I B 06JlacTI1 Cyn.OYCTpoi-iCTBao) H  3 «C0311aHHe OC06hlX cynOB»J. I Ef/;pe'«l8ll H H. OCHOBHble 3Tanbl pa3BHTI1.11 cYnOOHQl.i CI1CTeMbl B POCCHI1 B XVIII B. II 3aKoHoMepHOCTI1 B03HI1KHOBeHI1H 11 pa3BI1T11S1 nOJ1IITHKO-tOpH.nH'IeCKHX l11leH H I1HCTIfIYTOB. M., 1986. C. 94--99; Bdo(lu- HG JL If. npaoo III cy.nll O'lepKI1 PYCCKOW KYJ1bTYpb] XVIII BeKa. M.. 1987. I"J:. 1. C 161-166. XapaKTepllo. 'JTO 11 H. BlIOlJl1Ha He CTdlJa - B n,yxe K.JJ.. KaBeJlI1Ha. K. E TPOUI<1HbI III <D. M DMI1T))l1eBa -OueHI1BaTbcyne6- HbIe npeo6pa30BaHI1H nepBOW 'JeTBepTl1 XVIII B. KaK pe4x:!pMY. l/lo1qxxJc:Kuit If. If. 3aKOHOllaTeJ1bHble I1CTO'IHI1KH nerpOBCKOro BpeMe- HI1 o..cnoae 11 neJ1e rocy.aapeBOM" II ny6J1I1UlfC1'H'IecKl1e I1I1CTOpH'JeCKHe C0411HeHI1H nepl1o.na o.naJII13Ma: C6 HaY4Hb]X Tpy.nOB. HOBOCl16l1pcK. 1989. C 77--95ITO )l(e: /1oIqJoectwilH. H. POCCIIIHCKIDI B..acrb III 06weCTBO XVII-XVIII BB. HOBOCI16I1PCK, M15. C. 414-4301. 3 EI/Jpe.M06G H. H CyllO)<:T)JOill:TBO PoeC"" B XVIII - nepBOii nOJlOIJHHe XIX B. (HCTOpHKo-npaOOBoe I1CCJle.nOBaHl1e) M.. 1993. C.17-77. HapHllYC 3TI1M. H. H. EcPpeMOBa nOllrOTOBlUla paJD.eJl 0 cyne6Hot1 CIilCTeMe B nepBOl1 'JeTBepTH XVIII B. B 113naHHot1 roDOM paHee KOJIJ1eKTI1BHot1 MOHOrpa<pHIil «Pa3BIHl1e )JyCCKOrO npaIJ8 BTOpoi1 nonOBHHb] XVII-XVIII BIJ." (PaJmmle PYCCKOfO npasa BTOpOH nOnOBI1Hb] XVII-XVIII BB. I nOli pell. E. A. CKpl1- nWleBa. M., 1992. C. 216-223). HCCKQllbKO n031lHee Ha Bonpoce 0 cy- Ile6Hoi1 pe4x:!pMe nerpa I H. H. EcPpeMOBa OCTaHOBHJ1acb B cneUHMbHOM }"Jf6HO'\IJ noc061111 1996 r. (£4pe.'II06Cl H. H CynoyClpOii.cruo POCCI1i'"ICKOH I1MnCpl111 XVIII - Ha'JaJm xx BeKa. Y'Je6. noco6lle. M., 1996. C. 17-39). 
34 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I KpoMe TOro, B nOCJlellHee neCflTl1JIeme XX B. C. B. EqU1- MOBb]M 6b1JU1 npe.nnpHlliITb] Pa3b]CKaHH51 0 BHeWHeii HCTOpl1H TaiiHoii IQlHL\eJlSlpt.m neTp08cKoro BpeMeHH, M. O. AKHlllH- HhlM - 0 npoBelleHHH cyne6HblX npeo6pa30BaHHH OeTpa I B CH6HPH, MOCKOBCKHM HCTOpHKOM M. B. Ea6wI - 0 Hel13Becr- HOM paHee cyne6HOM opraHe I 72Q-x fr. BbIWHeMCYlle. K. r. ne- peJIMOBb]M - 06 Y"Ipe)f(J]eHHOii B 1724 L KOHTope po3blCKHbiX ne]] np(.1 CeH8Te[. B Te >Ke rOlIbl K I1CCJ1enOBaHI1JO OTe'-leCTBeHHbIX cynoB CneWl8JlbHoi1: IOPHCJ1HKUHH B XVIII B. o6paTl1Jlcn ne-rep- 6yprcKJ1H I1CTOpliK E. B. AHI1CI1MOB. B MOHorpat111 19991"., nocmuueHHoii HCmpH" npOTHBo.n.ei1cTBI1S1 rocynapcTlJeHHbIM npeclynJleHI1S1M B XVIII B., E. B. AHHCI1MOB yneJlHJI HeMMO BHHMaHHH KaK opraHI13aUHH Ii KOMneTeHL\HH npeo6pIDKeHcKo- fO npHKa3a 11 TaiiHoi1 KaHueJ1S1pI1H neT))OBcKoro BpeMeHH. TaK 11 npoueccyanbHoii cTopoHe I1X neSlTeJ1bHOcn1 1 . CymeCTBeHHO npo.nBHHYJ10Cb H3 npoTIl)((eHi'II1 1 990-x rr. J..I3y-Jem1e J..I paHHeii J..ICTOpJ..lJ..l IOcTJ..Iu-KoJ1JlemJ..l. B paMKax. $YH- naMeHTaJlbHoro Tpyna 0 pe$opMJ..IpoBaHHJ..I B nepBoH 'leTBepTH XVIII B. BblClllJ..lX 11 ueHTpaJIbHblX opraHoB BJIaCTH OCHOBaHI1JO 3TOH KOJlJTerHJ..I y.ae.nWl BHJ..IMaHJ..Ie E. B. AHJ..ICHMOB. A Ha ca- MOM J..ICXOlle XX B., B .aeKa6pe 1999 r. B HHCTIrryre POCCHHCKOI1 HCTOpJ..II.1 PAH COCTQHJlaCb JalUl1Ta }')Ke BCeueJTO nOCB.IIlUeHHOI1 naHHOH TeMe KaHlll1ll.aTCKOI1 nJ..lCCepTaw'IJ..I 11. M. DaJlaKl1peBOI1 «4IopMJ..IpoBaHJ..Ie IOcl11u-KOJ1JIen1J..l. '-lTO >Ke KacaeTCfI pa3BI1TJ..I5I npoueccyanbHo ro npaBa B neTpOBCKYJO 3noxy, TO 3lleCb CJTelLYeT [EIjiu,W06 C. B. Tai1HasI K,lHUeJI.IIpl1.11 B C.-neTepOypre npH nerpe I (Pa3MerneHl1e, BHyrpeHH.II.II OpraHI13aUI1.11, cl>HHaHCl1pOBaHllle) II neTep- 6yprcl<He 'JTeHI1H-95: M:rrepl1aJlb[ HaY'lH. KOH4I. cn6.. 1995. c. 55-58; AKUUiUH M. 0. no.lII1ueHCKoe rocynapcToo 11 CI1611jJCKoe o6weCTBO: 3noxa neT)Ja BeJlI1Koro. HOBOCI1611PCK, 1996. C. 98-102; Ea6u'I M B. focynap- CTBeHHble Y'lpe)l(,OeHI1.11 POCCHI1: CnpaBo4Hoe noco6l1e. M. 1999 Bbln. I C. 61-62; DHa JICe. EbllllH}Ji:j cy.a KaK Bb]Clllee }"!)Jejf(j}eHl1e neT)JOBCKoi1 3nOXI1 II nerp BeJ1I1KI1H 11 era BpeMH: MaTepHaJlb[ BCepocC HB}"!H. KOHtfJ Cn6., 1999. C. 18-11; I1epewnoo K r. Peq:,opMa opraHOB nOJ1I1TI1'JeCKoro CblCKa 1714 r. II TaM >Ke. C. 101-108. 2 AHucll.M06 E. B. lI.b]6a 11 KHyT' nOJlI1D1'JeCKI1H CblCK 11 pyCCKoe 06rne- CTBO B XVIII BeKe. M.. 1999. C. 9g-112. 147-167, 175-178. 180-185 "np. 3 AHucll.M06 E. B. focynapcmeHHbJe npeoGpaJoBaHI151 11 CaMQDep>KaBl1e nerpa BeJlI1KOro... C. 116-119: btuaKupeea Jl M. cDopMl1poBaHl1e IOcTl1u- KO.'lJlenUJ (l718-1719 n.). ABTopcQJ. DHC. on KaHll. I1CT. llliYK. M.. 1999. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 35 YKa3aTb Ha YBl1lleBU1I1e CBeT B 1997 r. H B 1999 r. npoC1paHHh]e 04epKM 0. 11. 1..{HCT}[KOBa H D.. A. POMaHOBa l . B nepooe CeMHJ1eTHe XXI B. cy.ne6HM p$pMiI neTpa I TaIOKe He OCTaJl8Ch BHe nOJl51 3peHH5I yYCHblX, 6YDY'IH 3aTpOHyra B <Jepe.L1e HCCJ1e.LlOBaHHH (B TOM <JHCJ1e .nHcCepTaUHOHHhIX). 06- 30PHb]X pa60T H cneUH<LTJbHbIX y-Je6Hblx noco6HH B HaH60Jlee oGoGlUeHHoM Bl1lle onHCblBaeMble npe06pa30BaH(1SJ nOJly-JHJ]H ocselUeHHe B p3J.neJlax «CYlle6Hble pe$)pMh] neTpa I» H «Pe- $)pMb] CYlle6Horo npouecca» BblllleynOM}[Hyroro llleCTI1TOMHIII- Ka 2003 r. ..Cy.ne6HaH M8CTb B POCCHH», 8 Tal0Ke B naparpaq,e ..Pe<PoPMbl neTpa I B 06J18Cn1 yroJ10BHOro cy.nonpOH3Bo.ncTBa» MOHorpa<]:JHH A. 11. ArieKCaHllPOBa l . nO'lTH CTOJIb >Ke oGoGlUeHHo pe$)pMY OXapaKTepH30Ba- }la B Bb]llleOTMe4eHHOM y-Je6HOM noco6H(1 C. B. J1oHcKaSJ. He- 06XOllHMO OTMeTl1Tb, Bnpo4eM, 'ITO maBa «CYlle6Ha.ll peopMa neTpa I» B 3TOM noco6HH OCTaBJ1SJeT Bne'I8TJIeHHe nOllroToB- JIeHHOH H811MeHee yn.a'IHO H3 Bcex rJIaB J . KpoMe TOro, cyn.e6- Hhle npeo6pa30BaHH5I nepBoii <JeTBepm XVIII B. 6hJJ1H elUe pa3 CneUl1aJJbHO OC BelUeHbl H. H. EcppeMoBoH B CTaTbe 2005 r. H B IYuCI11J/K06 O. 11. npolleccyaJIbHoe 3aKOHOJJ.aTe%CTIJO II 3al\OHoll<l- Te.!lbCTBO nerp<l I I nOll pell. A. A. npeo6pdAo.eHcKoro 11 T. E HOBI1UKOM. M.. 1997. C. 794-821, ltJ'If{lH0811. A Peqx:.pMI1pOIIDHl1e CYllonpoI.J.JBQ1I- crBa B POCCI1I1 B Ha'JaJle XVIII BeKa. M., 1999 (Den. B MHMOH PAH. 15.07.1999.  548581. 1 K'IIIfK/Mi O. E., Jle6eiJefl B. M.. CeIfUdlli I: 10. YKa3. C01.J. T. 2. C. 12G- 150; AWKCOIlt.1poe A. 11. YrorIOBHa.II nOJ1I11THKa 11 YfOIIOBHb[H npouecc B poc- C(1HCKOM rocynapCTBeHHocTH: I1CTOplffi. cOBpeMeHHoCTb, nepcneKTHEbI, npo6neMb]. Cn6., 2003. c. 153-172. KaK HI1 y.nI1BHTeJlbHO. 0 cy.ne6HoH pe<PoPMe nepBoH 'JeTBePTH XVIII B. HI1 CJJOBOM He ynoM.IIHyn B. H Bna- COB, aBTop I1JnaHHOi1 B 1003 r. OfuopHOH MOHOJT';lI))I111 «HCTopH.II cyne6Hoii R!1acm B POCCI1W> (eM.: &OC06 B. 11. HCTOPI1H cyne6HoH BJIaCTI'J B POCC(1I1. Ivmra I (1019-1917) M..2(03). J .IloticMlH C. B. YKa3. C04. C. 6-35. nOMI1MO 3Ha'JItTelbHbIX np06e- nOR B 113J10)l(eHI111 06cr0mer:IbCTB pe<PoPMb] 11 KpaitHe CTpaHHoro B CRoeH HenOJ1HOTe Cnl1CKa JII1Teparypbl K rnaRe, HeE03MO)l(HO He 06paTI1Tb BHI1- MaHl1e Ha HeT04Hocm B nOMeweHHOH B npl1.l10)l(eHI111 1 )"1e6Hot1 cxeMe «Cy.ne6HilH CI1CTeMa Pocc(1i1ckOii IIIMneplll11 K 1725 r.j) (TaM >Ke. C. 174). B 'JaCTHOCTH. He BHeC.II B cxeMY )"1pe>K1ICHHb]i1 S 1723 r. 11 I1MeBWI1i1 (jJopMaJlbHO-l1epapXIII'JecKoe paBeHCTBO c npaBlfTeJlbcrsytOlllHM CcHaTOM EblllJHI1i1 cyn. C. B. JIoHcKaH n04eMY-T0)'KcUal1a Ha OllHOM ypoBHe C Ce- HaTOM HIIJIHSWHi1CH no CTal)'cy UeHlJ'WlbHb]M opraHoM MacTH fJWBHb]i1 MarnCTpaT. 
36 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I MOHorpaqJl1I-1 2007 L. a TalOKe B. H. 6a6eHKo - B pa60Tax 2005 H 2007 rr. 1 Hap5lD.Y C BblllleH83BaHHblMH pa60raMH, Heo6xo.1UIMO yno- MSlHyrb. 'iTO B Ha'laJTe XXI B. OCHOBHble C06blTHSI CY.lle6HOH pe$opMbl neTpa I 6b1JU:I KpaTKo 1-:!3J10:>KeHbI B craTb5lX elalTe- pHH6yprcKoro npanoBelIl8 A. C. CMblKaJTHHa «$opMHpoBaHHe CY.lle6HOH C(1CTeMb] B nepHOD. a6CQJUOTIHMa» Ii «CY.lle6Ha.ll CH- CTeMa POCcHHcKoro rOCYDapCTBa OT I1B8Ha rp03Horo DO EKaTe- pHHbl II», B  I «I1ronoJ ncrpOBcKHX npeo5prooBaHHH B c<1Jepe MMHHHcrpamul Ii cyna» JJmBbl I MOHOrp<l<]:JHH T. 11 Ml-1ryHO- 130" 2002 L, B f}lane 8 BTopom TOMa <]:JyHD.aMeHTaJIbHoi1 MO- Horpm]:Jl1I1 6. H. MHpoHOsa «C0l1l1aJIbHa.ll HCTOplU1 Pacc""», a r810Ke B naparpa4>e «HOBbie cynhl H HX eOCTaB» MOHorpa- <]:Iii" 11 <b. nl-1CapbKOBoH 2007 f. 1 113 J<Pyra Gonee 'JaCTHbIX BO- npoeGB, CB5I3aHHbIX C npoBe.neHt1eM nerpOBCKHX cyn.e6HblX npe- 06pa30BaHMii, B HblHelliHeM BeKe npOllOJDKHJ10Cb M3y-JeHMe KaK MCTOPM" OT.neJlbHbIX pe$:lpMHpoBaHHblX cyne6HbIX opraHOB, TaK " HCTOpHH pa3BHTHJI BoeHHo-npoueCCYaJIbHOro 3aKOHo.IJ,a- TeJlbCTBa. 1113 'mCJla cy.ne6HblX opraHOB oco6oe BHHMaHHe HC- CJlellOBaTeJleii npOl101DKJV1 npMBJleKaTb BbllllHMii cy.n, KOTOpoMY OKaJaJlaCb nOCB.IIweHa ony6JlMKOBaHHaSJ B 2000 r. CTaTbSJ 8BTopa HaCTOJUuei1 pa60Tb] (nollrOTOBJIeHH<l.5I He3<1.BHCHMO OT pa3b]CKa- I E"4Jx!'H06t1 H. H. feHeJI1C cy.ne6HoH BlJaCTI1 B POCCIIII1 II focyllilpCTBO 11 npaBO. 2005.  II C. 88-94 (onl1CaHl1lO co6b1'fHH cYlle6HoH pe<fJopMbI neTpa I nOClUIllleHa OCHOBHa5I 'J8CTb naHHoH CTaTbl1; TaM >Ke. C. 89-93); DHa JIC(!. CTaHOBlleHllle 11 paJBHTlle cy.ne6Horo npasa B PoccIII1 XVIII -Ha- 'JaJla XX B. (I1CTopHKo-npaBOBOe I1CCJle.noBaHtle): MOHorp. M., 2007; 6a- 6eHlW B. H., CwfitxJJ!HI(JK If. n. HCTOPIUI cylla B POCCI1I1 (IX - Ha'JaJlO XXI B.): MOHarp. M.. 2005. C. 64-67; 6a6eHlwB. H. Cyne6HaH CI1CTeMa POCCI1I1. I1CTOpl1H 11 cOBpeMeHHOCTb. l-e 11111.. M., 2007. C. 89-95. 2 CWbJAWlUH A. C. 4'toPMl1pO!JaHl1e cyne6HoH Clf(.TeMb] B nepl10n a&o- nlOTHJMa II POCCI1HCKaJI IQCTHUHH. 1001  I C. 39-41; OH ."llCI!. Cyne6- HIDI CI1CTeMa POCCHHCKOro rocy.napcrBaOT HB3Ha fP03HOro.n0 EK3Tepl1HbI II (XV-XVIII B8.) II Bonpocb] Hcropnl1. 2U04. N2 8. C. 50-69; Mwp- H06G T. Jl npa80. MMI1HI1C"IpaUI1j.J tI C}'ll B pet]xJpMdX ENlrepl1Hb[ BeJltl- KOH. MOHorp. Cn6.. 2002. C. 11-19; MUjJOH06 E. H. COWlaJlbHIDII1CTOPI1H POCCIIIIII nCptlOlla IIIMnepHI1 (XVIII - H3'laJlO XX 8.). 3-e 111M. Cn6.. 2003. T. 1. C. 49-50. nUC0fJbK060 JI. fJJ. fOCy.napcrBeHHoe ynpaBJ1eHl1e POCCHI1 C KOHlliI XVllllO KOHlliI XVIII Bel(!]: :JOOJItOuWl 61OpoKpaTH4eCKOH CI1CTeMb]. M., 2007. C. 161-166. 
fIlaBa 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 37 HI1H M. B. Ea6111'-1)], a TalOKe npe06pIDKeHCKIIIH npl1Ka3 11 T8H- Hml KaHUeJlflpl151, H8 OClleWeHl11-J n.e5lTeJlbHOCTI1 KOTOpblX IIHOllb OCT8HOlll1JlCSI E. B. AHI1CI1MOlI l . OCHOllaTeJ1bHO npollBHHYJ1HCb II 2000-e rr. H pa3pa60T- KI1 no HCTOpHI1 IOcrnu-KOJIJ1enm II nepBOH <,eTBepTl1 XVII I B. 3.ueCb IIIMeeT CMbICJ1 OTMeTIHb. npe}l(lle Bcero. ny6JulKawHo B 2003 L - B mille y-Je6Horo noc061m - I1TorOI! Bb]WeOTMe<J:eH- HblX D.IIICcepTaUl10HHbIX 113b]CKaHI1H 11 M. EaJl8Kl1peBoH. B TOM .>Ke rD.ay }'BI1l\fJl8 CBeT KOJiJleKTI1BHml MOHorpa$1U1 «POCCI1HCIQU\ IOcnm-KOJiJlerI1H», OCHOBHYIO <J:aCTb KOropoH 8HTOpbl nOCBflH1- JlI1 oCBerueHHIO neSlTeJ1bHOCTI1 KOJUIerHl1 OnSlTb-TaKH B neTpoo- CKoe BpeMSl J . KpoMe TOro, I! l13.1laHHOii B 2002 r. MOHorpa<]mH «npoK)'lJaTYpa neTpa I» OKa3aJICfl CI1CTeMaTl1<J:eCKI1 OCl!eweH CIO.JKeT 0 <MtHKUHOHI1POBaHI1I1 B nepBoH n0J10BHHe 1720-x rr. npOl<yparypbl IOcTl1u-KoJ1J1erHI1, a B craTbe 2005 L 6blJla BHe- ceH8 flCHOCTb I! lIonpocbl 0 I!peMeHH y-Jpe)f(J]eHI151 KOJ]J]erl1l1 11 0 MeCTe ee nepBOHa<J:aJ\bHoro pa3MerueHI1}!4. B HTore 11 BHyrpeH- Wl5I OpraHH3aUH5I. H CT3TVC, 11 n0J1HOMOl(I151 IOcTI1U-KOJiJlerHl1 B nepBoM <J:eTBepTl1 XVIII II. OKaJarJl1Cb HCCJ1enOl!aHbl K H8CT05lrue- MY lIpeMeHI1 ellBa JlI1 He ocecropoHHe. nOM(1MO IOcrnU-KOJllIenlH (1 BbiwHero cyna, II nOCJlellHHe ro.nb] ltaJIbHei'iweM)' I1Jy'-1eHl11O - BnepBble nOCJle M. M. EOrocJ10B- CKom - nOllBepm(1Cb C01llliHHb]e II XOlle CYJle6HOH pe<t>oPMb] ne- I CejXJ6II. 0. 3a6b1TOe Y'lpejf(j}eHllle ne-rpa I Bb]lllHI1I1 CYll (1723- 1726 rr.) II POCCI1HCKoe CaMQilepJKaBHe 11 6tOpOlq:ml1.11' C6. craTeH. M.. 2000. C. 119-237. YMeCTHO no6aBI1Tb, 'JTO M. B. 6a6H'J nOlITopHO 113J10- )l(HJla pe3YJlbTaTb[ CBOHX pa3h]CKaHIIIH 0 BhIWHeM cy.ne B cnpaBO'IHoM cran.e 20(}) r. (Eafiu'I M B. Cy.n Ha feHepaJIbHOM 1lOOpe II focynapCTBeHHOCTb POCCHI1 (KOHeu XV B. - I)JeBPaJIb 1917 r): CnOBa)Jb-CnpaB04HI1K M. 2001. KH. 4. C. 187-190). 2 AHut:uMoe E. B. nOJ1HJ1f'1ecKHi1 jJOJbICK 11 T'aMHa5I nOJlIIIUI151 B XVIII BeKe II A\.u-w.aPMb] POCQ.JI1: nOJll1ll'1'JecKHi1 jJ03bICK B PacCHI1. XV- xx BeKa cn6.-M. 1001 c. 98-111 3 upe8a JI. M. CYlle6Ha pe4x:!Pia ne-rpa I: IOcTHU-KOJlllerH.II: Y4e6. nocool1e HOBOCIll6I1PCK. MI3; POCCI1MCKaH IOcrI1U-KOJUIerl1.11 (1718- 1786)' tlCTopI1KO-n)XIIIOlJb]e O'lepKH I nOil pe.n. B..ll Cb[Coesa. M.. 2003. C. 12-34.39-115. 117-116. 4 CejXJ6 II.0. npoKYParypa neTpa I (1722-1725 IT.): l1C1UpI-tKo-npaoo- BOM 04epl< HOBCX:116HPCK. 2002. C. 116-131. 155-159, 305-307; Ce- P08II.0., CblCoe8 B.R IOcTHU-KOJlllerml: BpeW! III MeCTO OCHOB3HWI II 3aKoH tI npaBO. 2005.  5. C. 78-79. 
38 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I -.pa I cyne6Hbie OprdHbl o6wei1 IOpI-1C1U'IKUl1ti: rojXJ.nDBble, IlpOBI1H- Ul1aJlbHble J..I HallOOpHble Cy.nbl. I1HTepecHeHllu1e .QaHHb]e 0 TeK)'wei1 nelTeJlhHOCTIi B nepBoH 'leTBepTH XVIII It CaHKT -nerep6yprcKHX HanoopHOro 11 npOBHHUHaJlhHoro cynOB npt.JBeJla B IlHccepTalliloH- HOH MOHorpa<):J1111 2004 r. O. E. KoweJleBa. B TOM >Ke 2004 r. YBI1- neJla CBeT 51 CTaTb.ll aBTopa HaCTOHwei1 pa60TbI -«+-lan.oopHble CYLlbl B cy.neGHoH CHCTeMe POCCI1I-1»I. I1cropmo COEaHHJI H HeKOTOpb]e BOnpOCb] clJYHKUHOHI1pOBaHIm pe$:>PMHP0BaHHb]X cy.neooblx opra- HOB B CI1611pH HeCKOJIbKO pa3 SHDSh OCBeTI1JI M.o. AKIHlIHH 1 . UeHHbie nOll.po6HOCTH 0 pa60Te B nepBOM n0J10BI1He 1720-x fr. T060J1bCKOrO HaIlBOpHOrO cy.na BblSlBI1JI8 eKaTepHH- 6yprcKa5ll1CCJlellOBaTeJlbHHUa E. B. l3opOD.HHa. H3JlO)({J1BWa.H pe- 3YJTbTaTbl113blCKaHHH B CTaTbJlX 2004 11 2005 rr. Hapmry C 3Ti1M, B CTaTbe 2007 L E. B. EopOD.l..fHa lillepBble OCBeTltn8 BOnpOC 0 HOpMaTHBHOM peryluipoBamU1 ne5lTeJlbHOCTH Y"Ipe>K.QeHHb]X B 1722 L cyne6Hbix KOMI1CCapOB J . BOnpOCb] 06 opmHH3amm 11 KOMJ1JIeKTOBaHHI1 Cyn.OB 06weti IOpl1C.1lHKUl111 KOHua I7IO-x- nepBoii nOJlOBHHbl 1720-x rr. H8 lOre Poccm.J OTHOCHTeJlbHO no.ap06HO 3aT poHYJl BOpOHelKCKI1ii I.JCTOpl.JK H. A. KOMOJIOB B ] KaucIe60 D. E. J1IOOl1 CaHKT-neTep5yprcKoro OC'TJX!Ba neTpOOCKOro BpeMeHI1. M.. 2004 C 46-52. 305-321; Cepoe.D.. D. HaLIJIOpHble cy.nbl B ce6HOi1 CI1CTeMe POCCIIII1 (1719-1727 rr.) II )l(yptiaJl poccHiicKOro npasa. 1004  11.CI31-138. 2,4laauUII MD., PeWJlf'l1 A. B. YnpaBJIeHl.fe CH6HpIt XVI - Ha4a- Jla XX HeKa: llilMI1HI1C1paTHBHa5I nOJlI1THKa, CT]J\'Kn1Ja III nlQD.l1 II BnaCTb B C11611pl1. XVI - H3'1aIlO XX Helm. MeJKaPXI1BHb]H cnpaBO'IHI1K. HOBOCI1- 611pcK, 2002. C 24-26; kulUUII M. D. Po...'CInicKI1H aOCOJllOTI13M 11 ynpaB- neHl1e CIl6lflJlt XVIII HeKa: OpraHI1JaUH.II 11 COCTaB rocyn.apcweHHoro anna- pa1'3. M.-HoBOCH6wpcK, 2003. C. 61-65; DH.JIC(!. 0 npoBe.neHI1I1 Cy.ne6HOH pe4x:!PMb] ne1pH BeJlI1KOfO B CH611Pl1 II fJpo6neMb[ IIC1qJHH rocynapcrIJeH- HOro ynpaBJIeli1Ul 11 MeCTHOro ynpaBJIeHI1H o..&lPI1 XVI-XXI BB.: MaTepl18- nbI WeCToH ocelX"Cc. Ha)"-lH. KOH4J. HOF!ocI16I1pCK,l006. C 116-139. J EopoouHa E. B. To6oJ1bCKHH HaJIBOpl1bIH cy.n B 20-e ro.nb] XVIII B. II AJayaJIbHble npo6neMb] OTe'leCTBeHHOH 11 3apv6eJKHoii I1CTOpHI1: C6. Ha- }"-IH. TPYIIOIJ CTylleHTOlJ, aCnl1paHTOB III MOJI01lblX }"-IeHb]X. E/QITCpl1H6ypr. 1004 C. 59-68. DHa JICe H3MeHeHI1e OCHOB cyne6Horo njJOl.I.tt\:d B nepl10n BTOpOH 06:1acTH0i1 pe4x:!PMbl neTpa BeJ1I1KOro II npo6neMbl I1CTOpHl1 Poc- CI1I1. C6. H I}>'JH. TpynOB. EKaTepl1H6ypr, 2005. BbIn. 6. C. 153-16S, DHa JICe. K Bonpocy 0 HOpMaJ1IBHOi1 pernal'>!eH1'3UI1I1 .neHTCJIbHOCTi1 cyne6HbIX KOMI1CcapoB Ha YpaJIe 11 B 3analIHoi1 CI1611Pl1 B 1721-1716 ronax II HCTO- pl1'.JeCKl1e ItcenenosaHH.II B CH6I1P!1" np06J1eMb] 11 nepcneKTHBb]: C6. MaTep. perl10HaJIbHOH Mo.One>KHOH H1'I)"[HOi1 KOH(jJepeHUHI1. HOBOCH6I1pcK, 1007. C. 44-50. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 39 MOHorp<$11111 2007 r. 1 Bonpoc 0 TOM, KaK B 1717-1718 rr. Bb]pa- 6aTbIBaJl8Cb HOBafi MOLleJlb CYLle6Horo ycrpoHCTBa Poccm"l, OCBe- TI1.II aBTOp HaCTO.l!weii pa60Tbi B craTb.l!X 2005 11 2007 rr. KpoMe roro. OH .>Ke nOCIDITI1Jl oc06ylO CTaTblO Bonpocy 0 3apO)K.JleHHH B roLlbl cYlle6HoH pe$JpMbl nerpa I cy.aeilcKoro Kopnyca Poc- C11111 2 . BoeHHo-cYLle6Hble opraHbl nepBoH LleTBepn1 XVIII B. .l!BI1lII1Cb npeLlMeTOM paccMoTpeHIIISI B CTaTbe B. C. ABlIOHKHH8 2001 L, a TalOKe B H311aHHoH B 2003 L MOHmpa(l)J11-1 H. A ne- T)'XoBa ....1CTOpHH ooeHHblX CYllOB POCCHH». npon()J])IUfB HCTO- pl1orpa<]:JHLlecKYIO JlHHHIO M. n. P03cHreiiMa H n. O. 606poB- CKOro. H. A nel)'XOB npOaHarIH311pOBaJI KaK CJlO)tG1BWYIO- CH D nerpOBCKoe BpeM.I! opraHH3aw.f1O BoeHHblX CYOOB. TaK H HopMaTIIIBHYIO OCHOsy I1X .aeJmJlbHOCTI1J. I1HTepecHYIO .aeTarIb nOJlI1H1KO-npaooBOH CTOPOHb] Tor.aaWHero pe<lx:tPMl-1pOBaHlIJI BOeHHOH IOCTI1UI-1I1 Bb]CBeTI1Jl B CTaTbe 2005 r. M. 0. AKH:WI1H, 8 npl1MeLlaTeJIbHb]H 3nl130Ll npaBOnpl-1MeHI1TeJIbHOH npaKTI1KI1 BO- eHHorocyna B I710-e n. - BCTaTbe 2002 r. - aBTop H3cTOHmeii pa60Tb1 4 . I KnOOKJ8 H.A. OpraHbl cne.LlCTJlll.II, cy.ua 11 Hwuopa II pocCI1I1cJ.JJlt npo1l11HU11111 XVIII OCKa: Ha MaTCpH:l.fllX ECJlropo.nCKOii 11 BopoHC)I(CKOi1 [}f>ep: : cD; 3:;, i;;e peopraHH3aUHH CYlroyc:rpoH- CTsa POCCI1I1 (113 HCTOplll1 cyDe6Hoti pe4x:!PMbl neTpa I) II AKl)'aJlbHble npo6J\eMbl lOpl1D.l1'JeCt-::Oli HaYKI1: Te311Cbl nOKJI. IICepocC. Ha)"lH. KOH<P. KpacHoHpcK, 2005. C. 28-34, OH JICe. nQllJUl{)llKd cy.ne6HoH PCMb] neTpa I: KOHuenUHH. 3apy6e)l(Hble 06paJub[. 3:JKOHOTBOpljeCKHH npouecc II Lex Russica. 2oo7. NQ 5. C 813-828; OH ;!lce. 3apojf(j}eHl1e cyneHcKoro Kopnyca POCCI1I1 (113 I1CTOpHl1 cy.ne6HOi1 pe4)opMbl nerpa I) II POCCI1.11 11 Ml1p. naHO))<]Ma IICmpl1'lCCKOro pa3IJHTH.II. C6. HaY-IH. CTaTi1. EK.JfCpIIIH- 6yPIj K; 2COHOllaTeJ1bHb[e aKTb] nelpa I 0 BOeHHblX cy.nax POCCI1I1: xapaKrepltcTIlKa nODcynHoCTH DeJ1 II PocQom II HOBOe Bpefl.1.II: no- 1tcJ.:: $:JPMyJlbl HaUitoHalIbHoi1 Itempl1l1: MaTep pocc. Me)l(BY3. KOH<P. M.. 2ool. C. 25-19; flem.J"XLJ8 H. A. J..1cropl1.11 BoeHHblX CYIIOB POCCI1H. M.. 2oo3. C. 49-50, 725. 4 AxllWUH M. 0. 0 Mejf(j}.YH3poilHo-npaBOBbIX acneKTax BoeHHo-cyne6- HOH pe4x:!PMbl nelpa I II 06weCTBO. rocynapcTBO, BepXOBHaH B1Ial.'Th B POCCHI1 II CPCIIHI1C BCKa 11 paHHCC HOBOC BpcMH B KOHTCKCT I1CTopHIil EBponbl 11 Amlll (X-XVIII CT.): MCjf(j})'Hap. KOHI]J.: Te3HCbl noK./l. III CO- 06lll. M.. 2005 C. 245-246; CeJX16 n. 0. J.13 HCTOpl111 BOeHHOi1IOCTHUHH ne1]JOBCKoro BpeMeHI1 npouecc H. T. p)l(eBCKOrO (1710-1714) II KpoBb. nopox. .naBpbl. EOi1Hbl POCa111 B :omoxy 6apoKI<O (1700-1761); C6. MaTep. BCCpocC. Ha)"lH. KOH<P. Cn6.. 2oo2. Bbln. 2. C. 41-43. 
40 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I B pycJle 113Y4eHIUI pe$JpMI1IXm3HHbIX CneWlliJIl13l-1pa- BaHHblX cynOB HeJ]b3Sl He ynoM5IHyrh 0 HOBeHU1I1X pa3bICK3HH- SIX D. A PellHH8 no ycraHOBJ1eHHIO rpamlU cYlle6Hoii KOMneTeH- UI1M ropH03aBoncKHx opraHoB MacTH Ypana nepBoo nOJlOBHHbI 1720-x fr. B <JacTHOCTH. n. A PellHHY YD.aJTOCh BbIflBHTb HHTe- pecHe(:1W(1e CBen:eHIUI 0 paJp<UHRweMC5I B 1723-1724 fr. I(OH- 4IJUIKTe ropH03aBonCKHX RlJacTei1 c T o60JlbCKI-1M HMBOpHblM CYAOM I . Pa3JIH4Hb]e CropOHb] npe06pa30BaHI1H B OTeLleCTBeHHOM cynonpOH3BollcTBe KOHua XVII - nepBoM 'I.eTBepn1 XVIII B. GhUUI B 2000-e rr. JaTpoHyrbl B CTaTbSlX 11 A XPYCTaJleBa Ii aB- Topa HaCTOJUueii pa60Tbl l . KpoMe TOro, }0Ke B 2008 r. BbllllJIa 113 fie'IaTH CTaTbfl aBTopa HacTmlUleH paGOTbl, nocmllueHHaH npa- 6JJeMe CIiCTeMaTH3aUHH npoueCCYaJlbHOro 3aKOHOllaTeJ1bCTBa B nepHOli npOBeD: eHI1SI cyne6Hoi1 pe()xJpMbl nerpa P. lPeJuHJ1..A.J1W'lHaH KaHUeJIHpl1j.J f'eHepaJIa ne feliHllltta: xapaKTep }f4pejf(j}eHWI. WTaT. ci}>epa KOMneTeHUl111 tI OpraHIII3l1UHH .nenonjXJH3BOll- cma II YpaJIbCKHM C60PHIIIK: I1croPllil. KynbT)'pa. PenlllrnH. EK.JICpl1lrnypr. zoo3. BbIn. 5. C. 36-63; 011 .»ce. 0 p:mJ13HtI'IeHIIIIII tOpHClltlKUI1M I]JIDK1l3H- CKHX 11 roPl1b]X BlJaCTeH B 3amlJIHblX njXJBHHUI1HX CIt6llpCKOM ry6epl1l1l.J (Ha npHMepe yronOBHb[X lIeJI 1723-1714 rr) 113ana.rrHIDI Ot6I1Pb: npo- lliJ1oe, HacTOHwee. 6ynyruee. Cypryr, 2004. C. 105-122. OIl.JlC(!. AaMI1HtI- C1paTl1BHble CIJJYt-.TVPbI 11 61OpOKJXIIWI YpaJIa B 3noxy ne1pOBCKlllx pe4x:!PM (3ana.rrHb[e ye31lbl CI1611PCKOIi ry6epl1l.Jl1 B 1711-1717 rr.). EK£lTepHH6ypr. 2007. C. 255-161. 269-170. 288-307 2Xpyc.ma.leflJI.A. TaK 6b1J1aJll1 npoueccY<L%HIDI pe<t>oPMa neTpa I? II AKl)'aJlbHble np06neMb[ cOBjJOJeHHo..JlI mala\ll1 M0J1011eIKI1 C6. CTaTeH M., 2003. BbIn. 4. C. 79-85; 011 .)Iff'. npoueCcy<LbHoe npllBO POCCI1I1 KOHua XVII - Ha'JaJla XVIII BeKOB. TYJla. 2003; OIl.)Iff' «Pocnpoc C npl1CTJJacTH- eM" KaK I1HCTH1)'T pOCCHHCKOro npouecqaJIbHoro npaBa no «1<parKoMy 11306pIDKeHI1IO npouecCUB '" cy.ne6HblX TH>Ke6» 30 MapTa 1716 r. II focynap- CTBO 11 nplllJO Ka1t1HI1IiI]Jilll, 2004. Bblfi. 3. C. 91-99; CefJOIJ n. 0. 3apo)((- neHl1e 0J"e4eCTBeHHb[X opraHOB npe.nsaptlTenbHoro CJJel\CTIIIIH tI WBe.nCKHe 06pa3Ubl (113 HcropHI1 cylIe6HOH pe4x:!PMbI neTpa I) II CpaBHI1TeJ1bHoe npaBOBelleHl1e 11 npo6JJ.eMbI COBpeMeHHOH IOj)I1CnpY.ll.eHUI1I1: MaTep Me)l(- nyHap. Ha)"J.-npllKT. KOH<P. EKlITepHH6ypr. 2006. \.I. 3. C 49--53. 011 JICe. PeBI13110HHO-pewaK>WHi1 nopmrOK B yronoBHoM npouecce PoocHIl KOHua XV - nepBOH <teI1JePTI1 XVIII B. II )KypHWI pocCI1MCKOro npaBa. 200S. 6.C.101-109 3 CeJXl6.9.. O. CHCTeManoauH.II npol.!CCC}>aJlbHoro 3aKOHOnaTeJlbCTBa B nepl1o.1l npoBe1l.eH}!}I cy.ne6HoH pet1>opMbl nelpa I II AKl)'aJlbHble npo6JJ.e- MbI pd3lJHnm n(MlJOBOH CI1CTeMb] nXYllapcma: POCCHi1CKHi1 11 Me>KllYHa- POlIHbIi1 OnblT. C6. Ha)"JH.1])Y.nOB. HOBOCIll6HPCK.l008. C. 77-91. 
fIlaBa 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 41 HaKOHeu, B H!I'Jane XXI B. nOHBI1lICH pM 11I1CCepmUJ.1OH- HblX t.JCCJlellOBaHI1t1, npel1MywecTBeHHO 111111 }f(e BCeueJlO no- CBHllleHHblX paCCMOT]JeHt.J1O o6croHTeJlbCTB CYIle6HOH pe$OpMbI OCTpa I. OcywecTMeHHbIe B KOHue XVI I - nepBoH 'leTBepTJ.I XVIII B. npeo6pa30BaHt.JJI B 06JI8CTJ.I C)'llonpot.J3BOllCTBa OKaJa- JUICb cpaBHt.JTeJlbHO nOIlP06HO OCBellleHbl B KaJ-LD;l-lllaTCKOi1 IlI1C- CepTaUJ1l.111,. A POM8HOBa «Pe$opMa rocyIlapcmeHHoro annapa- Ta POCC1I1 neTpoBcKOH 3nOXH: aHaJlI13 HOpM8Tt.JBHo-npaBoBoro o6eCne'ieHHH», 3aWHllleHHoH B Mae 2001 r. B POCCHi1CKOH aKa- lleMl111 rocynapcTBeHHoi1 CJly)((6b] npH npe3l1lleHTe POCCI1H- CKOH 4'eliepaUHI1 I . Bo BTopoi1 rnaBe Ha3BaHHOH IlI1CCepraUHI1 aBTOp paCCMOTpeJi OCHOBHble HanpaBJIeHi-rn pe$opMt.JpOnaHi-rn neTpoM I npoueCCYaJIbHOro 3aKOHOllaTeJIbCTBa. YIlenHB oco6oe BHI1MaHl1e aHaJIH3Y 3aKOH8 «0 $opMe cyna» OT 5 HO.ll6pJl 1723 L, a TalOKe I1CTOpl111 ero C01ll3HI1J1 1 . HecoMHeHHb]MI1 llOCTOHHCTB!lMH nl-1CCepTaUI-1H CJ1ellyeT npt.J3HaTb, Bo-nepBbIX, npennpl1HJlTYIO D. A POM8HOBbIM. no- nblTJ<y oxapaJCTepl130BaTb npouecCYaJIbHbl}i pa3lIeJl npoeKTa YJlO>KeHI1.11 PocmikKOro rocyn;apCTlla 1723-1726 rr.. 8 BO- BTOPb]X, lleTlUlbHoe OCBeweHHe Bonpoca 0 WBenCKOM BJlI1.11HI1I1 H8 aLlMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHYIO pe()xJpMY neTpa I. O'-leBHlIHbIM}f(e He- llO'IeTOM pa60TbI BI1l1I1TC.II HBCTBeHHO 1136b1TO'IHoe BHI1M8Hl1e. KOTopoe llHccepraHT YlleJ1HJI paccMorpeHHIO TaKI-1X npHMO He OTHOC}!IllI1XCSI. K ero TeMe BonpOCOB, KaK nOCTpOeHl1e npl1K.a3- HOM CI1CTeMbl XVI I B., reonOJlt.JTI1'ieCKOe nOJIO>KeHl1e POCCI1I1 B KOHUe XVII - H8<JarJe XVIII B. 11 nepeMeHbI, np0I130111elI- 111l-1e B JlOJ!mKeHl111 OTe'JeCTBeHHOH npam1llleH 3JII1Tbi B 1700- 171O-e rr. J B H8'HlJle XXI B. nO.llBI1JIOCb 11 nepBoe nl1ccepTaUI10HHOe I1CCJle.D,OBaHl1e, CneUlffiJlbHO nOCB}lweHHOe cyne6HblM npeo6pa- I Po.MaH06.9.. A. f'e4>opMa rOCYill!pcTIJHHOro annapdTd POCCI1I11 ne- 1])OBCKOi1 .)noxl.J: !IH<UlI11J HOpM.JfIUIHO-n(XIooBOrU 06ccnc'JeHI1H: AIrrope. 11HC. no Kal-t!!. IOPHD.. HayK. M , 20(}!; 011 .we. Peqx,pMa rocYnapcTBeHHoro !Inn!lpaTI! POCCHI1 neTpoBCKoH 3nOXI1: !IHaJlI13 HOpWITlIBHo-npaBoBoro 06e- cne'leHI1H: ,lJl1c. no KaH1L tOPHD. HayK. M., 2001 1M.: Pffi, 2oo3 3J1eKTpoH- HbIii pecypc 113 4>oHnOB POCCI1I1CKOi1 rocy.napcrBeHHOO 6H6JI110TeKH!. lCM: PtJItllHOO p. A. Peq:.opMa rocynapCTBeHHOro annapara... ,lJMC. . C. 70-111. JT!lM )((e. C. 16-38. 112-121. 
42 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I 30BaHI-1S1M nerpa I. B anpeJle 2004 L B MOCKOBCKOi1 rocYllap- CTBeHHOH IOpI11lI-1LjeCKoi1 8KalleMI11-1 COCTOSlJIaCb 38uuna KaHB.l1- D.8TCKOt1 llJ1CCepTaUJ.ul 11 A XpYCTaJ1eBa «Cyne6Ho-npaBoBble pe<tJoPMbl neTpa I (KoHeu XVII - nepBa51 '1eTBepTb XVIII B.)&]. Bee BHHMaHHe aBTOp cocpellOTO'IHJI H8 paccMoTpemU1 Bonpo- ca 0 pe<tJopM(1pOSaHHI1 B OTMe'1eHHbli1 nep(1o.Ll OTe4ecrneHHoro cynonp0I13BOJJ;CTB<L Tp" fJ]aBbl JI.I1CcepT3ll11H nOCB.IIUleHbl COOT- BeTCTBeHHO 8HaJll13)' Tpex J8KOHOllaTeJ1bHbIX 8KTOB: JaKOH8 OT 21 4JeBpaJUI 1697 L 06 OTMeHe B cYllax DLlHblX CT8BOK, «KpaT- KOro 11306pa>KeHI1S1. npouecoB I1JUI cyne6HbLX TIDKe6" 11 3aKOHa «0 ()xJpMe cyn.a» OT 5 H05l6p51 1723 r. OnHaKo "Pli BCei-i neTaJlbHOCTl1 npennpHHSlToro 11. A Xpy- CTaJleBl>lM npaBoBoro 8HaJlH3a H83BaHHI>IX aKTOB era HCCJ1en.OBa- HHe J]aI1eKO He OXBaTblBaeT 3aJ1IDJeHHOH TeMbl, nOCKOJ1bKY B HeM B npl1HU(1ne OTcyrCTByeT pacCMOTpeJ-IHe n)XJ6neM cyJJ;OYCTpoHCTBa (npl1L1eM CTOJib y3KYJO -.paKTOlJKY nOH5ITI151 «CYlle6Ho-npaBOBOH pe4JOPMb]>) aBTOp Hl-1me B TeKCTe 11I1CCepraUI-1I1 He 060cHoBbIBa- er). Bbl3bIBaer HelloyMeHl1e, Llro BeChMa CJl860, cyry60 I1JUlfO- crpaTI1BHO npl1BJleK 11. A XpycTIU1eB M8Tepl1aJ1bI npaBOnpl-1MeHI1- TeJThHOH np8KH1KI1. B OTlIl1<Jl1e OT n. A POM8Hona. COBeprneHHO He 3arpOHYlI 11. A XpycTaJleB 11 Bonpoc 06 06rnl1pHOM npouec- cyaJIbHOM pa31IeJ1e npoeKTa YJlo>KeHl1Jl POCcHHcKora rOCYJJ;apCTBa 1723-1726 IT. KpoMe roro, BHe nOJiSl. BHI1M8HI151 lUICCepTIlHTa OCTIU1I-1Cb npl1HUl1nl1aJ1hHO BIDKHb]e DJ1SI paCKpbITI151 era reMbI 3aKOHhI or 17 MapTa I1OT8JJ;eKa6p5l1714 r.11 or 19JJ;eKa6p5l1718 r. 06YKpe- WIeHl111 I1HCTaHUl10HHOCTI1 B cYJJ;Onp0I13BOllCTBe, HaKa3 «M8H- 0PCKMM" CJle.1lCrBeHHb]f\.! KaHUeJI5Ipl-1S1.M or 9 .1leKa6p51 1717 r.. a TaJOKe 3aKOH or 3 Mapra 1719 r. 0 nop5l.1lKe YfBep>K1leHI151 npl1ra- BOpOB BoeHHhlX CYJJ;OB. HI1 CJIOBOM He ynoM5IHYlI 11. A XpycTa- lIeB 11 0 DaBHO YCTaHOBJIeHHOM (]>aI<Te npI1R1Te'leHI151 B XOlle Pa3- pa60TKH 3aKOHa «0 $JpMe cYJJ;a» Marepl1aJ10B npoueCCYaJlbHOro 38KOHo.n8reJTbCTBa WBeUl1J.1. HaKoHeu. I13p.ll1I.Hoi1 HenOJTHOToi1 OTJ1I-1L18eTCJI Kpyr I-1CnOJTb30B8HHOH 11. A. XpycTaneBb]M J1I-1Tepa- Typhl. cpeDJ1 KaKoBoM, B 'JacTHOCTI-1, He YKa3aHO HI1 01I.Hora He- I XPJ'tmaJOO Jl A CYlle6HO-npaBOBble pe4x:!PMb[ neTpa I (KoHeu XVII- nepBa 'JeT8ePTb XVII! n.). ABTopecjJ. nHC no Kal{1l. tOPHn. HayK. M . 1004; OH JICe. CYlle6HO-npaBOBb[e pe4x:!PMb[ nCTpa I (KoHeu XVII - neplJIDl 'JeT- 8ejJTb XVII! B.): DI1C. . KaHn. IOP!1JJ. HayK. M. 2tI04IM.: Pfl3, 2005 3neK- "lpOHHb]i1 pccypc 113 cPoHllOB POCCHi1CKOM rocYllapcrBeHHOH 6I16JJI1OTeKHI. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 43 nOCpellCTBeHHO OTHOC5lWerocfI K em TeMe 3apy6e)I(Horo IIICCJie- .nOBaHIHI I . nponUlDKaH 0630p UTeljeCTBeHHblX DJ1CCepTauuHHbIX c- CJ1C.D.OBaHHH, nOCB5IllleHHbIX cyne6HblM npe06pa30BaHHM nep- BOH ljeTBepTl1 XVIII B., HeB03MO)f{HO 060HTI1 ynoMHHaHHeM 3a- 111l1weHHYIO B 4JeBpaJIe 2006 L B CeBepo-3anauHoM aKa.D;eMHIII rocynapcTBeHHoM CJ]}0K6bl KaHJ]J111aTCK}l1O nl1ccepTaLlHIO HOBO- CI16HpCKOro I1CCJlelIosaTeJ1f1 M.D. AK.l1U1HHa «Cyne6Ha5l peifJop- MR nClp8 I». H83eaHHa}! DJ1Ccepr8WUI CTM8 ncpeoM nOnblTKOH KOMfUlCKCHOro 8HaJ1H3a peifJopMbI cynoYCTpOHCTBa  cynonpo- H3BOIICTBa POCCHH B nepBoH '1eTBepTI1 XVIII B. nOnblTK}I 31)', OlIHaKO. BPM JlI1 B03MO)f{HO npH3HaTb ycneWHOH. CocpeDOTO'-Il1B 1136bITO"lHOe BHHM8HHe H8 Bonpoce 0 pe- 4>oPMI1pOsaHHI1 BoeHHoro CYAOYCTpoMCTIa 11 BoeHHoro CYAonpo- H3BOJJ;CTBa. a T8K:)Ke Ha Bonpoce 06 opraml3aLlHH H cneLlH<]mKe AefITeJ1bHOCTI1 npe06pfl)({eHcKoro npl1Ka3a KaK opraH8 npaBo- cyAI1}!, M. O. AKH:rnl1H npOHrHOpl1pOBaJI MHOrl1e cywecTeeHHb]e aCneKTbl cyne6HoH pe<t>oPMbl. nl1Ccep-raHT HHKaK He OCBeTI1JI BOnpOCbl 0 3apmKlleHHH B HarneH CTpaHe B nepBoo. <JCTBepm XVIII B. CJleJICTBeHHoro annapaTa, 0 BOCC03JIaHI1H peBI13110HHO- pernalOlliero nopMKa nepeCMOTpa H yrsep)({JleHHfI cYlle6Hb]X perneHHH. 06 HHOCTpaHHb]X BJlHflHl1f1X H8 (]>opf\.mpOOam1e cy- Ae6HoH CHCTeMbl. 0 B03HHKHOBemm e POCCHH cyneMcKoro KOp- nyca. BHe nOJ1f1 3peHH5I M. 0. AKI1WI-1HU OCTaJII-1Cb 1-1 I-1rp8eWa51 oc06ylO poJIb B peifJopMl1pOeaHHoM cyne6HoM CHCTeMe POCC"H PeKcTMeiicrepcKaH KOHTopa CeHBTa, H npoucccYaJIbHble nOJlHO- MO<.JID! BoeHHblX 11 uepKoBHblX <]:JHCKaJlOB. I Bnpo']CM. DaJlCKO He nOJIHO )"ICJl 11. A CTdJleB nOCll'l>KCHI1H III OTe'teCTBeHHb!X npeLlweCTBeHHI1KOIJ B COCTO.IIllieM 1113 118 nOJHUI1i1 ..(;nl1- CKe I1CnOJlb30saHHoi1 nl1Teparypb] 11 l1CT04HIIIKOB» y 11. A Xpycranesa. C onHoH CTOpoHbl, npHBe.1leHO HeCKOJ1bKO )"1e6Hb!X noco611ti. a Td1vKe ny6J1l1- KaUI1H JanlllCOK I1HocrpaHueB 11 na*e D,peBHep}lCCKI1X 6eJlJ1eTPltcTlt'JecKl1x C04l1HCHI1i1 (!). a C llPYrOH - mqrrcmylOT ynm.II1H8Hl1.11 06 OTMe4eHHb]X Bb]We pa6crmx B. 11. I3epereHHI1KOsa. A H. (]Jl1JlI1nnosa. H. H. nOKpoB- CKom, C. B. 110HcKoH l1 .na;+;e 06 OC06eHHO aK1)'aJlbHb]X lUIH em TeMb] TPynax M. A. '-IeJ1bUOBa-Ee6yrosa, 0. H. '-II1CTHKOBa. B. n HIDKItMOBa, A 11 AricKCaH1ijXJBa 11 Lt. A POMaHOB<] (CM.: XpJ.'CITJllAe6 JI. A. CYlle6Ho- npalf;:[cy;; :;JflTPa I: ABTOpe4J. nl1c. no KaHJl. IOpl{1l HayJ<. Cn6. 2(J05. OH JKe. CYDe6HIDI pe4)opMa neTPa I: Ltl1c. no KaHn. IOP!1JJ.. HaYK. Cn6.. 1005 1M.: PrE;. 2006. 3jJeKlpOHHblH pecypc 113 4>oHDOB POCCl1I1CKOI1 rocy.napCTBCHHOH 6116.rJ110TCKI1I. 
44 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I He 6b1J18 nOCTaIDIeHa M. O. AKI1111HHb]M - B KOHuemy- aJlbHOM I1Jl8He - npo6J]eM8 CKllaD.blilaHWI. B POCCl1l1 CHCTeMbl cyno8 06rneH JOpHCllHKUHH. CpaBHlfreJlbHO nOllpo6Ho oxa- pm<TepmOBaB (]>YHKUHoHHpoBaHHe BoeHHblX cynoB H rlpeo6- pa)l(eHCKOro npHKa3a, llHccepTaHT He 0603H8"1ID1. O.LlH8KO, KaK TaKOR}'JO npo6J]eMY pa3BHTH.II B neTponCKoe BpeMSI CHCTeMbl cne- LU.ffi;UOHP0BaHHb]X cynOB. B J]JlccepTaUI1(1 OK33aJ1HCb COBeprneH- HO o6ofu:1eHb] BOnpOCb] 0 CYJle6Hoi1 KOMneTeHU(1H H opraHOB ropollcKora caMoynpaBJIemlSl, H opraHOB uepKOBHO(:J MaCHI, 11 pHlla «rpI)K1J.aHCKHX» KOJ1Jlen1H, H rlO1lHUMeHCTepCKOH KaH- uemlplUI. HHKaKoro BHHMaHIUI 8BTOp DHCCcpTaUl1H He yneJllU1 (KaK H.n. A. Xpycra.neB) KpynHeHllleMY KOlm(]>HKaUHOHHOMY Me- ponpHflTHIO nepnoH "IeTBepTH XVIII B. - no.nroTo8Ke npoeKTa YJTO)l(eHI1JI POCCH(1CKOro rocynapcTBa 1723-1726 fr. c ero BHY- 11111TeJ1bHbIMI1 npoueccyanbHb]M H CYJ];oycTpoi1cnreHHb]M pa3Lle- JlliMIL He1J;OCTaTO'-lHo. OtCfI33..rU1Cb npl1BJ1e'-leHbl M. O. AKHWHHb]M M8Tepl1arJbl cyne6Ho.i1 npat<TI1KI1 rpWKLJ.aHCKHX cyno.B. HeJIb351 He 06paTHTb BHHM3HHe TalOKe, 'lTO HeMarJ351 'laCTb D.HCCepTaUl'IH HRfUIeT C060" pe<t>epaTl.JBHo.e l13Jlo.)I(eHl1e TpynoB npenllIeCTBeHHI1KOB (H3 K3KOOble, np3Blla, aBTOp 'lame Bcero D.O- 6POCOBeCTHO CCblJIaeTCH). CTOm OTMeTHTb, HaKOHeu. '1TO OCHOB- Hble pe3YJ1bTaTbl D.HCCepTaUI10HHoro HCCJie;:J;OBaHH.II M. O. AKI1- WHH8 OKa3lli1HCb BeCbM8 CJ1860 npellCTaBJIeHbl B ony6JIHKOBaHHbiX pa60mx (Bce H3 KOTOPb]X, HMelOWHe npHMo.e o.THorueHHe K HCTOpl111 cyne6Ho.i1 pe$opMbl. YK.lJaHbl BbJrue). B CBOJO o.l(epenb, Hal160JIee nOJIp06HO pacCMOTpeHHbli1 M. 0. AKHWHHb]M B yno- M5IHyrbIX Mo.Ho.rpa(]>H5IX H B OllHo.i1 H3 cTaTei1 Bonpoc 0. npOBene- mm cyne6Ho.(1 pe$opMbl B CH6(1pH BOBce He HallIeJI OTlxuKeHH5I B c-rpYK1YPe D.HCCepTaUI1I1. OCTaeTC5I D.o.6aBmb. 'lTO aBTOp xa- paKTepl13yeMoii D.(1ccepmUI.J(1 ynYCTI1J1 - ll8)1(e B npoCTpaHHOM. COCT05lweM (13212 n03(1U(1i1, -«CO(1CKe (1COOJIb30BaHHbJX HCTO't- HI1KOB H J1(1Teparypb[» - COCJlaTbC5I Ha pa60Tb] M. 11. C(13HKO- Ba, B. n. H8)1(HMoBa. A. C. CMb]KaJlHH8. A. 11. AneKC8H1{jX)Ba, C. B. .no.HCKOi1. ll. A. Pen;(1Ha, E. B. EiopO.n(1Ho.i1, .n. A. XpyCTa- JIeBa. Ha KOJ1JJeKTI-1BHYIO Mo.HOrpa(]>HIO «POccHi1cKa}[ IOcTHU- KOJ1JJerl151», 3 TafuKe Ha ynoMMHaeMble HI1>Ke CTaTbJO P. YopTMa- Ha (1 MOHorpa(]>(1JO fl)K..ne D.oHHa l . B HTore no.nroTOBJIeHHOe Ha CTOJIb MHo.roo6erualO- rue C$,)PM)'JIHp OBaHH)'1O TeMy nl1CcepyaUHOHHo.e I1CCJ1ellOBa- I CM.: AKIiI/JUH M 0. Cyr:rcljHdH p$JpMa fbpa I.lI,Hc. no C. 215-231. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 45 HI1C M. O. AKI111IIIIH8 OCTaBJI5ICT BnCLl8UICHI1C nOBepxHocTHoro 11 HCCI1CTeMaTHLlecKoro IHJ10)l(emm no 60J1bWCi1 Ll8CTH DaBHO YCTaHOBJ1eHHbIX o6cTOHTeJ1bCTB pe$opMbl. B nHCCepTaUtm He COnCp)l(HTC5I HH BBe.1leHHblX B H8)"lHbIH 060pm KaKHX-JlH60 HOBblX MaTepHaJlOB, HMeJOWHX HCTopHKo-npaBOB)'1O ueHHOCTb, HH HOBaTopcKoi1 HHTepnpeTaU(1H paCCMaTpHBaCMblX c06bITHL nO.1l06HbiC A(1CCepTaUHOHHbIC H3bICKaHH5I MomH 6b] S1BHTbC5I 3aMCTHb]M BKJlMOM B HaYKY BO BpeMCH8 K. ll. KaBeJ1HH8 H 4>. M. lll\mTpHCBa, HO H(1K8K He B Ha'l8JlC XXI BeKa. 3aBepwmi 06JOp OTeLlCCTBeHHblX nHccepTauHoHHblX (1CCJIC- .noBaHH", nOCB5IWCHHblX H3)"-ICHHIO C06blnJH cy.ne6HoH pe$op- Mbl nCTpa I, Heo6xo.1ll1MO ynOWlHyrb 3allll1111eHHYJO B .neKa6pe 2008 r. B IO)I(Ho-YpaJIbCKOM rocy.napCTBeHHOM YH(1nepCHTere KaH.nl1.1laTCK}f1O JJ;(1CcepTaUl1JO E. B. OOpo.1lHHOi1 «npOOeJJ;eH(1C cYJJ;e6Hoi1 pe$opMb] B 20-x rr. XVIII B. Ha YpaJIe H B 3an<\ll- HOi1 CH6(1PH»[. H83IJaHHM nHCCCpTaUHH SIIJHJl8Cb nepBblM Onb]- TOM yrJIy6JJeHHoro H3YlJCHHn TOro. KaK cyne6Han pe$opMa nc- Tp8 I BOJUlOI.J.laJIaCb B }f(J13Hb B OTneJ1bHOM perl10HC. OrmpasiCb Ha 3H8<1HTeJ1bHbl" MaCCHB apXI1BHblX nOK)'MCHTOB (no 60J1bWeii LlaCTM BncpBblc BBeJJ;eHHbIX B Ha)"IHbIH 06opOT), E. B. ()opO.llMHa lleTaJlbHO oxapaKTepmoBaJla KaK npouecc C03.LlaH(1.11 pe$oPMH- pOBaHHb]X opraHOB npaBOcy1ll1Sl B 3ananHoi1 Ll8CT11 CH6HPCK0i1 ry6epH(1(1. TaK H npouccc MX nOCJlenYJOlllero $yHKUMOHHP0Ba- H(1S1. Hc MCHce TwaTeJ1bHO nl1CCepTaHTKa HCCJ1enOBaJla Bonpoc 06 ocywccTBJ1cm:IH B CH6HpH KOHTppe$:JPMaTOPCKHX MCpO- npHSITHii 1722 r. B 06J18CTI1 cy.noycTpoiicrna, nonpo6Ho OCBeTHB CTaTYC, nOJ1HOMO'IHSI H npaBonpHMCHJ.ffeJ1bHYIO llCSlTeJ1bHOCTb cYllc6HbiX KOM(1CCapOB 1722-1727 rr. 2 n03HnJBHOC snc4aT- JICHHC OCTaBJ1S1CT H npennpHH.IITb]i1 E. B. EiopO.1lHHOi1 8HaJ1H3 HOpM8THBH0i1 OCHOBbl $YHKU(10HHP0BaHHSI cyne6Hbix opraHOB C(16(1pl1 ncpBoi1 n0J10BI1Hbl 1720-x rr. HeJIb3}l He OTMeTI1Tb TalOKe. LITO, B OT1lHLlHC OT.n. A XpycTancBa H M. 0. AKHllIH- H8, E. B. ()opo llHHa HC'lCpnblBalOllie Y'vJa OTHOCHllIHCCH K TeMC 160podUlia E. B. npoBe.neHl1e cYlleoHof.i. pe4x:!PMbl B 20-e n. XVIII B. H8 YpaJle 11 B 3anru1HOH CI16I1PH: AirropccjJ. IIHC. ... KaM. I1CT. H8YK YCJ1H- 611HCK, 1008, OHa JICe. npCmeJIeHl1e cYlle6HOH pe4x:!PMbl B 20-e n. XVIII B. Ha YpaJIe 11 B 3al13J1HOH CH6I1pH: Dl1c. ... KaH1L I1CT. HaYK. EKaTepHH6ypr. 1008. ! 60jXJdUlia E. B. npoBe.neHl1e cYlleoHof.i. pe4x:!PMb[ B 20-e n. XVIII B. . Dl1c....C80-IOS. 
46 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HCCJ1ellOBaHHSI TpYAbl npeDllIeCTBeHHHKOB. HellO'JeroM DHCCep- 'TaUI10HHOii pa60Th] E. B. I)0P01U1HOii BWLI1TCSI pa3Be <JTO <l>par- MeHTapHOCTb OCBewem:lH n.eHTeJ1bHOCn:l T06oJ1bCKoro HMBOp- HOro cyn.a. TaKOBbl - BJ<paTue - H8 cerolIHHwHHii .aeHb lITorn ocy- weCTRJUlBllII1XCH B HaWe" CTpaHe H8 npOT.II>KeH(1H Gonee LleM no- nyropa BeKOB pa3b]CKaHH(:1 0 cyn;e6Hoii pe<tJopMe OeTpa I. LITO KaC3eTCSI 3apy6e)l(}{bIX HCCJle1l0BaHHl1 B 3TOM HanpaBJIemU-I, TO HaH60nee 3H8'mTeJ1bHb]M Cpelll1 HI1X CJlenyeT HeCOfo.1HeHHO nPH- 3HaTb 3aUH:IlueHHyJO B HOSl6pe 1979 r. H8 JOpl11U1<1eCKOM <l>aK)lJlh- TeTe CTOKfOJ1bMCKOro YHl'IBepCHTem .fiI1CCepmUl-no K. OeTepco- Ha «AuMHHMCTpanJBH8H 11 cYlle6Ha51 pe<!>opMbl OeTpa BeJlHKoro: WBe.1lCKI1e 06paJubl H npouecc I1X aaanTaUI1H», H3.LlaHHytO B TOM >Ke fOJry B B(1)le MOHorpa<!>".m[. B 'leTBepTof1: maBe 031U!'.leHHoii MOHorpa(]>J..U1 - «YnpaB- neHHe B 06J1aCH1 IOCTJlIUI1(1 H npOLleccyaJibHOe J8KOHOllareJlb- CTBO» - K neTepCOH .QeTMbHO npOCJlenHfI WBenCKoe BJU1S1Hl1e H8 pe4>oPMI1pOBam1e B nepBoH <1eTBepTi1 XVIII B. KaK OTe<1e- CTBeHHoro cyne6Horo YCTpof1cTBa, TaK " yrOJloBHoro cynonpo- "3BOllCTBa 2 . CJiellYeT nOll<lepKHyrb, <£fO no Ofu.eMY MCnOJlb30- BaHHoro M8TepM<lJIa. rJl)'6HHe " y6elUrreJTbHOCTJ.f aH8JUoa TPYll K. neTepCOHa MO)f(HO conOCTaBHTb e.aJ.fHCTBeHHO C oxapaKTe- p"30BaHHb]M Bb]We ManiCTepCKJ.fM HCCJle.aoBaHf.1eM M. M. 60- roCJIOBCKoro. B 3TOM CMb]CJie 'leTBepnUI rJl8Ba \.10HOrpalfJl1l1 K neTepCOH8 1979 r. npen.cT8BJ1S1eTC}[ BnOJIHe OpraHI1<1eCKHM M CyruCCTBCHHblM nOnOJlHCHHCM TpeTheH I"JTOObl MOHorpa$111 M. M. EioroCJlOBCKOro 1902 r. HapfUIY C "3bICKaHHSlMH K. neTepCOHa, He06xollHMO TalOKe OTMentTb Bb]We.arnYK> B 1974 r. 0630PHYlO CTaTblO aMepf.1KaHCKO- ro YlJeHOro P. YOp-rMHHa «neTp BeJlI1Kf.1ii 11 cyJJ;onpOH3BQACTEI).- H rJ1aBY «CYDbl f.1 CYDOYCTpoiicTBa» 60nee n03DHeii MOHorpa- (]>1111 ll)K. fle llOHHa «A6coJU0Ti13M 11 npamlllll1ii KJIaCC» (6 KO- TOpOt1 60nee BHHMaHI1H yJJ;eJleHO pe$:JpM"p06aH"1O npH neTpe 1 CYJJ;OYCTpOnCTB a. He.:KeJll1 cynonpoo3BoncTBa). Oc060 - XOT5I ] PeleTson C. Peter the Great's Administrative and Judicial Refonns: Swdish Antecdents and thc Procs.s of Rcception. Lund. 1979 1 Riittshisto- riskt B]bliolek. &1. 191. OrC'JCCTBeHHYtO peueH31110 Ha .flOT 1VY.n K. neTep- COHa eM.: KUU A. H. Peu. Ha KH : K. neTepcoH. AnM(1Hltcrp,;mm- Hble 11 cYDe6Hb!e pe<t>opMbl nerpa BeJll1KOrO II COBeTCKHe apXI1Bb[ 1982 NQ I.c. 81-81. lPeJerson C.Op.cit. P.305-355. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 47 III 6emo. - H8 cyn.e6Hb]X npeo.6pa30BaHlllfix nepBoi1 LleTBepTI1 XVIII B. o.CTaHo.BHIl8Cb 1II.n. Xb103. aBTop nOJlYlJlIIBwei1 1113I!eCT- HOCTb MOHorpaqJl1H "POCCIIIH B 3noxy neTpa BCJlIIIKOro», o.ny- 6J1I11KoBaHHoii B 1998 r. [ OcTaeTC5I n.o6aBHTb, <ITO 06cT05I1eJlbCTBa xapaKTeplll3yeMoi1 pe4!OpMbl o.Ka3aJJIIICb 3araaO'lHO npOlllfHoplll- pOBaHb] B WlllpOKO nplll3HaHHOM KamITaJlbHOM lIB}'XTOMHHKe He- MeuKoro HCToplllKa P. BIIIlTpar.rn. ..neTp I: ltapb III IIIMnepaTop»l. TaKOBb]M - B OCHo.BHblX LlepTdX - Ha cerOllHSl Bb]fImllHT BKJIaD., BHeceHHbli1 B l113ylJeHllle neTpoBcKoi1 cyn.e6Hoi1 pe<t>opMbl 33PY- 6e)f(Hb1MIII IIICCJle.nOBaTeJl}IMH.  2. Vl3}'LleHHOCTb cYAe6Ho pect>oPMb' neTpa I no COCTORHMto Ha 2008 ro,Q Pe3JOMHpyH Bb]WeCK33<\HHoe, CJ1ellyeT 3aKJIJ04I11Tb, LITO. no COCTO.IIHllllO H8 2008 roll, oCYll.lecTBJleHHa5I B POCCHIII B nepBoi1: LleTBepTI1 XVIII B. cyn.e6HIDI pe$opMB o.KaJaJIaCb 113YlJeH8 He- CKOJ1bKHMI1 nOKOJleHIDIMIII OTel.JeCTBeHHblX III IIIHocTpaHHblX YlJe- HblX cpaBHIIITeJlbHO nOllp06Ho. Oco6eHHble yenexH 6bUlIII .nOCTHf- H)'Tbl B pa3blCKaHI1HX KaC8TeJlbHO KaK OTIleJlbHblX C0311aHHbIX B Xo.lle pe4>opMbl cYlle6Hb]X opraHoB (BblwHero cy.aa, BoeHHblX cyn.oB. npeo6pmKeHcKoro nplllKa3a H Tai1Hoi1 KaHlteJl.llplllH), TaK III OTneJlbHblX 8KTOB npOlleccy:.-lJIbHOrO 38KOH01IaTeJlbCTB3 (33KO- H8 OT 21 q,eBpaJUI 1697 r. 06 OTMeHe B cynax 04HbiX CTaBOK, «KpaTKoro lllJOt5p;uKeHIIISI npoueCOB HJII11 cyne6Hblx nDKe6», 33- KOHa «0 $)pMe CYIl OT 5 H05I6p51 1723 r.). Halll60Jlee >Ke npo- HCHeHHOH CJ1elIYeT 6e3yCJlOBHO npH3HaTb paHHlOlO IIICTOplll1O lOcTlIIlt-KOJlJlerHIII. YlJpe>KlleHHof1 H8 CTblKe WlMIIIHI1CTp8THDHOi1: III cyne6Hoi1 pe<tJopM. Bce 3TO TaK. BMecTe C TeM, HeJlbJ.II He 06paTI1Tb BHHM8- HI1H H8 TO. OOCTOSlTeJlbCTBO, <ITO no H8CToSlwero BpeMeHIII HH D I Wa1nwR R. Peter the Great and Court Procedure II Canadian-Ame- rican Slavic Studies. 1974. Vol 8. N 2. P. 303-310; LeDonne J. Absolutism and Rulin,g Class: The Formation ofthe Russian Political Order. 1700-1825. Q\.ford, 1991 P. 182-184, 189-190, 193-196; Hughes L. Russia in the Age of Peter the Great. New Haven-London, 1998. P. 125-129. lCM. nocBHweHHytO rnaBHblM 06pa30M neTpOBCKI1M alIMI1HltcrpanlB- HbIM npeoGpaJOBaHI1HM rnaBY II «PerpopMl1poB8HI1e roc)'1l8pCTBa 11 06111e- CTIJW> BToporo TOMa HaJlJaHHOH MOHOrpa4JI1}]' f4/jttram R. Peter I. Czar und Kaiser: Zur Geschlchte Peters des Gropen m semer Zeit. GoulI1,gen. 1964. Bd. 2. S. 99-169. 
48 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I POCCHH. HI-! 38. py6e)({OM TaK H He nO.llBI1JIOCb Hi'! elU1Horo MOHO- rpaqJl1'leCKoro (1CCJ1e.1l0B3ml5l, CneUl18.llbHO nocruuueHHoro cy- ne6Hoii pe$opMe OeTpa L He CTOIiT 3a6bIB3Tb, 1.JTO BHeCllme MaKCHMaJlbHblH BKJIa1l B H3yqeHHe pe$opMbl M. M. 6oroCJIoB- CKHH H K. neTepcoH 38.T]JOHYJTI1 COOTBeTCTBYJOWl'Ie Bon}X)Cbl B paMKax J.f3bICKaHHi1 Ha J.fHb]e TeMbl. He MeHee 04eBI1.J];HO H TO, '-no ne-rpOBCKl1e C}'JleGHb]e npe- 06pa30BaHIUI Ol(a3aJIl1Cb I1CCJ1en;OB3Hb] Ha cero.1lH5I XOHI H non;- poGHO, HO D.8JleKO He paBHOMepHO PM <iCneKTOB pecpopMbl 11H60 BOBee He nOJ1YlJHJlI1 OCBeweHI1.I1, JIH60 pacCM8TpHBa.rn.Jcb H30J1HpOOaHHo, BHe CB5I3H C ee npOBCneHI1CM ('laCTb non06HblX np06eJ1oB )')Ke Ha3bIBaJIaCb DblllJe - npH xapaKTepHCTHKe ill'IC- CepTaUMOHHblX pa3blCKaHHH M. O. AKHlllI1Ha). B (13YlJeHHH OTe'leCTBeHHoro yrOJlOBHoro cynonpOl..jJ- Bo.nCTBa nepBoi1 'JeTBepnl XVIII B. npeDllIecTBYIOWHe 8BTOpbl 06011UH1 TaKHe CYlllecTBeHHb]e (npaBll8, pa3HOMBCllITa6HO BO- rulOlUeHHble HB npaKTI1Ke) HOBaUHH KaK OT1leJleHHe npenBapH- TeJlhHoro CJlenCTBHJ'I OT cyne6Horo H H3MeHeHHe nOpHllKa B03- 6}')K1leHHH yrOJlOBHOrO ne.na. HeCMOTpJ'l Ha TO, 'ITO H CTaBllIHM OCHOBHhlM opraHOM npenBapHTeJ1hHoro paCCJ1ellOBaHHH «MaH- OpCKHM» CJ1enCTBeHHh]M KaHueJ1J'1pHJ'lM. H BnepBhle nOJ1Y'u'IB- llIeH npHHU(1n(1MbHO 3Ha'IHMbie nOJIHOMOYI1JI HHHUHHpOBaTh yr0J10BHOe npeCJIenOBaHHe no «6e3maCHb]M neJIaM» (]>HCKaJIb- CKOH cJlY.>K6e 6b]JlO nOCBHllleHO HeMMO pa60T (0 KOTOpblX ellie nofureT peYb snepe.n(1). Ha3BaHHb]e opraHbl nO'ITH He a",u1l-1- 3HpOBaJlHCb C TOYKH 3peH(1J'1 HX npOl.reCcyaJIbHblX (]>YHKUHH. Henb351 He OTMeTl1Th H TOro 06CT05lTeJlbCTBa, 'Iro oc06eHHO neTaJlbHO (1CCJ1e1l.0BaHH8}1 (]>(1CKaJlbCKaH cJ1Y.>K6a POCCH(1 pac- CM8TpHBaJlaCh DOHhlHe B HCTOpHKo-npaBoBoM JlHTepaType HC- KJUOYHTeJlhHO KaK opraH HWl30pa. HO HHKoma - KaK opraH yroJloBHoro npeCJ1ellOBaHIDI. COOTBeTCTBeHHO, 143-33 HeOC03HaHHOCH'1 npeD.llleCTBYIO- llIHMH aBTOpaMH raKOro acneKTa pe4>oPMbl. KaK OTJIeJleHHe npenBapHTeJlbHOrO CJle)lCTBHJ'I OT CYJIe6Horo. OKa3aJlaCb npOHr- HOpHpOBaHa elUe 01lH8 CTOpm{3 xapaKTepH3yeMb]X npeo6paJOBa- HHM - OCHOBaHHe neTpoM I CJ1enCTBeHHoro annapara POCCHH. COOTBeTCTBeHHo, 6e3 BCJ'lKOro paccMoTpeHIDI OCTaJlHCh oonpocbl o npennOChUlKaX C03D8HHH nepBhlX opraHoB npellBapHTeJlhHoro pacCJIenOBaHHH, 06 HX (]>YHKUHOHaJlhHOH CBH3aHHOCTl1 C (]>HC- KaJlbCKOH CJl)')K60H. B npenlllecTBYJOwcH Jll.ffeparype He 6hUJ 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 49 lUDKe nOCTaBJIeH Bonpoc 0 CifJoPMHPOBaBWHXCJ1 B nepBO 'leT- BepTI1 XVIII E. opraHH3aUI10HHbLX MOJleJlJ1X nocTpoeHHJ1 OTe'le- CTBeHHoro CJ1ellCTBeHHOro annapaTa. B H3yqeHHH HCTOpHH CYilonpoo3BOfiCTBa neTpoBcKoro Bpe- MeHH OGPa30BaJlHCb 14 HHble np06eJlbl. B JaCTHocTH. IlOHblHe 3})HMO arMeHTapHO HCCJlen:OBaJlOCb TOTilaWHee npoueccy- aTlbHOe 3aKOHO)laTeJlbCTOO: OCHOBHoe BHHMaHHe B ::ITOM Bonpo- ce npaBoBellbl HeCKOJlbKHX nOKOJ1eHH yn.eJlI1JlH 8HaJ1H3Y TpeX 3aKOHO)laTeJ1bHb]X aKTOB - HeollHoKpaTHO ynOMJIH}'TbIX JaKO- H8 OT 21 ct>eBpaJIS! 1697 r.. «KpaTKoro H306paiKeHMS! npouecoB HJlH cy.neGHblx TIDKe6. 14 JaKOHa «0 (]>opMe cy.na» OT 5 HOS!GpJ1 1723 r.[ BMecTe C TeM, BbmaBWHM 143 HaYlJHoro oGopOTa no ce- rOllHSlWHH .neHb OCTaJJCS! BeCbMa COllep)f{aTeJlbHbl B yroJlOBHO- npolleCCYaJJbHOM OTHOllJeHHH HaKa3 «MaopCKHM» CJlellCTBeH- Hb]M K8HueJ1.11pH.IIM OT 9 n.eKa6p.ll 1717 r. He nOJlYlJl1JIH ltOJl)f{HO -.paKTOBKI1 C npolleccYaJIbHO CTO- pOHbl 14 38KOHbi 1713 f. oG oc06oM nOpHJlKe cyn.onpoH3BOllCTBa no Ile.rraM 0 npecryTUleHwlx npoTJ.m HHTepecoB CJI}l)K6bl H 0 rocy- .napcTBeHHblx npecryTUlem1Slx, 3aKOHbl 1715-1718 fr. 0 nopSl1l- Ke HHHUHHpOBaHHSI lleJi no «-rpeM nYHKTaM>}, JaKOH OT 3 MapTa 1719 r. 0 nOpJ1.llKe }'TBep)K,!leHHSJ npHroBopOB BOeHHblX CYllOB. KaHYJlH B HCTopMorpa(]>W]eCKOe JaGBeHHe 6e3ycJloBHO 3H8L1H- Mble .DJI.II HCTOpHH OTeLleCTBeHHoro npoueccyaJIbHOro npaBa 303- KOH OT 2 ct>eBpaJJ5I 1700 f. oG YKpefUJeHl1H HHCTaHUI10HHOCTI1 B cyn.onpomBOllCTBe 14 JaKOH OT 10 HOSJ6pSJ 1721 r. 0 nopJUl- Ke }'TBep)K,!leHHSJ npHTOBopOB cynoB nepBoro 3BeHa. HHKaKo- ro OCBellleHH5I B HCTopHKo-npaBoBoH JlHTep8Type He nOJlyqHJI TaKO cywecrneHHbl acneKT cYlle6HO pe<t!OpMbl OeTpa I KaK B03po)l(L{eHHe B OTeLleCTBeHHOM CYllonpOH3BOllCTBe peBH3HOHHO- pellJ810111ero nop5l.nKa nepeCMOTpa H }'TBep)l(L{eHH.II cYlle6Hb]X pellJeHH. H8KoHeu. npellllJeCTB)'lOlllHe 8BTOpbl nO'lTH 060llJ- JlH BHHMaHHeM Bonpoc 0 CHCTeM8TI13aUHH B nepBo LleTBepTH XVIII B. npoueccyaJIbHoro JaKOHO.1l8TeJlbCTBa. '-ITO KaCaeTC5I HMeJOlliHXCS! Ha cerollHH np06eJlOB B myqe- HHH HOBOBBelleHH. ocyrneCTBJleHHblX B XOlle cYlle6Ho pe<tJop- Mbl Oe-rpa I B 06JJacTH cynoYCTpOHCTBa. TO 3TH npo6eJJbl MO)f{HO pacueHHTb KaK MeHce cyrneCTBeHHble, HO BCe-TaKH HCKIDKaJO- lLlHe oGll.\YIO K aPTHHY npe06pa30BaHH. Bo-nepBblX, HeJlb351 He 10630pbl pa60T. B KOTOpblX paCCMa1]JI1BaJ1I11Cb OTMe'JeHHble 3aKOHO.1l.a- TtJIbHb!C 8KTbl, 6ynyr nplllDCllCHbl 1lilf1CC. 
50 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I OTMeTitTh, 'lTO .no CI1X nop He npeDnpHHHMaJlOCb nOnblTOK pe- KOHCTpy(1pOOaTb HCXO.1lHO CJ10)K}]BwylOCH y 3aKOHO.1laTeJlJI KOH- qenl{UIO cyne6Hoii pe4>oPMbl. HCXo.DHblii 1aMb1Ce.n ne-rpa I no nocrpoeHHIO HOBOf1 cyne6Hoii CHCTeMbl. BO-BTOPbIX, B npell- WeCTBYJOweH JlHTepal)'pe He 6bUlO ocyWeCTBJ1eHO ueJlOCTHoro aH3.rJl.1.3a npeo6pa30SaHIffi B XO.1le pe4>oPMbi C(1CTeMb] cneW.1aJlH- 3I1POS3HHb]X cyn:oE, a pH.ll no.nCHCTeM Ha3S3HHbiX CYAOB OCTaJlCSI 6e3 HanlIe.>Kawero OCBeweHI1.I1. K npHMepy. B YKa3aHHbix Bblwe 0630PHb]X pa6arn" {33 (1C- K.IlIO'leHHeM .llHccqnam:lH M. 0. AKl1l1lHHa) Hl'I CJ10Ba He 6bLllO CKaJaHO 0 TaKOM 3am:lMaBllJeM oco60e MeCTO B OTel(eCTBCHHOii cyne6HOH CHCTeMe nepooii nOJlOBHHbl 1720-x rr. cyne6HoM ap- raHe CneUHarTbHOH IOpHCllHKUHl1, KaK BbllllHHH CYll, KOTOPblii, TeM CaMb]M, «8bIJlaJI"!> H3 KOHTeKCTa cyne6Hoi1 pe4>oPMbl. .no Ha- CT05lWero BpeMeH(1 B HCTopHKo-npaBOBoi1 JUneparype Boo6111e He JaTparl1BaJIC5I BOnpOC 0 cy.ne6HOt1: .ne5lTeJIbHOCTI1 KaMep- KOMerI1H. 0 (]>yHKUHOHHpOBamm OCHoBaHHoro B 1718 r. oco- 60ro BoeHHo-cy.ne6Horo npHc}TCTBI15I. COCT05lBlllero H3 maB H aceccopOB «MaHopCKHX» CJIellCTBeHHblX KaHUeJ151pHH. B-TpeTbHX, npeDllleCTBYJOlliHe aBTopbl y.neJ1W1H He3Ha<tHTeJ1bHoe BHHMaHHe Ha':laBwet1: ocyweCTBJt5lTbC5I B 1724 r. peopraHH3aUHI1 cYlla no rocy.napcTBeHHblM npeC1)'JlJJeHI1.11M. HBKoHeu. B-"leTBepTbIX, nO<JTH He npO.llCHeHHblMH TaK H OCTIUU1Cb BOnpOCb] 0 cy.ne6- HOt1: KOMneTeHUlUI H npaBOnpHMeHHTeJIbHoi1 npaKTHKe Pa1)'WH B 1705-1708 rr., Ope06paJKeHcKoro np(1KaJa B 171O-e - nepBoi1 nOJ1OBlme 1720-x rr., npaBJ.HeJIbCTB)llOwero CeHBTa B 1718- 1724 n. OcraeTC5Il106aB(1Tb, "lTO II ocyweCTBJ1eHHblX no ceronl-UillJ- Hero IIH51 H3bICKaHH5IX He 6b!J1 3aTpOHYT H pM 60JIee 1.J8CTHblX CIO.:KeTOB no I1CTOpm1 cyne6HbIX npe06pa30BaHHH OeTpa I. Bo- nepBb!X, COBepweHHO BHe n0J151 3peHH5I npellWeCTB)lJOWHX amo- pOB oCTanacb I1HTepeCHet1:W85I TeMa 0 3apmKlleHHH B POCCHH B KOHue I7IO-x - Ha"larre 1720-x fr. cynei1cKoro Kopnyca (BKJUO- "la51 Bonpocbl 0 nOpH.1lKe Ha3Ha"leH(1.11. cra1)'ce H nO.1lcynHOCTI1 TOrnaWH(1X cynet1:). BO-BTOPb]X. B J](1TepaType nOHb]He He 6bUlO yneJleHo BHHMaHH5I Bonpocy 0 pa3I1HTHH npaDOBO" nponaraH- ltb! B neTpOBCKoe BpeM5I, 0 peanH3aUHH B 1)' nopy HOBaTOpCKJ1X 4>oPM 03HaKOMJIeHH5I HaCeJleHH5I C neiicTB)lJOwHM 3aKOHO.1laTeJlb- CTBOM. B-TpeTbHX, HHKeM He HCCJlellO!3anaCb CYllb6a B nocJle- llYJOlliHe BpeMeHa Tex CYllOYCTPOt1:CTBeHHbIX H npoueccyanbHblx 
fIlaBa 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 51 HOBOBBe1leHMH, KOTopble 6blJ1III ocyweCTBJleHb] B XOlle cy.ne6HOH pe$opMb] ne-rpa P. Tenepb crOHT BKpaTlie UCTdHUBMTbC5I Ha npo6J]eMe BJaH- MOM3oJ]HpoBaHHoro paccMmpeHHH B JTHTepmype XIX - HaI.JaJl8 XXI B. m.neJ]bHbIX aCneKTOB Onl1CblBaeMblX npe06pa30BaHI1H. 3.ueCb, B nepnylO O'-lepellb, Heo6xo.1ll1MO OTMeTHTb nOllrQTOBl<)' ynOM5IHyroro Bb]We rpaHllH03Horo npoeKTa YJ]O)l(eHH5I POCCI1H- CKOro rocy.napcTBa 1723-1726 rr.. .nBe nepBble KHMH1 Kmoporo 6bUIIII nOCBHlUeHbl Cy.noyCTpoHCTBY III cy.nonpOM3BollCTBY. 06- cr05lTeJlbCTB8 pa3pa60TKI1 HB3BBHHOro npoel<Ta Heo.nHoKpaTHo OCBelUaJll1Cb B Tpynax npaBoBe.noB H HCTOpl1KOB - OT .nOKTop- CKO" ill'ICcepraUMH B. H. flarKJ.1Ha 1887 r. .no DOKTOPCKOH DJ.1C- CepTaUJ.1H M. B. na6wi 2003 r. 2 , - HO B paMKax H3blCKaHI1H, COBepllleHHO He KaCaBW(1XC5I cy.ne6HOf1: pe$opMbl (33 (1CKJTIO'-Ie- Hl1eM ynoM5IHyroH .nlllccepraUMOHHOH pa60Tb] 11.. A. POMaHOBa). KpoMe TOro. crOMT 33MeTI1Tb, 'ITO H(1 Cy.noyCTpoHCTBeHHb]i1, Hili npoueCCYaJIbHb]f1: pa:w.eJ]b] npoeKTa YJlO)({eHi-lfi 1723-1726 rr. no HaCT05IlUero BpeMeHH HHKeM H3 I1CCJle.nOBaTeJlei.1 He 8HaJlI13HpO- BaJlI1Cb. KaK }')Ke roBOPHJ]OCb, HeMaJlO BHMM8HH5I B JTI1Teparype 6bUlO y.neJ]eHO H $IIICKaJlbCKOH CJI)0K6e (ee (1CTOp(1ei1 BJlepRb]e 33HflJ]C.II elUe B 1860-e rr. A. 11.. rpanoBcKM(1). M «Maf1:opcKHM» CJleDCTBeHHb]M KaHueJ]5IpM5IM (MX «nepBOOTKpblBaTeJ]eM» flBWICfI B 1900-e n. B. H. BepeTeHHMKOB) - HO On5lTb-TaKI1 6e3 BC5I- KoR YB5I3KJt C cyne6HblMH npe06pa30BaHMJIr.1I1 nepBOHl.JeTBepTH XVIII B. BHe KOHTeKcra cync6HoH pe$opMbl OCBcwanOCh npeD- llIeCTBYJOlUHMM 8BIDpaMI1 H $YHKUHOHMpOBaHHe PeKeTMeHcTep- CKOH KOHTopa CeHaTa. Orbe.1ll1HeHHO OT cy.ne6HOH pe$opMbl .nOHb]He J.fCCJ1e.nOBa- JlaCb TalOKe ee cy6DeKTJ.fBHIDI npe.nnoCbll1Ka: nOJIMTIIIKo-npaBOBb]e B033peHM5I 3aKOHOllaTeJI.II - neT)Ja L npJ.f BceM TOM, 'lID K DaH- HOi1 TeMe YlJeHb]e 06paUlaJlJ.fCb Heo.nHOKpaTHO (0 'IeM ewe ooi1- [EnHHCTBeHHb[M I1CKJlI04eHI1eM JJJ.eCb CJ1e.nyer npl13HaTb Y3K)11O no TeMaTI1Ke. HO. 6eJycQOBHO, Co.aep)l(£1TeJIbHYIO CTIITblO 10. R MernepHKolkl 1984 r., nocBHweHHYIO BOnpocy 06 I1CnOJlb30BaHI111 B cy.ne6Hoi1 npaKTI1Ke XIX B. JaKOHa «O$;JpMe cyna»OT 5 HO.ll6pH 1723 r. (MeUl!fJSlKOO 10. B. «Cyn no $;JpMe» B yrOJloBHoM npoueccc POCCIllI1 nepOOM1pClli XIX B. II &:CT- HI1KJleHI1HrpancKOm )'HHBepcHTeTII. 1984 NQ 23. C. 110-114). 20630p nHTeparypbl. nocBHweHHoi1 naHHoMY npoeK1)' Y.'IOIKeHI151 (a JaOnHO 11 .ne5lTeJ1bHOCTI1 YnoIKeHHoH KOMI1CCI1I1 1710-1717 rr.). 6yDeT npl1- BCnCHllaJIeC 
52 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I neT pe'Jb D.aJlee), BJU1flHl1e nOJ1HTI1KO-npaBOBb]X BJrJUUlOB nepEO- m POCCIU1CKOro HMnepaTopa H8 npOBeneHHe cy.ne6Hoi1 pe(]>OPMbl TaK H OCTILlJOCb Henp05lCHeHHbIM. HaKOHeu. HeJ1b351 He OTMe- THTb, <no B npeDllieCTSYlOllleii I1cropHKo-npaBOBoii Junepa1)'pe He CTaBWlCfi - LUDKe MHMOXOllOM - 80npoc 0 neTPe I KaK 0 cy.ae6HOM lle5lTeJle. 0 era JU1'-1HOM YlJacnnl B CYllonpOH3BO.LlCTBe. TaKOB JCPyr HaH60nee 04eBruIHbiX H8 cero.nHSl np05eJIOB H Hcrop(10rpaqJl1I.JeCK(1X HecocTbIKoB8HHocreii B (13YlJeHHH nepBOH ore'-leCTBeHHOH cyne6HoH pecpopMbl HMeHHO Bb]Weo6pHCO- BaHHbie npo6eJJhl H HeCOCTblKOBaHHOCTH H 06YCJIOBH.lU:I Heo6- XO.D.HMOCTb nO.1lroroBKH HaCTOJuueH pa60Tbl - nepBoro OnblTa ueJlOCTHoro paCCMOT])eHl1fi OCYllleCTBJleHHblX B H8rnei1 CTpaHe B nepOOH 'lemepTI1 XVIII B. npeo6pa30BaHHH B o6J1acTH cy.no- ycrpoi1:CTBa H CY1{onpmnBOllCTBa. OAH8KO npee 'leM nepexo- lll1Tb K H3JlO)l(eHIHO 8BTOpex0i1 peKoHcrpYKLtI1(1 06cTO.llTeJ1bCTB CYlle6Hoi1 pe<t!OpMbl Oe-rpa I. HMeeT CMbICJ1 KOpOTKO OCTaHO- B(1TbCSI H8 xapaKTep(1CTI1Ke rex Hcrop"".jeCKMx (1CTO'-IHHKOB. 6na- ro.n.apH KomphlM OKa3aJlOCh BOJMO)f(HhIM COcr8BHTh npellCTaMe- H(1e 0 c06hlTHSlx, CTSlHYBllJ(1XCH B Y3eJ1 pe<t!OpMhl 6e3 MaJIoro Tp(1 CTOJ1eT(1S1 Ha3a!l.. S 3. 0630p ony6mtKOBaHHbiX 101 apxlo1BHblX Io1CTO..HtlKOB no Io1CTOplo1101 cy,qe6HOti pe4JopMbl napa I OOCJ1}I)K(1BllJ(1e OCHOBOi1 llaHHoi1 pa60Th] (1CTO'-lH(1K(1 pac- na.u.aIOTCH H8 llBe rpynnb]: (1CTO'-lHHK(1 HopMaTI1BHble (npe>KJJ;e Bcero, 3aKOHb]) H HCTOlJH(1KI1 npaBonp(1MeHtlTeJlbHble (M8Tepl18- JIb] cYlle6Hoii. H aa.r.mH(1CTpaT(1BHoii. npaKT(1KH). '-1m KaCaeTCH HCTOlJHHKOB nepBOM rpynnhl, TO He06XQD.HMOCTh HX npHBJle<1e- HIDI He H}I)K1J.8eTC5I B 06ocHoBaHHH. KaK ewe B 1837 r JaMe- 'ffiTeJlhHO eMKO Bhlpa3HJ1CH M. M. CnepaHcKHH, «HCTopHSI rocy- llapCTBa 6e3 n03HaHHH 3aKOHOB He MO>KeT (1MeTb HH .IICHOCTI1, HJ.f llOCTOBepHOCTI1..."l. B D8HHOM CJlYlJae npo6J1eM8 COCTOHT pa3Be <1TO B nOHCKe H31IaHH5I, B k""OTOpOM pa3MellleHhi Te HJlH HHhle HopMaTHBHhle npaBOBhle aKTbl. HaH6oJ1ee llIHpOKO - B ony6J1HKOBaHHOM BULle - HOpM8- HIBHble HCTO'-lH(1KH nepHOlla ell(1HOllep)l(aBl1Jl OeTpa 1 npell- [Cnepcmaam M. M. O6OJpeHllle I1CTOp1-I'JOCKj.IX CBe1l.eHHH 0 Coone 3a- KOHOB II CnepaHcKHH M. M. PyKOB01lCTBO K n03H8HHIO 3aKOHOB. Cn6.. 2002. c. 165 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 53 CfaBJIeHb] B nOJiHOM C06paHHH 3aKOHOB POCCHMCKOM HMnepHH C 1649 r. (WIH nepBoM nOJlHOM c06paHIIIIII 3aKOHOB). B 3TOM xpecToMaTHt1Ho H3BeCTHOM 4O-ToMHIIIKe, nOllroTOBJleHHOM BO BTOpOM OTlleJleHHH HMnepaTOpcKot1 KaHUeJlSlpt.U1, no HHHUHa- nme III nOll PYKOBOllCfBOM M. M. CnepaHcKoro B 1826-1830 rr., aKTbl neTpoHcKOro HpeMeHH (06UlHM 1.jHCJlOM 3107) OKa3aJ1HCb cocpellOTOLJeHb] B TpeTbeM-cellhMOM TOMax l B CBOIO OLJepellb. HOpM8TI1BHbie npaBOBble aKTbl. HMeBlllHe OTHOllleHHe K cYlle6- HO(:1 pe(]>opMe, nonanH, rJlaBHb]M 06PaJOM, B nJITh](:1 H llleCTO(:1 TOMa nOJ1Horo c06paHHH. He B.118BaHCb B yrJly6JlCHHOe paccMoTpeHl1e np"HUHnOB 01- 60pa MaTepHaJla DJlSI nepBOro nOJ1HOro co6paHt'lSI (KaKOBble n011- po6HO 113J10>Kt'lJI caM M. M. CnepaHCKJ1(:12), He06XOllt'lMO. TeM He MeHee, OTMeTI1TbllBa 06cTOSlTeJlbCTBa. nepBoe H3 HIIIX 3aKJIIOLJaeT- CSI B TOM. 1.jTO B COCTaB nOJIHOrO co6paHI1SI 3aKOHOB 6bLIIH - BO- npeKI1 COBpeMeHHOMY nOHHMCUilllO ero Ha3BaHI1S1 - BKJlIOLJeHbl He TOJlbKO 3aKOHb] t'I HHb]e HOpMaTI1BHb]e npaBOBble aKTb], HO 11 MHO.JKeCTBO aKTOB, Bo06rne He COllep)l(8Bllll1X HOpM npaBa3. BnpO'[eM, OTMel[eHHOe 06cr0srrerrbCTBO. llYM8eTCSI. He TOJlbKO He YMaJlSleT, a, Hao6opOT. nOBbllllaeT HCTopI1Ko-npaBoBYJO ueHHOCTb nOJIHoro C06paHi1S1. HecJlyYa(:1HO i1MeHHO nepBoe nQJ1Hoe CO- 6paHHe 3aKOHOB CTaJlO OCHOBHblM (a nOllLJ8C III ellHHCTBeHHbIM) HCTOLJHHKOM DJI.II HeCKOJlbKHX nOKOJleHH(:1 HCCJlellO&lTeneM, 06- parnaBWHXCSI K pa3blcKaHJ.'lSIM no (1CTOPH(1 OTeLJeCTBeHHoro ro- cynapcTlJ<l 11 npaBa BTOpOi1 nOJlOBHHbl XVII - nepBoi1l.JeTBepTI1 XIXB. BTopoe 113 }'Ka1aHHblX 06crosrrerrbCTB 3aKJIlOlJaeTCSI - B npOTHnOn0J10)f{HOCTb nepnOMY - B HaJlH«HI1 OHeTJTI1HblX npo- 6eJlOB B HopMamBHOM Ma-rep(1aJ1e nepBoro nQJ1Horo C06paHI1SI (KOTOPoe. KaK cnpaBe1lllHBO OTMeTlIIJI erne B 1916 r. A. H. <})(1- I YMeCTHO ynoMHHyrb, 'ITO nOMerneHHb]e B nepBOM nOJIHOM C06paHI1I1 33KOHOB aKTb]. KacaBllJI1eCSI opraHOB BJlaCTH nepOOH 'JeTBepTH XVIII B., CI1- CTeMaTH'IeCKH Y'ITeHb] B n01l3a6blTOM Hb[He nOC06H(1 A. R 'lepHosa 1960 r. (focynapCTBeHHble )"Jpejf(j}CHI1H POCCI1I11 B XVIII BeKC (3aKOl-JlJll<ITCJlbHble MaTl1aJ1b[): CnpaBO'[H. noc0611e I COCT. A. R 'lepHOB. M., 1960). CnepaIlCl(UU M. M. YK<13. CO'[. C. 160-164. 3B I1CTopHKo-npaBoBOH nl1Tepwype illIHHYIO OCo6eHHOCTb nepBoro nOJIHoro C06paHI1.11 Hal160JJee nonpo6Ho OCBeTHJJ A. 4> We6aHoB (llle6a- HOB A. Q>. nOJlH0e c06paH(1e JdKOHOB POCCl1ikKOi1 I1Mnepl111 «(1] I1CTOpl111 CI1CTe,.JaTIHaUI1I1 3aKOH01l8TeJ1bCTlJa B POCCI1I1) II TpynbI &-eco103Horo tOPHllI1'!CCKOro 3a04HOro I.JHCTIfl'yrd. M., 1970. T. 14. C. 188-291). 
54 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I minnOB, «B llei1crmneJlbHOCTI1 HenOJIHoe»I). J1 HenOJ1HOT8 :=na 06pa30BaJlaCb OTHlOlI.b He BCJlellCTBHe KaKoi1-To He.1lo6pocOBecr- HOCTH lUU1 HeKOMneTeHTHOCTIi cocraBHTeJIei-L ECJlI1 B lJeM He B03HHKaeT coMHeHHf1, TaK 3TO B TOM, <{TO M. M. CnepaHCKHH Hero COTPy.aHI.JKH 113 BTOPOro OTlleJleHH npo.lleJlaJIH BOHCTH- HY TrnaHH<leCKYIO pa60ry - KaK B HCTopHKo-npaHOHOM. TaK M B apxeorpal:!n..j<leCKOM HanpaE'J1eHHflx 2 . YnOMflHyrble np06eJIb] B nOJ1HOM co6paJUu1 3aKOHOB B03H"KJlH. KaK npe1lCTaRJUleTC5I, nOli BJ!I1JIHMeM cooceM (1HblX KTOpOB. Bo-nepBbIX. COCraBHTeJlI.J neplloro OOJIHorO co6pamm He MomH Bbl5lBIHb pM MaTepliarJOB HopMaTHBHoro xapmaepa (OCO- 6eHHO RIOPOH nOJlOBHHbl XVII - nepBOH nOJlOlUJHbl XVIII E.) no BnOJ1He 06'beKTHBHbIM npH'lHHaM. D.eJlo B TOM, <{TO He Bce HOpMaTHBHble npaBOBb]e 8KTbI HaJBaHHoro nepHOM OTJlO)l(H- IU1Cb B H3XO.n(1BW(1XCfI H8 OC060M apnlBHOM }"-Iere KOMnaKT- HblX n01l60pKaX I-1MeHHb]X 1-1 CeHaTCKI1X yKa30B 111m B YKa3HbiX KHl-1raX npMKa308. HeMalIo 8KT08 (JGl)Ke 1-13.D.aHHbIX n1norpac]:l- CKH) OI\3J:l/1I-1Cb «noxopOHeHhl» B mraHTCKOM MaCCI-1Be T'eK)'WeH neJ10np0I-13BOnCTBeHHOH nOK)'MeHTaUHI-1 Pa3JlWJHblX opraHOB BJlacrn, paJ06paTb KOTOPblH He60J1bWOH rpynne cOTpynHI-1KoB M. M. CnepaHCKoro fibUlO 38Be.llOMO He non CJ.1Jt)l. KpOMe TOro, HeKOTOpaSi <laCTb HOPM8TI1BHb]X I-1CTOYHI-1KOB onMCblBaeMoro nepMollli nOB'I6na II HaHeCllIl-1X KOJ1OCCaJlbHbIH YllIep6 focynap- CTBeHHblM apXI-1BaM nO)(ffipax. B MOCKOBCKOM KpeMJ1e 1737 1-1 1812 rr. BO-BTOPhIX, O'leBWlHhIMI-1 I1CTOYHI-1KaMIi npo6eJ10B B ncp- BOM nOJ1HOM C06paHI11-1 JaKOHOB JlBHJlHCh nBe xapal<TepHble lUIJI npaBOBOH CI-1CTeMhl Cpe.llHeBeKODOH POCCI-1I-1 TeHlleHUI.JI-1. C O.llHOH CTOpOHbl, M3MeHeHMJI B CMCTeMe rOcyJJ;apcTBeHHoro ynpaBJTeHMJI 1-1 B cyJJ;OYCTpOHCTBe JJ;aJleKO He Bcerna OtlxJPMJlJlJlMCh B TY nopy OCo6bIMI-I HOpMaTMBHblMI-1 npaBOBblMI-1 aKTaMM. DblBalJI-1 CJ1Y'-laM, Korna JJ;eJ10 orpaHI-14MBaJlOCh YCTHhlM pacnopmKeHl-1eM MOHap- xa. KOTopoe Ja TeM TaK M He 05J1eKaJlOCb B nl-1ChMeHHYIO c]:Iop- 1 UIIT no. llk&lfIoo A Q). YKaJ. COY. C. 191. 28 cOBpeMeHHoH 1ICropI11<O-npaBoBoi1 1II1TepaTYpe apxeorpa4JI1'JeCK)l1O CTOpCJHY nOliJOTODKH nepooro nOJIHOJO C06paHI1H JaKOHOB .nCHlfIbHO oxa- paKTepHJOBWI C. 11. CnepaHCKJ.1i1 (CnepallCKUu c. 11. Y'JeHl1e M M. Cne- paHcKoro 0 npase 11 rocynapcTBe. M..l004. C. 144-146) C1M M M. Crre- paHCKI1i1 OCTaHOBHJlCH Ha Bonpoce 0 noprulKe BblHBJleHMfI HOpM<fI1lBHbIX I1CTO'1HI1KOB 11 0 nOpRllKe nO.1lrOTOBKI1 I1X K ne4aTI1 B oTMe'JeliHofi pa60Te 1837 r. (CnepaHCICUU M M YKa3. COY. C. 162-163). 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 55 MY. C npyroi1 CropOHbl. MHOrl1e CTOpOHbl MMIIIHIIICTp<UIIIBHOi1 M cyne6HoH ne5lTeJIbHOCTJ.1 OpCaHOB M3.CTM nOJlCl1e ronhl Bo06lUe HOpMan1BHO He pemaMeHTHpOBaJll1Ch, ocyweCTBJ1ID!Cb «no cma- PUHe>" COO6pa3HO BeKaMI.J CKJ1a.IlhlBaBweMYCH «npuK03HOMY o6b1- 'WIO". D.aHHhle TeHlleHUI.JI1, BeChMa aKl)'aJlhHhle lIJIfi nOneTpOB- CKOj:j PyCI1. npocrynaJlI1 RpeMfi OT BpeMeHM 11 B KOHue XVIl-ro, 11 B nepooj:j 'leTBepTIII BeKa XVIIl-ro. OXapaKTepM30BaHHbie Bbillie npo6eJlhI 06pa30BMMCb B TOM 'mCJIe 11 B JCPyre nOMelUeHHb]X B nOJ1HOM C06paHI1I1 HOpM3TI1B- HhlX I.JCTOI.JHt1KOB no I1CTOpl111 cyne6Hot1 pe<t>oPMhl OeTpa L Ha- npl1Mep, B nOJIe 3peHI1S1 cOTpynHI.JKoB M. M. CnepaHCKoro He nonano yrBep)l()]eHHOe 8 SlHBapSi 1719 c. D.onOJ1HeHMe K JaKOHY «l1OJ1>KHOCTb CeHaTa» peD,aKUt111 1718 c. 31"0 t1CXOnHO Hant1CaH- Hoe C06cTBeHHOpy4HO neTpoM I D.onOJ1HeHt1e (B KOTOpOM ne- TaJlI13MpOBaJICSI cocmB Bb]CllIl1X nOJ1>KHOCTHhIX JII1U. H<DHaI.J3B- llIt1XCH yKa3aMt1 CeHaTa) 6bUlO BnepBb]e ony6J1t1KOBaHO JIJ.111Ib B 1945 f.1 3a npelleJIaMI1 nepBoro nOJIHOro c06paHHH 3aKOHOB OCTaJI- CH 11 3aKOH OT 29 anpeJISi 1722 C., B KOTOpOM BnepBhle nonpo6Ho pemaMeHTHpoBMach KOMneTeHUt1S1 Ope06proKeHcKoro npJ.1KaJa. Oy6J1MKaUl1Sl 3TOro BeChMa 3Ha'lJ.1MOrO lIJUI MCTopMI1 neT]JOBCKI1X CneUMaJIM3J.1p0BaHHhIX cynOB 33KOHOnaTeJIhHOro aKTa COCTO.llJI8Cb Y>Ke B COBeTCKoe BpeMSI. He nonan B OepBoe OOJIHOe c06pam1e TalOKe III 33KOH OT 15 SlHBap.ll 1724 r. 06 ynpa3nHeHJ.1J.1 T aj:jHoi1 K<1HueJISlpl1t1. OmO)I(MBWI1HCH J111111Ih B .fieJIOnp0I13BQfiCTBe caMOH TaMHoM KaHueJISlpl1t1 naHHblM 3aKOH 6hUl BBCllCH B Ha)"-lHblM 06OPOT y)Ke B. 11. BepereHHJ.1KOBbIM B HallMe XX B. 3 He 6hUlO I 3aKa-JQlIHre1IbHb]e 3KTb] ne1pa I/Cocr. H.A BocJqJeceHCKI1i1. M-R. 1945. T. I. C. 291. 3aKOHon.aTelJbHb]e aKTbI nerpa I. c. 254. J],nH nOJIHOTbl KaPTI1Hbl I1MeeT CMblCJIllOOaUI1Tb, 'iTO TeKCT 3aKOHH OT 19 anpeJIH 1711 r 6bllJ ace }l(e BOCnpol13BeneH B nepBoM nOJIHOM C06paHI1M - npaMa, no.1l BMOM peJOJItOUHI1 nerpa I OT 27 Cel/f1IJl6pR /723 i!. Ha n. I nOK.II!Um f n3BHoro MalltClJHGl (nOJIHOe COOpaHl1e 3aKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 4312. C. 122). COOT- BeTCTBeHHO. B IIICTopl1Ko-npaBOBOw nliiTeparype 3Ta pe30;'I1OUH.II Hel1JMeHHO p<lCCM3TpHIk1ll3Cb no HacTOHwero BpeMeHI1 KaK OTD.eJ1bHb[H 3KT aepxoBHoW BJl3CTI1. B neltCTBIfJ{'nbHOCTI1 pe30J11OUlllSI Ha n I Marl1cTpaTCKoro .noK.IJa- n.a I1pelI.CTi1BJ1.11eT co6oit npHCJlaHHytO 113 I1Mnep<rropcKoro Ka6HHeTa (XOT.II, pl3yMeeTCH, no Bb]C04aHwei1 BOne) Koolll1O JaKOHa OT 19 anpe.llH 1722 r. J BepemetlHUK06 B. H YKa3 C04. C. 111. liTO xapaKTepHO. nyMI1KaUHIII nOJIHoro TCKCTa 3HKOHa OT 15 .IIHBapH 1724 r. He COCTOHJJOCb III nOHb[HC. 
56 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I BHeceHO B nOJ1HOe C06paHl1e 3aKOHOB HI1 elU1HOCO 8KTa. KaCaB- weroc51 BbIlllHero cyna l . C MaTept'laJlaMt1 0 BbllllHCM cyne npOIHOlllJ] B006rne .Ia- ranO<IHa5I t1Cropt1S1. HeCMOTpfl H8 TO, 'JTO nO l [TI1 BC5I .nOK)'MeH- TaUt1S1 BbllllHero CYlla norl16JTa B KPeMJIenCKOM no)({ape 29 MMI 1737 r. 1 , no HaW(1X D.HeH yueJ1eJla MHoroo6pa3Ho conep)f(aTeJlb- HIDI no6opKa 3aKOHOB 11 I1MeHHblX YKa30B 1723-1726 rr. no BonpoC8M t!JyHKUHoHHpoBaHIHI H JU1KBHD.aUl1I1 CYAa. 3m n0.1I;- 60pKa (xpaHi-IBWIDICn B XIX B. B CaHKT-nerep6yprcKoM CeH8T- CKOM apXI1Be) OCTaJl8Ch, O.D.H8KO, nOl(eMy-TO HeBocTpe6oBaHHoi:i COCTaBI-1TeJl5IMI1 nepBOro nOJlHOfO co6paHI1S1. CXOllHblM 06pa30M He HaweJl OTpIDKCHI151 B nOJlHOM co6pa- Hln1 3aKOHOB 11 BblweoTMe<JeHHbli1 HaKaJ «M8i10PCKI1M» CJle.ll- CTBeHHblM KaHUeJlJlpJ1S1M OT 9 JJ;eKa6pSl 1717 r. E.a.HHcTBeHHbIH H3BeCTHb]H Ha cerQ!J;HJI CnHCQK HaKa3a COXpaHHJlCSI B COCTaBe KOMnneKca oco60 8<DKHbIX nOKYMeHToB CJ1enCTBeHHOH K8.HUe- JHlp"11 r. 11. KoweJIeBa/M. A. MaTIOWKMH8. H8'tOID1BWI1HCSI. B XIX B. B co6paHI111 Bce TOro }f(e CaHKT-neTep6yprcKoro Ce- HaTCKOro apXHBa, D.aHHblft KOMJUleKC TaIOKe He nonarl B nOJle 3peHI1H COrpYIIHt1KOB M. M. CnepaHCKoro. B t1TOre. HaKa3 OT 911eKa6p.ll 1717 r. YBlUleJI CBeT 1II1Wb B 2000 r. 3 nepBble OTelfeCTBeHHbie opraHbl npe.1I.BaplHeJIbHOro pac- CJ1e;J;OBaHt1S1. Boo6we OCTaBl1lI11 MI1HI1MaJlbHb]j:j CJJe.n; s nOJlHOM C06paHI1t1 3aKOHOB. MoryrneCTBeHlUUI. HeKorna CI1CTeM8 «M8j:jOP- CMf}.» KaHue]J}[pl1i1. OKa3arJaCb npenCTallJIeHa s nepHoM nOJlHOM co6paHI1I1 JlI1Wb nSYM51 8KTaMI1: CeHaTCKHM YKa30M OT 23 ne- Ka6pH 1717 r. 11 I1MeHHblM YKa30M CJJencTBeHHoft KaHueJlSl.p1111 11.11. D.MI1T]Jl1esa-MaMoHoBa OT 18 Sl.HBapSl. 1719 r. 4 BMecTe C ] lJ;iH nOJIHOTb! KaPTHHb] CTOI1T n06HBHTb, 'JTO B nepBOM nOJIHOM co- 6paHI1I1 aBTopy H3cTOHwei1 pa60Tb! y.naJIOCb BblHBlITb TOJIbKO JIBa - Bnpo- 'JeM, 'JI1CTO MeXaHI1'JeCKHX - ynoMI1HaHI1JJ 0 BblWHeM CYDe B npe8M6YJle HHCrpYKUl111 o6ep-BaJlbllMeHCTepy OT 3 lleKa6p>l 1723 r. 11 B I1MeHHOM YK83e OT 30 JlHBapH 1725 r. 06 3MHIJCTIm B CDH3H C KOH'JI1HOH ncrpa I (nOJ1Hoe c06eaHl1e JaKOHOB T. 7. NQ 4379, 4645 C. IR5, 412). 2Twdaeo-TolO,6uoocKUU A. A.I1CTOpI1H Pa3pHllHoro apXI1Ba (1711- 1812) II Onl1C8HI1e DOKYMeHTOB 11 6YMar f\.1AM1O M.. IRRR. KH. 5. Orll. I. en }«P03bICJGIJb HaKpeIlKO, n))aMOtO, fie3 BC.IIKHX npHKa3HblX Kj)JO'JKOB»: }'Ka3bl nerpa I, EKaTepHHbl 111 CeHaTa B 06naCTI1 cyIlO)'CTJJOik:ma III yro- nOBHOH nOJ1MTI1KI1. 1716-1726 rr I ny6Jl. D 0 CepoBa II I1CTopl14ecKHi1 apx Pa. T. 6. NQ 3138, 3284. e 529. 616-617. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 57 reM, IJ no.J1Ho.e Co.6paHl1e 3<lKo.Ho.B He 6bUUI BKJlI04eHbi HI1 .J<l- repJIBWI1i1cn B rpynax CeHaTCKo.ro neJlOnpo.H3B01l.CTBa I1MeHHofi YKa3 or 9 neKa6p51 1717 r. C npe1l.nl1CaHl1eM CeHaTY OKa3b1BaTb co.lldkTBl1e ('Mai1apcKHM» CJ1ellCTBeHHbIM KaHueJl5lpHSlM, HI.J aT- Jlo..lKHBWl.JeCSI cpellH llo.K)'MeHTo.B BblwHero CYlla 3aKo.Hbi aT 9ne- Ka6pJl 1723 r. H aT 22 JlHBapJl 1724 r. 0. JlHKIJI111aUI.JH Ha3RaHHbIX KaHUeJlSlpl1H (ny6J1HKaUHJI 3TI1X no.K)'MeHTo.B cocrowmcb TOJ1bKO B 2000-2006 rr. I). nepe'leHb T<lKOBb]X npo6eJlo.B B nepBOM nOJl- Ho.M co.6pamm Mo.)I(HO npo.naJl)l(IIITb. '-ITO }({e KaCaeTC.II 06C1OJITeJlbCTB cyne6Hati pe4>oPMbl, KO- TOpble 1113Ha'laJIbHo. He 4JI.JKCI1Po.lJaJlIIICb B KaKHX-JlI160 HopMa- H1BHbIX npaBOBblX aKTax, TO. 311eCb He06xaDJ1Ma BCno.MHI.JTb, IJ nepnylO o.'Iepellb, '1To. B 1696-1718 rr. IJ HaWe" CTpaHe orcyr- CTBo.BaJlo. CKo.JlbKo.-HlII6ynb na.nPo.6Ho.e HOpMaTI1BHo.e peryJ1l11- Po.BaHl1e cyne6HaH KaMneTeHU11111 HealiHaKpaTHO peo.praHl130- BblB<lBWI1XCH MeCTHblX III perHOHaJlbHb]X Opr3HOB 1JJ18CTH. K<lK 11 npeiKlle, HI1KaK 3aKOHO.D.aTeJlbHo. He pemaMeHTlllpOBaJIl1Cb B neTpoBCKo.e BpeM5I TalOKe MHorllle CTOpOHbl 11 cyne6Haro, I.J no- cyne6Haro npo.I.J3BOllCTBa (B rnocTIII, napw:roK Ha3Ha'leHIIISlI1 npl1MeHeHI.JSI nbITo.K). nO. BceM a'leBI1llHo.CTH, He 6bUl 3ill]>I.JKCIII- Po.BaH nlllCbMeHHo. III 111311aHHbIHIJ KOHue 1696 r. IIIMeHHo.H YKaJ 0. nepella'Je npe06p..'DKeHCKo.MY nplllKaJY I1CKJllOlfHTeJlbHOro npaBa cyna no. rocyn.apCTBeHHb]M npec1}'JUIeHIIIJlM (HeCo.MHeHHo.cTb cy- lUeCTBOBaHI1}J D.aHHOro YKa3<1 no. M8TepHaJl8M cyne6Ho.ro apXIIIB<l npl1Ka3a YCTIlHOBJ.1JI3 H. O. fOJ1I11KOIJa)l. HeJlb351 He OCno.MHI.JTb aruITb-TalOl III 0. BblWHeM cyne, He- llOJlmS! I1CTOpl.JS! Ko.To.poro TaI.JT MHo.me I.JCXo.llHo. Bo.3HI.JKWI.Je I «P03b[CKaTb HaKpcnKo. npaBllotO..... C. 205; «11 no .QCJlaM BCCM, 'JTO eCTb. CJIITb»: .Qo.KYMeHTb] 06 opraHlnaUl1111 11 lleHTeJJbHOCTH nepBblX OTe'IeCTBeHHblX opraHoB npenBapHTeJ!bHoro CJlenCTIllUI. 1713-1728 IT. I ny6..ri. D 0 CepoBa II I1CTopl1'JecKHfi apXI1B. 20116. NQ 1 C. 195,201 1 fOJUfX!6a H.5. nOJJI1TI1'JeCKl1e npoueCCbl npl1 nerpe I. c. 14. HeJ1b- 3.11 HC OTMeTJ1Tb, 'JTO nOllTocp.nHBWI1i1 OTMe4eHHYtO nlllHI1JO KOMnCTeHUl111 npe06pIDKeHcKoro nplilKma 3aKOH OT 15 CeHTH6pH 1702 r. 0 nopH.nKe Ja- .IIBJleHIII.II 0 roCy.n.apcTBeHHb[X npec1)'JllleHH.IIX }0Ke 6blJ1 $pMJIeH .QOJJ>K- HblM 06pa3oM H BnOCJJel1CTBltl1 nonan B COCTaB nepBoro nOJ1Horo co- 6paHI1.II (CM.. nOJIHOe c06paHI1e 3aKOHOB. T. 4. NQ 1918. C. 199-200). OCTacrCH ynoMHHYTb, 'JTO B peaJIbHOCTH CYllleCTBOBaHI1.II OTMe'JeHHoro I1MeHHoro YKma 1696 r. YCOMHIIIJICH M. Q AKHWIIIH. Bnp01.JeM. npHBe.neH- Hb]e 11M - B npOTI1BOBeC .n.aHHbIM H 6. fOJ1I1KOBOi1 - DOBOllbl BblrnmIJ.lT MaJlO)6e1urrenbHblMI1 (AlrUlUUH M. O. CYlle6HaH pectJopMa neTpa I: Dl1c. n C. 118-119). 
58 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I npo6eJIbI TaKora palla. T aK. sep05lTHee Bcero, I1CKJlIO'-II'ITeJIbHO YCTHylO $:>pMY I1MeJl I1MeHHoi1 yK33 1723 r. 0 npe06pa30BaHI1I1 BpeMeHHoro cyn.e6HOTo npl1cyrcrnllH, C031laHHoro 1lJISi paCCMO- TpeHt1f1 elU1HHlJHOfO yr0J10BHoro neJJa (no 06Bt'IHeHHIO o6ep- npOKYJXIpa r. r. CKOpH5IKOBa-nt1CapeBa 11 ceHaTOpa n. n. Wa- (]>J.fpOBa B npxTyJlneHIffiX npOHm I1HTepeCOB CJJy}K6bl). B nOCTORHHO 4JyHKU(10H(1PYlOlUl1j:j BbIWHJ1H CYJ];. nO-BH.1U1MOMY. TOJ1bKO B YCTHOj:j clJopMe 6bU1 Bb]pIDKeH 11 COCTO.llBllIHik.ll B TOM }l(e 1723 r. YKa3 OeTpa I - HeMaJlOB<\)KHb]H rom I1CTOpl11-1 KaK cy.nOYCTpOHCTBa, TaK 11 CJle.n.CTBeHHoro annapaTa PaCCI-1M - 0 pe- OpraHH3amm CJle.n.CTBeHHOH KaHueJl5lpl111 reHepaJI-npoK)'paT)'pbI B P03bICKHYIO KOHTOPY BbllllHero cyna. 3TH 11 HeKOTopble npy- rl1e, He <X):IopMJTeHHble LlOJl>KHbIM 06PaJOM aKTbl BepXODHOH BJla- CTI1 3aBe.nOMO He MOml1 nonaCTb HB CTpaHHUbl nepBOm nOJlHO- ro co6pam1J1 3aKOHOB. Me)(([lY -reM. He npollUJo 11 nOJlYBeKa nOCJie Bb]X01l8 B CBef nepBoro nOJlHoro C06paHI15I, KaK B H8)f'-1Hbli1 OGOpOT 6blJ[ BBe- neH HOBblM - 11 BeCbMa 06UII1pHblJJ - Kpyr I1CTOlJHI1KOB, CBH- 38HHbiX C npaBI1TeJlbCTBeHHoii 1Ie5lTeJlbHOCTblO neTpa I. Pe1.Jb HJJ.eT 0 ny6J1I1KaUtHl B 1873 r. neKope CTIlBWerO xpecToManfH- HblM Il-ro TOMa C60pHI1Ka PyCCKOro I1CTOpl1'ieCKoro 06weCTBa «nI1CbMa. YKa3bl H 3aMeTKI1 neTpa h,. no.n;rOTOR/leHHoro (no HHI1Ul18nme H no.n; PYKOBO.n;CTBOM aKNJ,eMHK8 A. <1>. E)b]'JKoBa) K 200-11eTHlO co 1IH5I pQ)KlleHI151 nepBoro poCCI1i1cKoro I1Mnepa- Tapa. 01lHaKO npl1 neeH 3H8'iHTeJlbHOCTJ.1 npo.neJl8HHOH COCTaBJ.1- TeJlSlMH pa60ThI 11I1Wb cpaBHHTeJlbHO HeGOJ1bWYIO 'J8CTb nOMe- lUeHHb]X B II-M TOMe M8TepI18JlOB MO)f(HO OTHeCTI1 K HOPM8Tl1B- HblM npaBOBblM 8KTaM. I1HblMI1 CJlOBaMI1, II-M TOM C60pHI1Ka PyCCKOro I1CTOpH'lecKoro 06weCTBa MariO 'ieM 1I0nOJlHI1JI nepBoe nOJlHoe co6paHl1e 38KOHOB. npaBlla. eCJII1 ronopHTb 06 I1CTOpHI1 Cy.ne6HOif peopMbl neTpa I, TO HeJIbJ5I He OTMeTI1Tb, 'iTO HMeH- HO B II-M TOMe 6bU111 BnepBble ony6JIHKOBaHb] HMeHHble YKa3bl OT 9 SlHBap.ll 11 OT 23 <t>eBpaJISI 1723 r., KaCaBWl1eCH )"-lpe)({lleHI1S1 11 YHKUI10Hl1pOBaHI1S1 BblwHero cY1la l . BCKope nOCJIe BblXOlla II-ro TOMa C60pJ.1HKa PyCCKOro I1CTopl1'ieCKoro 06WeCTBa. B 1880-e rr. Ha'ianaCb peanH3aUHSI Cpa3y 1IB}'X rpa H.JJ;I103Hb]X 8pxeOrpaH'ieCKJ.1X npOeKTOB. neeue- ] nl1CbMa, yKa3bll1 JaMeTKlI nel]Ja I I no.1l pen. A. Q). 6bl'JKOBa II C6. PI1D. cn6.. um. T. II. C. 502-503. 506. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 59 JlO nOCIJJUUeHHb]X 1-13MHI-11O JIOKYMeHrOB neTpoBcKoro IJpeMeHI-1. 3m 6b]JII-1 3H8MeHI-1Tble «nl-1CbMa W 6yMarJ1 I-1Mnepa-ropa neTpa Be.nWKOro» 1-1 HeCKOJIbKO MeHee W3IJeCTHble ..lloKJIMbl W npl-1- roBOpbl, COCTOHBWl-1eCH IJ npalJl-1TeJIbCTBYlOllleM CeHaTe B uap- CTBOBaHl-1e neTpa BeJII-1Koro». 06a H83BaHHblX I-13JJ.8HI-1H O)f(l11181Ia HeJIerKaSi CYllb6a. KaK 1-13BeCTHO. «lloKJI3,Abl 1-1 npl-1roBopbl...», ny6m1K3ll11J1 KOTOPb]X H8'1aJIaCb B 1880 r., npeKpaTI1JII-1 I13JJ.8BaTbCH B 1901 r. Ha rneCTOM TOMe. B CBOIO O'lepellb. 11311.8HI1e ..nl-1CeM 1-1 6YM8r.n» (nepBblH TOM KOTOpblX yBl-.w.eJ1 CBeT B 1887 r.) 6blJI0 cBepHY- TO B 1918 r. H8 cellbMOM TOMe, 3aTeM B0306HORlieHO B 1946 r., He 3aBepWI1BWI-1Cb, B I-1TOre, 1-1 nOHblHe l . COOTBeTCTBeHHO, CO- CTaBI1TeJ1I-1 «llOKJIMOIJ 1-1 npl-1roBopOB...» ycneJ11-1 ony6J1I1KOBaTb MaTepl-1aJ1b] TOJIbKO 38 1711-1716 rr., COCTaBl1TeJII-1 «nI-1CeM 11 6VM8r...» - 38 1688-1713 rr. . C T04KI1 JpeHI-1f1 H8nOJlHeHHOCTH HOpMaTI-1BHb]MI1 npa- HOHb]MI-1 aKTaMJ1 ..llOKJIMbl...» 1-1 «nI-1CbMa...» CYllleCTBeHHO yCTynaJOT. KOHe'lHO. nepBoMY nOJlHOMY co6paHI-11O 3aKOHOB. 11 npl11.JI-1Ha 1lleCb He TOJIbKO B He3aKOHlJeHHOCTI-1 1-1311aHI-1i1 «D,OKJIMOB...}) 1-1 ..nI-1CeM...». npOCTO HI1 B «llOKJIMbl...», HI1 B «nI1CbMa...», C006pa3HO npl1HUl-1naM oT6opa MaTepl-1aJ18, He 6b1JlI1 - B OTJll1'1l1e OT nepBoro nOJlHoro C06paHI-1R - BKJlI04e- Hbl Te aKTb]. KOTopble He 6b]JlI111I-1'1HO H8nI-1C8Hb] (1-1J11-1 38B1-131-1- pOBaHbl) neTpoM 1111-160 He I-1CX01JJ.'lJll-1 OT npaBI-1TeJlbCTBYlOrne- ro CeHaTa. OcmeTCR .n06aBJ1Tb. 1.JTO nepBylO oco6ylO n01l6opKy HOpMaTl-1BHblX npaBOBblX 8KTOB neTpoBcKOro BpeMeHI-1 B 1910 r. B Y"1C6Hb1X ueJlHX ony6J1I-1KOBaJI M. M. ()orOCJlOBCKi-1i1 1 . TaKoB KPyr OCHODHblX 1-1311aHI-1H, COllep>KalllHX HOpMaD1DHble MaTep1-18- Jlbl 1696-1725 rr., KOTopble BblWJlH B CBeT B Harne(1 CTpaHe B XIX - Ha'laJIe XX B. B COBeTCKI1(1 nepl-1011 Hal-16oJlee 3Ha'JI-1Mb](1 BKJlM B HeJlO ny6JII1KaUI-1I-1 HOpMaTI1BHblX I-1CTO'-lHI1KOB neTpoBCKoro BpeMe- HI-1 BHec He3aCJlYJKeHHO nOma6b1Tblt1 cerOllHH JleHI-1HrpancKHH )f'-IeHbIH-nOllBH>KHHK HI-1KOJ1at1 ArieKcaHllpOBH'I Boc"--peceHcKHt1 1.D.ol>JU\llbi 11 npl1rOlJOpbl, COl"TOHlJllll'leCJlIJ npalJl1Te.rJbCTBytOl.l.IfM CeHHTe B uapcTBOBaHl'le nerpa Be.rJI1KOro I nOll peJl. H. B. Karra'JOBa III H. Q). Dy- 6poBI1Ha. cn6.. 1880-1901. T. 1-6IBbln. II; nlllCbMa I16yMarH IIIMnepaTO- pa ne-rpa Be.rJI1KOro. cn6.-nr-M., 1887-1003. T. 1-13 IBbln. 11. 1 flaMJlTHIilKH 3aKOHO.illlTe.rJbCTBa nerpa BeJll1KOro I nOll pell. M. M. 60- fOCJ10BCKOJO. M.. 1910. 
60 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I (1889-1948)1. 3auaBWI-1Cb UeJlblO nonfOTOBI4Tb MCCJlellOB3HI1e 0 lle5lTeJ1bHOCTJ.1 neTpa I KaK 3aKOHo.rurreIISI., H. A. BOCKpeceHCKI1i1 npellnpl1ID1J1 BOl-1cn:lHY THTaHt1'1.eCKJ..:IH Tpyn. no Bbl5lBJIemUO 11 nonroToBKe K ne<JaTt1 Beet! COBOK)lnHOCTI1 aBTOrpaOB nepBOro pocCHifcKOro J1MnepaTopa, HMeBWHX OTHOllleHl1e K npaBOTBOp- 'Iecrny. D,Jul 3TOro H. A. BOCKpeceHCKHif B o.DJ1HOYJCy (!) npo- CMOTpeJI COTH(1 apXHBHblX lleJ1 II Jl,eC5ITKax $JH.IJ:OB mlTl1 apXH- BOXpaHJ.'lJlI1W MOCKBbl J1 J]eHMHrpaua. cyMeB 3<:1.011HO - BO Beex CJ1)f4ID1X 06Hapy)!{eHi'!}[ 8STOrpa$::m - pacWHpOBaTb KpaHHe HeYllo6o'-lHTaeMblti nO'-lepK neTpa I. DOJIee TOro: He orpaHI1'H1BWHCb OTblCKaHl1eM no.WUJHHH- KGB orpoMHoro KOJU1<ICCTBa Bbllllellllll1X H3-nOIl nepa neTpa I JaKOHO.llaTeJlbHblX aKrOB, H. A. BOCKpeceHCKHH npOCJ1ellKIJ BO MHon1X CJlY'-la51x BeCb 3aKOHOTBop4eCKHj:j npouecc. 31"0 YllaJIOCb ooaronap51 TOMY, '1TO }"-IeHb]" cyMe]] Bb]f1BI1Tb KaK JJ;OKYMeHTbl, nOCJiY)((l1BWl1e nepBoocHOBoi1 DJl5I n01lrOTOBKI1 pSID.8 38KOHOB, TaK H npOMe.>KyTO'-IHbIe pen;aKUMH HeM8JlOrO 4HCJI8 3aKoHonpoeKTOB. Pa3pa60TaB HOBaTOpCKJ1e npHHUHnhl ny6JlHKauHH HOpMaTHB- HhlX nOK)'MeHTOB neTpoBCKot! ::mOXH (cneUHaJlhHhlt! nOKJ1a.Il 0 lLleM OH cneJIarJ H8 3ace.n8HHH Apxeorpill]>wleCKot! KOMHCCHH AH CCCP ewe B neKa6pe 1925 r.r, H. A. BocJ<peceHcKHi1 nOllroTo- BWI K nelLl8TH 4eTblpe TOMa 38KOHo.naTeJlbHbIX 14 conyrCTB)'IOIJJ;HX K HHM M8Tepl1aJlOB nOlI 061UI1M 3armBHeM «3aKOIIOl'Ji1me1bHble DKmbl flempa Be/lulWi!f». I13.D.8Te1lhCKlliI cYllh6a YHHKaJlhHOfO Tpyna H. A. BocJ<pe- ceHCKoro CJIO.:KWl8Cb, O.nHaKO, elUe 60Jlee ne4aJlhHO, HexcJIH <<l!.OKJ1MOB H npHroBopOB...» H «nHceM H 6YM8r...». HecMoTI1SI H8 TO. ILlTO «3aKoHOnaTeJlbHble 8KTbl neTpa BeJIHKOfa» 6blJlH ro- TOBbl K H3,Q8HHJO Y.>Ke H8 HcXone 1920-x rr., pearJbHO BOnpoc 06 HX ny6JlHKauHH BCTaJI - npH pewaJOwei1 no.rr.aep}((Ke H3BeCT- HOro COBeTCKoro npaBoBella Ii 11. CblPQMSlTHHKOBa - nHmb Ha HcxOlle 1930-x rr. I1MeHHo 6n8ronapSI yCI1J1HSlM O. 11. Cb]POMnT- HHKOBa, B 1940 f. I1HCTH1)'T npaBa AH CCCP npHHRJI pemeHHe I B npe.nll1eCTBYJOll1eH nl1Teparype n01l06atOllie BbICOK)'JO oueH- K)' TPynoB H. A. BOCKpeceHCKOrO lIaJIl1 JOJIbKO 6. H. CblpoM.IITHI1KOB B npl1BeJleHHb]X HIDKC pa60nlX 1940 r.. E. B. AHHCI1MOBI1 H. B. KOJJlo- BEl (Attut"U..V06 E B. f ocyn.l1pcTBeHHb]e npeo6p.rJowHl1.11m C. 7-8; /(m,w- ea H. B POCCl1HCKHH a6COJlJOTH3M 11 K)'Ile'leCTBO B XVIII BeKe (20-e - Ha- 'JaJlO 60-x ro.nOB) M. 1999. C 33-34) 1 J1erOnl1Cb JaH.IITI1H Ap1reorpa4JIt'lOCKOII KOMI1CCI1I1 Ja 1913-1915 ro.nbl. 11., 1926. Bb]n. 3]. C. 61-62 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 61 06 I13J]aHIIIJ.1 «3aKoHOllliTeJlbHbIX aKTOB...». Ii 11. Cb]POMSlTHJ.1KOB Bblcrynl1.J1 OTBeTCTBeHHblM pen;aKTOpoM 'IeThlpeXToMHJ.1Ka, a TaK- >Ke nOllroTOBI1.J1 K HeMY npocTpaHHylO BCIYnJ.1T'eJlbHYIO CTaTblO. KpoMe TOro, 6. 11. CbIPOMSlTHJ.1KOB nOMeCTI1.J1 B HOH6pbCKOM HOMepe >KypHaJla «CoBeTcKoe rOCYllapCTBO J.1 npaBO» 3a 1940 I. BeCbMa COllep>KaTeJlbHYfO (J.1 myOOKO n031HHBHYlO no TOHaJlbHO- cm) peueH3J.1fO H8 yrBep>KJleHHYIO K ne'l8TJ.1 pYKonJ.1Cb (!) nepBO- ro TOrwa Tpyna H. A. BOCKPeCeHcKoro l . 3aTeM rp}(HYJla BOMHa. H B J.1TOre nepBblM TOM «3aKOHOllli- TeJlbHblX 8KTOB...» - «AKTbl 0 BblCllIHX rocy.napCTBeHHblX YCTa- HOBJIeHIDIX» - ymilleJI CBeT (c nOllroTOBJleHHbIMJ.1 erne B 1940 r. BCl}'nHTeJlbHbIMH CTaTbHMH 6. 11. CblPOMHTHHKoBa H H. A. Boc- KPeCeHcKoro) TOJlbKO B n06ellHoM 1945 r. 2 YBbl, nepBblM J.13- .naHHbIM TOM OKa3aJJCSI H nOCJlellHHM. no He5lCHbiM Ha cerOllHSI npJ.1'1J.1HaM BblXOll 8HaJ10rW]HO yrBep>KJleHHb]X K ne'laTJ.1 I1HCTH- -ryrOM npasa B 1940 r. OCTMbHblX Tpex TOMOB (nOCB5IIUeHHbIX, COOTBeTCTBeHHO. 3aKOH0.1l8TeJlbCTBy «06 061l1eCTBeHHb]X KJiac- CdX-', 0 TOprOBJIe J.1 npOMblllUleHHOCTJ.1 J.1. H8KOHeu, BoeHHOMY J.1 BOeHHO-MOPCKOMY JaKOHOllaTeJlbCTBY) TaK J.1 He COCTOHJlCSI. HaCKOJ1bKO J.13BeCTHO, PYKOnl.JCb BTOpOro TOMa pa6o- Tbl H. A. BOCKPeCeHCKoro XpaHHTCSI HblHe B Or.neJIe PYKonI.JC- HblX $JHllOB I1HcTJ.11Yfa POCCJ.1MCKOM HCTopHJ.1 PAH. pYKonJ.1Cb TpeTbero TOM8 (COCToSllllero J.13 AB)'X 'J8CTeM) - B $JHlle 1003 POCCJ.1MCKOM HaUHOHaJlbHOH 6H6J1J.1meKI1. CBeAeHJ.1H 0 MeCTOHa- XO)KDeHJ.1J.1 pyKOnJ.1CH 'IeTBepToro TOMa BCTpeTJ.1Tb B J111TepaTYPe K H8CTOSllllCMY BpeMCHI.J HC YDaIIOCb 4TO 6bl TaM HI.J 6bUJO, nepBbli1 TOM «3aKOHo.rr.aTeJlbHblX aKTOB neTpa I» Heo6paTJ.1MO CTaJI AOCTOSiHJ.1eM 1lII.JPOKOi1 Ha- )f'-IHOH 06111eCTBeHHOCTI1. OXBaTJ.1BWJ.1M 426 HOpMaTJ.1BHbIX npa- BOBblX 8KTOB H conyrCTBYlOllIJ.1X IJ;OK)'MeHTOB 1699-1724 rr. (He C'IHTlliI 'IepHOBb[X pe.naKUJ.1j:j 3aKOHonpoeKTOB), nepBblH TOM Tpyna H. A. BOCJq)CCeHCKOro 6e3YCJlOBHO npeB30WeJl KaK no nOJ1HOre COCT8Ba. TaK J.1 oc06eHHO no TO'lHOCTI.J nepen;a'lJ.1 TeKCT8 n01ll1J.1H HHKOB COOTBeTCTBYlOllIHe 1.JaCTI.J nepBoro nOJl- I O"POV1lmllUfo.TJ6 E. H Peu Ha KH.: H. A. BOCKj)eCeHCKI1H. 3aKoHo.na- TeJ\bHb!e aKTbJ nCTpa BCJlI1KOro. TOM I (pyI<OJlIICb) II COBe"JCKOe rocynap- CTBO III npaBO. 1940. NQ II. C. 111-119. 13aKoHo.naTeJlbHb]e aKTh] nerpa I I Coer. H.A BOCKj)eCeHCKI1H. M.-J1. 1945. T. I EkT)mrrelIbHble CTdTbl1 eM.: CbIpOlff/mHUK06 E. H Or penaKTopa II TaM >Ke. C. XXXIII-XLIV; 8o<xpecelfCfo.UU H.A. Ap.\00fp8- $H'lccKoe BSeneHl1e II TaM >Ke. C. 1-15. 
62 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HOro C06paHH.II 3<lKOHOB I . OSlThI(1 H rnecToi1 pa3neJ1bl nepBoro TOMa H. A. BOCKPeCeHcKI1i1 BCeUeJ10 nOCB.IITI1J1 3aKOHQaaTeJlb- CTBY 0 cy.noyC'rpOMCTBe H CYllonp0H3B01lCTBe 1 . I1MeHHo naHHble pa3neJ1bl Tpyna H. A. BOCKPeCeHcKoro CJlellYeT npl13H8Th H81-160- nee COlleV..-KaTeJ1bHOH Ha cerOllHflUJHI1H .l1eHb ny6JTHKaUHeH HC- T04HMKOB no HCTOpHI1 cyne6Hoj:j pe<tJopMbl neTpa I. B npo.nOJ])KeHHe Tpa,lU1U(1H. 3aJ10)l(eHHoi1 M. M. Eioroc- 1l0BCKI-1M H H. A. BocKpeCeHCKI1M, BO BTOpOH nOJ1OBl-1He XX B. B Harne" CTp<'lHe Bb]Ul.flO B ClleT TpI1 c60pmlKCI. nOJIHOCTbK) (ru1l1 no 601lbweH '13CTI1) co.n.ep)f(alliHX HOpr.ffiTHBHble MaTepHaJlbl ne- TpOBCKoro BpeMeHI1. .3r0 6wlI1: BOCbMOii BbmYCK - «3aKOHO- DaTeJlbHbie 8KTbl neTpa I» - 3HaMeHHTblX (,naMffi1UJKOB pyc- CKoro npaBa» (1961 rOll), <JemepTblH TOM - «3aKOHOllaTeJ1bCTBO nepMOl1a CTaHOBJleHIHI a6cOJllOn13Ma» - neB.IIHITOMHMKa «Poc- cMikKoe 33KOHo.n3TeJ1bCTBO X-XX BB.» (1986 ro;:J;) H OmeJTbHO H3)I8.HHoe «3aKoHo;:J;areJTbCTBO neTpa I» (1997 rollY nOllrOTOHJleHHble KOMeKTl1BaMH 8HTopHTeTHbiX npaBOBe1l0B H I1CTOpHKOB, CHa6)f(eHHble pa3BepHyrblMH KOMMeHTapIDIMH H BCl)'TIHTeJ1bHbIMH CTaTb5IMH no urpaCJUlM npaBa, Ha3BaHHbie c6op- HHKH YC1Yf1atOT, O;:J;HaKO, 11 nepOOMY nOJ1HOMY co6paHHfO 3aKOHOB, H TPYDY H. A. BOC"lJC('eHCKOro no KOJTWJeCTBY onyfuIl1KOBaHHblX aKTOB. B o6weit CJTO)((HQCTH B BOCbMO(1 BblnYCK «naMSlTHHKOB...» COCTdBHTeJ1H BKJl JOLIIU1H 44 HopMaTI1BHb]X npaOOBb]X 8KTa paCCMa- ] CTOIIT JaMeI1fTb, 'JTO H.A. BOCKj)eCet-lCKI1 nOliBepr H4e- cKJ.:Ie npHeMbl COCfdBIrre.rrci1 nepooro nOJIHOro HWI 3aKOHOB OClpOrI KplfIltKe. 'ITO Bb13BaJ10 pa:mepHyrb]e OOJpIDKeHI1H co CTOpoHh] mBeTCTBeHHO- m peniIKl1Jpo1 (11 B o.nHmi mme peueHJeKm) 6. 11. CblpoMHTHIilKOlkl (/3oaqJe- ceIiCK.UU H.A. 1'JecKoe BBelleHHe C 11-17; O"{JO'WWTlflWWO E H Or pc.naKTOpa. C. XXXVII-XXXIX, 011 JK'f!. PcUCH311H... C. 123-124). B 11<1H- HOM CJ\y'me aBTop HflCTO.lllllei1 paOOrb[ He MO;KeT He npllCOelJ}IH(1TbCH K MHe- Hl1tO 6. 11. Cb]poMHTH(1KOBa.. 11 .neJIO He TOJIbKO B TOM, 'ITO, KaK cnpaBe1l- nl100 on.retJlJl 6. 11 CbIPOM.IITHHKOB, nepooe nOJ1Hoe co6paHl1e JaKOHOB «npeCJ1ellOBaJlO 'JI1CTO npaJ.;nt'JeCKHe UeJll1 nOllrOTOBKI1 1<O.1II1I!JI1KaUI111 PYC- CKOro 3<]KOHQlI4fC.IIbCTBa B BI1llC CIICJeM,ITI1'JCCKOJO Coo.na 31\KOHOB ("raM )Ke. G 123) HeJrbJH He KOHCT:mtposaTb, 'JTO nepeIkl'la TeKCTOB HopMaTHBHhIX I1CTO'IHI1KOB B nepOOM nOJ1HOM C06paHI1I1 ocyrnecrnJISlJlaCb el.lIe 11 B CTporoM COOTBf'fCI'BIII1 C npl1HUHnaMI1 ap'\OOrpa4J1111 BTOpoH 'Jerneprl1 XIX B. !31KoHo.n.ITCJIbHbIe tlKTb[ ncrpa I. c. 361-408. B OJMe'ICHHblX Pa:JD.eJlax JKNeU1eHO 39 blX aKIOB I1I1HblX nOK)'MeHroB 1713-1724 IT. }flaMHTHI1KH PYCCKOro npalkl1 nOJI pen. K. A. CO!j:JpoHeHKo. M., 1961. BbIn. 8. POCCI1HCKoe JaKOHo.naTe:lbCTOO X-XX BB. I nOLI pen. A. f MaHb- KOsa. M, 1986 T.4; 3aKoH0.naTeJ1bCTBO nel]Ja I I no.1l pe.n. A. A. npe06- p3)KCHCKOro 11 T. E. HOBI1UKOH. M.. 1997. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 63 TJmsaeMoro neplllO.!I;a, II 'JeTBepTblM TOM «POCCI1MCKOro 3aKOHODa- TeJlbCTH,L." - 20, a II «3aKOH01l.aTeJlbCTBO neTpa I» - 96. nPJ.i 3TOM, eCJII1 COCTalJIITeJJl.1 IIOCbMOro TOMa «naIlffiTHHKOB PYCCKOro npaBa>' HCnOJ1b30BaJlH II Ka'JeCTBe HCTOlJHHKa .llIl5l ny6..ru1KaW1H e.!l;HHCTBeHHO nepBoe nOJ1Hoe c06paHHe 38KOHOII, TO II <'eTBepTOM TOMe «POCCHMCKOro JaKOHOIlaTeJlbCTRa X-XX BB.» 14 B «3aKOHo.Lla- TeJ1bCTBe nClpa I» TeKCTb] HopM8nmHb]X np800BbIX 8KTOB OKaJa- lIHCb IIOCnpol13Be1leHb] npeHMYllleCTBeHHO no nepBOne'J8THblM 143- .naHHHM, a OT"lacrn 11. BOBCe no apXI1BHb]M nOlLflI1.HHI1.KaM. nOMHMO H83B8HHbiX C60pHI1.KOB. B 1963 r. BceCOlO3Hblii IOpHllH'JecKMii 3aOlJHblH I1.HCTHTyr 11.3lI.illI B y<Je6Hblx ueJ1HX He- 60J1bUJyIO nOll60pKY 38KOHo.n.aTeJ1bHbIX aKTOB 1697-1725 rr., OTHOCHWHXCH K HCTOpHH npoueCcyaJIbHOrO npaM I . OCTaeTcH JJ;06aBI1.Th, H8KOHeu. 'JTO 3H8'JI1.TeJ1bHaJI no.n60pKa HOpMaHIB- HblX npallOllb]X 8KTOB 14 YKa30B BepxoBHoi1 BJIaCTM KOHua XVI)- nepBoH 'JeTBepTH XVIII B. (06WI1M 'JHCJ10M 76) 6bUT8 H3lT8H8 B 2003 r. BO BTOpOM TOMe HeOllHOKP8THO ynOMJIHyroro rneCTI1TOM- HHKa «CYJJ;e6H8H B!laCTb B POCCHH»l. 3TMM I1.ClJepnblBaeTCH Kpyr OCHOBHblX ny6J1HKaUHH 3aKOH01l.aTeJlbHblX MaTepHaJlOB neTpoB- CKoro BpeMeHH, ocyweCT!3J1eHHbIX K HacToHlUeMY B}JeMeHH. npe>Klle 'JeM nepeXQUJfTh K 0603peHHIO BTopoi1 rpynnbl I1C- TOlJHI-1KOB no HCTOpl-111. CYJJ;e6HOH pepMbl neTpa I - M8Tepl1.aJlOB cyne6HoH 1-1 <\1lMI1.HHcrpaTI1BHOM npaKTMKH - I-1Mee-r CMb]CJ! KPClTKO MOTI1BHpoBaTh C<IMY Heo6xonuMOCTh I-1X HCn0J1b30BaHI1.51 II HacrO}[- lUeM I1.CCJlellOB.:'1HI1.I1. neJIO B TOM. 'ITO elUe co BpeMeH K. E. TPOUH- HblH <1>. M. nMHTpI1.CBa JJ;O Hawm nHeii npoTHHYJIaCb 01MelJeHHaJI Bhlrne Tj)8llHIDJ}!, no KOTOpoH HCTOpHKo-npaBOllble pa3bICKaHHJI, KacaBWHeCH XVIII B., OCHOBblBaJlHCb HCKllJO'IHTeJ1bHO H8 HopMa- TI1BHh]X npaBOBh]X aKTaX, H3B!le'-JeHHb]X H3 nepBOro nOJ1HOro CO- 6paHHH 38KOHOB. Me)\\.l],y TeM. ellle B 1903 1". M. M. EiOroc.nOBCKI1H KpI1.TI1'JHO nOllMeTWI, 'JTO «6onbWHHCTBO 113 -rex HCCJlenOBaTeJ1eH, B P}Kax KC1JOfJbI" 6bVIO fll-1Wb nOIlHoe c06paHI1.e 3aKOHOB. 11. orpaHI1.- 'J11B8IOTCSI TOJ1bKO nOCJlenOBaTeJ1bHbIM H3JlO)KeHHeM HaxO.DJIlllHXCH B HeM JaKOHOD.aTe J1bHblX aKlDB. KaK 6bl He npe1lJl0JJarn51 B03MO)/{}{OH I Marepl1aJ1b[ no HCTOptII1 npoueccyaJIbHoro npaBa POCCl1I1 KOHua XVII Ha'lolJIl XVIII BCKOB. Y'JC6. noc06Hc I Cocr. 10. n. TI1TOB. M.. 1963. B naHHOM c60pHIilKe nOMelliHO n.llTb JaKOH01laTeJ\bHb!X tlKTOB. IlpH- Be.neHHb[X no nepBOMY nOJIHOllty C06paHl1tO JaKOHOB. l KJ"t1IOf/Jwt 0 E, J/e6eiJefJ B. M. CelfwUIf r. 10 YKa3 C04. T 2. C. 151-110.488-509. 568-623. Bee .nO"}'\feHTaJlbHble \laTeP11a,bI naHHoro pa3lleJ1a BOCnpoI1JBC.neHb] no nepBOMY nOJlHOMY co6p.rnl1tO JaKOHOB 
64 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I KaKYJO-JlI.160 pa3HIUlY Me}l([\Y Mb]CJ1blO 3aKOHOlJ.aT('JIJII1 ee npaKTI1- "leCKMM OCYllleCTBJleHl'leM B nei1CTBI1TeJ1bHOCTJ.1»I. BnOJlHe B nyxe npHBeneHHoro C}0K1I.eHlliI M. M. EOfUCJIOB- CKOrO 60nee nOJIYBfKa cnYCT5I BblCKa3aJ1C5I H COBeTCJa1H npaBOBefl B. n. nopTHOB. B craTbe 1964 f. B. n nopTHOB nO.Ll'lepKHYJI, "iTO «6 p5llJ;e CJI)''-laea nOJlblTKa n)XlCJle.LlHTb HCTOpHfO rocynapCTBeHHO- npaBOBb]X HHCTJ.1.-.yrOB TQJ1bKO no JaKOHO)1,aTeJ1bHb]M 3KTaM MO)l(eT npl1BeCnl K HCKa)((eHHOMY OCBeweHiHO JJ;ei1CTBHTeJ1bHoro nOJIO- }l(eHH}I... He I1CTOpHiO HOpM<iTI1BHbIX aKTOB nOmKeH cl:JHKCMpOl*lTb I1CTOpt.JK npaB.:'1, a BOccraHoBHTb KapTHH)' npollUloro, T. e. nOKa- JaTb, KaKOBa Bn.eiiCJBl.f're/lbHOCTH 6bUIa rocYlrapcTBeHHO-npaBOBasI CfJJYKJypa 06rneCTBa B onpeneJleHHblH nepHoll...»2. BItDJflUJ YMeCTHblM npHBeCTH 3.LleCb H MHeHHe H. A. 80c- ""peceHCKoro. Bo BCTymHeJlbHoi1 CTaTbe K «3aKOHO.D.aTeJlbHblM 3KTaM neTpa I» H. A. BocKpeceHcKI1i1 OTMen1Jl, '1TO «OJJ;HHM 113 OCHOBHb]X YCJiOBHi1 JU10110TBOpHOro H3Y'-leH11.I1 3nOXI1 peq:.opM ne-rpa I llOJl)!(HO 6bITb OC:B06o)!([(eHl1e HCCJ1ellOBaTeJlH OT o6aHHI151 nOJ1Hloro] co6plaHH5I1 3aKloHoB] Poc:clHMcKoHI HMnlnepHH]. ... MHHY51 ero, cJ1ellYeT 06paruaTbC5I Henoc:pellcTBeHHo K apxllB- HblM llOK}'MeHTaM. MOrylllHM npOJlHTb HOBblH CBeT Ha npoHc- XO)!([(eHHe H xapaKTep pe<tx>PMb] neTpa I»J. C nOll06Hb]MH MHeHH.IIMH npellllIeCTBeHHHKOB "I])YJI.HO He COrJl3CHTbC5I. COBeprneHHO HeocnopHMO, '-ITO npaBOBble HOPMb] (oc06eHHo Te H3 HHX, IJ KOTOpblX perJlaMeHTl1pylOTCH opraHH- 3aWI5I H cl>YHKUHOHHpOBaHHe roCy.n.apcTBeHHOro annapara) MO- ryr npeTIJOp5lTbC5I IJ )!(J13Hb n.aneKO He 6YKBaJlbHO. A pa3 TaK, TO ynopHa51 3aMKHyroCTb p5lll3 alJTopOIJ XIX - Ha11Ma XXI IJ. Ha nOJ1HOM co6paHHH 3aKOHOIJ HeH36e)!(HO o50pa'IHBaJlacb H3- ] Eozoc.W6CIi:UU M M I1CCJleJlOBaHH.II no I1CTOplII11 MeCTHoro ynpaBJIe- HH.II... C. 73 B MOHorPa4JHI1 1902 r. M. M. EiorOCJlOBCKI1H - B 6oJ1ee 06- JH()I.i 4x:!pMe - Bblpa:lllJ1Cfl 0 TOM. 'JTO Y'leHblf.i. KOTOpbIf.i B3SIJ1CH fibl aHaJlI1311pOBaTb neHTeJlbHOCTb opraHOB BJlacTI1 neTjJOBCKOrO BpeMeHI1 Ha OCHOBaHI1H OllHI1X nl1llJb .nOJDKHOCTHbIX I1HCTPYKUI1H. «OLJeHb HanOMHHJI 6b] TOro raJeTHoro penopTepa. KOTopblH, np0'I1}I a!fmwy, IIaJI OTLJeT 0 Heco- CTOHBIllI1MCH KOHuepre" (Eococ.,IOIJCKUU M M  pe4>oPMa nerpa BeJlI1KOro. C. 91). ! flopmH06 B. n. Wl1pe I1CnOJlbJOsaTb apXHBHb]e llOK)'MCHThI B IOpH- n.wttKil1( IfCCJlf.nOImUf.IIX II CoBeTCKoe rocy.napcTBO 11 npaoo. 1964. Ng 8. C. 41. BnOJlHe CX01lHble C)I)KI1eHHH eM. TalOKe B 60JJee Q"1:lIlHeit Cffin,e: flopm- ;:::H ::I/;::::H3 N:r2(?r;;.:- J BocIqJ(!C(!llCKUU H. A. Apxcorpa4JH'JeCKOC B[J.ueHl.Je. C. 22. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 65 seCTHOH OllHOCTOpOHHOCTblO I1X paGOT (XOHI 11 CM.IIfl-IeHHoi1 B OTlleJlbHb[X CJlyttaJlx my6I1HoH 8BTOpcKOro IOpl11llll'leCKOrO Mb]W- JleHI1.11). 113 TaKHX )"-IeHhlX Tpy.nOB B03MO)KH0 Y.llCHIiiTh He peaJIh- J-IYIO cy.nh6y Tex I1JlH HHhlX npaBOBhlX HHCTHlyrOB. 8 B 60JJhweH Mepe HlleaJIhHhle H8MepeHH5I 3aKOHo.naTeJl5l. ECJlH >Ke BcnOMHHTh 3aO.1lH0 H 0 pacCMOTpeHHblX Bblwe 113H8'laJIbHO B03HHKaBWI1X npoGeJ1ax B HopMaTIIIBHb]X HCTO'lHHKaX XVI-XVIII BR, TO He- 06XOllHMOCTb npHBJle4eHl1Jl M8repl1aJ10B CY11e6HOH H MMI-1HI-1- CTpaTI-1BHOH np<lKTHKH CTaHeT ewe 60JJee 04eBI11lHoi1. '-ITO KaC8eTC.II ny6J1I1KallHH TaKHX MaTepHaJlOB, ro H8H60- J1ee 3H8'lHTeJlhHhIMH 113 HHX - npHMeHHTeJ1hHO K neTpOBCKOMY BpeMeHH - CJ1e.11YeT npH3HaTh ynoM5IHYfhle <<l!.OKJIaIlhl H npHro- BOPbl, COCTOflBWHeC.II B npaIUrreJ]hcmYIOWeM CeHaTe...» H ewe GOJ1ee <!JYHJJ:aMeHTaJlbHOe «OnHcaHHe .nOKYMeHTOB H JJ;eJ1, XpaH5I- WIIIXC.II B apXHBe CB.IITeHwero npaBI1TeJ1bCTBYlOwero CHHQQa» (nepBble nflTb TOMOB KOTOpOm nOCBflWeHb] H3JlO)l(eHHIO MaTe- pHaJlOB nepooi1 'IeTHepTH XVIII B.). CTOHT I-1MeTb B BI11lY TaK- >Ke 06Wl1pHYIO ny6J1I1KaUHIO MaTepHaJlOB npeHMywecTBeHHO no HCTOpHH rpml<llaHCKOm CY110npOH3BOllcrna KOHua XVII - Ha<m- J18 XVIII B., KOTOPYfO nOllroTOBHJI B 1880-e rr. BHllHhl}1 npaBO- Bell 11 roCY11apCTBeHHh]H .nemeJ1h K. n. n06ellOHocuen. KpoMe TOro, HeJ1b3.11 050HTI1 ynOMHH8HI1eM H31l8HHble .fIPOCJI8BCKOH ry- 6epHCKOH Y'-leHOH apXHBHOH KOMHCCHeH B 1908-1909 fr. «AKTbl YfJlH'lCKOi1 npOBI-1HUHarlbHoi1 KaHUeJIflpHI-1 (1719-1726 ff.)>>, 3Ha'll1TeJlhHYlO <mcn KOTOpblX COCTIlBHJlH MaTepl1aJ1hl cy.ne6HoH npaKTI1K(1I. Oc060 CJ1e.11YeT ynOMSlHyrb OCYlUeCTBJleHHyJO M. M. Eoroc- J10BCKHM ny6J1HKauHIO.nBYX BeChMa BIDKHhlX.lI.IT.IIl1CTOpHH xapaK- repH3yeMoi1 cy.ne6Hoi1 pe<l:>oPMb[ npoeKTOB HOpMaTHBHhlX npa- BOBblX aKTOB. Pe'lb l1J];eT 0 pa3pa6oTaHHbiX B JOcmU-KOJUJerHH I1HCTpyKUHI-1 n pOBHHUHaJlbHOMY CJ1lY H I1HCTpyKUHI-1 HMBOp- 1 0ntlCaHtle 11Qt.;Yf.teHTOB III 11eJ1. xp3HHWUXC.II B apXHBe CBHTCi1rnero npaBI1TeJlbCTBytOWero CI1HO.na cn6, 1878-1897. T. 1-5; HCTopHKO- tOPl1lll1'lCCKHC 8KTbJ nepe'IDJlHOii 3nOXI1 XVII-XVIII BB. I ny6n. K. n. no- 6eLloHOCUeRa. cn6, IRR7 ITO >Ke: '-IOHllP. 1886 KH. 3. C. 1-160; KH. 4. C. 161-2941; AKTb[ YmwlCKOO npoBHHUl1arJbHOH KaHUCMpHIII (1719- 1726 rr.) I nOLl pe.n. (f) B TapaHoRCKoro. M.. 19(1;-1909. T 1-2 ITpYllb] IIpoCJJaBcKoH ry6cpHCKOH )"JeHoH ../pxil.DHOH KOMI1CCIIIIII. KH. 51. B nOCJlCJl- Hei1 ny6JJI1KaUHI1 eM , npejf(j}e ocero. pa3J1eJlb!: cOme"rc'meHHOCTb 11 OT'JeT- HOCTb 1l0Jl>KHOCTHb[X JlI1U». «06pa3UbJ. 4:10PM cy.nonpol1JDQlJ.CIDd», «AKrbl. rc;9 r5Hi.Mt nr;;3)eJl06I1THble» (TaM }l(e. 
66 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HOMY cyny, H3npaBJIeHHbiX COOTBeTCmeHHO B IHOHe H JJ;eKa6pe 1722 r. Ha YTIep)({1lem1e B npaBHTeJIbCTBYlOlU(.1j:j CeHa1. no He- HCHblM n.OHbIHe npt.J'lHHaM npoeKTbl 03Ha'leHHbIX I1HcTpyKUHH OCTaJlHCb 6e3 BCSlKOro paccMoTpeHl1S1 11 BnOCJlellCTBHH 3aTepH- JlHCb B MaccHBe ceHaTCKoro lleJ10n}X)113DOllCTBa. BblHBI1B nOll- JTI1HHHKH HaJRaHHblX npOeKTOB n c06paHIU1 MOCKOHCKoro ap- xJ.ma MHHHcTepCTBa IQCnlI.{lU1, M. M. EOrOCJIOBCK(1H H31laJI HX B npl1JlO}l(eHHI1 K llHccepmuHoHHoH MOHorpatlJI-uJ 1902 r. 1 HaKoHeu. B pH.llyony6J1I1KOIXIHHb]XI1CTOlJHHKOB, nmpe6Hbix DJ[.I1 mY4eHIHI cyn.e6HoM pe(]>opMbl neTpa I, HeJIb3S1 He OTMeTHTb «l1eemYUI,ee COCtII01lJlUe BcepOCCUUCKOi!O 2OCyiJapcm6a,> - cocraB- JleHHOe 11. K. KHpHJIOBbiM YHI1KaJlbHoe no ofueMY HH<t>oPMa- Wi" CTaTI1Cnf<JeCKoe H 3KOHOMHKo-reorpatlJl1'lecKoe Onl1CaHHe Hawei1: crpaHb] no COCTO.l1HHIO Ha 1726 1"O.lt. YYlITbIBa.ll. 'lTO C 27 HO.ll6p.ll 1721 r. no 12 OKHI6p.ll 1727 r. l1eaH KJ.1plUlOB co- CT05Ul B llOJI}I(HOCTJ.1 ceKpeTap.ll B KaHUeJlflpMI1 OpaBI1TeJ1bCTB}'IO- lllero CeHaTB. npMBelleHHble B eeo 'Ipy.ne CBelleHMSI. 0 TOm.aWHeM nocrpoeHI1t.J rocYllapCTBeHHoro annapara POCCI1t.J OTJlI1lJ81OTCfI BblCOKOii CTeneHblO .nocTOBepHocTH. OOMt.JMO HHOro, 11. K KHPHJ10B npt.JBeJ1 B H83B8HHOH pa- GaTe CI1CTeM8Tj.flJeCKl1e 118HHble K8K 06 opraHI13aUl111 CYlle6HOH CI1CTeMbl POCCI1I1. Tal' 11 0 lllTaTHOH CTpyKTyJJe opraHOB npaBo- CYJ],l1Jl. TeM CaMb]M, B «UBeTYllleM COCTOflHI1I1...» OKaJaJIl1Cb CT8- TI1CTl1lJeCKJ.1 38tlJHKCHpOB8Hb] I1TOm neTpOBCKI1X npeo6paJOfja- Ht.JH B OfirlaCTH cy.noycrpoHCTBa. He YBl11leBlllee CBeT npH }l(H3HI1 COCTaBt.JTeJ1S1 «UBcTYlllee COCTOSlHHe..." 6bUlO BnepBble H31l8HO B 1831 r., a 3aTeM B 1977 r.! 1..ITO KacaeTCSI He.1l0KYMeHTaJ1bHbIX (nonecTBOmrreJ1bHblx) I1CTOlJHMKOB. TO 113 lJHCJ18 TaKOBb]X llJIfI 113}''-IeHI1f1 06cTO.llTeJ1bCTB CYAe6HOH pecjJopMb] OeTpa 1 npellCTaBJIfleT I1HTepec. nYMaeTcfI, e1ll1HCmeHHblH - nO.IJ.3a6b]Tble ceronHSI 8BTo6HorpaifJI1'-IeCKI1e 3a- nl1CKI1 repM8Ha 6peBepH8, BI1Ue-npe3ltlleHTa IOCTI1U-KOJ1JlerI1H B 1717-1721 rr. OrMeqeHHble 38nt.JcKH (H8nI1C8HHble B n011JlI1H- Ht.JKe nO-Jl8TbIHI1) 6bUll1 t.J3ll8Hbl B 1847 r. H8 HeMeUKOM Sl3blKe non 3arJIaBHeM «Hermann's von Brevem Leben» 1«)!(J.j3Hb rep- ] Do.roc.106CKUU8 M M. 06JJacrHIDI pe4x:!pMa nClpa 1kJ1I..JKOro. npl1Jlo- )l(eHHH. C.4-J9. ! KllptL108 If. K. UBel)'lllee COCTOHHl..Je lkepocCI1WCKOro rocynapcrsa. M, 1831. KH. 1-1; OH;HC{' UBe1YLUee CO\.IOfIHl1e lkepoccl1i1cKOro rocy- napCTBa. M, 197711laJ1ee CCbLflKI1 Ha TPYli J.1 K. Kl1pl1J1osa 6yllyr I1pI1BO- IIlfTbCH no I13.ill]Hl1tO 1977 r.l. 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 fiT MaHa cjJoH EipeBepHa»]I. Oplll BceM TOM, '1TO 3anHCKI1 06pblBa- IOTC5I Ha 1718 f. III nOCB5IllleHbl, fJIaBHblM 06pa30M, I113JlO.JKeHIllIO 06CT05ITeJlbCTB 6HofpaqJlH1 r. 6peBepHa n.o npHe3118 B POC:CHIO, B HX 3aKJllO l IHTeJlbHOH '1aCTH COllep.JKHTC5I pM BeCbMa HHTepeCHblX CBen.eHJ1f1 0 C06bITH5IX Ha</aJla cyn.e6Hof1 pe$opMbl. BblweOXapKTeplll30BaHHb]e ny6J1HKaUHH n.OI<)'MeHTOB OXBa- TIIIJlH co6of1, pa3}'MeeTCJ1, J1HllIb HH'-ITO.JKHYIO '!BCTb MMIIIHIIICTpa- TIIIBHOro III cyn.e6Horo H8CJ1e1ll1J1 KOHua XVII - nepBOf1 '1eTBepTI1 XVIII B. I1MeHHo n03TOMY KPaf1He }l(eJ1aTeJJbHO 06pallIeHHe HC- CJle.nOBareml K apxHBHblM cjJoHllaM. Heony6J1HKOBaHHble MaTepHaJlbl, TaK HJlH HHa'le BbICBe'lH- BaIOWHe no.nrOTODI<)' H npoDe.neHHe CYlle6H0H pecjJoPMbI OeTpa I, OKa3aJIHCb K HaCTOHweMY BpeMeHH Coc:pellOTO<ieHbl fJIaBHblM 06- paJOM B PoccHikKOM roCYllapcTBeHHOM apxrme 1lj)eBHHX aKTOB ee - pr NI,A) H B MeHbwef1 Mepe - B POCCHf1CKOM focy- n.apCTBeHHOM IIICTOpl1'leCKOM apxJ..lBe ee - prl1A) H B POC- CI1HCKOM rocy118pCTBeHHOM BoeHHO-I1(;TOpH'IeCKOM apXI1Be (lla- nee - prBI1A). B prNI,A .nOI<)'MeHTbl, IIIMelOlllHe oTHorueHllle K pe<t>oPfC, OTJIO)KillJI1Cb, npe;:KJIe BCero. B Heo6'bHTHOM <t>owre 248 (,CeHaTHeraytlpe;:KJIeHH5I»(KOTOPblf1 H. B. KarJa'loB ewe B 1878 f. 06Pa3HO H TO'-IHO Ha3BaJI «6JIafOllaPl1b1M PYllHHKOM» llJIH }"feHO- ra!). 3.neCb, B nepB}'lO O<iepen.b. HeOOXQ!I.I1MO OTMeTlIITb 06pa3uOBO coxpaHHBwHf1cH KOMJUJeKC }-IGOHOro H npOTOKOJlbHOfO neJlon)X)- H3BOllCTIlli OpalJl1TeJlbCTBYlOwero CeHaTd 3a 1719-1725 fr. J B fu1HHOM KOMJUleKCe COllep}I(a'JC}( YHHKaJlbHble no nOJIHOTe H nOCTOBepHOCH1 CBelleHHH 0 cyn.e6HoH neHTeJlbHOCTH CeHaTa, 0 era B3al1MOlleHCTmm C I1HbIMH cyne6HblMH opraHaMH (a TaK.JKe C nP0KYPal)'pOH, $HCKaJlbCKOH CJI}')K60H H «MaHopcKHMI1» CJlell- CTBeHHblMIII Ka HUeJlSlpHHMIII), 0 Mepax no opraHHJaUl111 H KOM- I Hennann's von Brevern Leben II Archiv fur die Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands I Hrsg. F. G Bunge. Dorpa(. 1847. I3d. 5 S.125-259. ! KMa<to8 H. B. 0 CeHaTe B uapcrOOBaHl1e nerpa Be.r1I1KOro: HCJqJllKO- tOPl1ll114CCKoe I1CCJ1CIIOBaHl1e CeprcJI nCTpoBCKoro: pcueH3H.11 II Or-ICT 0 lleBHTHailuaTOM npl1C:y;+;JJ.eHI1I11 Harpaa rpaqm YIk1pOBa Cn6., 1878. c. 152. J I1MelOTcH B BHllY: 3anI1CHb]e KHl1rH ceHaTCKHX )'I«130B, pacnOpH>Ke- HI1f.i 11 npl1roBOpoB Ja 1719-1723 rr. (PfNlA, 41. 148. KH. 1883, 1884. 1886. 1887. 188911 1891), KHl1fH nQ!1llI1HHblX ceHaTCIillX yx.J3(JB 11 npHro- BopoB 3a anpeJ\b 1723-1725 n. (TaM .lKC, KH. 19)3-1921, 1923-1934, 1937. 1939-1949). KHl1rH 6enOBbIX npo1OKOllOB 3aCe1G3HI1i1 CeHaTa 3a 1721, 1723 11 1724 rr. (Ta)'! >Ke. KH. 1888, 1922 11 1935). a TalOKe KHl1rl1 nO.ll.l1l1HHblX YKa30B 11 npHrooopoB CeHaTa 3a 172411 1725 rr, np0'(OllllBWI1X no Cel<peT- HOMY .neJlonpoH3DOllCTDY (TI])'! .lKe. KH. 193611 1931;). 
68 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I nneKTOBaHHIO JlH'lHb]M COCTdBOM OpraHOB npaBOCYlll1}[, npOKY- parypbl H $1CKaJ1bCKOH CJ1}')K6b1, 0 <t>oPMl1pOBaHI1H YJlQ)KeHHoi1 KOMHCCI-U1 1720-1727 fr. B 'laCTHOCn:l, B COCTaBe 3aJ1HCHOH KHH- rn CeH3TCKI1X }'K830B H pacnopffiKeHHi1 33 1723 f. no HaC llOlllllO 113J10)f(eHHe HMeHHoro YKa3a OT 30 flHBapH 1723 f. 06 Y'lpe)l(lleHHH llO)DKHocnl reHepaJI-.q.u..JCKaJla - 'JTO 03Ha<JaJlO BOCCTaHOBJ1eH(1e BellOMCTBeHHoH caMQCTO.HTeJ]bHOCTH t):II1CKaJlbCKO(:J CJ]y.>K6bl (cro- HT 3aMeTI1Tb, '1TO Ha3BaHHb](1 }'Jan n;OHb]He He BBO)J;J1JIC.II B HaY'l- Hbli1 o60JXJT, He normB HI1 B OepBoe nOJmoe co6paHl1e 3aKOHOB, HM B «3aKOHOll3TeJ1bHble 8KTbL.» H. A. BOCKpeCeHCKOro). HCMaJIOB<DKHble DJlSI HCTOpHH cyne6HoH pe$opMbl llOI,'-YMCH- Tbi OTJlO>IGUIHCb- npaB.LI.a. coneprneHHopa3JX)3HeHHO - H BO MHO- >KeCTBe lIpyrHX e./ll1HHU xpaHeHtlfl $JHlla 248 prAlI.A.. TaK. cpe.rUf 06paJOBaBllII1X KHHry 905 $JHM 248 MaTepHalJOB no rJT3BHOMY MaUIC1JKUY Hera.u,aHHO «BCJlJ1bU1» He BKJlI04eHHb]H HI1 B KaK(1e npellweCTB}'IOlllI1e ny6J1I1KaUMM M YKa3aTeJIM 3aKOH OT 16 OKT.II6p51 1721 r., B KOTOpoM }1{,."'J3H8BJII1BMaCb nOllcyn.HOCTb rJIaBHOMY Ma- fJ.1CTpary BpeMeHHO npmKJ1BaB1ll1fX B POCCMM HHOCTpaHHbIX KOM- MepcaHTOB (<<Uti03e1tf06 1<.}."etqCUX Jlrodeu»). 3H8<1MTeJIbHblf1 MaCCMB 1l0J<yMeHTaW1H 06 yqpe)K1leHMM M nepOOH8'IMbHOM <tJYHKUHOHH- pOO8HHM «M8HOpcKHX» CJ1ellCTBeHHbIX KaHUeJI5lPMH CGXpaHWlC.II B COCTaBe KHMrI1 51 <t>oHll8 248. A BOT WMpOKO MCnOJIb30BaBWMeC.II npH nOllfOTOBKe xapaKTepmyeMof1 pe<t>opMbl MaTePHMb] 0 CYllOY- crpoHCTBe WBeW1H H8"laJI3 XVIIIIJ. Hax01l.llTC.II cerollJUl B COCTa- Be KHHm 58 TOro >Ke <t>oHD.a. Kpote TOro, B c06paHHH <t>oHlla 248 llO HaWHX llHeH yue- JleJI <tJparMeHT crHHYBwero B KpeMJIeOCKOM nO>Kape 1737 r. ap- XMBa BblwHero CYlla - n01l6opKa MaTepHaJTOB peJOH8HCHblX (no cOBpeMeHHoif TepMMHOJTOrl1H) yrOJTOBHblX llCJT, paccMorpeHHblx H83BaHHbIM cyll OM B 1723-1724 fr. I '-ITO xapaKTepHO, D.aHHble ] 3TO - npe>K.lle BCero JaKOH'JeHHble CYDe6HbiM njX)HJBOJ1CTBOM neno f. f. CKoPHHKosa-nI1Capella M n. n. Wa4JfJXJBd, ,.neno 4JHCKaJlOB» (KOMruICKC yrOJlOBHblX neJ\ 1722-1723 n. no 06BHHCHl1tO rpynnbl 1l0.'VKHOCT- HblX nl1U 4JHCKaJlbCKOi1 cnVJI<:6b1). a TalOKe lle.O no 06BI1HeHl1tO B npec1}'lllIe- HI1HX npoTHB I1HTepeCOB cny.mbl TaMO;t;l'HHOrO 6ypMI1C1]Ja <]:I. A 6onurHoro (PfNlA, 41.148, KH. 300; KH 273, KH. 274; KH 30, n. 144-100 06.). YMeCTHo llo6aBmb, 'JTOOCHOBHIDI'JaCTbM.JIqJllaJlOBCy.nc6HOrolle.JI1! f. f. CKOPHHKOsa- nl1capesa 11 n. n. I..L.Ia4Jl1pcma 6bllJa - B Bl1D.t naupo6Hom nepecKa- Ja - ony6nl1KosaHa B 1859 r. n. 11. HBaHOBb]M (lIenH06 n. If. CYllHoe .neJIO Hall neCTBI1TeJ1bHbIM TaHbIM COBeTHI1KOM 6apoHOM Watj:Jl1jX)BbIM M o6ep- npoKYpopoM CeHaTa CKOPH.IIKOBbIM-nI1CapeBbIM II }I(YPHaJI MI1HI1CTepcTBa IOCTIWI1H. 1859. T. I. KH. 3. C. 8-62). 
fIlas.a 1. IlI<1TepaT)'pa I1I11CTO'-IHI1K1>1 69 eltlllHIIIUbl xpaHeHIIISI npellCTaBJISlIOT co6oli UeJlOCTHb]e KOMJUJeK- CbllloKYMeHTOB KaK CYlle6Horo, TaK W nocyne6Horo (a 3aOllHO H CYlle6HO-HCnOJlHI1TeJlbHOfO) npOl.J3BOllCTBa no cOOTBeTCTBYfO- Il.ll'IM yroJlOBHblM neJIaM. 00 3TOH npH'lHHe MaTepHaJlbl OTMe- 1.jeHHOH nOlt6opKH neJl S1BJ1S1fOTCH ueHHblM HCTO'lHHKOM D.JISI pe- KOHCTpyKUlII1II He TOJlbKO IIICTOplll1ll BbllllHero cyna III TOrnaWHlllx opraHOB npetlBaplllTeJlbHoro pacCJ1eltOBaHIII.II, HO III D.JISI peKOH- CTpyKUlII1II MHOflllX oc06eHHoCTeH yroJlOBHOro cynOnpOlll3BOltCTBa Pm:clIIlII B nepBOH <JeTBep-r1ll XVIII B. HapHltY C <tJOHltOM «CeHaT H era }"-Ipe)l(1!eHHSI», B POC- cHilcKOM rocy.napcTBeHHoM apXHBe lIpeBHHx BKTOB M8TCpHaJlbl, HMefOlliHe OTHorneHHe K neT])OBCKHM cyne6HblM npe06pa30na- HHSlM. OTJlO>KHJlHCb B 3HB<JHTeJlbHOM KOJlH'IeCTBe TBlOKe B cjJoH- lIe 9 «Ka6HHeT neTpa I», <t>oHlle 1451 «I-1MeHHb]e YKa3bl neTpa I CeH8TY)', ctJoH.ne 282 «IOcTHU-KoJUJeflllSl», <f>ot-tlte 285 «IOCTHU- KOHTOpa» H B p5ltle <t>oHll.OB MeCTHblX opraHOB BJIaCTI1 XVIII B., HaH60JJbWHIII HHTepeC H3 KOTOpblX HeCOMHeHHO npellCTaBJIHeT c06paHHe <t>oHJJ.a 982 «5lpoCJ1aBcKHH HaIlBOpHbifi CYlI». He B.LJ.a- Ba5lCb B xap8KTepHcTHK)' K8)I(ll0ro H3 HaHMeHOB8HHbiX <t>oH1l0B, He06xonHMo OTMeTHTb, 'ITO eCJlH lIOK)'MeHTbl <tJOHltOB «Ka6HHeT OeTpa I» H «I1MeHHble YKa.Jb] OeTpa I CeH8TY)' OTHOCHTeJlb- HO UIHpOKO IIICnOJlb3QBaJlHCb }')Ke HeCKOJlbKHMIII nOKOJleHIffiMH OTe<JeCTBeHHb]X H 3apy6e.>KHbIX HCCJleltOBaTeJleH, TO M<iTepHaJlbl <t>oH1l0B, B KOTOPb]X xpaHHTC}[ ltOKYMeHTaUIIIJI cyne6HbiX opraHOB nepBOH 1.jeTBep-r1ll XVIII B., nOHb]He nOYTH He BocTpe60BaJlHcb yYeHbIMH. .llOCTIlTO'lHO CKa38Tb. 1.jTO KOJIOCCaJlbHOe c06paHllle <t>oH1l3 282 «IOCTI1U-KoJUJem5l» (24790 e1lIllHIIIU xpaHeHHJl I ) no HacT05l111erO npeMeHH HCnOJlb30BaJlH B HCTopHKo-npanOBblX H3- b]CKaHHJlX TOJlbKO.n. A CTellleHKo,.n. M. EiaJIaKHpeBa. E. B. Eio- pO.nHH8 na 8BTOp HaCT05IweH pa60Tbl. A K 60mreHllIeMY ctJOI--I1IY 285 «IOCTHU-KOHTOpa» (cOltep.>KallleMY. B <JaCTHOCTI1. HHTepec- HeHllIHe 1l0KYMeHTh] 0 tlJyHKUI10HHpOBaHIIIH B neTpOBCKoe BpeMn CaHKT-OeTep6yprcKl1x HallBOpHOro H npOBHHUHaJlbHoro cynoB) H3 <JHCJIa npellwecTBYfOwHX aBTopoB 06p8lllaJIacb ellHHCTBeH- HO O. E. KOWe JIeBa 2 . I UeHTprulbHb[H rocy.napcTBeHHbli1 "pxi-fB n.peBHI1X 8KTOB CCCP: nyre- BOlll1TtJ1b I Cocr. to. M. 3CIOIH. M. B. 686114. E. <D. )\(enoxosuesa M.. 1992. T. 2. C. 121. 2CJ1en}eT OTMenm, 'JTO HeM,moe 'Jlllc.OnOKyllleHTOB, nOnaBWI1X - y)Ke B COBeTCKI1H nepl101l- B ct>oH1lbl182 11185 PP\llA. I1CnOJlb30BaJI JTpI1 nOll- IUlUBKC nl1CCepTaUHOHHOH MOHorpulJl.:!I1 1902 r. M. M. Eoroc_OBCKI1i1. 
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rnaBa 2. Cy,qe6HaJI CMCTeMa POCCMM B npepe4>oPMeHHblM nepMoA (1696-1716 rr.) fi 1. Cy,qoYCTPOCTBO M cy,qonpOM3BOA(:TBO POCCM B XVII B. 0603peHHe H3MeHeHHf1 B OTe11eCTBeHHOM cynoyC'rpof1cTBe H cynonpoH3BOnCTBe, ocyweCTBJIeHHblX nerpoM I no Ha11Ma cy- ne6HoH peqx,PMbl, Heo6xoflHMO Ha':laTb C np05lCHeHI1J1 Bonpoca o TOM, KaK)'1O >Ke cyne6HYK> C(1CTeMY 3aKOH01l8TeJIb nOJI}"-I(1JI B }{3CJ1elU'le OT MOCKOBCKOro llapCTBa. Heo6xOlmMO - XOT.II 6bI B o6wI1x ':IepTaX - nOH5ITb. KaK 6bUl OpraH(130BaH (1 KaK <)JYHK- UHOHHpOBaJI TOT cyn, mMeH5ITb, a 3aTeM H npeo6pa30BbIBaTb KO- ropbIf1 B351J[CJI 6ynyumf1 HMneparop. 3necb, npe)({fle Bcero, HeJIb351 He KOHCmn:lpoBaTb, 11TO pa3BHH1e OTe':leCTBeHHof1 CYlle6HOH CHCTeMbl B XVII B. (13y>-1e- HO MeHee nOlIpo6HO. He)f(eJII'I ee p<l3BI'ITHe B nerpOBCK)'1O 3noxy. JJ.OCTaTO'-lHO cKa3aTb, 'lTO K HacTOfIlLleMY BpeMeHI'I He nOllroTOB- JIeHO HI'I elll'lHoj:j HI'I MOHorpa<)J(1'leCKoj:j. HH lU'IccepTaUI'IOHHOj:j pa60Tbl. KOTOpa51 nOJIHOCTbK> 6bl nOCB5IWaJlaCb cynOYCTpOj:jCTBY H cynonpoH3BOllCTBY POCCI'IH OT CMyrbl no YCTaHOBJIeHHSI elll1- HOllep)f(aBHSI neTpa I. BMeCTe C TeM, He yrny6JISlSlCb B HCTOpHO- rpa<)JHJeCKHe lle6pH. CTOHT OTMeTHTb, <ITa HCTOpHSI cyne6Hof1 CHCTeMb] XVII B. (K p<l3bICKaHHSIM no KOTOpoi1 BnepBble 06pa- 
76 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I TlliIMcby}({e He pa3 ynoMflHyrble K. fl. KaBeJU1H. K. E. Tpomnm J..I fP. M. llMHTpl'leB) TaK 11111'1 HH8'le npl'lBJIeKll8 B XX - H8'laJ1e XXI B. BHHM8HHe MHOrl'lX HCCJ\en.OBaTeJ1eH - OT H. 51. fYPJUIH- n.a H M. M. EoroCJ10BCKOrO no A. C. CMhlKaJlHH8 H fl. n. Cy- MHHa l . np(1 3TOM H3}"JeHHOCTb HCTOp(11'( POCCl-U1CKOro npaBOCYD.WI XVII B. OTJllNaeTC.II 3aMernoi1: HepaBHOI\tepHOCTblO. EioJ1ee n0Jq106- HO OKaJa/iOCb Ha ceroltHHllIH(1H JJ;eHb I'ICCJlenOBaHO 4>YHKUI10H(1- polXIH(1e BblCTynaBWI1X B"I)' nopy B K3'leCTBe cynoB nepBOro 3BeHa ry6HhIX 11 BOeBO.D.CKllX 1136 OT.fieJlbHhlX TeppHTOpl1j..j (oc06eHHo CH- IlJplJlHiJ If. H. npl11<a3 CbICKHb!X .nen II C6opHI1K CTaTeH no I1CTO- pHIil npaBa. nOCBHweHHbIH M. Q). BJlaQI1MHPCKoMy-EiynaHoBY Kl1eB, 1904. C. 87-H)9. Eomc.W6C1WiiM. M. 3eMcKoe c.i\fnp<Rl1eHl1e Ha F')CCKOM Ce- se B XVII B. M., 1911 T. 1. C. 140-159; OJlPOV1lnJJtUK06 E. 11. 04epK IICTOpllll1cyna... C. 125-149; Ep.VOIC/OO If. n. CpclIHee nOBO.fDKbe 130 mupoii: nOnOBI1He XVI-XVII BB (ynpaBJ1eHl1e Ka3aHCKI1M KpaeM). Ka3aHb, 1982 C 112-114. 130-131. PaJJJI.ffite pyCCKOro npasa B XV - nepBoi1 nOJlOBHHe XVII BI>. I nOlI pe.n. E.c. HepcecHHua. M., 19!i6. C.l05-11O. 216-111; KHR3bK06 C. E. CYlle6Hble npHKa.3b] 11 KOHUC XVI - nepooH noJIOBI1He XVII B. II I1cTOpH'lecKHe 3anI1CKH. M., 19!i7. T. 115. C. 268-285, f"OIUIW- ea H. E. OpraHlo:num nOJ1I1TI1'[eCKoro CblCKa B POCCI1I1 XVI-XVII BB. II focYllapcmeHHb[e }"Ipejf(j}eHI1H POCCl1l1 XVI-XVIII DB. M., 1991. C. 11- 36: BepwUHUII E. B. BoeooncKOe ynpaBlleHllle B CI16Hpl1 (XVII BeK). EKa- repHH6ypr. 1998. C. 104-137; £qa3be8 B. H. RimCTb III 06urecTBo Ha lOre POCCIIII1 B XVII BeKe: npoTHoo.uei1CTBl1e yronoBHoH npecl1'nHocTH. Bopo- He)l(, 1001; CVb/KWlUH A. C CYlle6HaH CI1CTeMa POCCI1HCKoro rOCYJIapCTBa... C. 54-59; H.J..VfJ3UJ': B. C nOJlIffif'lecKI1H p03blCK Ha PyCI1 F! XVII BeKe II )1(m-urapMbl POCCI1I1: nOJlIITH'l.ecKHii po3b]CK POCCIIIIII XV-xx BeKa. C. 69- 89; AKUUlUH M. 0. !3oeOO.nCKI1H cy.n B CI1611pH HaKaH)'He cYlle6HoH pe- $JpMbI neTpa I II npo6J1eMbI I1CTOpHI1 MeCTHoro ynpaBJIeHI..J.II CI1611pl1 XVI-XXI BB.. MaTep. nmoH ocepocc. Ha)"JH. KOHl». HOBOCH6Itpo.::.l003. C. 153-162. A6iJeeea 0 A. Oc06eHHOCTH RllMI1HI1CTpaTHBHo-cYlle6Hoi1 CH- CTeMb[ CH611pH B nepl10A BoeBQ1lCKo-npHK£13HOfO ynpalilleHI1H II HCTO- pHH rOC)llapcTBa 11 npaBa 1003. NQ 2. C 34---4(); C)!IIUH Jl n Cylle6HbIe opraHbl MQCJ.;oocKoro rocynapCTBa XV-XVII BeKOB (HCTOptIKo-npaBoBoe IICC1Iel1OBaHl1e) ABTopel». nl1c. ... KaHn. tOPI11l HayK. H HOBropo.n, 20:)..1. KpoMe TOro, IJeCbMi:I COllepbHble (XOTH 11 pa.ljJOllieHHb]e) Ha6nlOne- HI1.11 0 npaKTHKI: J]M)K.!J.lliCKOro CYilonpol13DOllCTBa POCCHI1 KOHU3 XVII D- CM. B He./JaBHeH CTaTI>e.n. A. TI1MOWI1HOH (TU.!,f("J/UUHO fl. A. CYlle6Hoe lleJ10 rOCTH 11.lJ, naHKj)aTl>esa 11 K(Je\.""Th1IHI1Ha TOTeMcKoro }e:w'IlJ, 6pe.lll1HI1Ha 1687 r. /I 04epKH 1):Je0illlllbH0i1 POCCI1I1. M.-Cn6..1005. Ebln 9. C. 158- 160. 166-168. 172-174. 177-193,204-213,229-232). 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI'ICT8Ma PoCCI1I'1 B IlMeHHblri1 77 IleJH¥:\ (1696-1716 rr.} 6I1pH). A IJOT cyne6Ha5l neSlTeJIbHOCTb np"JQU()B H DOSlpcKoH nYMbl OCBelUM8Cb }"-IeHblMH 3BTOpaM(1 HecpaBHeHHo MeHbwe. Hal160- nee }f(e Cepbe3HblM (1CTopHorpacln-flJecKHM npo6eJJoM B naHHOM C!ly'me Bt-WJITCSI OTcyrclBlte pa60T 0 TaKOM BIDKHef1rneM cyne6Ho- nOJU1udicKOM BenOMCTBe XVI-XVIIBB.. KaK Pa360fiHbIH npl1Ka3 l . lfTO 61,1 TaM HH 6bUlO, CJle.llYeT pe3fOMHpceaTb. 'lTO cero.LlH5I BCe- TaKI1 HMeeTCSI 003MO)l(HOCTb COCTaBJ.ITb OTHOClfTeJlbHO L\eJIOCTHoe npeLlCT'dBJIeHHe 0 TOM, 'lTO }f(e 5IBJlIDI co60H crapOMOCKOBCKHH no- pe$JpMeHHbIH cyn. KaKOBhl }f(e 6WU1 H3H601lee cyrnecTlJeHHble 'lepTbl cy- noycTpoiicTBa H cynOnpoH3BO.D.CTBa B Harnef1 CTpaHe Ha I1CXOlle XVII B.? D..n51 Ha'JaJ]8, HeJIb351 o6oitm ynoMHHaHl1eM naBHO CTaB- Wl1fi xpeCTOMaTHHHblM Te311C 0 CBOHCTBeHHOM CTapOMOCKOB- CKHM BpeMeHaM «e.Ll(1HCTBe cyna H allMHHHCTpaL\HW', TO eCTb 06 OTcyrcTBHH B nOneTpOBCKOfi POCCHH cyne6Hb]X opraHOB, CTPYK- TYpHO H YHKUHoHanbHo o60co6.IJeHHblx OT Opr3HOB ynpaBJIe- HH5I. CnpaBeJlJlI1BOCTb D.aHHOro Te311Ca HeocnopHMa. llpyroe .neJIO, 'lTO cpellHeBeKoBoe <IDtHCTBO cyn.a H MMI1- HHCTpaUI1I1» I1MeJlO erne OllH)' - HHKaK He OTMe'leHHYJO B npell- weCTBYJOrneH HCTopHKo-npaBOBOH JlHTepawpe - npI1HL\Hnl1- aJlbHO Ba}f(HYJO CTOPOHY. Ha3BaHHOe -«ellHHC'TBO» 03Ha'iaJ[O TaJOKe H .nOMHHHpOBaH(1e cneumlJ]H3HpoBaHHbiX cynoR CYAbl 06lliefi JOPHCllHKU(1H IJ Cy.ne6HOfi CHCTeMe Aope<t>oPMeHHofi POCC(1H OT- CyrCTBOB3JlH K3K TaKoBble 1 . npH 3TOM CneL\I1aJlH3I1pOBaHHble CYD.b1 He npocTO AO- MI1Hl1poBaJIH, I1X 6blJlO ellie H MHO)l(eCTBO. KaK He pa3 no.D.- Me'IaliH I1CCJle.D. OBaTeJIH, Bce TOrn.aWHHe ueHTpaJIbHble opraHbl I Y4pe)l(l1eHHblH B cepenl1He XVI B. P:n60I1HbIH np"Ka3 6b[]]. no YKa3Y OT 6 HOH6pH 1683 r.. nepel1MeHosaH B CbICKHOH. no.n TIlKOBb[M H33Ba- Hl1eM npl1K33 npocywecrnoBaJl 110 caMora ynpa3D.HeHHSI B HOH6pe 1701 r. (nOJ1Hoe c06paHHe 3aKOHOB. T. 2. NQ 1051 C. 567. T 4. NQ 1874. C 175) B npl1KaJHOM ne.rrOI1)J01131J01ICT8e KOHU8 XVII B. naHHb[i1 npl1K3J HepellKO <lJHI)'IJIIPOBaJI T3K)Ke KaK «PoJooilHtA; 'blC.  K3K HI1 CTjJ3HHO, Ha naHHoe 06CTOHTeJlbCTBO He 6blJ10 o6paweHo HI1- KaKoro BHI1MaHI1}{ DroKe B CTaTbSlX, B KOTopblX OCBeLUaJlOCb I1CTopH'JecKoe pa3BI1TI1e CI'ICTeMbI cneUl1aJll1311pOBaHHbIX cynoB IJ POCCHI1 (CM.: ArjxlHa- Cbe8 C. (/).. 30Ulje8 A. 11. 06 I1Crop1111 cneUl1aJll1JaUHH IOPI1CJlI1KUHOHHbIX opraHoB II npaBOBeD.eHl1e. 1002. NQ 2. C. 135-143, TpUWUHO H. C. K BO- npoey 0 CneUI1aJ111311poBaHHbix cynax: I1CTopH'JeCKI1i1 acneKT II BTOpb]e EcepOCCI1i1cKl1e DepJK!llJl1HCKl1e 'JTeHI1H: C6. CTdTeii. M.. 1007. C. 83- 85). 
78 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I BJlliCTI1 - npl1KlUbl - 06JJaIJ.M1'I TeM(1 11111'1 MHbIM(1 cyne6Hbl- MH nOJlHOMO'l(1}IMH. llpymMH CJlOBaMW. MiK1I.bIH npman KOfO- HI'I6YD.b 33 I.JTO-HI16yn.b na cylU1JI. Cyne6HaSI KOMneTeHUIDI npl1- Ka30B 6bIBaJIa Tpex pa3HOBlillHocTei1: no Kpyry LIeJl, no Kpyry JlI'IU, H no reppl1TOpHH (CJI)"laJlOCb. nn}X)'1eM. <:lTO 3TH Pa3HOBlW.- HOCT" CORMewaJU1Cb B JCPyre Be.lleHIm OIlHom npi'lKaJa - J<aK CIQDKeM, paJp.lltlHoro). Me)l(1(y TeM. no HaH60Jlee aBTOpHTeTHblM D.aHHbIM H. <]). lleMlW.OBOH B 1682 r. npl'lJ<a30B H<lC'JI'ITblBaJIOCb 53, a B 1698 r. 1'1 rofO 60JibWe - 55 (BKJlIO'-IaM n8Tpl18pllIl'le H D.BOpUOBble)l. KpoMe TOro, cyne6HblMt1 nOJlHOMOl.Jl'ISlMI'I 06Juw.aJIa erne H PYCCKlliI uepKoBb. H nYCTI> uepKOBHaSi IOpl1Clll1KWUl B KOHue XVII B. 61>]113 He CTOJTb lllHpoKa, KaK BO BpeMeH8 Kl'leBCKOH PyCH. TeM He MeHee OHa npo.nOJl>KaJla OXBaTbIBaTb - no HeKOTopoMY KPYry lleJ1 - Bee HaCeJ1em1e CTpaHb] npaBOCJJaBHoro sepoHcno- Ben.amISl. llyxOBeHCTBO >Ke (33.011HO C KpeCTb5IHaMI'I MOHaCTb]P- CkIDo. 1'1 enapXl1aJ'1bHblX BOT'-II1H) cynHIJOCb opraHaMI'I uepKOBHOH BJIaCTH nOlJ.TI'I no BCeM neJ1aM. Ha npaKTHKe Bce 3TO o60pa ' [I'IBaJloCb nOJlHeHWeH ('CYIle6- HOM <'epecnOJ1OCI'IUeH», Koma OIlHH 1'1 TOT.>Ke <,eJ10BeK OKa3blBaJlCfI B nOJle BJal'lMOnepeCeKaBWI'IXCfI JOpI'lCIlHKUI'IH MHOrl1X BeIlOMCTB. .lln.ll TOro 'lT06b] HarJ1Jll1;Hee npencTaBI'ITb TaK)'K> CI'ITYaI..lI'IK>. MMe- er CMblCJI peKOHCTpy"poBaTb, DJl51 npl'lMepa. OTHOWeHl'le K CYIlY B H8'laJIe 1690-x IT. cpe.nHecraTI1CTI'I'leCKoro poCCI'IHCKOro ,ABO- p5lHI'IH8 - roponoBoro CblH8 6mIpcKoro N. I'ICnoMerueHHoro B CTapl'lHHOM B JIMI1MMpCKOM Ye3.1le. '1leVliOooa H. (/). D}')KHJla5[ 6JOfJOKJIDWI B POCCI1I1 XVII B. 11 ee poJIb B $JpMl1posaHI1I1 a6cOJ1JOTH]\f3.. M., 1987. C. 23. !&rrpoc 0 cpe uepKoBHoi1IOpI1CnI1KUH(1 B POCCI1I1 B XVII B. HaH- 60nee no.crpo6Ho OCBeTHJI A.IO. fapaweHKo B BeCb1a lloOpoTHOM .nI1C- CepraUI10HHOM HCC1Iel1OBaHI1I1 20:)6 r. (fOf.lOUll!HIW A./O. IOpI1C.nI1KUH.II 11 )Il."'T)JOiiCTBO llepKOIJHb]X cy.nolJ B D.OneTp0IJCKHi1 nepHon pOCCHi1CKOi1I1CTO- PH(1: Lll1c ...!<aHll IOpHD,. HayK. BOJIrorpa.n, 2006 C. 40-46, 65--fi6. 71-72, 82-85. 88-89. 114-110. 130-137. 141-143. 155-160 1M.: PrEi, 1006. 3J1eKTpoHHb]i1 pecypc 113 $JH1l0B POCCUi:jcKoit rocynapcTBeHHoit 6I1M(10- TeKvrl. 0 Uepl(OBHoi1 l-"}'D.e6Hoi1 npaKrnKe II nOCJlellHei1 'JeTBejITl1 XVI!IJ. eM. TaJOKC: /7otqJoocKuu H. H. CI16I1pcKocnCJlOOD.eCHTl1J\bHI1K<1X/1 HOBbIe M3TepHaJlb] no I1CTOpHI1 CH611p11 lJ:()COIJeTCKOm neplilOlla. HOBOCIll6HPCK. 1986 C. 146-189 KpoMe TOro. Ha :ny TeMY CM.:.R'>fU1T1{1Ue6 (/). M YNH. CO'J. C. 318-333; MmturotJ A. r. 3aKOHOllffJeJ\bCTBO (1 npaBO POCCHI1lJTOpoi1 n0J10BHHb] XVII B. Cn6., 1998. c. 165-166.20]-206. 
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80 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I He I'IC'lepnblB<:UU1Cb B03MO)l(Hbie nepeMellleHI151 N no n.e6p.llM )];0- pe$JpMeHHoH cyn.e6HOH Ct1CTeMhL. 0010.11110.10 BbilUeH3JlO)l{eHHOrO, HeJ1b351 He OTMeTHTb 11 1'8- Koe - TaJOKe o6ofW.eHHoe B npellliIeCTBYJOllleH HCTOpI1KO- npaBOBOH JTHTeparype - o6clom"e.rrbCTBO. KOTopoe 3aKJUO"laJIOCb B TOM, '-lTQ B opraHI'I3al{lU1 cYJJ;a B PocnU1 KOHlla XVII B. OTCyr- CTBOBaJIO eJJ;I1HCTBO. coxpaHJUJaCb 3H3'ltlTeJlbHIDl pel"110HaJlbHa5I cneuH<f!(1Ka. Te >Ke ry6Hb]e m6bl 4JYHKUI10Hl'lpoBaJU1 OTHlOllb He nOBceMeCTHO, mHabHO He CO.ID.aBa5lCb B ye3D.8x. me He 6bLllO D.BOp5lHCKOro 3eMJleBJIarIeHH5I (TO eCTb H8 CeBepe 1'1 B Ct16HpH). np" 31'010.1, H8 CeBepe lleilcTBOBaJll'I OC06bJe BOJIOCTHble cynbl BO DIaBe C Bbl60PHblMH JeMCKHMH CYllb5lMH, KOTopble He Y9pe.lKil8- ]TI'ICb B npymx Mecr3'l(. He 6bU10 ry6HOit "3Gbl H B MocKBe. OcHOBHa.ll M8cca yro- I10BHb]X nen, B03H(1KaBWHX B CTOJIHue. nocryna/Ja Ha paCCMOTpe- HHe B 3eMCKI'IH npl1KaJ. HaKOHeu. llBop.llHe. I'IcnOMellleHHble B "laCTI1 ye3JJ;OB UeHTpaJIbHoi1: POCCl-II'I, 1'130Jll'lpOB3HHO HaXO)JJUU1Cb nOll npeMMYll.leCTBeHHoi1: IOpMCllMKLlI'Iei1: MOCKOBcKoro CYllHOro M ynoMflHyroro BnaaMM(1pCKOro CYllHOro npl'lKa30B CmyauHIO C YCTaHOMeHl'leM ellt.JHOO6pa3HH cyne6HoH opraHH3amm OC.lIO.:KH.SI.1IO (1 nocreneHHoe BBeneHl'le paJpH- nOB - npoo6pa30B HbIHelllHHX BoeHHbIX OKpyroB. neJlO B TOM, "{TO opraH BJlacm paJpHlIHOro ropona - npHKa3HaH naJIaTa «(1JlH paJpHlIHa5I l'I36a) - nOJl)'4aJI B TOM ,,{I'ICJle 1'1 npeporanmb] Bblllle- cToHlllei1: Cyne6HOi1: MHCTaHUI'IM no OTHOWeHl'l1O K Hax01l.llll.l(1M- C5I Ha TeppI'ITOp(1M pa3p5lJlli OplIMH8PHb]M BoeBOllCKI1M "BOOM. K KOHUY XVII B. pa3pMHb]e OKpyra 6bl1l1'1 C03D.aHbl, 01lHaKO, He nOBClOllY (4)oPMHpoBaHHe pa3p5lll0B nOJIHOCTblO JaBepWH.lIOCb JIHWb Ha IOro-3anaae H B CH6Hpl'll). B I'ITore OTHOCIITeJlbHO BCeOXBaTHoj:j - B reppl'lTOpllliJlbHOM OTHOWeHI'I(1 - K 1696 L flBJl}1J]8Cb cyne6Han KOMnereHUI151 TOJlbKO MeCTHblX BOeBOlI na enapXl'laJIbHbIX apxHepeeB. HraK, B 06JJacm CYOOvc-rpoHCTsa DJI5I npenneTpOBCKoro BpeMeHI'I 6bUlH CBoj:jCTBeHHbl; nepBoe, (]>YHKUHOHallbHaH 1'1 opra- HI'lJaUHOHHaH HeOTlleJIeHHOCTb opraHOB np3BOCYlll'l51 OT opraHOB ynpaBJleHI'I.II; BT opoe. OTcyrCTBI'Ie cynoB 06wej:j IOp"C1lI'IKU(11'1 ] K 1690-M rr. B CI16HPH 6bUII1 30B3Hb] T06oJJbCKI1H. TOMCIOIH. J1eHcKHi1 11 EHl1cdicl.Jti1 paJp5I11bI. Ha lOro-3analle - EieJ1roPO.llCKHi:t 11 CeBCKHi1. Cl16l1pcKHe pajPH1lbl OOll'JI1HW1I1Cb CI16WPCKOMY npl1Ka1y. tOro- JamWHb]C - P.l3pJUlHOMY. 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 81 IleJH¥:\ (1696-1716 rr.} (npl'l seCbM3 3H8'll-JTeJlbHOM KOJ1I'1'leCTBe cneWlliJll'I3l'1pOBaHHb]X cynOH) 1'1, rpeTbe, OTcyrcTlIl1e enl1HCTB8 II YCTpOHCTHe cy.ne6Hoft: CI'ICTeMbL 4TO >Ke KaCaeTC.II oco6eHHocTeH cynonpm13BOnCTBa PocC('II'I XVII B., TO 31leCb He06XQfiHMO OTMeTI1Tb: BO-nepBblX, OTcyrCTBl1e CTPoro perJ1aMeHTl1pOB<nmOrO nOpm:lKa npoxo;KIle- HI'ISI lIeJ1 no I'IHCTaHUHflM; BO-BTopbIX. 1I0MI'IHl'lpoBaHl'le 'laCT- HOro 06BI'IHeHI'I5I Ha H3'laTIbHOit CTa.II;J.1H yroJ10BHOro npOlleCC3; B-TpeTbI1X, HellOCTaTOlJHYIO CI'ICTeM3TI131'1poBaHHOCTb HOpM npo- lleCCYaJlbHOro np<1B8. .HBHO BblpWKeHHasI. II KOHue XVI I B. Hel.JeTKOCTb nopKn- Ka npoxO)KDeHl'lfi lleJI no HHCTaHlll1HM 06YCJl8MI'IBaJIaCb, KaK BWlI1TCH". llB}'MH $lKTOpaMI'I: HenpeollOJ1eHHOH I'IHepUl1ef1 CTa- pHHHOro npaBa 1.JeJ106I'1TbH 1'1 CTapO.!IaBHeit >Ke Tp3llHUHef1, no KOTOpoit JlI060it cy.ne6Hblit opraH (3a I'ICKJlI04eHl'leM f)O.llPCKOit llYMb]) Mor - no COOTBeTCTB}'I0111eMY KPYry .neJ1 - Bb]crynaTb B Ka'leCTBe cyna nepBOft: I'IHCTaHUl'I1'l KaK.fill51 )Iutreneit TOro ropo- na, me OH pacnOJ18ranCH. TaK 1'1 .fill}! npl'leJ)l(ItJ\.. B CBn31'1 C 3TI'IM I'IMeeT CMhlCJI HeCKOJIhKO no.np06Hee KOCHyrbCH Bonpoc8 0 npalle l.JeJl06HTb.sl - H31IPeBJ1e CJ1o:>trnBweMC.sI npaBe Ka)f(1loro nOll1l8H- HOro o6pawaTbCH K rocynaplO Hanp.llMYJO, MHHYH HH>KeCTOHllll1e 8lIMI'IHHCTpaTI1BHo-cy.ne6Hble opraHhl. PeaTIH3aUHfi naHHoro npaBa o6pa30BbiBaJUI. - .no nopbl .no BpeMeHI'I - BnOJIHe 3c]:>cpcKTI'IBHblit B cBoeft: rn6KocTH Mexa- HI'I3M 06paTHoft: CB5I311 Me)l(JlY Wl'lpoKI1MI'I CJlOHMH H8CeJJeHI'IH 1'1 llePXOBHOii BJ1aCTbJO. B caMOM .neJle. JlJ060e HapyweHl'le 3aKOHa 11111'1 YCTaHOBlleHHOro nop.ll.nKa, CK0J1bKO-HI'I6y.nb 'lYBCTBI'ITeJlbHO yweMJ151BWee I'IHTepeCbl nOJJ.LT,aHHbIX, Momo OT03BaTbC5I nOlla'leii 'leJJ06I'1THoft:, n06Y>K1I.aIlWeH MOH8pxa (nYCTb He BCerna 1'1 He cpa- 3Y) BblnpaBJ1HTb CI'IT)'allI1JO I . nOKa3aTeJJbHO. 'lTO ll.JUI paCCMOTPe- HI'ISI nocrynaBWI'IX K llaplO 'leJl06I'1THb]X B Haweit CTpaHe JJ;Ba)l(Jlhl }"-Ipe)l(JlaJICfI OC06b]ii 4eJlo6IffHb]ft: npl'lKaJ, <)JYHKUHOHHpOBaB- Wl'lit II 1550-e rr.. 8 JaTeM II 1616-1685 rr. nepBOe 3aKOHO.DaTeJ1hHOe orpaHH'leHHe npaBa l.JeJI06I'1TbH nOCJIeJJ;OBaJIO Jl I'IWh B Cepe.!IHHe XVII II. B CBH3H C BHeCeHl'leM I nOnpo6Hee 06 3TOM eM II n0.LJ..336bJJOii HblHe CTaTbe ).1. H 1J,I1T>lTI1Ha «POOb 'JCJ106I1TH 11 3CMCKHX co60poB II ynpaBJICH1II11 MocKoBcKOJo rocy- JIaPCTBa» (,!JmnRf1IUH H H. CmTbH no I1CTOpl1l1 pYCCKOJO npaBa. M.. 1895. C. 172-289). CM. TalOKe pa:JJJ.eJl «UaPb 1'1 'JeJl06HT4I11KW> BeCbMa co.nepJKa- TeJ1bHOit pa60Tbl C. 6. BeceJ10BCKoro 1911 r. (Bece.JOfJCfUlii C 5. npl1KaJ- HOH CT)JOH ynpaBJIeHI1.11 MOCKOBCKOro rocynapcTBa II PyCCKaH I1CTOpl1.11 B 0'JepJUX 1'1 CTdTbHX. KJ.JCB. 1912. T. 3. C. ItI9-I70). 
82 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I B CT. 20 elL 10-" YJlO)l(eHtI5l 1649 r. HOpMbl 0 3anpere 'lacT- HblM JlI'IUaM 06pal.ll8TbCSI. K uaplO, MI'IHYSI. UeHTpaJIbHble opraHbl {«8 npUKa3e He6u6 "If!lO.W»)I. Opl'l3TOM B nOCJle.n.ylOllieM 3aKOHO- n.aTeJlbCTBe XVII B. lIaHHblf.! 3anpeT 60nce He BOCnp0I13BOllHJIC5I, nOpmK.lJ.aSl. DJ1S1. TSI.>KYWHXCH XpOHI1<IeCKI1H c06J1a.JH BOBJleKaTb B nm1CK cyn.e6Hoj:j I'IcmHhl MOHapxa. HeYD.l'lBI1TeJ1bHO. 'lTQ B npe- 3M6YJle 33KOH3, I131laHHOro y.>Ke 2 4JeBPaJISI. 1700 r., YJqJy'-leHHO KOHCTanlpoBaJlOcb: «A lib/He 6b1Om 'Ie-IOU BeAUKOMY 2ocyiJap/O CQ- .uovy... He 6U6 'telan 6 npUKa3ex C}UbR.U...»l BTopa}[ BbIWeOTMe'leHHaSI TpanI'lUH5I - npaoo >KJfTeAA CTpa- HhI 06paruaTbCSI HanpSl.M)'JO B JUo6oii cYllc6HbIH opraH - BOBee He npeCeKaJlaCb B 3aKOHOllaTeJ1bCTBe XVII B. I1HblMH CJ10BaMI1, BBeW 3anpeT Ha 06paweHI1e K uaplO, MI'IHYfI npl1Ka3, Tor.aalllHI1H JaKOHoaTeJlb HI'IKaK He orpa"(1'lHJI npaBO nO.ll.UaHHb]X 06PamaTb- C.II B np(1Ka3 (lUll'! npHKa3HYIO muuny prop5l.nHOro copo.na). M(1- HYfI MeCTHoro BoeBOllY 111m ry6HOro CTaJX>CTY. no .flOM np(1'l(1He ueHTpa.n:bHble opraHb] EIJl8CT(1. SlIliUlBW(1eCH CYllaM(111(160 BTOpOro, 11(160 naACe TpeTbero 3BeHa (DJUI TeppHTOp(1M C pa3pWlHblM ne.ne- HHeM), HepenKo BblcrynaJIH H8 npaKTHKe B Ka<JeCTBe cyna nepBoM HHCTaHUI1H - npH'leM He TOJIbKO llJUI }!(JrreJJeH MOCKBbl, HO H DJIfI Bcex TeX, KIO HMe.n <l>HHaHCOBYIO I11Uf CJI)')Ke6HYIO B03MO)((- HQCTb HaxQD(JJbC5I B CTOJmLte )J.JUI Bellemm cyne6HbiX ne]]. B npellneTpoBcKoe BpeMfI COXpaH5IJJa 6e3}'CJlOBHYIO al0Y- aJIbHOCTb (1 l1lly wafl C my6oKoM npeBHOCT(1 Tel-Ul;eHUllii. nOM(1H(1- I POCGlIICKOe JaKOHOJI.!{I"eJlbCT X-XX BB. T. 3. C. 104-105. Xapmm:p- HO, 'ITO M. A. ljenbuoB-6e6yroB I1HrepnpeTl1poBaJI JanpeTHTelIbH)'lO HOpMY Ha3saHHoi1 CTaTbH KaK OTHOCHBwyJOCH I1CKIIlO'II1Tel1bHO K q:ne6HbIM neJ1a\f (Ye..lbl(08-6e6ym06 M.A. YKaJ. C04. C 675) Me>Kn)' TeM.}')Ke B Ha'J<L%HOH  CT. 20 rn. 1O-i1 rOOOpl1TCH 0 /Il.IdRx. Ka1I(pb/M... tJooerJemcR 0 nO/ra C60UX U 0 UHblX KLiKUX de1ax 6umu 'le.IfiW <'!J(j..... 113 .Hora co sccti 04e- BWlHOCTbIO ClIelI)'eT, 'ITO B CT. 20 rn. IO-H YnOJKeHl1H 1649 r. OrpaHWJlllsa- ba:b,KBel1;rH Y.lIOJKrHI1H CQl1q»K1fTC.11 KOCBCHHOC - XOTH 11 HCl\BYCMb]CJlCHHOC - nQl1- TBep)l(J1eHHe npasa «{:'I}'JIULIbL1t: Y YHb/x '1l1H06 lHXJeU.. Ha noilll'lY KQJU]eKTI1B- HOi1 '1et C }I(.,"L'Io6oi1 Ha BOeBQl1111I(J)'1"W( npe.ncr:1BHTeJleH fOC}:n.ap- CTBeHHOro annapam. .uO;I>KHOCTHblM Jll1uaM. 113BeCTHBWI1M ua)JH 0 nonbITKe nepcJJ.I'Jl1 TaKO QCJI06lfIHOH KaK 0 6YHTC. JaKOHOnaTellb Jp03H.f1 «JJreC71l{)KUM HllKLlJClHlIe..¥" (POCCI1i1CKoe JaKOHQlI.iIl"eJlbCTOO X-XX BS. T. 3. C. 89). B nl1Tt- pa1)'JJe Ha coxpat-teHl1e B YJlOJKeHlII11 «npasa HapollHOfO'IeJl06HTbH Ha npoBO- posaBwerocH aJIfI1HIL"1'paTqJd» B 06weM BMe YKaJaJl H. H. rloJ..poBcIJ1i1 ([h-:e :::;:'He4":.HC'. .' 415). 
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84 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I JII160 OprdHa MaCTIi I1JII'I nOJDKHOCTHOro Jjl-ma B TO I'ICXOllHOH T04Ke yrOJlOBHOrO cynonpmI3BQD.CTBa, KOTOpIDl ceronHJII-1MeHyeT- CH crMl.Jeii BOJ6v:>KneHHH yroJIOBHOro ne.na]. B 3TOM OTHOrneHHI1 BeCbMa npHMel[aTeJlbHa. HanpliMep, nOCB5IweHHlliI npoue.n.ype 06blcKa CT. 87 rJ1. 2H1 YJTO>KeHHH 1649 r.. B KOTOpoi1 OKaJaJlHCb. no cyweCTBY. BocnpOI13BelleHb] OCHOBHble nOJTO)l(eHHSI Bb]WeOT- Me<leHHb]X cTaTei1 nCKoBCKoit cynHoi1 I1JaMOTbl. 1,13 KOHTeKCTa npoueCCYaJIbHblX pa3lleJlOB YCTdBHOH KHl1r11 Pa360j:jHoro npH- K838 H83BaHHb]X peD.<iKUI1H, YJIO.>KeHlHl 1649 r. 11 HOB0YK<l3HbIX craTe" 1669 r. COBepweHHO Ol.JeBHnHO, IjTO I1HI1WIHpooaHt.Je yrOJloBHoro npeCJIellOBaHH5I co CTOpOHbl MeCTHblX 11 ueH1]JaJIh- HbIX 81I.MHHl1crpanmHo-cyne6Hblx opraHOB nOJl>KHO 6bUlO npOHC- Xo.LU1Th B llBYX CJI}"Ia.sJX - KOrDa B paMKax y;+:e HaxO,LU1BWerOC51 B np0l13Bo.nCTBe D.eJla co.nep)lQtBllIl'leCSI no)]; CTpIDKeH 06BHHSleMble naB1JlH nOKa3aHJ.UI 0 CO}"1aCTIU1KaX npecl)'nJlem.J.II. (oIJI(oI >Ke KOr1(a npO(olCXO)J;1[J](oI M3CCOBbie aHTI1np3B(oITeJlbCTBeHHbie BblcrYllileH(oI5I. Me)((1lY reM, (oj B YCT3BHOM KH(oIre Pa360i'\Horo npJ.'lK33a pe- n.aKUHM 1616-1617 H 1635-1648 rr., (oj B YJlO)KeH(oI(oI 1649 C, (01 B HOBO)'Ka3HbIX CTaTb5lX 1669 r. con.ep.>K£ITC5I HeMMO Ka3YCOB. no.apa3YMenalOlliHX (oI1IH npHMO ynoMHHaJOlliHX 0 npHBOlle Ta- TeM (01 pa360MHHKOB B ry6HYJO (oI36y 'i8CTHbIMH JlHuaM(oI (npe>Klle Bcero. KOHe'iHO. HCT/.laMH). B :;nOH CBH3H HeJlb351 He OTMen1Tb H BIDKHOH HOpMbl, 3aKpeJUJeHHOH B CT. 42 YCTaBHoH KH(oIfH Pa3- 60MHorO np(olKa3a pe.naKUJ.'IH 1616-1617 IT. H BOCnpOI13Be.aeHHoM 3aTeM B CT. 31 fn. 21-H YJlO>KeHt.JSl 1649 r. comacHo KOTOpoH I'ICTUY - nOll yrp030H yrOJloBHoH C8HKUHH - Bocnpell.lW10Cb 3a- KJlJOllaTb Mt.JpOBOe COm81l1eHHe C HaxOllHBWHMt.JC5J nOll CTpa)KeH 06BHHfleMbIM(oI B pa360e (c HP8BO}"IHTeJlbHOH pe3IOM(oIPYJOWej:j CCHTeHUHeH: </...He MUPUCR C pa360uHuKu»)J. BMecre C TeM, OTe<leCTBeHHblH 3aKOH01l.aTeJJb XVII B. oco- 60 npe.nycMoTpeJJ 38WI1T)' HCTUOB H np04Hx JlHU, KOTOpb]e ..00- CT3B1J5IJlH nO.1l03peB3eMoro BJJaCUIM. B CT. 8 HI. 21-" YJlO>KeHH5I (<<nepeTeKllleH» 3aTeM C HeKoTophlMH .nonOJlHeH(151MH B CT. 7 HOBoYKa3Hhlx CTaTeH 1669 r.) npennHCblBaJIOCh He npt.JHHM8Th no BHHMaH(1e nOKa3aH(151 3aaep)KaHHoro, COllep>KaBWHe 06- ] npI1MCHI1H.JlbHO K XVII-XVIII BB., KaK npeJ1CT.lBJl5leTCH. BMecTO Tep- MtlHa ..BOJ6yjf(j}eHl1e lyroJlOBHOro lleJ\ill» 6o..rJee T04HblM 6Y.DeT I1cnOJib30- BaTb TepMI1H «UHUu,uUpo8l1Huc.. 1POCCI1i1CKoe 3aKOHO.1l.8TeJ1bCTBO X-XX BB. T. 3 C. 144 3naM.IITHI1KH PYCCKOro npaBa. Bbln. 5. C. 197; POCCI1i1cKoe 3aKOHO.1l.8- RJlbCIDO X-XX BB. T. 3. C. 1-"4. 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 85 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} BI1HeHIHI npoum Tex, KIO 0CYll.leCTBI-1J1 npl-1Bo.n; em B ry6HYIO 1136yl. OCTaeTC}[ n06aBl-1Tb, '-ITO na)l(e cyne6Hble neJIa no ro- cynapcTBeHHblM npeCT)'nJleHI-1HM. npoueCCbl no 3HaMeHI-1TOMY «CJlOBY 1-11leJ1Y&. 1-1 Te nO<1TI1 Hel-13MeHHO Ha<1I-1IDlJ[I-1Cb C «113- BeTa» - nl1CbMeHHoro wm YCTHoro C0061l.leHI-1fl OnHTb-TaKH '-IaCTHOm }lI-1ua 1 . B 06ll.leM. KaK eMKO Bblpa311J1CJI C. A. nerpOB- CKI1I1, no XVII I B. B OTe'-leCTBeHHOM cynonpm13Bo.nCTBe «Bce OCHOBbJBaJlOCb Ha >Ka.J]o6ax"J. Pe310MHpyJI BblllleCKa3aHHoe. CJlellyeT KOHCTaTl'lpOlxnb, '-ITO PoccHi1:cKoe roCyn.apCTBO 11 B XVII B. npon.o1DKaJlo B 3Ha'-ll1- TeJlbHOH Mcpe caMoycrpaH5ITbCH OT t.JHt.JUHl1pOBaHI1H yrOJlOBHOro npeCJlenOBaHHH 11, TeM caMblM, OT BbI5lBJ1eHJ.UI npeCl)'l1J1eHHH. B ueJ10M >Ke, paCCMOTpeHH)'JO OC06eHHOCTb nope$opMeHHoro yroJ10BHOro npouecca MO>KHO Hal-16oJ1ee KpaTKO BbIpa.JHTb op- MYJ10f.i: «HeT'Ie.1JIJ6irr'-IHKa. neT H ncyJl]lMOlU» [«Hem 3QJ/f1Ume- ./lfl. Hem u j'20flO6HOi'XJ i.JeflQ,)]4. IpOCCI1i1cKoe 3aKOHon<rrellbCTBO X-XX BB. T. 3. C. 231; naM.IITHI1KH PYCCKOro npaBa. BMn. 7. C. 397-398. lD,aIiHblH CKJlKeT - npl1Melil1TtJ1bHO K XVI-XVII HI>. - pa3UpHyrO OCBellleH B CTaTbe A. M. K:leiiMOJ1bl «06H3aHHocTb 1l0HOCl1Tb B MoCKOB- CKOH POCCI1I1" (KJeimoIo A. M. The Duty to Denounce in MlL'iCovlte Rus- Sia (e;;1eC:01..  4i.7;JKHO corJJaClffbCSI C n. B. MaKCI1MOBbIM. 1<OTOpLIi1 - 6eJ npHBCJIeHI1H K..IKII'I{-JlI16o 1I01JO.nOB, 6e3 CCb[]]OK Ha JaKOHQJillTeJlbCTBO 11 MaTepl1aJ1b[ cyne6Holi npaKTI1KI1 - OTMe- TW!. 'JTO B XVI-XVII BB. PocCl1i1ct<oe rocynapcTBo «B nl1ue CBOI1X areHTOB  yronolll-fOe npeCJIeD.ORaHl1e, npol13R01lHT 11 JaBepwaeT Cb[CK, He- .JaBHCHMO OT >KM06b1 HJ](1 .lKeJl!lHillI norepnffiwero OT npeC1y[lj]eHillI» (MUK- CUM06 n. B. KOHuenUHH BOJ6)')KJleHI1H yroIIOBHOm npecne.noB3H(1H... D.HC. ... C. 83). OWI1604HbIM npe.nCTaBmieTC.II 11 cyJK!1fHl1e A. C. CMblKaJll1Ha 0 TOM. 'ITO C KOHWI XV B. H Hawci1 C1p.']HC «I-1HlWmrmpoM BOJfiyJK.u.cHI1H yrorJOIIHo- ro .neJIa» Ha'JaJlO BblC'I)'llaTb rocy.napcroo (CVbII<."dIUJ/ A. C Cy.ne6HIDI C(1CTeMa Pocrni1ct<oro rocynapcTsa... C. 53) CXO.1lHbIM 06pa30M 11 H. H. Ec]:JpeMOBa }1K3JaJ11. - 6e30 BCHKHX 060cHOsaHIlli1 - B cran.e 2000 r.. 'ITO, H,!'II-1HIDI C Cyne6HI1Ka 1497 r., «IIIHKRI13HUI1OHHbIH npouecc.. «BOO6y.IKrrarrOI III npl1 OT- C)'TCTIJHI1 I1CK3. no I1HI'IUI1HTtwe qJrdHOlJ cYlle6Hoi1. CJ1ellCTIJeHHOH (?) 1iIJ!I- crn.. (£4peMooa H. H CyJIOycrpoWCTBO 11 cYllOnpol13BOllC1lJO no Cy.ne6HI1K)' 1497 r. II CYlle6HI1K 1497 r. B KOHTeKCTe I1CTopl111 pocCI1HCKOrO 11 JapyGe.lK- HOJO npaBH XI-XIX DB.. C6. CTIuci1. M., 2000 C. 190). 4 B OTMe4eHHoi1 CTaTbe 1005 r. n. B. MaKcHMoB C(]xJpMyJll'lpoBaJI naH- H)'IO OCoOeHHOCTb cpe.nHeBeKOBOrO yr0J10BHOrO npollecca POCCI1I1 6o.IJee YJKO 11 MeHee onpe.neJIeHHO:« ECJ1I1.IKe I-1CTlla He 6b1J10. KaK npamUlO, He I1CKaJlI1 11 OTBeT'II1Ka» (MoK<.UJI06 n. B. Llocyne6Hoe npOI1JBOlICTBO... C. 79). 
86 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HaKOHeu, CTO(1T 3i1TpOHyrb BOOpoC 0 CI-1CTeMant3aUJIII'I B npellnerpOBcKoe BpeM}J HOpM npOUeCcyaJIbHoro npaBa. npl'l Bcex nOCTIDKeHI1J'1X B pa3B(iTHI1 OTe"leCTBeHHoro npoueccya.nbHoro (OC06eHHO .>Ke yroJloBHo-npoueccya.nbHOro) 3aKOHO.IJaTeJlbCTBa B XVII B. I. n0J10>KeHHe cera CHCTeMaTI13aUl1di CJlO./KWIOCb K I1C- XO.il,Y ReKa DaJleKO He J1y-Jwee. npo6JleMa 3aKJ1I{)'-IaJlaCb B nocTO- J1HHO HapaCTaBluei1 BO BTOpoi1 nOJlomme XVII B. HHTeHCHBHOCTI1 3aKOHO-TBOp'-leCKoro npouecca. TaK. eCJUI B 1645-1676 rr. B Poc- CI..U-t B roll B cpe.nHeM 1131lmaJlOCb 23 3aKOHo.aaTeJIbHbIX aKTa, TO B 1676-1682 rr. -}')Ke 24. a B 1682-1696 rr. - H BOBce 44'. B pe3)1J1bTaTe, YJlO)KeHHe 1649 r. CTpeMI1TeJ1bHO «06pacTa- 1101> BCSlKOro pOlla IlOnOJlHeHJ.UlMI1 t.J H3MeHeHHflMH (npH<JeM co- 06Pa:JHO TOrl18WHeH 3aKOHOTOOp'-leCKoi1 npaKTHKe, HI-1KaK He co- rJlaCOBaHHb]MH APyr c npyroM). JJ.aHHaR TeJ-UJ;eHU(1S! 3aTpanmarm B nOJ1Hoi1 Mepe H cy npoueccyaJIbHoro npaBa. nOC"TIWIHO CK33aTh.. 'ITa. cornaCHO aBTOpJ.ueTHb]M nO.!l;C1.JeTaM A. r. MaHb- KOBa, C JIHBapH 1649 no SlHBapb 1696 f. 6bIJIO npl'lHHTO 83 3a- KOHO.IJ.aTeJlbHbIX aKTa. OTHOCHlUllJ.1XCSI K cYllonp01'l3BO.!l;CTBy 3 . COBeprueHHo O'leBHllHO. 'ITO CTOJlb 06rul'lpHblH 1'1 npHTOM pa3- po3HeHHblH 3aKOHOll8TCJTbHbIH MaTepl'laJI Hy)KII8JICH B CKOpeH- rueH CI'ICTeM8TH3aUHH. He MeHee OlfeBI'I1lHO. <{TO TaKOBaH HeCHCTeM8TI'I3HpOBaH- HOCTb 3aKOH01IaTeJlbCTIJ3 He Moma He I'ICnOJlb30BaTbCH B KO- Pb]CTHbIX ueJUIX Hell06pocOBeCTHb]MH npellCT8BI1TeJl5lMI'I rocy- napCTBeHHoro annapaTa. KaK n031lHee - CKOJlb 06pa3HO, CT01Ib .... YllP)"-leHHo - KOHCTampOBaJI OCTp 1 B npeaM6YJle H3BecTHoro 3aKOHa OT 17 anpeJlJl 1722 f., «6cye 3aKOHbI nucamb, KoeiJa ux He xpaHumb, U.1U UMU uepamb, I(OJ( 6 'iapmbl. npu6upaJI Nocmb I( :u;c,:::::..: ziJe 6 NUpe mUle "em. I«JI( Y HOC tibuo, a om'lacmu ] 0 pa3BI1TI111 OTe4eCTBeHHoro npoueccyanbHoro npaBa B XVII B. eM.. npejf(j}e BCCro: 'le..lb1¥KJ-Ee6JT1I06M.A.YKa3. CO']. C. 7._ MaHb- K06 A. r. YnO)l(eHl1e 1649 ro.na - Ko.neKC cPeOD.aJlbHOrO npaBa POCCI1I11. l--e I1:1!L M., 2003. C. 311-341; OH.IICe. 3aKOHOnaTeJlbCTBO 11 npaBO Poc- CI1I'1 C 168-181, 195-197.105-106. 2 MaHbK06 A. r. 3aKOHOJ:l8TeJibCTIJO 11 npaBO POCCI1!'!... C. 13. fuj.J CpaB- HeHI1H MO)l(HO OTMfTIDb.. 'JTO .Ia UeJ\oe lleCHTl1J\eTl1C 1631-1640 IT. B Harnci1 C1JJaHe 6b1JJO npHWlTO BCero 91; 3aKOHOJJ,:ITCJIbHb]X 8KTOB, a 3a BOCb'\IILlIeTlle 1641-1648 n. - 63 (McmUWlJ A. r YJlO)l(eHl1e 1649 ro.na... C 56). } MaHbK06 A. r. 3aKOHOillITeJ\bCTIJO 11 npaBO POCCI'II1... C. 30. 43aKoHOllaTeJ1bHb[e 8KTb] nCTpa I. c. 107. 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 87 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.}  2. Kp3McHble ABIteHMA B cepe npaBocY,QA B POCCMM XVII B. 3asepwaH paCCMOTpeHHe oco6eHHocTeH AopeopMeHHo- ro cynoycrpoHCTBa H cyAonpOH3B01lCTBa. Heo6xo1ll'lMO OTMe- TI1Tb, 'ITO B POCCHI'I XVII B. B npl'lHmme OTcyTCTHClBaJIa CI'ICTeMa CneUHaJlbHOH nOllrOTOBKM B ofuJacTM IOpHcnpyneHUHH (K.:1K H BOo6rne KaKHe-Ju:l60 HOpMaTHBHO 3aKpeJUJeHHbIe KBaJIHI'IKa- uHoHHbleTpe60BaHHfI KllOJl}KHOCTHbIMJ1t.JuaM MMI'IHI'ICTpaTHBHO- CYAe6Hblx opraHon). HaI'l6oJlbWMMt.J )f(e 3HaTOKaMI'I npana n Te BpeMeHa flR/I.IIJlHCb. HeCOMHeHHO, Ab5IKH 1'1 n01lb.ll1.J:He - KaH- ueJl.llpCKHe CJly:>Kallil1e npl'lKa::IOB 1'1 BOeB01lCKHX 1'136 - -«CMeT- 1IHBbie MY)l(HKI1, xopowo YCBol'IBUII'Ie nyreM npaKTI'IKI1 TexHI'IKY neJla" (no TO'-IHOM)' BhIpa)l(eHHIO C. E. BeCeJlOBcKoro l ) - n.a erne 1.J:acTHhIM 06pa30M npellCTaR/lfilmme I'IHTepeChI CTOpOH B cyn.ax crpHn'1l'1e 1'1 ..11OOu, KOIlIO{JbIe 30 iJeAbl XOOflmi>. B 06rneM, KaK aOpI'ICTWIHO 3aMeTHJI ewe B 1899 r. r. <D. WepWeHeBH'I. B nOneT(XIBCKOH POCCI'IM «6bIJlI'I 3aKOHO- Be.nbl B J1Hue AhHKOB M no.nbH'IHX. HO He 6bUJO 06paJoBaHHb]x IOpI'lCTOB"J. BnpO'-leM, ueJleHanpaR/leHHO npaBOBe1leHMIO He YlJM- 111'1 M n01lb}!'II'IX. Co6paBW8H YHI'lKaJIbHb]e CRe1leHI'I}! 0 npc$ec- CHOHaJlhHOM 06YlJeHI'lt.J KaHUeJlHpcKOro nepCOHaJIa BO BTOpOH nOJlOBt.JHe XVII B. H. <D. lleMI'IJIOBa He BhIHBHJla HHKaJrnx yno- IlkooJ06C1WU C. E. YKaJ. CO'-l. C. 197. l'-lTO KaCaeTCH «JIlOlIeH, KOTopble ]a D.eJlbI XOD,HT», TO :ITa KopnopalllllSl LlOMopoweHHblX crapoMOCKORCKI1X npaBOReLlOB OCTaJlacb nOHblHe cooceM HeH3Y'leHHoi1. 0 C1]JHn'-lIllX XVII B. CM. eJlHHCTBeHHO CTaTbtO A. A. BBe.neH- CKOro 1921 r. (B8erJffln..-uuA.A. MOHacTblpCKI1H c1]JHn'JJ.Ii.i (113 I1CTopHIil 1IpeilHepyccKoH aD.BOKM)'pbI) II PyCCKI1H I1CTopl1<JeCKI1H >KYPHaJI. nr.. 1921 KH. 7. C. 31-60). HeJlb3H He OTMeTlflb. npaRlla, COBepweHHYtO He060- CHOsaHHOCTb TPaKTOBKI1 A. A. EBeneHcKHM I1HCTHT)'Ta C1]JHn'JI1X He TO.nbKO KaK 'i3CTHb[X npe.nCTdIJHTeJleii CTOpoH, HO 1'1 KaK «3aWI1THI1KOIJ. HI'IKaKoe nl1uo He Morno. KOHe'JHO }l(e, npHHHTb Ha ce6H 4JYHKUHtO ]aillHTHI1Ka B paMKax rocnO.1lCTBOBaBwero B OTe't«X.IDeHHOM yronoBHoM CYlionpol13BOLl- CTlJe XV-XVIII BB. po3b]CKHOro npollecca. fopa3110 6o.IJee y6eIll1TeJlbHbiM npeIICTdBlJRerCH TeJlIC A. A. BlJeIleHcKoro 0 C1]JHn'JI'IX K!lK 0 Henocpell- CTOCHHb[X npe.nweCTBeHHI'lKaX ICB no LleJIaM XVIII - nepBOM no- nOBHHb] XIX B. (TaM }l(C. C. 34, 41-42). J /ileptuette61l'1 r. cP I1CTopl1S1 KonH4JI1K!1UI1I1 rpIDK.,OaHCKOro npaBa B POCCHI1 /I Y'JeHble 3tlnI1CKJ.:I I1MnepaTDpCKoro KaJaHCKOro YHHBepCI'lTeTa. 1899. KH. 1. C. 6g 
88 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I MIUlliHI1H KaCaTeJIbHO l'13ylJCHHSI 6Yll}'llU1MH npI1Ka3Hb]MI'I XOT5I 6b] OCHOB neHCTBoBaBwero JaKOHon.aTeJlbCTBa l . OcmeTC5I .n06aBHTb, I.JTO nOlJTH MOHOnOJ1bHbIMI1 3HaTOK<l- MH IOpHcnpyneHUl111 ynoM5IHYfbIe llb5lKH 11 nOllb.sl'1l1e CTaHOBH- JlI1Cb BaBce He CJlY'Iai1HO. D.eJTO B TOM, <HO D.JUI nO./UIBJISlJOwero 6oJ1bw(1HCTBa HaCeJleH(1Sj" llonerpoRcKoi1 POCCln", JaKOHbl 6blJTI'I nonpocry He.n;ocrynHbL 3a I'ICKJU04eHI1eM YJlO)l(em.1.II 1649 L (ony6JUIKOBaHHoro. npaBJJ;a, B TOM >Ke 1649 r. llsyM5I Tl1p<UKaMI1 nOllp5l1l 1'1 CnemmJlbHO paJOCJl8HHOro no. npl1Ka3aM 11 BoeSOll- CKJ1M t136aM), HI1 OlUIH HOpMBTHBHblj..j npaBOBOj..j aKT He 113D.8- BaJlC5I B XVII B. nmorpa4JCKl1. Torn8WHS!JI np8B<maSl npona- raJ-Ill8 CB01U1J1acb K Ja'IHTblBaHI1JO Hal160Jlee B<DKHbIX 3aKOHOB H8 ropO.l1CKJ1X JUlOI.l.l8.illlX 11 Toprax - q-ro 3aBe1l0MO HCKIUO'la- ITa CK0J1bKO-HH6yn;b np04Hoe YCBoeHHe cOnep)l(aBWHXCJI B HHX HOpM JUi)Ke HenocpellCTBeHHblMI-1 CJlywaTeJ1J1MI'I J . OcHOBHO" }l(e MaCCHI! JaKOHOnaTeJlbHb]X \.1arepHMOB npOllOJDKM, teaK H I!O I!peMem PyCCKO npalillbl, 6blTOI!aTb I! nHCbMeHHOM mUle, OT- K1lMblBUICb I! nocrynHoM flHWb l!eCbM8 orpal-ll1'1eHHOMY KPYry flHU TeKyweM ne.nonpOH3BonCTBe opraHOI! R/I8CTH 4 . Bce 3TO - H He'leTKOCTb nopflllKa BOCXO)l(JleHJ.UI neJT no HHCTaHUHSIM. 11 naCCl1l!HaSI ponb rocynapCTBa I! BblSIBJTeHl111 npe- cryJUJeHHH 11 I1HI1Ul1l1pOBaHl111 yrOJTOBHoro npeCJTenOl!aHI1.11. 11 xaoc I! 3aKOHOnaTeJlbCTl!e, 11 OTCyrcTI!He CneUJ.lliJIbHOrO 06pa30- l!aHI1}! y JTHU cYllecKoro Kopnyc8, H HH3K8}! npaBollllil KYJlbrypa Hace.neHH}! - R/!ID[flO H8 xon cynonp0l13BOnCTBa, pa3YMeeTCfI, Heran1BHblM 06pa30M. KpoMe TOro, 06pHcoBaHHble HR/!eHIDI. cnoco6cmoBaJlI1 npOUI!er8HI1fO BOJ10KIHbi 11 B3HTO'IHH'leCTBa, KOTopble ewe 6 0J1ee CHH>KaJTl1 3t1xPeKTHBHOCTb YHKUHOHHPO- 1 CM.' )1e.VPiJooo H. cP npl1Ka3Hbie WKOJIbl Ha'JiL'IbHoro 06pa30BaHIUI. B MocKUe XVII B. II TOpfOBJ\}\ I..J npe.nnpI..JHI1Marem,cTBO B cpeO.na.rJbHOi1 POCCI1I1 M.. 1994. C. 152-167 !CM.: HfJUHG Jl. H YJIO>KeHl1e 1649 r. I..J ero l13.!laHI1H II EcnOMOraR'J1b- Hb[e I1CTopl1'JeCKHC nI1CUI1JlJ\I1Hb!. fl.. 191;3. T. 14. C. 160-166 }B JlI1repa1)'IX' Ha :lTO 06crmrrenbCTBO OC06eHHoe BHI1MaHI1e 06panUi H. JI. HOBoM6eprcKHH B CTIITbe 1947 r. (Hoeov6epltXuU H. H. K Bonpocy 0 BHewHef.i I1CTOpl11..J C060PHOro ynoIKeHI1H 1649 rona II HCTopl1'JecKl1e ]8- nI1Cno: 124ab' nB JaKOHOnaTenbHbIX 8KTOB (muKe "UlKHX 3Ha'JI1Mb]X, KaK HOB0yKa3Hble CTIITbH 1669 r.) no MeCTHblM MMI1HIICT)J3TI-IBI-I()-C)r.ne6HbIM opraH8M BO BTOpof.i nOJIOBI1He XVII B. He- pe.nKO B03HI1KaJlI1 npo5J1eMb! non60PKY KTe)JHbIX npl1MepoB TaKOro paM CM.. Hooav6ep.'CKIJu H. H. YKa3. C04. C. 47-49. 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 89 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} BaHHSI nope4>opMeHHoi1 cyne6Hoi1 CI1CTeMbL Ha paccMOTpeHl111 3TI1X JOB nOne"lpOBcKoti lOCTI1Ul111 I1MeeT CMblCJI OCTaHOBJ.1TbCfI HeCKOJIbKO n011p06Hee. 4TO KaCaeTCSI np06JIeMbl llU.JpOKOH n011KYnaeMOCTJ.1 rocy- .aapCTBeHHbiX CJ1YA<aWltX. TO JlI.eCb K I1CXOllY XVII B. B Haruei1 CTpaHe CJIO)l(J.fJIOCb BeCbMa cBoeo6p33Ha.ll npaSOBa.H CI1l)'aUl1.11 I . B 3nl1UeHTpe JJ;aHHoi1 cl1lyaLll'lI1 HaxO.l];l-IJIC.II «nOcyJl» (3aOJJ;HO C era pa3HOBJ1..[{HOCTSlMI1 «nOMI1HKaMH» 11 «nO'-leCTblO»). npe.n- CTaBl15U1 co60i1 n06poBoJIbHoe '-I8CTHOe B03HarpIDKlIeHI1e nom/(- HOCTHOMY JlI1UY. I1MeBWee (KaK 060CHOBaJI Kl r. A11eKceeB) I13Ha1.JaJlbHO 6e3)fCJ10BHO JleraJIbHblH xapaKTep. nocYJI Ha'-larJ I1C- n011BOJIb, HO Heo6paTI.JMO KpI.JMI1HaJll130BbIBaTbCfI B XV BeKe. npouecc TaKODO" Kpl1MI1HarJI13aUI111 3aBepruIDICH. KaK 113BeCT- HO. B CYJJ;e6HHKe 1497 L. comaCHO CT. 1.3311 38 KOTOpOro no- JlY"IeHl1e nocYJla 6e3Bapl1aHTHO Bocnpell.laJIOCb J . B XVII B. n03I1UI1H 38KOHOllaTeJ1f1 CTaJl8 MeHee 011H03H81.J- Hok C 011HO" CTOPOHbl. B YJIO)f(eHI1I1 1649 r. nocyJI KaK TaKoBoi1 He nO.D.BeprCfI 3anperneHI1JO. ComacHo HopMaM, 3aKpel1.lleHHbiM B CTaTbflX '-Jl. IO -H, 21-H 11 25-H YJlo>Kemm. HOJDKHOCTHble Jll1ua I npo5J1eMa B3HTU'JHI1'JC!.."T8<I IJ cpeLlHeBt:KoBO PlX.CI1I1 3aTParl1BailiICb MHOrl.JMM arrropa!l.m. npH'ICM KaK npaBOBC.lU[MI1. TaK 11 '1ClOpIIKaMI.J. 113 05Wl1pH0i1 'Jepe.nb! pa60T Ha ::n)' TeMY CM., B ncpsytO 04epeLlb AlltjuljJe- p06 K. H. BJHTO<[Hl1'leCTBO B HCTopHI1 pyCCKOro JaKOHou.:rrer:JbCTsa (no ne- p110.na CBo.1l0B) II IKYPHaJI rpa>KI1aHCKOro H yr0J10BHoro npaBa. 1884. 1Vi. 2. C. 1-35; lllupHe6 B. H. B3HT04HI1'JeCTBO 11 JlI1w.naTer:JbCTBO B CBH311 C 06- lliI'IM )"IeHl1eM 0 llOJDKHOCTHblX npeCl)'JlJICHI1.11X: yr0J10BHO-lOplt.lllflecKOe ItcCJleJlOBaHl1e. $I)JOCl13Rf1b, 1916. C. 71-91 [BpeMeHHI1K ileMItllOBcKoro tOpltllH'lecKoronl1ueH. KH. 115]; Torke H. J. Crime and PUnishment in the Pre-Petnne Ovd Service. The Problem orControl II Imperial Ru'Na. 1700- 1917. State Society. OPPosItion. Nothcrn lIIillOis Umvcrsity Press. 1988. P.5-21; Cedoe fl. B. nOllHOWeHI1H B MOCKOBCKHX npH!o.3Jt'l XVII m:Ka 4T:01 B; 19:Ha.12'I.I-4: t6: m IiUH B. B. (iopb6a C KoppynUl1eH B POCCI1I1 XVI-XX BB.: .n11aJ1eKTI1Ka CI1- CTCMHOro []()llXQlJ;I. M., 2003. C. 3-14. f"0106Glf()6(J E. 11. nooBble OCHO- Bbl 6opb5b1 C KoppynUHeH B POCCI1I11 B XVI-XIX BB (lIcropI1Ko-npaBoBoe ItcCJleJlo&nme): ABTOpecp. .nI1C. no KaHll. lOpl1.n. HaYK. M.. 2002. C. 13-17; K}pm.UH A. B. I1CTOPI1 npen.ynpe)l(,1leHI.J.II 11 npecetleHI1H KoppynUHI1 B CI1- CTCMe rocynapcTBcHHOH CJI)')K6b1 POCCMi1CKOI1: I1MnCpl111 II I1cropl1H ro- CYllapcT8<l11 npaBa. 1003. NQ 3. C. 9-11, flllCClfJUW6Clfl. rlJ. YKaJ. C04. C. 68-74. 2 Alt'KCI:'e6 10. f" Cyne6HI.JK I1BaHa III: T)Ja1I.HUI1.11 11 pe<t>opMa. Cn6.. 2001. C 186-190. 3PoccI1i1cKOe JaKOl-tlJJ]dfeJlbCTBOX-XX BB. T.l. C. 54. 58-59. 
90 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I nOWle>KaJI11 yrOJiOBHO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, TOJibKO eCJJl.1 npI1H5I- Tl'le nocyIt8 06YCJlOBHIIO COBepllleHl'le I-1MI1 I'IHblX npecrynHblx ne5iHHii (OT BhlHeCeHIDI Henp8BocynHoro npHfOBOpa 110 cJl)')Ke6- HOro n01LJ10ra)l. C npyroii CTOpoHbI. BO MHO.>Kecree HOptaTHB- HI>IX npaBOBblX 8KTOB BTOPOH nOJlOBHHb[ XVII B. (6Yllb TO npH- CSlfa llbRKOR 1653 r. ..unl MHoroY(1CJ]eHHble BoeROllCK(1e H8K83b]) nOcyJT 6e30roBopOYHO B036paHJlJ1CSl 1 . XapaKTepHo. QQH8KO. "lTO 3anpeT H8 nOJ1YlJeHl'le «'-JHCTbIX nDeynoR He COnpOBO)IillalICfI B )(v-XVII BEl. KaKI-1MI1-11I160 caHKUHSlMI'I. C 1670-x rr.. HapMY c nocYJIaMH, B OTel(eCTBeHHOM 38- KOH01IaTeJ1bCTBe BpeMH OT BpeMeHH H8'-JaJ] yrXHpe6JJflTbCH 11 TepMHH «63f1mKO'}\ KaK flBcTnyeT 113 KOHTeKCTa HopManlBHblX npaBOBblX 8KTOB 11 MaTepl1aJlOB cyne6Hof1 11 allMHHHCTpanmHOH npaKHIKH. B351TK8 I'ICXOJI.HO 03H8'la1l8 'J8CTHoe B03HarpIDKlIeHHe llOJDKHOCTH0M}' JIIiUY. nOJ1)f'-1eHl'le KOTOpOro 6blJ10 conp5DKeHO C BbIMOraTeJIbCTBOM. K npl'lMepy. D.OKJIMblBa.ll pe3YJlbTaTbi CJlY)I(e6- HOM npOHepKI1, D.b5lK A A Kyp6aTOB nl-1ca.n: H MapTe 1700 r. ma- Be Op)')KeHHOH narJaTbl 4'1. A r0J10BHHY, 'lTO nOllb5l'lHH THXOH EeJ151eB «c K.mm6Oii 2080pUA, 'tmo e.lRlrtJm6... HG2J10CmWO C6DeIO HUKGKUX He 6UPbi6{JjJ, tl <tmo, no iJa8Heu 06bi1c,iocmu... eMY Ooearu 6 no<tecmb, mo OH npUUV{JJio4. KaK 6bl TO HH 6bUIO. CJ10)((HBWIDIC}\ 3aKOHOn;aTeJ1bHHfI He- BHflTl111H npl'lBe J1H K TOMY. '1TO npHHflTl'le nOcyJlOB CTaJlO B XVII B. ] CM. CT. 5-9, 11, 15-16, 144, 146 11 150 fJI. IO-it. CT. 83 fJI. ll-it. CT. 7 11 17-18 rJI. 25-i1 YnO)KeHI1.II 1649 r. (POCCI1i1CKoe JaKOHOnaTt:JlbCTBO X-XX BB. T. 3. C 102-104.123-124,244,253111 256). BnIllTepaTVpe.naH- HYJO OCo6eHHOCTb YJlQ)KeHI1H OTMeTH!! ellle K. H. AHUI14ePOB (.4Hl(I«jJe- pofJ K. H YKaJ. CO'J C. 31-33). !nonHOe co6paHl1e JaKOHOB. T. I NQ 114. C. 310, 313-314; T. 2. NQ 1074. 1148, 1181 C. 616. 717. 762; T. 3. NQ 1443. 1511. 1516. 1533. C. 1}a';YCTaHOBHTb aBToPY HaCToHwei1 pa60Tbl, B JaKO- HW18Tt'JIbCTBe TepMI1H «6JHf1IJ( 6bUl BnepBble I1CnOJlb30BaH B I1MeHHOM yt<d:JC OT 18 4>cBpUI.II 1677 r. 06 opraHI13aUl11-1 lleHTenbHOCTI1 TaMO)KCH- HblX fOIIOB 11 ueJlOIk1JlbHI1KOB (nOJ1Hoe c06paHI1e 3aKOHOB. T. 2 NQ 679. C. 90-91). B neOOBOM)((e 06l1x01le Ha:lBaHHbIH repMI1H, HeCOMHeHHO, yno- T))e6J1.11J1C>1 11 paHee CM., Hanpl1Mep. KOJUIeKTI1BHyJO 'JeJl06I1THyJO )((11TeJ1eH CeMCHOBCKOI1: CJ1060.nb[ MOCKBbl OT 21 IllIOH.II 1659 r. ill! ofu.c:JD.HorO rOJlOBY (]:I. 6eccottosa (MOCKOBCKaH nenOBaH 11 6b[TOBaII nl1CbMeHHOCTb XVII BeK!l. M., 1968. C. 71). OCTaeTCH no6aBl1Tb, 'ITO B XVII 8., HapH.llY c repMI1HOM 'B3SITKa». 6b1TOB<L111 11 BeCbMa 6.rJ113KHe K HeMY no 3Ha'JeHl1tO TepmHbl "CJo:j7P 11 <'IIUJlO<a. 4PfAllA,I]:I. 160. 1700 r., NQ 3. n. I. 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 91 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} de facto l1eranbHb]M JIBJleHl'leM. HI'IKOI'IM 06PaJOM HOpM<ITI1BHO He perJJaMeHTl1pOBaHHbl nOcyl1 npOlJHO YKOpeHHJlCH KaK B ueH- TpaJIbHblX (KaK y6elU1TeJlbHO nOKa3aJIa H. cD. D.eMI'IllOBa), TaK 1'1 B MeCTHblX aIlMI'IHl'IcrpaTI'IBHo-cyne6HblX opraH8X (KaK He MeHee y6elll'lTe.llbHO nOM13aJ1H E. D.3BI'IC. n. B. Ce.l10B 1'1 r. n. EHI'IH)I. D.eJlo llOWJIO 110 Toro. 'lTO paCXO.l1b1 H8 nOLJ:K)'n 1l0JDKHOCTHbiX 11I..JU Bcex YPOBHdi CTaJlI'I OTKpblTO ttJI..JKCl'lpOB8TbCJ! B ttJI..JHRHCO- SOH 110KYMeHTaul..Jl'I. Tal<., 6 J]HBaPH 1665 r. MOHacTblpCKMft. crpJIn'JI..Jft. AHHaKYM npOKc:xpbeB BHec, KaK HM B 'leM He 6blBaJlO, B paCXO.l1HYIO KHHry 3anl'lCb 0 TOM, 'lTO nO.l1bH'leMY npl'lKa3a KOCrpOMCKOH 'leTBepnI fpl'lropl'lJO EMeJ1bHHOBY 6bUlO naHO «om O'fHbfe cm06KU om 10- nUCKU c 6e2.J1blM Kupu.J060 MOHt1Cl1Ibfpfl KpecmbflHUHO/lf C .ne8KolO OxjJoHOObW... pyfi'lb 16 W1mbiH ()a ()bJ/KY MUKume flampuKee6Y PJfj'b». BHYWI'ITeJ1bHa.ll no reM BpeMeHaM cyMMa l10CTaJlRCb 11BO- I'IM npl'lK33HblM npocm 3a llliJLIIe)l(all.lee O$opMJIeHl'le npOTOKOl1a O'-lHOI1 CTaBKI1! B 06weM, KaK ynpylJeHHO KOHCTaTMpOBaJll'lfyMeH TpOI'lUKoro TeJ1eTOBa MOHacTblpH EttJpeM B nl'lCbMe K apXMenl'l- cKony AneKcaHllPY OT 22 JlHBapH 1699 r.: «...ve3  60WfU/HUJJ He /If())I(£ffl MOCK6a iJe.ramb Hu«aKUX ikA»-'. HI'IKaK He MeHee ocrpof1 B XVII B. J!BJlSJJlaCb np06J1eMa 80- 110KI'ITb] (0 MHorOBeKOBO 60ph6e C KaKoBoH}l)Ke ynOMI'lHaJlOCb Bblwe). J.1C'IepnblBaJOwe TO'lHO CTapOMOCKOBCKYJO B0J10KHTY oxapaKTepl13oBaJI B 1915 r. H. JI. HOlloM6eprcKMi1: «OHa npe.n- CTaBlU1JI8 coGO" CJ10)I(HYlO BJl3b 3JloynoTpe6JIeHH" IlJl8CTH, 6e33a- l/J£trudo«n H (]J. CflYJKl1JIaH 6Kpotq:mII.II B POCCIIII1 C. 144-145; Da- vies B. The POIIIICS of Give and Take: Kormlerue as Service RenumerallOn and GenerdllZl::d EXdnge. 1488-1716 II Culture and Identlly m Muscovy. 1359-1584. M.. 1997. P. 49-61; Cedo6 fl. B. n01lHoweHHH BCHCTeMe Boe- BOllCKOro ynpaBlICHI1.II HOBJOlxw.a XVII B. II HOBropo.nCKI1HI1CTopl1']CCKHi1 c60pHI1K. Cn6.. 1999. c. 130-163; £HUH r. fl. I3oeBO.nCKoe KOpMJIeHI1e B POCCI1I1 R XVII BeKe (co.nep)l(aH(1e HaceJIeH(1eM ye3lla rocynapCTBeHHoro opraHa BJ1acTH) Cn6.. 1000. c. 49-90. !CrpHn'Jl1i1 XVII B. I..J ero OTHOWeHl1e K npl1KaJHoMy MI1PY II '-IOI1ilP 1884. KH. 3. C. 6. Cpo HCMaJlO'II1CJ1CHHb]C cxruKJtC 3anI1CH B pac1WllHOO KHl1re COBbeRCKoro ]eMCKOro ueJlOB<LlbH(1Ka 1674-1675 rr. (Pacxo.nHIDI KHl1fa leMcKoro ueJlOBaJlbHI1Ka COBbeRCKOi1 BOJIOCTI1 BHTCKOro ye:l!l1l 1674-1675 rr I ny6JJ A A. npe06pa)l(eHCKOfO II Ap1COOf"J)d(JJl1'JeCKI1i1 e)l(erOllHIIIK 3a 1966 rOll. M.. 1968. C. 407-424). J AKTbl XOJlMoropcKoj:j I..J YCTJOJKCml1 enapxHH I non pen 11. H. Maj:j- KOBa Cn6.. 1890 1..j. I. Crn. 1459 (f'yCCKaH I1CTopl1'JeCKaH 6Hfi.rJI'IOTeKa. T.12(. 
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rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 93 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} 1700 r. 0 BBeneH1111 BlleCTBl1e HOBOW Yl1O)l(emm l . COCTdBltre- JlI1 H33BaHHbIX 8KTOB He nO)l(a.n.eJII1 TeMHblX KpacOK, .aa6bl 06pl-1- COBaTb 6e.nCTBeHHoe n0J10)l(eHI1(: pOCCl1i1cKOt1 IOCn:IU1111 (np8Blla, npel1MywecTBeHHO B cpe rpmKJIaHcKoro cynonpoI13BOllCTBa): 3aKOH OT 21 4>eBpan5l11397 r. npoeKT MMeHHOro YKa:m OT Zl 4>eBpan51 1700 r. ... B cynex 11 B O'lHb]X CTaBK3X ... J]a Ha MOCKBe 11 B ropo- OT I1CTUOB H OTBeT'-lI1KOB 6blBaeT nex eM)', BeJUlKOM)' rocYllaptO, MHoraH HenpaB.na 11 JJyKaBCTBo. 11 CBflllleJ-IHoro 11 Ml1pCKOro 'II-1HY Hlllyr MHome IIICTlibI I1CKOB COO- 111O.n11 6b10T 'JeJIOM HenpllBllolO, HX, 3areBIDI HanpaCHO, TaK)l(e III 11 I1JIYT I1CTUbI I1CKOB CBOI1X, OTBeT'-lI1KI1 B JIpflMblX I1CKex OTBe- 3arenafl HanpacHo. a OTBeT'JI1- 'IalOT HenpaB.naMI1 >K, COCTaBHblMI1 KH B npHMblX I1CKex OTBe'ffiJOT BblMblCJ1b] CBOI1MI1 11 nyJ<ascTBoM, HenpaanolO >K. CQeTaBHblMI1 XOUI Tf:MI1 COcrdBHb[MIil JaTei1- CBOI1MI1 BbIMbICJ1bl. XOUI TeMI1 Hb]'-111 OTBeTbl npHMblx I1CKOB Ha- COCTaBHb]MI1 OTBeTb[ npHMbIX npacHo omblTb, 336b1B CTpax 60- I1CKOB HanpacHo ombiTb. A >KI1H. A I1Hb]e I1CTlibl 11 OTBeT'lI1KH, I1Hb]e I1CTUbl 11 OTBeT'IIIIKIII, 1U1.11 1U1.11 TaKHX >Ke COOIIIX KOBlIpCTB III TlIKI1X >Ke CBOI1X KOBlipCTB 11 HenpaBllb], HaHI1MalOT Ja ce6f1 Henpall.1I. HaHI1MalOT Ja ce6H B B cyllbl 11 B O'lHbm CTaBKH CBOIO CYDb! 11 B 04Hb]e CTaBlrn BCflKi1X 6paTbJO 11 6o.llpCKHX JIIO.neii Jl6eD- 'JI1HOB JlK!1leH Sl6e.nHI1KOB 11 co- HIilKOB 11 CQCTaBllil1KOB >Ke. 00- craBllil1KOB, BOpoB III llyweBpe.u,- paB 11 llYWCBPCilUOB. H 33 TCMIII li08. 11 3a Tf:MI1 I1X sopoSCKI1MI1 I1X BOpoSCKI1MI1 11 Sl6e.nHw-reCKI1- 11 ooe.nHI1'JeCKI1MI1 11 COCTIlB- MI1 11 COCTaBHblMI1 BblMblcnbl 11 HblMI1 BbiMbICJ1bl 11 JIyJ<aBCTBbI JJyKaocrna\1 B BepllleHbe Tex neJ1 B BepWeHbe neJ1 npaBblM 11 npaBb]M 11 MaJlOMO'[Hb]M JllOlieM MaJlOMOlllHb]M 111O.!leM '1IIIHI1Tllli BO onpaB.naHI1I1 'JI1HI1TCH MHorafi '-1HOraH B0J10Kl1Ta 11 HanpacHble BOJIOKHTa 11 HanpaCHble xap411, 11 xap411, 11 y6bITKI1, 11 pa30peHI1f1, 6b1TK1i. 11 pmopeHI1f1, a BI1J-1HblM, a BI1HHbIM. 'JTO nOBeJ1OCb, no 'ITO llOBeJIOCb. no ero BCllilKOro ero BeJ1I11KOro rocy.napH YK.lJ) roCYllapfi YKa3)' 11 no YnO)l(eHbtO, 11 no YJIO)l(eHbtO. 'JI1Hl1Tb YKa3, ::;b=ru:eT,O:S:&;:= [reJ1CTBa 11 npo.nOJDKe- KOM 11 BopaM nmKI1BKH. . LITO 11 roBopl1Tb, Kpt.J3I1C 6bVl O<leBl{JleH. CYlle6HaSi CI1CTeMa POCCI1I1 onpelleJ1eHHO H}I)K.!I.aJlacb B 06HoBJTeHI1I1. Me)K.!lY TeM, XOT.II «sroe)lHI1KI1» 1-1 «.!lyweBpeD.lJ.b]» OCJ10>KHJl./U1 Be.neHl1e npo- ueCCOB Bee GOJ1bille no rpIDK.!laHCKI1M lleJlaM, nepBbl mar B CTQ- POHY cYlle6HbiX npeo6paJoBaHI1 Oerp I c;:J;eJlaJ] B H8np3BJ1eHI111 yrOJIOBHOrO cyn onpOH3BO;:J;CTBa. 13aKoHonareIJbHble aKTbl neTPa I. c. 30-31, POCCI1ltcKOe JaKOHO.na- TtJIbCTBO x-xx BB. T. 3. C. 397-398 
94 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I  3. Cy,QOyCTJ>OMcmo .., cYAOnpoM3Bo,QCTBO PaccMM B 1696-1710 IT. PaT)'Wa KaK opraH npaBOCYA"' KaK }')Ke OTMe>laJIOCb BbllUe. no peKOHC1py"pOBaHHO- MY H. E. rOJUIKoooi1 I1MeHHOMY yKa3y 1696 r., "IpaHcc]:JOpMJ.'I- pOSaHHb[j:j f01l0M paHee 143 npeo6pa>KeHcKoi1 nOTelUHoi1 113Gbi npe06pa)l(eHCKJ..:IW npman JanOJl)l'-l11Jl I1CKJlJOl(I1TeJlhHOe npaBO cyn.a no rocyn.apcTBeHHblM npeCTYfUJeHHHM. OTHbIHe. He3aBI1- CMMO HI1 OT TeppHTOpl1l1. Ht1 OT CJl}')Ke6Horo IVU1 COUl1aJ1bHOro CTal)'Ca oGBI1HHeMoro. Bce yroJtoBHble lleJ1a TaKOra pOD.a (lleJIa no «CJ\OBY H AeJlY») nOlUle)I(MH HanpaBJleHi-IIO H3 cy6Hoe pac- cMolpem1e JIaHHOrO npmca3a. Tenepb B KaKOM 6b] T04Ke POCCJ.'111 HI1 HaX01UlJlCH 3351BHTeJib no «CJlOBY H neny», OH caM H Bce YKa- JaHHble HM JIHua .nOJDKHb] 6hUll1 HeMellJleHHO 6pancn non crpa- >KY 11 n.ocmBJHITbCH B MOCKEY (TOl(Hee. B nOllMOCKOBHoe CCJIO npeoGpmKeHCKOe, me llHCJlOUt1pOBarICH npI1Ka3)I. nepell CYllOM npe06pa)l(eHcKoro npHKa3a OKa3aJ1HCb paB- Hbl Bce: H >KJ.ffeJIb OxoTcKa H >KHTeJlb KHeBa. H KHJl3b H xOJlon. H HeO)(J]aJ]HOH nOllb.ll'-lHH 11 60SJp11H, 11 P.llJJ;OBOi1 CJI}0Kl1JIbli1 11 JXl3P5l.nHb]i1 BOeBO.1la. HeCJIY'-'lai1HO OCBe.1l0MJIeHHbli1 COBpeMeH- HI1K nmp}[CeHHO KOHCTaTl1pOBaJI, "'lTO B npe06p(i)KeHcKI1i1 npH- Ka3 MOrJlH «6CRK020 63Hmb K P03bJCKY, apecm08amb U P03bJCKU8amb uno P03biCKY 6epmumb (BbIHeCTH npt'lfOBOp H npl1BeCn1 ero B HCnOJlHeHl1e)>>2. B caMOM neJ1e. KaK. nOllBOIDI t1TOr paCCMOTpe- Hmo YKa3a 1696 r.. Cnpane.1l1lHBO OTMeTHJla H. 6. rOJlHKona. «TaKJIIX nOJ1HOMo'-mi1 ewe HtiKOrna He HMeJ1 Hti O.ntiH npHKa3»}. KOHe4HO. H8 npaKTJIIKe, KaK ycraHoBI1JI H. H. nOKpOB- CKI1i1, KOHUeHTpaUH}[ COOTBeTCTB)'IOWtiX neJl B npe06p<DKeHCKOM npHKaJe 3aTHHyJl acb He H8 OlltiH ro1l 4 . KOHe"'lHO, npeo6pmKeH- I nO.npo6Hee KaK 0 npoue.uype, TaK 11 0 KOHKjJeTHb]X BapHaUH.IIX 06'h11B- neHHfI «CJ10Ba 11 neJla» eM.. {OllllWfJO H Ii. n()J1I1TI1'JeCKl1e npoueCCb! npl1 nerpe I. c. 11-24, 18-31. 58-61; Am./ClLW1J6 E. B. 'ubI6a 11 KHyr. C. 156- 164. 2 K.'fJl1Ii.UH E. If fl1CTopl1H 0 uape nerpe ArieKCeeBlf1.le II ApXHB KHH- ].II 'r.-;,=K;t. ci npl1 nerpe I c. 15 4 {JOK{X)6C1WU H. H. 3aK0HOlldTCJ1bHble I1CTO'IHI1KH... C. 416. KaK npe.n- CTa8.f1JIeTCJI. I1MeHHO npoMCDJIeHl1e c pea.rul3.u1Ilei1 YKa3a 1696 r. 06yCJIODH- JlO nO.llRJIeHl1e ynoMHHaBUIl'fCICJI 3aKOHa OT 25 ceHTH6pH 1702 r., B KOIO- poM. "Ie}I{1lY I1HOro, I1CKJ1t04HTeJlbHaH nOllCYDHOCTb neJl no «C;JOBY 11 DeJ1Y BTOpl1'JHO JaKperuHl.fIaCb Ja npeo6pIDKeHCKI1M npl1Ka30M (n()J1Hoe c06pa- HI1C 38KOHOB. T. 4. NQ 1918. C. 199-2(0). 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 95 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} CKHi1 npMKa3 11 nOCJIe 1696 r. OCTllilCfI KJIaCCI1'leCKMM npl1Ka- 30M - MHOroctJyHKUHOHaJIbHblM aztMI1HI1CTpaTHBHO-cyne6HbIM OpraHOM (13 KOMneTeHUl.J1O KOroporo BX01U1Jl0 TaJOKe 11 pac- CMOrpeHl1e yroJlOBHblX 11 rpa)l(1laHCKI1X neJl. KaCaBWHXCfI crpoe- BblX BOeHHOCJI}')KaWI1X rBaplll1l1. H ynpanJIeHl1e pfillOM nBOpuo- BblX TeppHTOpl1i1. M oxpaHa npaBonopSlllKa B MOCKBe). Bce :JTO TaK HeT COMHeHI1i1. o.nHaKO. '-no n05lBJIeHHe I1MeHHOro YKa3a 1696 r. o:ma<jaJIO 3Ha<jI1TeJlbHoe npo.nBM.>KeHHe H8 nyrH c]:JoPMH- pOBaHI1S1 enMHCTBa cyne6Hoi1 CI1L,eMbl Harnei1 crpaHbL BMecre C reM. npeBpaTI1B 13 1696 r. npeo6pa:>KeHCKI1j..j npHKa3 Berne O.D.l1H CneUI1aJl113HpOBaHHblj..j cyne6Hblj..j opraH, 3aKOH01IaTeJlb TOJlbKO YCI1J1HJI CBoj..jCTBeHHYIO llopec]:JopMeHHblM BpeMeHaM «cyne6HylO 1.Jepecn0J10cl1u,y». CJlenylOrneM cyne6Ho-npe06pa.JOBaTeJlbH0I1 MepoC! ne- rpa I JlBHlIOCb I13D.aHHe Bb]WeynOMJlHyroro 3aKOH3 OT 21 eB- pan51 1697 r. 06 OTMeHe B cynax O<jHbIX CTaBOK. He pa3 oxapaK- rep1130BaHHb]M B 1I11TepaType 3aKOH OT 21 eBpaJUI 1697 r. He C03llaJ1, KaK tBBeCTHO, HOBblX c]:JopM npOllecca I (no ,noH npl1- 1.JI1He TpaKToBKa A. 11. XpYCTaneBblM Ha3BaHHOro 3aKOHa KaK «npoueccyanbHoi1 peopMbl» JlBJJ5IeTC5I MaJloy6enHTeJlbHoi1). HanpaBJleHHblH Ha nponmollei1cTBHe cyr5l>KHH'leCTI3Y. CTpeM- JleHMIO Heno6pocoBecTHbix CTOpOH 3aBOJlOKI1TI1Tb pa.J6HpaTeJlb- CTIIO lleJi 3aKOH 1697 r. YrJ1y6MJI. C OllHOH CTOpOHbl, p03bICKHoe, 8 c npyroH - 61OPOKp3TH<jeCKoe H8'l8JJO II cynonpol13110nCTBe (oc06eHHO B Ipa}Kll3HCKOM. II KOTOpOM no TOj..j nopbl erne co- XpaHJlJlHCb 3J1eMeHTbl «>K.HBOro» COCTJl3aTeJlbHoro npouecca). I1MeHHo C 13KOHa OT 21 eBpanJi 1697 r. Ha1.JarJOCb CTpeMt1- TeJlbHOe npenparneHHe OTe'leCTBeHHoro npouecca 13 «Tai1Hbli1 H nI1CbMeHHb]M»2. [B I1CTOpI1Ko-npaBOBOH J1I1Teparype 0 D.aHHOM JaKOHe eM., B nepByJO O'lepe.nb: /l,.vumpuetJ (j) M. YK.13. CO']. C. 538-539; WortmDn R Op. cit. P. 303-304; f.JucmJ/1W6 O. If. npoueccYaJlbHOe 3aKOHOllaTeJlbCTBO. C. 795- 799, PnWOflO(l.D.. A PerPoPMI1jX!BaHl1e cynonpoI13BO.1lCTBa. C. 4-5; Ky- mar}JUH O. E.. JJe6eiJee B. M., Ce.lfUZlllf r.1O. YKaJ. C04. T. 2. C. 145-146. J1QHCKGn C. B. YKaJ. C04. C. 15-27; XpycmaJe6 A. J1. Cyne6Ho-npaBOBble pe<tK>PMb[... Dl1c. ... C. 40-78. 2l3ocrJeHcKuilA.A. YKa3. co'!. C. 41. HCJ1bJH He COrJJ.IClfTbCH T'dlOKe c MHeHl1eM A A BBelleHcKoro 0 TOM. 'JTO, BCJ1e.nCTBHe IIWIHI1H JaKOHa OT 21 4>eBP3Jl}l 1697 r (a TaIOKe EOI1HCKOro apTHK)'Jla 1714 r. 11 JaKOHa ..0 cpopMe cyna» OT 5 HOH6pH 1723 r.). npol1JOUlIJO ynp331lHeHI1e I'IHCTI1.T)'I"d CTpHn'JIIIX. «13 TOM BI'!JlC KaK OH C1JO>IillJJCSI B XVII B." (TaM )l(e). 
96 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I lI.aJlbHeHWl1e J113MeHeHJ.Ul B cyn.e6Hoi1 cc]:>epe npOJ.'I30UUlI1 B Hameli C1paHe B CBn311 C npoBeneHJlleM ropon.CKoi1: pec]:lopMbl 1699 r. (I1JIH I ropO.1lCKOH pe<t>oPMbl OeTpa I). B KOlLe Ha3BaHHOH pe(]>opMbl B Hawef1 CTpaHe OKa3allaCb BblCTpoeHa HeBWIaHHa5I. npe>KJle o60co6JJeHHaH BepTI1KaJlb opraHOD ropollCKOi1 BJlaCTH. HJ.130Boe 3BeHO 3T0i1 BepTI1KaJlH o6pa3(IRaJU1 peopraHH30BaHHble B SIHBape 1699 r. opraHb] ropO.1lCKOro caMoynpaRJ1eHIHI - 3eM- CKl1e 1/136b] DO rmme C 3eMCKHMI1 6YPM(1CTpaMI1. BblCWMM 3BeHOM Bepn1KaJlH ropO.1lCKOi1 BJl8CTH CTaJI<i oypMHCTepCKlliI naJi8T<I (ne- pel1MeHOHaHHIDI B Hml6pe 1699 r. B Parywy) - He I1MeBllmii HI1 OTe<lecTBeHHbIX, Ht.J 3apy6C)f(}{bIX 8HaJ10roB UeHTpaJIbHblf1 opraH, Be.1laBwt.JH THrJlbIM ropollCKI1M (nOCaIlCKHM) HaCeJleHl1eMI. MOH1BaUHIO 3aKOHo.ua:reJUI npH npOBelleHl111 I ropOllCKOH pe(]>opMbl B03MO)((HO peKOHCTpYHPOBaTb no npeaM5YJTe K 3aKO- HY OT 30 SlHBapH 1699 r. 0 npe06pa30B3HI1I1 3eMCKI1X 1136 11 06 Y'-Ipe>K.!l;eHI1I1 E)YPMl1cTepCJwH naJIaTbL B MHHOH npeaM6YJle neIp I np5lMO o60cHOBaJl Heo6xOlll1MOCTb pectJoPMbl CTpeMJ1eHI1- eM OCBo6011I1Tb nOCaD.CKoe HaceJleHl.Je OT MIHOi!UJ(m o6ud U l/alOi', U n06opo6, U 63flm«O/J>} co CTOpOHbl BOeBOlll1 npl1Ka3Hblx 2 . B I1TOre nOCilllCKoe HaCeJleHt1e 6b1JTO nOJTHOCTblO BblBelleHO 113-nOll BJ18- CTI.J BOeBOll. nOJT)"-It1BWl.Je >Ke ROO nOJIHOTY aIlMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHO- CYlle6Hb]X nOJTHOMO'-lI1H B OTHOWeHl111 nOCilllcKI1X 06ll{11H 3eM- CKl1e 1136b! 11 PaTYwa CTaJTl1 nepBblMI1 CnemlliJll1311pOBaHHblMI1 Cyn.aMI1, B no.J]BellOMCTBeHHOCTb KOTOpblX nonano Dce nlrJToe ro- pOllCKoe HaCeJTe Hl1e POCCI1I1 (3a t1CKJTJO'-IeHt1eM Cl16l1pt1 J ). ] Dft.ll nOJIHOTb[ Ka)JTHHb[ CTOI1T 33MeTHTh, 'JTO C0311aHlile oc06oro ueH- TpaJIbHOro opraHa BJJaCrn, BelIiIBUJero ropollCKI1M HaceneHl1eM, 6b[J]0 npo- DeK.IJapl1poBaHo ewe B CT. 88 HOBoToproBOro YCTIlBa 1667 r. (eM: POCCI1H- CKoe JaKOHOJJaJCJIbCTBO X-XX BB. T. 4. C. 130). 2 nonHoe c06paHl1e 33KOHOB. T. 3. NQ 1675. C. 600. Hcy.nI1BHTeJlbHO n03TOM)', 'lT0 HeKOTOpoe BpeMH cnyCT.II - cornacHo JaKOHY OT 16 BpanH 1700 r. - BOeBOll, BMeWI1BaBllJl1XCH BDeJ1a 3eMCKI1X 1136, 6b[J]0 npe.nnl1CaHO OT.illUlaTb nOli cyn Pa1YWI1 (TaM >Ke T.4 N2 1760. C. 13). JOrMellli 6ypM1ClpCXOrU caMoynpalllICHI1H DJI.II Cl16l1pH 6b1JJa OJooo- peHa B oco60M I1MeHHOM YKaJe OT n OKT.II6pH 1699 r. (nOJlHoe c06paHI1e JaKOHOB. T. 3. NQ 1708. C. 654-655). I-hilllHl1e naHHoro YKaJa 061,HCHillIOCb TeM, 'JTO PYKOBOllCTBO CI1611pcKoro npl1KaJa - 6Y1lY'1I1. no BCeti BePO$lT- HOCTI1, 1l0m...-yn.IJCHO BoeBollaMI1 - npc.nocmBHJlO nerpy I JaBeliOMO $uJb- CI1HUHpoBaHHb[e naHHb[e 0 Man0411CJ1eHHOCTI.J nocdl1CJ<OfO HaceneHHH B ropo.nax CIt611p11 (nOllp06Hee 06 3TOM CM.: AKulUul/ M 0. fOpollCKa.!I pe- 4x:!pMa 1699 r. 11 61OpOlqJaTKJI CI1611pcKOro npHKcHa II POCCI1HCKoe rocy- napcTIIO XVII - Ha'JaJla XX BB.. 3KOHOMI1Ka, nOJlI1T1.JKa, I0'JlbTYpa: Te311cbI 110K./l. EIalTepHH6ypr. 1993. C. 3-5). 
rIlasa 2 Cy,Qe6Ha.ll CI<1CT8Ma PoCCI1I<1 B IlMeHHblri1 97 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} CYllY 3eMCKI1X 1136 11 P<ll)'llll1 TIlrIlble ropO}lG:lHe He n011- JleiKaJUi JlI-1111b no rocynapcTBeHHblM 11 uepKOBHblM npecT)'n1le- HI-1S!M. 8 TalOKe, nO-BHlUlMOMY. no DeJ18M 0 pa360sIA 1-1 YMbllll- JleHHblX y6I1HCTBaX (KaKOBble OCTaJll-1Cb B nOHcYDHOCTl1 ry6HblX 1-136)1. TaKliM 06P<l30M. KaK 11 B cmyaUJ.m C npeo6paiKeHcKHM npliKa30M. Ha.o;eJTeHl1e pe<tmpMMpOBaHHblx opraHOR ropO,LJ;CKO- ro caMoynpaBJleHMSJ 06111I-1PHb]MI-1 cYJJ;e6HbIMM nOJTHOM0411S1MM YCI-1JTI..JJIO, C 011HOH CTOPOHb]. e1ll1HCTBO OTe4eCTBeHHOH cYJJ;e6HOH CI1CIeMb], a 11pyroH - Bce TY }l(e JJ;ope(]>opMeHHYIO «CY11e6HYIO LJepecnoJ1ocI1UY». Llilllee JaCJ1y.:Kl1BaeT ynOMI1HaHI1SJ 6erJlo 3aTpOHyrblH Bblllle 3aKOH OT 2 (]>eBPaJlSJ 1700 r. He3acJ1)')KeHHO o6of.W.eHHblH BHI1Ma- Hl-1eM npe.llWeCTBYIOWliX aBTopOB l13HHbIH 3aKOH 6bUl nOCBSiweH YKpeJUTeHMIQ MHCTaHUMOHHOCTI1 B CYJlOnpOM3BollcTBe 2 . B Ue1l0M p33BMBa51 1II1HI11O YJ10}l(eHMSJ 1649 r. Ha OrpaHI14eHI1e DpeBHe- ro npaBa 'leJl06I-1Tb5I, neIp 1 ycraHOBI1JJ B .JaKOHe OT 2 (]>eBpanS! 1700 r. Beero DBa CJlYlJafl, Koma 1.J3CIHoe J]I1UO MOrIlO 06paTI1TbC}J Hanp5lMYlO K MOHapXY. B nepBOM CJlYlJ8e - BnOJ1He Bllyxe CT. 20 rIl. IO-H YJlOiKeHI1S! - n03BOJ1H!lOCb 611Tb 'leJ10M B «8eplueHblX Oe- flex HO nVeIl& (TO eCTb Jl06I1DaTI>CS! nepeCMOT})a HenpaBOCYJlHblX npHroBopOB. Bb]HeCeHHblX npI1Ka3aMI1). A BOT STOPOH clJ}'lJait 6blll K)'JI.a npMMe4aTeJJbHee. BnepBble B I1cropl1l1 OTe'lecrBeHHoro npaBa. B JaKOHe 1700 r. OKaJa/JOCb cneLll1- arJbHO JaKpeJUTeHO npaoo nO.H1iliHHoro I13Becrl1Tb Henocpe.nCIBeHHO BepXOBH)'IO BJIaCTh 0 <Jee..1UKUX <'OC)vJc/pcm6eHHblX relax.. npl1 Bee« pacfUlbIB<JaTOC11.l npHBelleHHOH c]:JopMyJ1I1pOBIrn MOiKHO C ysepeH- HOCTblO npelID01IO::+JITb, 'lTO non «BeJ1I1KHMI1 rocynapcrneHHblMI1 lleJ1aMI1» neT}) I nODPa3}'MeBaJJ B ll3HHOM CJJy'lae KaK nonyJlHp- Hble B TO BpeM S! npe.lLlJO}KeHI-151 06 }'BeJTI14eHI-1I1 rOCYllapcTBeHHblX I KaKoii-mroo pa60Tbl. CneUI13J1bHO nOCBHweHHoi1 IIICTOpl111 Pa'J)'Wl-1 11 3eMCKI1X 1136 KaK opraHoB npaBOCYDI1SI. nOHblHe He nOHBI1JIOCb KpaT- Koe OCBeWeHl1e naHHoro BOnpoca B IICTOpIIKO-nJmJOOOlt 1II1TepaType. eM.: fJ,.'lfUmpue6 0. M. YKd COL]. C. 48]-484. EijJpeV080 H. H. CYlloycI])OHCTBO POCCI1I1... C. 62-63; Komurf1uH 0 E., Jk6eike B. M., eeWuetm r. 10. YKa3. CO'I T 2. C. 140-144; .llo1I..li.lIJI C. B. YKaJ. COL]. C. 8-9; C'IIblJW.!IUH A. C. C)ille6HaH CHCTeMa POCCI1HCKOro rocYDapCTsa. . C. 59-60. !nOJlHoe C06paHHC 3aKOHOB. T.4. NQ 1748. C. 3 (6o..rJce I1cnpaBHYIO ny6JJI1KaUl1tO TeKCTd 3aKOHa CM.: D,IJopuoBb[e pa3pHllb[. M.. 1855. T.4. Crn. 1111-1113). B HCTOpIIKO-npaBOOOii nllTeparype 06 3TOM 3aKOHe 6er- JIO ynoM.IIHyna enl1HCTBeHHO T E HOBI1UKaH B pa60Te 1997 r (HoIJul4- 1(01/ T. E. npaBa 11 npel1l'l}'llleCTBa m.mepaTopa 11 'JJ1eHOB I1MnepaTOpcKOli <tJaMl1JlI1I1 II J'IKOH01U\Te.%CTBO neTpa I. c. 49). 
98 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I noxo.nOB, TaK 11 coo6rneHI1.11 06 oco6o BIDKHblX rocy.napCTBeHHblX npeCTyflJ'IeHruIX (liTO, crporo WBOpH-, Ir<ODJlJIO B npoTl1HOpe>ll1e c JU1HI1eii Ha }'KPeJUleHl1e tiHCTaHUI10HHOCTI1). 3aocpwarJc.II 3aKOH or 24>eBpaJl5l narenJ'1eCKI1M npH3blBOM <I&JUtiUmb t.}Wt1l 6 OelOX npae- iJy. {J <tewfium<tUKGM Ht1fIJXJCHO He 6umb <te.Jl()..,.. Cne.LI,YlOweii MepO" uapSJ-pec]:JopMaTopa no 113MeHeHHIO CYJJ;oycrpoi1cTBa CTaII 3aKOH OT 10 MapTa 1701 r.. no KOTOpO- MY 6ecnOBopoTHO ynpa:w.HSJJlC.II crapollaBHJ.'IH MHCTI11yr ry6HbIX CTapoCT I . OnHOBpeMeHHO 6blJl8 npe.nnpHmml nOnblTKa BHeerl1 KOJ1Jlerl1aJlhHOe ynpaMem1e CeJIhCKoi-i reppl1Topl1eii ye3Da. Co- rliacHO TOMY >Ke JaKOHY OT 10 MapTa 1702 r., H3 Mecrax BBO- DJ1J1I1Cb nOJl}KHOCTH Bbl60pHbiX D.BOp5lHaMI1 <<ToBapl1weii BoeBOll» (B KOJUf'leCTBe OT 1IB}IX 110 1.JeTblpex <JeJlOBeK). no JaMb]CJlY 38KOHOmrreJ1JI. OTHblHe BoeBon;a He Mor npH- HI1MHTb HHKaK(1X pewemlH (B TOM LjHCJ1e H CYJle6Hb]X) 6e3 co- rJl8CI1SJ CO CBOI-1MI1 «Tosapl1ll.laMI1». Ha npaKn1Ke naHHaJI 00- nblTKa, KaK y6e.aJIITeJlbHO nOKa3aJl M. M. I)OroCJlOBCKI1, He HMeJla, O.QH8KO. ycnexa l . Ye3.D TaK H OCTaJlCH de facto non BJla- CTblO e.DHHOJlH<1HOrO IJOeBOnbl, nO.D<1HHeHHOro cOOTBeTCTB}1O- weMY npHKa3Y. He06xQUJ1MO TaJOKe ynoMSJHYfb. "ITO IJ caMble neplJble rollbl XVIII B. npOItl0lW10 CBepTbllJaHHeAeHTeJ1bHOCm I)O.llpcKOi1JI,YMbL YnpIDllHSJlJwa5lCH. KaK IHlJeCTHO, nOCTeneHHO, 6e3)'Ka3Hb]M no- pan:KOM, A)M8 npOlJeJIa nOCJJellHJlle 3aCell8HJIIH IJ 1704 r. J B JllTOre BblweCToSJllleH cyne6HoH JIIHCTaHUHe no OTHOllleHHIO K npl1Ka- :JaM Tenepb OKaJaTlCH HenOCpellCTBeHHO MOHapx (OCHOlJaHHlliI IJ TOM >Ke 1704 r. BMeCTO I)OHPCKOH n.yMbl aMop<tJHaH «KOHCWlIDI. MHHHCTpOB» ompaRlleHJlleM npalJ()CYllJIIH He 3aHJIIMarraCb). I nOJlHoe C06paHl1e 3aKOHOB. T. 4. NQ 1900. C. 189. 2 Eoi:OCJI06CKUU M M HCCJJeDOBaHI1H no I1CTOpl111 MeCTHoro ynpaBJ1e- HI1.II...C.49-57. .Inpouecc nl1KBl1JlalIDl1 EiOHjXKOH nyMbI CI1CTeMaTI1'JeCKI1 OCBellieH B OC060M DHCCePf811110HHOM I1CClJe.u.ooaHl111 A R 3a'(8)JOBa 1999 r. Pa- Hee Ha 3TOM Bonpoce nO.1lp06Ho OCTaHaBJ1I1BaJ1I1Cb M. M EioroCJlOBCKHit 11 E. R AHI1CI1MOB (3axapo6 A. B. TpaHC(jxJpMHlillH IJb[CWI1X rocy.napCTBeH- HblX Y'!PCjf(j}t:HI1i1 POCCI1I1 KOHua XVII - Ha'Ja.rm XVIII B.. AIrrOpecjJ.llHC. . KaHll. I1CT. HaYK. ljeJIH6I1HCK, 1999; 6o.?rx:.llJ6CIUJiJ M. M. AnMI1HItCJp:lJ1fB- Hble npeo6paJoBaHIDI ne-rpa BenI1KOro B 1699-1700 n. lj I. EioHjXKaH nyMa II I1.JBeCTI1H AH CCCP. Cep. 7. 1918. NQ 4-7. C. 179-198; AHUCU- MOO E. B. fOCYllapcTBeHHb]e npe06pa30BaHI1H... C. 18-22) 
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rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblrii 107 n(1696-1716rr.)  4. CY,QOYCTPOCTBO I'! cYAonpoM3Bo,Q,CTBO POCCMI'! B 1711-1716 IT. Y'lpem,QeHl1e 4!MCKaIlbCKO" CJ1ym6bl. 3aKOHb11713-1715 IT. 06 OC060M nopH,QKe cy,qonpOM3Bo,Q,CTBa no ,qeIlaM 0 npecrynneHlo1s:1X npoTIo1B MHTepecoB Cny>K6bl OllepellHble nepeMeHbl B OTe'leCTBeHHOM cynoycTpoHCTBe nOCJIellOBaJlH B 1711 rollY. KaK H3BeCTHO, 22 <J:IespaJIs:! :nOfO fOlIa 6bUl OCHOBaH npaBHTeJlbCTBYIOWHH CeHaT. CTaBWHH - no- lIo6HO Yllpa31lHeHHoi1 3a HeKOTopoe BpeMs:! no TOro EO.llpCKoi1 JI.YMe - Bb]CllU1M opraHOM BIUlCTM CemlT nOJl}l"l11Jl B TOM 'lI-1CJle H cy.ne6Hb]e nOJIHOM04H.II I . BnepBb]e CYlIe6Ha5I KOMneTeHlllU1 Celia-fa 6bIJl8 onpe.aeJ1eH8 B CT. I 38KOH8 OT 2 M8pT8 1711 r. B Ha3BaHHoH CT8Tbe «no X8- paKTepHo, co6crseHHopY'JHO H8nHc8HHoH neTpOM I) npaBl.rreJlb- CTByIOllleMY CeHal)' npellnHCblBaJlOCb «cyd U'Helllb He..1Ul(e.lJ1epHbiU U HeTlpaeeiJHblX cyiJeu HaKa3b16amb OmHlImUeM '1ecmu U 6cecO UMe- HUll; mo.'IIC U 116eOHUKO'll1 Jro/CHbLM OOHocl1uKawj 00 l7OCiel;.'i'Tn¥'2. 1-13 npHBe;:J;eHHo(:J c]xJPM)'JUlpOBKI1 04eBltIlHO. 'lTO, no 1-13Ha'laJIbHOMY Bl11lemUO 3aKOH01l8TeJUI, CeH8l)' npe.nCTOMO SblcrynaTb, C O.nHOi1 CTOpoHbl, B K8'leCTBe ane..rUUIUMOHHOM HHCTaHUMH (npH pacCMO- TpeHHH nell, HenpaBOMepHO pellleHHblX B Hu:.KeCI'Os:Jll.lHX cynax), 8 C llPYfoi1 - B KaqeCTBe cyna nepBOM HHCTaHllI1H (npH paCCM01pe- Him lIell no 06nHHeHI1J1M «HenpanelIHblX CYlIei1» 11 «5I6ellHI1Kon»). nOJJ:06HM KOMneTeHUI-1s:! HI-1'leM npHHUWnHaJlbHO He OTJliI'laJIaCb m COOIBeTCIBYIOWCf1: 1II1HHI1 KOMneTeHUHH EO.llpcKof1: JI.YMbL Toro)((e 2 MapTa 1711 r. uapb yrnep.n11Jl HM)((e caMHM Ha- 'lepTaHHbIfi TeKCT npHCSl.ft.1:, KOTOpylO OTHb]He HaMeiK8.110 npl-1- HOCHTb npH BCTYruJeHHH B nOmKHOCTb BblCllIHM aLlMHHHCTpaTO- paM (B nepBYIO O'lepe.nb, ceH8TopaM H ry6epH8TopaM). Oco6oe BHI1MaHl1e B npHC.IIfe 6bUlO YlleJIeHO OTHOllleHl11O K npaBOCYlll1lO: «06emmocfl 03... IxpaHumbj ...npafliJy U npa6b1U C.Yd. KOK 'IIe.>Ki)v Hopoikm. maK U 6 £Jew cocyiJapcm6eHHOM»3. 10l:\30p nl1TepaTYpbl. nOC.llllleHHOH cyne6HbIM nOJIHOMO'II1HM CeHaTII B nepBOti 'JeTBepTI1 X'VIII B.. 6yDeT npHBeileH HI{)I(e. !3aKOH01l3TeJ1bHb]C aKTb[ ne1pa I. c. 199. JTaM .lKe. C. 201. B Tor.IKe lleHb. 2 MapT" 1711 r. K naHHoH npl1CHrt B YcneHcKoM co60pe KpeMJI.ll - B npllcyrcTBI1t1 ne-rpa I - 6billtl npl1BelleHbl Bce HOBOHa3Ha'JeHHble ceHaropbl 11 Ha1({}JUlBWl1eC.II B TOT "toMeHT B MOCKBe ry6epHaTOpbll1 Bl1ue-ry6epHaTopbl (.UoKJIaD.bI 11 JTpl1roBopbl.. Cn6.. 1892. T.5. KH.I.C.220). 
108 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HaKOHeu, HMeHHO 2 M3pTa 1711 r. 3aKOHOllaTeJ1b nOJ1O)l(HJ] HaYaJ10 IIWKHO 1U1HHH peopMHpoBaHH5I OTe>leCTBeHHoro yro- JIOBHOro cynonpoH3BollCTffiL Y}f(e II nOJIHOCTbJO o<tJopMJIeHHhlH TeKCT BblllleynoM5IHyroro 3aKOHa OT 2 M8pTa OeTp I C06cTBeH- HOPY'lHO n06aBHJT (]>pa3Y: «YlfuHumb rjJUCKll.1oW 60 rJ;CflKUX i)e le,(, a I(oK 6b1mb UM, npUUlIeml{l11136ec111Ue»I. TaK 6bUJa OCHOBaHa <tJHC- KaJlbCKaH: CJI}I)K6a POCC(1J11 K ceronH5IllIHeMY J];HIO (oICTOpl1Jl OTe'-leCTBeHHbIX <tJI-1CKaJlOB OK33l\JJaCb HCcnenOlXlH8 - yCWJl.1f1MH HeCKOJibKJIIX nOKOJ1eHH(1 K8K HCTOpHKOB, TaK H npaBOBenOB - enB8 JIM He CHCTeMaTH1JeCKJ.1. TparUIUHSI H3)"JeHIffi :noil c.ny.+;:6bl nponll-Iynach CD BpeMCH nQll- roTOBKH A. D.. fpa.aOBCKHM MamCTepcKOH D.HCCepTam.JH «BbICWasI WlMHHHCTj)alliUl POCCHH XVIII CT. H reHepan-npoKY)JOpbl», 3aWI1- weHHOH H8 JOpH.1U1'1eCKOM <tJaK)'JlbTeTe CaHKT-ne-rep6yprcKOro YHJ.mepCJ.ueTa ewe II 1866 r. H J1."tII.3HHOH B TOM >Ke roJIY II mw;e MOHorpa$HK 113 'lepe.nbl nOCJIenylOwl1x H3bICKaHJ.1H CJle.nye-r OT- MeTI1Tb, npe)l(.fie Bcero. CneUJlliJ]bHO nOCEfilUeHHb]e ctJI1Ck8.Jl8.M pa3- D.eJlhl B Tpyn.ax C. A. neTpOBCKoro, H. B. MYP3BbeB3, M. M. 60- roCJIOBCKOro, A. H. 4II1JIHnnOB3 H C. M. Ka33HueBa J . KpoMe TOro, HeJlh3H 060f1TH ynoMHHaHHeM BbllllelllllHe B CBeT B 1870-1990-e ff. CTaThH T. B. 6apcolla, r. H. AHJ1HJlOfO- Ea. 11. A. CTellleHKO, C. E. WeCTaKOBa H H. B. nJJaTOHoBof1, a TaJOKe xapaKTepHCTIilKY HCKaJlbCKOf1 CJlY}l(6b1 B pa60Td'\: P. BHT- TpaMa, H. 6. fOJlHKOEOM H 11 f. KHCJlflJl.1HOf1, E. B. AHHCH- MOIla, M. 11. CH3I1KOIla. 06pHCOBaHHaH HCTOpHorpaqJH<leCKafi TpMHmul 6bUJ8 ctJYHDaMeHTaJlbHo npon.OJDKeHa KaI-IlUw.aTCKOH ] 3aKOHQ1IaTeJ1bHb[e aKTbI ne-rpa I. c. 100. 2 fuH nOJ1HOTbl KapTI1Hbl ClOlIT JaMeTI1Tb. 'JTO nepBblH $HCKaJI nOH- BI1.'ICH B POCCI1I11 HC B 1711 r., a HCCKOJIbKO )X]HCC. ElllC 4 111OJ1.11 1710 r. nC1]) I pacnOpmll1JlCH Ha3Ha'JI1Tb 4MeKd.fJOM B CaHKT-nerep6ypr CTOJIbHtI- Ka H. C. nOTeMKI1Ha. nepe.n 11. c. nOTeMKHHbIM 6blJ1a nOCTaBlleHa JIa)((- HIDI Ja1l84a CJ1enlfTb. 'JTo6bl '6C1IKW. '1UH06 J1,ooU, KOI1IOfJbIR oiJpemmomcR 8 CaHKm-numep6ypxe, 60 6pe.MR 6€mpD eJdwu HeeoiO peK.OiO fia CJrXlx napyca- VIP JV=u61l](l;HI956H)' POCCI1I1 XVIII CT. 11 reHepaJI-npC)I(YPopbl Cn6.. 1866. c. 81-89, 99-100; nempoe- CK.UU CA. YKaJ C04 C. 98-156; AfJ'fXl6bl!6 H. B. npoKYPOjJCKI1H HM30p B POCCliltI OT nC1])a &JlI1KOJO.nO EK.']TePI1Hb] II II 1OpI11lI.J'ICCKH BeCTHtlK. n!88. NQ 10. C. 199-221 ITO }l(t. }.1Jpc16b(!6 H. B. npoKypOjJCKHi1 HaJDOP B em }ICI]JOliCTBe 11 neHTeJlbHOCTl1: noc0611e WI.II npoKypopcKoi1 C1I}'JK6bI. M.. 1889 T I. c. 143-2651. liococlO6CWU M M. 06..r1acTIW1 pe ne-rpa &JlI1KOro. C. 295-307; C/JwIUflllOff A. H. YKaJ. C04. C. 178-202. KaJaH- l{e6 C M I1CTOPI1H uapcKOii npOKypaT)'Pb[ cn6.. 1993. c. 12-29. 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblrii 109 n(1696-1716rr.) 11I1CcepTaUlileH H. B. nJ1aJOHOBOH «rOCYllapCTBeHHOH KOHTpOJ1b (4111CKaJII'lTeT) B PoeCMM M pyccKoe 06weCTBo B nepBOH 'leTHeI'm XVIII BeKa». 3aUlHweHHoii B ceHTH6pe 2000 r. B PoeCMHCKOM rocYllapcTBeHHoM ryMaHMTapHoM YHMBepcHTeTe l . HaKoHeu, B HatIaJle XXI B. yrJly6JTeHHOe ocneweHMe nOJTy<lIDI HeMaJlOBa)f{- HblH ClQ)I(eT 0 B3aMMOOTHoweHMSIX 4JMCKaJlbCKOH CJJy}K6bt C IOcTMU-KOJTJ1en1eH 1 . KpoMe TOro, BonpOCbl MCTOpMM CJ1)0K6b] 33- TpOHYJ1M M. 0. AKl1lUMH B HeOllHOKpaTHO ynoM5lHyroHltMCCep- TdUI1M 2006 r.. 11 «J>. nlilCapbKoBa M H. A. KOM0J10B B MOHorpa- 4J11S1X 2007 r., a TaJOKe 11 B. KapHayweHKo B He60J1bwoii CTaTbe 2007 r. J nOCJTellHeH >Ke no BpeMeHH 3Ha<JHTeJlbHof1 pa6OTOH no MCTOpHM OTe'leCTBeHHbIX 4JHCKaJlOB HBIDIacb KaHllHJlaTCKa.sJ llHC- cepTaUHSI A. il £layrOBa «MHCTH1yr 4JHCKaJlOB B POCCMH B nep- 80(1 TpeTH XVIII B.», 33lUMweHHa.ll B 3npeJ1e 2007 r. B OMCKOM rocYllapCTBeHHoM neMrOrH'leCKOM YHMBepcHTeTe. BnpO'-leM, cy.D..II no aBTOpect>epary, mnB8HH8.11 11I1CcePT8UH5I npellCTaB1JSleT co6ott cKopee WHllaMeHTaJlbHblii o63op TpYllOB npellwecTBeH- HHKOB, He)f(eJi H Hay<lHoe HCCJTellOBaHHe. CTpaHHblM 06pa30M 16apc06 T. B. 0 CileTCKHX i):JHCKa.'laX 1'1 Dy\oBHblX I1HKBI1Jl1Tupax II .lKl\1Hn 1878. NQ 2. C. 307-400. AHnu.1OCOO I: H. <J>I1CKW1I'1TCT npl1 nc- 1pe I II BeCTHI1K MfY. Cep. «I1cTopIllKO-4J1.1JI0JI0rH'lecJ<.II!». 1956. NQ 2. C. 63-80; CmeweH,W JJ. A. <]JHCK<1JIbI 11 npo"1'POpbI B CI'ICTeMe rocy.nap- CTBeHHb[X opraHoB POCCHI1 nepooii 'JeTBePTH XVIII B. II BeCTHI1K MrY Cep. "npaBO». 1966. NQ 1. C. 51-58; Wit/ram R. Op. Cit. Bd.l. S. 108-111; FmuKD6U H 6.,IWcINUHCl J/. I: YKa3. C04. C. 61-64; l11ecmaK06 C E. <Dop- MilpoBaHl1e I1HCTIflYTa rpIDKJraHCKI1X i):JHCKaJlOB B POCCI1I11 B nepBOi1 rpeTH XVIII B. II Peq:,opMb] B POCCI1I1 XVI-XIX BB.: C6. HayqH. TpYllOB. M., 1991. C. 101-111; Affucu.woo E. B. focy.napcTileHHble npe06pa30BaHI1J1 C. 35-38; CUJUK06 M H. <]JHCKaJlbI H npoK}'lMfyPa II 3aKoHOlUIfC1bCTBO nerpa I. C. 115-118; nKlmotlO6Cl H B. HHLTIfJ)'T JJjIDKIJ;IHCKHX i):JHCKaJlOB B npencraBlleHH.IIX poCCI1HCKOro o6wecTBa II nOCTHHI.II I1CTOpl1tO Poccm..: K 50-JleTl1tO HayqHoro l-.1JYJkKa OTe4eCTBeHHoi1 'tcT<1J"1 Cpero-teBeKOBbH 11 HOBOro BpeMeHI1: C6. CTaTeH. M, 1997. C. 130-141; Olia JIa'. fOCYllliP- CTm:HHb[i1 KOHTpoJIb (i):JHCKaJlI1TeT) B POCCliltI B nepBOI1: 'JeTBCPTI1 XVIII B.: ABT1;:;'1at:t..;:: . ne-rpa I. C. 260-261; Ce- p06.o O. IOcTl1U-KOJ1J1efl1 11 opraHbl Ha1l3opa II POCCtlHCKIDI lOcTi1u- KQIJJICJHII. C. 91-101. 3 AxuwuH M. O. Cyne6HIDI pe$opMa neTpa I: flHC. no C. 107-114. fiu- CCJfJH'-{)(I(1 J/. C/J. YKa3. CO'J. C. 119-113, 208-211; KoV0708 H. A. OpraHbl CJ1enCTBI1S1. cyna 11 HaIl3opa. C. 76-90; MjffllJ'IUefIIo.O J/ B. HHCTHT)'T i):J11- CKaJll1TeTa B KOHTeKCTe MeXaHI13Ma BJaI1MOOTHOllleHI1H MOI-Iap'(a 11 ero no.n- llaHHb]X II HCTOPI1J1 rocYllapcrBa III npaBa. 1007. NQ 8. C. 17-18. 
110 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I OTKa3aBllUlCb OT np(1BJ1e>lem.U! MHoro'-lJ.1CJ1eHHb]X apXHBHblX (1C- TOlJHHKOB no 1136paHHOH TeMe. A. ll. nayroB OrpaHH'II1.J1C5I 113- JIO)l(eHHeM D.aBHO }')Ke BBCneHHblX B HayqHblii aGopOT CBelleHHH no HCTOpt.JH OTe'lecrBeHHoH HCKaJIbCKOi:i CJly)K6bl l . OOllo6Hoe DJ1CCepTaUHOHHOe HCCJlellOBaHHe npellCTaBJUlerC5I waroM H33M no cpaRHeHmo He TOJlbKO C HblweHa3HaHHblM(1 pa6OTaM(1 XX B. (oc06eHHo C JlJ1CcepTaUl1ei1 H. B. nJ13rOHoBOf1:), HO H no cpaB- HCHl-nO c xapaKTepHCTI1Koi1 poccMikKHX $HCKlliIOB B MHorOlcp3T- HO OTMe'leHHOM Tpy.ne C. A neTpOBcKoro 1875 r. XapaJ(TepHO, lITO np" Beex nOCTHrHyrblX 3a nOJITOpa BeKa ycnexax B H3yqeHHH ore'leCTBeHHblX t.JCKa.nOB nOHblHe MaJlO- npOHCHeHHblM OCTa.rJCs:! Bonpoc {) HenocpellCTBeHHOH npellbiCTO- pHH I1X C0311aHHH. B UeJlOM npHH5ITO C t Il1TaTb, ':ITQ B .aaHHOM cJ]Y'Jae o6paJuaM(1 1lIU1 3aKOHo.nareJUI nOC.fIY)KJ.UU1 (1CKaJlbCKHe CJ1}0K6b] WBeUI1H H OpyCCJ.1H. OJJ;H3KO KaKHX-JII160 M8Tepl1aJlOB o nO)J;f"OTOBKe OeTpOM I Y'Jpe)l(l];eHl1fl <fJHCKMOB B H3y'JHbli'i 060- POT )J;OHbIHe He BBO)J;11J10Cb!. LITO 6b] TaM HI-1 6blJIO, no 8lnopH- TeTHOMY 3aMeI.J8HHlO P. BtfTT)X\M8, «HeCMOTpH H8 HHOCTpaHHoe HaI1MeHOBaHHe. HCKMb[ npHo6pe.rIl-1 IB PaccHHI HHoe 3H81.Je- HHe, He>Ke.rIl-1 B CTapoeBponei'icKoM MHpe»3. Co CTOpOHbl OpraH113aUHoHHoi'i I-1CKMb[ 06pa30Ba.rIl-1 c06oi'i 1]JexypoBHesylO BepTJllKaJlb fJlaBa HOB006p33oBaHHoi'i CJ1}0K6b] - o6ep4HCKaJI - nO)J;I.JHHRJlCfI Hanp.llMYIO OpaBI-1TeJlb- CTB}'lOllleMY Ce HaT). B 60J1ee 3H81.J1-1TeJlbHb]X roponax (B nepBYIO ]CM.: nO}'I'1IOfIA.p'.I1HCTHT)'T 4JI1CKaJIOR B PacCl111 B nepBOH TpeTH XVIJ B::'It:e;t1YC\::' . C A. nt"TpOBCKO- ro, vrnep.nHJlacb OWtl60'IHIDI TO'[Ka 3peHI1H, 'ITO CBeD.eHI1H 0 3apy6e>KHblx lCKaI1bCKI1X CJ1yA-fa'\ uaplO B 1711 r. npe.noCTaBI{J[ CTOJ1b 113BeCTHbIH BnQCJIe;&.-rnHI1 feHpl1X I!JHK (llellpollCl\llUCA. YKa3. C04. C. 100; Mypa- 6befl H. B. npoKypopcKJ.:Ii1 HM30p... c. 146,  C M YKa3. C04. C. 12). B lleiic'muTenbHOCTI1 f. I!JHK BC1)InWl B KOHTaKT C npenCTaBHTe- JJHMI1 pocCI1HCKOro npaJJll1eJIbCTsa He paHee 1714 r (nonpo6Hee 063mM 6yner CKaJaHO na.ee). l.ITO >Ke KacaeTC.II 113}"1eHI1H oonpoca, KaKl1e I1MeHHO Japy6e)!(Hble 06paJUbl 6bUill I1CnOJiWONlHb[ npH }"1pc>KD.eHI1I11 4JHCKaJIbCKOi1 CJlyJK6b1 POCCI1I1. TO T.:\M)IJbIM tI.JbICJQlHIDI,.I npenmcruyeT TO ooc:rOlrTe1Jb- CTBO, '1TO B OTe'leCTBeHHoi1I11CTopHOrpmIJHtI nOHblHe OC'f3IO"It:.II COBepWeH- HO HeocBeweHHblMI1 BOnpocbl 0 rOC}>lapCTBeHHOM ycrpoIiCTse npYCCHl1, l{aHI1I1, WReUl1I1. CaKCOHI1I1 XVII-:x.'\I1II BB. - Ha 'lT0 ewe II pa60Te 1997 r. cnpaBe.W1I11BO 06pan1J1 BHI1MaHl1e 0. A. OMeJlb4eHKO (Owelb'leH- KO O. A B'IdCTb 11 3aKoH B POCCI1I1 XVIII BeKa: IfCCJJl'lIOBdHl'!H tI 04epKI1. M., 2004. C. 486). J Wi/tram R. Op. cit. Ed. 1. S. 108. 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblri1 111 n(1696-1716rr.) 04epe1l.b, ry6epHCKMX) pa3MeWMJ1Cb npoBI1HUJ.18Jl-J1CKaJ1bl. B OCTaJ1bHb]X - n01l.'-lJ1HeHHb]e HM rop01l.0Bb]e HCKaJlbl. OC06bIM J1MeHHbIM )'K<l30M OT 16 SlHBapSl 1712 r. YCTaHaBJIJ1BaJIaCb nOJl- HaS! He3aBHCHMOCTb HCKaJlOB OT MeCTHblX allMHHHCTpaTl'IBHO- CYLle6Hblx opraHoB I . n04TH OllHORpeMeHHO C J1CKaJlbCKOH CJ1}0K60H npJ1 Ce- HaTe, J1MeHHbIM YKa30M OT 31 J11OJ151 1711 r., 6bUUl. Y4pe>KJ],eHa H BoeHHO-J1CKaJlbCKa.ll cJ1}0K6a 2 . C MOMeHTa B03HHKHOBeHI1JI 03Ha'-leHHllil cJ1Y.>K6a BOlillia B CTpyKrypy KpHrcKoMHCCapHa- TII - ueHTpa.rlbHoro opraHa, Be.rraBUIerocHa6)({eHHeM H HHaHcH- poBaHHeM apMHH. npH 3TOM, B OTJ1H'lHe OT rpa>KJ],aHCKHX KOJ1Jler, BOeHHbie HCKaJlbl nepBOHa<.JaJlbHO nOJ1)1'IHJ[H LlBYA'YPOBHeB)'lO opraHH3aUHIO: 06ep-4:!HCKaJI (no1l4HHSlBWHHCSI HenocpellCTBeH- HO reHepaJI-KpJ1rCKOMJ1CCapy) - nOJ1KOBble HCKaJlb]3. 3)1;eCb oo.mrrcSI YMeCTHblM CKa3aTb HeCKOJlbKO CJlOB 0 npo- eKTe pa3BHTI1S1 HCKaJ1bCKOH CJlY.>K6b1 POCCMJ1, nOllrOTOBJIeHHOM r. rlOMceHoM. BblIlYCKHHK Y'rpexrcKoH aK.ll1eMHH, nOKTop npalk1, COCTOS!BUlHH c 1702 r. Ha PYCCKOH CJl)0K6e, reHpHX rlOHceH (Hein- rich Fridrich von Hil}s.<ien) npellCTIlBHJI ncrpy I B oKTS!6pe 1713 r. 06wHpHble npellJlO)({eHHSI, KacaBlllHeC5I KaK neTaJlbHOH pemaMeH- TaUHH npaB H 06513aHHOCTeH LlOJT)KHOCTHbIX J1HU HCKaJlbCKOH CJ1}01<6bI, TaK H ee opraml3aUH"- HecMoTpSl H8 TO, '-lTO npoeKT r. fJoHceHa 6WJ onyrumKoBaH M. A. nOJlHeBKTOBblM no HeMeu- KOSl3bl'lHOMY opMrl1Ha.ny erne B 1915 1'.4. B HCTOpJ1KO-npaBOBOH J111Tepa1!'pe Ha3BaHHblH npoeKT nOHblHe He pocCMaTpHBaJlCS!. He BIJ.aBaSlCb B neTWlbHylO xapah.repHCTHK)' npocKTa, He06- xom.JMO OTMemTb npellJlO)({eHHSI r. rlOfkeHa KaCaTeJ1bHO npouec- cyaJ1bHblX nOJ1HOMO'IHH OTe'lecTBeHHbiX J1CKaJ10B. Bo-nepBblx, corJ1acHO n. 3 npoeKTa Ha MCKaJ10B npOeKTl1poBaJ1OCb B03JlO)({I1Tb H<\lI.30P 3a 3lIKO HHOCTbIO BbIHOCJ1Mb]X cyllaMJ1 perneHJ1H «<lImo6t.1... 13aKOHonaTeIJbHble 3KTbI ne-rpa I. c. 328 nOKaJaTelIbHO, 'JTO B COO1- BeTCTBl111 C D.aHHbIM yKa30M 113-nOLl tOpHClIl1KU1111 ry6epHaTopoB BblBOllH- nHCb J];l..!CJ: npI1HllIJIC>KaBWHC I]JI1CKMHM-noMclliH!Q]M nepeBHI1. :.Hb6.I[ 11 5:TOHWeMY Bpe- MeHI1 113)'4eHbI HecpaBHeHHo X)')Ke. He)Kenlil rpIDI(.IIaHCKl1e Ha BOnpoce 0 BoeHHo-l]J&tcKaJlbCKOH CJ1)')K6e ne1pOBCKOJO BpcMCHIil CnCUl1aJ1bHO - XOT.II 11 He oco6eHHO nonp06Ho - OCTaHOBi'IJICH cnHHCTBeHHO M. n. P03eHrdiM B ynoMHHyroH MOHorpa<fJ1111 1878 r. (Po.Jmzf'UM M. n. YKa3. C04. C. 109- 110.176-178). 4npoeKT 6ap flOltceHa 06 Y'!pe)l(D,eHUI1 B POCCI1I1 ItJI1CKaJI-KOJIJ1erHl1 (1713) I nyfuJ. M. A. nOJlI1CBKTOBa II 1..jOHllP. 1915. KH. 2 C. 1--46. 
112 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I KOK 6 j!ZO"OOllblX. maK U 6 2paJlCiJaHcKux iJeAax peWeHUfl ffbIHOCWlUCb HenpeiknRmo, cmpoiYJ 6 coomeemcmeuu C 3aKOHQv.). BO-flTOpbIX, no n. 6 npoeKTa. 4JHCKaJlbl llOJDKHbl 6bll'U1 06ocHOBblBaTb B cyllC Bbillst.JHyrble 11M" OOOHHeHH5I. B-TpeTbI1X, comaCHO n. 4 npoeKTa r. fJoHCeHa ctJl1CKaJlOB npelV1ara.rrOCb Hau.eJ1lITb npaBOM BblcrynaTb B cy.ne B KaeCTBe npe.nCTaBl.rreJleil «6006, cupom u npo'fUX 6eOHbJX .qKJi)eu, paello KOK U 6 0e1ax epK6eu U COClWtnalejj&l. B Ka'-JeCTBe 3aKJIJO'u.rreJIbHoro pa3l1eJ18 feHpHX r IOHceH BK.fUO- 'lWl B xapaKrepl13yeMb]H npoeKT COCTOHBWt.JH 1-13 14 nYHKTOB npoeKT I1HL-rpyJilltiH BOeHHblM $HCI<a.IlaM 1 . npoueccyanbHble nOJIHOMC)<Ul5I BOeHHbIX }l1CKaJJ.OB OKa3blBaJlHCb, no MbICJJI..J r. fJoHceHa, HeCKOJIh- KO timpe, He)f(eJ1H '1eM y rpillKlJaHCKlIX. CamacHo n. II npoeKTa I1HCTpyKUHH BlXHHblX ctJl1CKaJlOB npe.IlnOJ1ararrOCb llOnOJIHIITeJlbHO HMeJlHTb YHKLl(1di Ha1l30pa 3a np(1BelleH(1eM B HcnOJ1HeHHe np(1- roBOpC)B, a comaCHO n. 12 - @HKLlI1ei1 HaD.30pa 3a 33KOHHOCTblO COllep)l<f\HH5I noli. cnuKei1 apecrOBaHHbIX. LITO KaCaeTC.II opnliuo.a- UI1I1 q:w:KaJlbCKO(1 CJly)f(fibl, TO B Ka'leCTBe ee pyKOBOJlHlUero opra- Ha r. notlceH npelLOO)tJ11I Y'-!pen.(1Tb oc06YJO CP(1CKaJI-KOJUIenUO BO rJ1aBe C reHepaJI-$HCKaJIOM, CTpYKTYPY KaKOBOtt OH OJ1liCan caMblM non.JX>6HbIM 06pa30M J . BnpO'leM, HaCKOJlbKO MO)f(]-[O mweTb. npH- MOro BOeHCTBI1SJ Ha pa3HKI1'Je OTe'leCTBeHHOrO 3aKOHQlI.aTe1IbCTBa o (1CKaJIaX npoeKT reHp(1Xa rKJikeHa He OKa3aJl. B 17to-e rr. HOpM<iTI1BHYIO OCHOB}' YHKW10HHpoBaHHSJ rpa)l(ll8HCKOH (1CKMbCKOH CJi}0K6bl COCTaBI1JIH, npe)((1le Bcero, JaKOHbl OT 5 MapTa 1711 r. HOT 17 MapTa 1714 r. <'YK03 0 r!JU- CKalax U 0 ux iJOAJICHOCmu u rJeucm6UU&, a BOeHHO-HCKaJIbCKoi:i CJJy)K6bI - CT. 12-15 (1 23 PerJlaMeHTa Kp(1fCKOMHCCapHaTa OT to .aeKa6pH 1711 r., .uonOJIHeHHe .aaHHoro PemaMeHTa 1712 r., a TIHOKe m. 42 BOHHCKOro YCTaBa OT 30 MapTa 1716 r. 4 ComacHo .:e:;. :.JeH3... c. 23, 24-25 3TaM>Ke.C.32-36. 4J'IKOHollaTJ1bHb[ aKTb! nCTpa I. c. 203, 333-335; nOJlHoe co6p;.]Hl1e JaKOHOB. T 4. NQ 1456. C. 76&-768; nl1CbMa 11 6)'MarHm T II. Bbln. 1 C. 330; 3aKOHo.n:rrenbCTBO fleTpa I. C. 186-187 He06'1.01UIMO :klMeTlITb, 'JTO OpraHI13amIH 11 KOMneTeHUI1.11 rpaJKIJ.aHCKO 11 BoeHHOi1 $HCKaJlbCKI1X CJly;till OKd3aJlIICb 3.l1q)C[]}]CHb] B 3.lICOHOllaTJ1bCTBC OnIllCb]BOCMOro BpeMCHI1 ellsa JlI1 He C MaKCHMaJlbHOH nOJ\HUIOii - no cpaBHeH(1)Q C ycrpoiiL"lBOM 11 nonHOM04HHMI1111HbiX opraHOB R1TacTH. B 3T0i1 CBH311 coaeprneHHO HeHCHO. 'JTO naJ10 OCHOBaHI1.11 11. R KapHayweHKo yraep)K1lilTb, 'JTO «OOH3aHHOCTH $HCKaJlOB He 6bUll1 'JeTKO onpeneneHbl B JaKOHOlJaTeJ1bCTBC" (/iL!pffaJU4If- KoJ/.B. YKaJ. cO't. C. 17). 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblri1 113 n(1696-1716rr.) o:m81.J:eHHbIM 3aKOHOMTeJ1bHbIM aKTIlM KOMne-reHLlI151 4J(1CKaJlOB 3aKJUOlJanaCb, B nepB}'lO OlJepe.nb, B BWIBJIemm Juo60ro Hapyrne- HID! 3aKOHa - «8C51KUX npeCmYfUel/UU )"Ka"Jl1..W». Co06pa3HO Tpe- 60BaHHHM MOMeHTa. oc06oe BHHMaHHe 4JHCKaJlbCKJ1M OpraHaM HawIe)l(aJlO YlleJ1HTb o6Hap}')KeHHlO npeC1)'llJ1eHHH, no COBpe- MeHHOH KIlaCCH)J.fKaLlHH, nponm HHTepeCOR CJl}0K6bl H nponm npaBOCYJI.I.UJ (nOJl)"-leHHe B351TKH I , Ka3HOKpaIlCTBO, 3JloynOl]Je- 6neHHe llOJl)l(HOCTHblMH nOliHOMOlJ(1HMH, Bb]HeCeH(1e 3aBellOMO HenpaBOcyllHoro npHroBopa) BClO c06paHHYIO HH$>pMaUHIO HCKaJlbl 06513blBaJlHCb H8npaBJI5ITb Ha paCCMOTpeHHe TOro cYlle6Horo opraHa, B nOll- BenOMCTBeHHOCTH KOTOporO HaXOllJ.UlOCb 06J1J.f11aeMOe JIHUO. npHMe<IaTeJ1bHO. 1.J:TO B Ka1.J:eCTBe CpOKa llaBHOCTH no npeCTYruJe- H(1S1M, Bbl5lBJTHeMblX (1CKaJlaMH, - no CT. to 3aKOHa OT 17 Map- Ta 1714 r. - YCTIlHaRJ1(1BaJlCSI 1700 ro.n. TeM C8MbIM. KaK y)l(e HeollHoKp8THO OTMe'lliJlOCb B HCTOpHKo-npaBoBoH JIHTeparype, HCKaJlbCKa}J CJlY.>K6a CTaJJa nepBblM B HaweH CTpaHe opraHoM HaD.3Opa 3a C06J11011eHHeM 3aKOHHOCTII. Me)({l{)' TeM, HaPHny C 4JYHKl1Hdi HM30pa. 3aKOHOllaTeJlb npHDaJ1 HCKaJlbCKOH CJ1}I)K6e ewe TpH He MeHee Ba.>KHbIX JIHHHH KOMnereHW1H. Bo-nepBblX. .llJlH YCTaHORJ1eHHH c06bITHH npe- crynHoro neSlHHJI HCKaJlb] nOJl)"-lH.Jm - no 3aKOHY OT 5 Map- Ta 1711 r. - HHKorna npe)((1le He 3aKpeJUl5lBWeeCH HOpMaTI1BHO npaBO OCYll.leCTRJ1}1Tb, B COBpeMeHHOM nOHHM8HHH. onep8ruBHO- p03blCKHylO lleSlTe.JIbHOCTb «<maul/o IwdCMampU8amb»)1. Bo- BTOpblX, B CT. 4 3aKOHa OT 17 MapTa 1714 r. H R CT. 2 rJ1. 42-« I He MCK!ltO']eHO. 'ITO oc06oe ynoMIIIH3Hllle 0 lIDHHOM COCTaBe npeCl)'- []J1eHI1H B CT. 2 3<1KOHa OT 17 M3prn 1714 L (<<6CRKue 631ImK/Ji» .IIBI1lIOCb OT- roJ10CKOM n. II npoeKTa f. ftOf.iceHa, no KOTopoMY $HCKaJlaM CneUl1aJ1bHO npeJ13raJ1OCb CJ1ellHTb, 'lT06bl <>trpeCtrlJ.71HIlKli He omn}'CICtlJ/UCb Ha CB06txJy 3a deHtKlI» (3aKOHQ!1aTeJlbHb[e 3KTb] nelpa I. c. 333; cp.: npoeKT Gap. fJOH- ce'Be1?Bl1e npI1Be.LleHHOH 4x:!PMYnl1poBKI1 3aKOHo.lIaTeJ1.11, C. A. ne- 1]JOBCKJdi 11 H. B. MypaBbc:B nOC'!UTdlJlII I}JI1CKllIIbCKYtO CJlY;wy OprdHOM 1ff'<!..Il1lH()'!() (Tai-iHOro) Ha.I13opa. DaHHIDI TO'JKa 3peHU.II fibUla 3aTeM COBep- weHHO v6eIUfTelbHO ocnopeHa A. H. C1JHJll1nnOBbIM B ynOM.IIJ-q'TL"1ii pa6crre 1911 r. (nertlfJOflCl'uu C A. Y'GD. C04. C. 157; MJ'fJllf!befJ H. B. npol0'pop- CKHi1 Ha1I3Op... C. 288. unn06 A. H. YKa3. CO'J. C. 191-192). B co- BpeMeHHoi1 OCKJPIIKO-nlHBOooH J1IfTcparype lIDBHO OTBeprHyrytO T04KY 3peHI1.11 0 $HCKaJJaX KaK 0 npe.ncTIJ8J.rreJl.llx TIJHHOro Ha.rI30pa HeO}J{I{1IiIHHO BOCnp0l13BeJ111 - Bnpo4eM. fie3 BCHKOro 06ocHOBaHI1.11 - M. 0 AKI1111I1H 11 11. R KapHayweHKo (AKUUiUH M 0 CYlle6HaH peMa ne-rpa I: !btc. . C. 107; KapllGllUJeHKO J/. B. YK.I3. CO'J. C. 17). 
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rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblri1 119 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} pellb, 3a B3HTO'-IHM'IeCTBO, Ka.JHOKpaIlCTBO M 3JJoyno-rpe6J1eHMe nOJDKHOCTHblMM nOJ1HOMO'-lmlMM B ()JOpMe HeyKa3HbIX c6opcm)[. TaK, 3aKOH OT 24 neKa6pH 1714 r. HBHJlCH Hal160J1ee >KeCTKHM HopManlBHo-npaBoBblM aKTOM, HanpaBJIeHHblM npOTl1B B3HTOlJ- HM'IeCTBa, M3.LlaHHbIM B POCCMM 3a XV-XIX BB. CaMM >Ke Bbl- WeH83BaHHble npecryrureHMH OKa3aJIMCb - comaCHO 3aKOHaM OT 24anpeJiH 1713 r. MOT 25 aBT}'CTa 1713 r. - OTHeCeHbl no cyweCTBY K KaTeropMM rocynapcTBeHHb]x}. nepexollH K 0630py M3MeHeHMM B cynoyC"rpoMCTBe, B nep- BYIO O'lepellb CJ1ellyeT OTMeTMTb, 'ITO B 1712 r. uapb BOCC03D.arT PacnpaBHYIO namny, KuropaH BOI1lJ18 Tenepb B CTpyKl)'py npa- BI1TeJ1bCTBYlOlllero CeHaTa. 3anOJIY'IMB (KaK M ee npellweCTBeH- HMua XVII B.) elll1HCTBeHHYJO cWHKUl110 - OrnpaBJIeHMe npaBO- I nOJ1Hoe c06paHl1e 3aKOHOB. T. 5. NQ 1673. 2709, 2871. C. 17. 51-53, 135-136. lHal16o.riee no.np06H\Je paccMOJpet[He JaKOHa OT 14 neKa6pH 1714 r. B I1CTlfI7O;:::;;; U a'e;: HOB 1713 r. YK33aJ1 eJ1HHCTBeHHO E. R AHI1CI1MOB (AHucuVOll E. B.l:(b[6a M KHyr. C. 18-19). OcraeTCH no!'iaBl1Tb. '1TO BnOCJleJJ.CTBI1I1 xapmrrepH3Vl'IIIID] JIMHI1H yr0J10BHOrO JaKOHQU<ITt'JIbCTBa HalWla JaKpenJleHl1e 6 CT. 11 JaKOHa al1.o'UKHOCTb CcHaTa" PCill]KllHIII 1718 r.. B KoropoH npcCTyIlJlCHIliI npo- THD I1HTCpeCOD CJIY)K6b] 6bLlIM npHMO COOfHeCeHb] C MJMeHoi1. 1)000ee TOro. B 1718 r. 3<lKOH01laTeJ1b C'leJ1 <I1fX!3IJi!1Iue J .nOJ1JKHOCTI-1bIMM Jll1uaMM D.IDKe GoJlee 06!UeCT8eHHO onaCHblM. He)l(eJll1 npenaTeJlbCTBO KaK OTie- THJl neT]J I B Co6cTBeHHOPy<JHO HamlcaHHOM npoeKTe Ha3BaHHoH craTbH. «ycnbllUtlljJ U3.1felI,V, eCJIK ocmepe}j(emu,a, a celO Ida1J1CHOCmHOlO npecnnTLIe- HUflJ Huxmo ec/wpe He t1()fO(J(IChI6yem, HO vaW-f/O'IIlUY eee pa3Dp1lml¥1....... Ha- KOHeu, B xo.ne pa60Tbi HarI npoeKTOM Y1ImKeHI1H POCCI1HCKOro rocynapcTlkl 1723-1726 rr neT]J I nO.llroTOBI1J111 60KTH6pe 1723 r. nepella. 6 YnO)l(eH- HYJO KOMHCCMJO I1MCDlllYtO HOPM3UIBHoe JHa'lCHI1C «3KcrwUKllI4U/(Ji> ITOJlKO- BaHMel 0 rocynapcrBeHHbIX npecrynJIeHI.JHX. B ....3M;IlJIMKaUI1I1... JaKOH01la- TeJlb BKllJ0411J1 B '1I1CJ10 rocYllapCTBeHHb[X npeC'I)'[1JJeHI1 Bee npeC'I)'nHb]e ne>lHI1.11 npOTI16 MHrepet:OB CJ1}I)K6b1 (np01l16 iJapcmeeHHbIJ( npa6 U C80eU aoll). KpoMe TOro, B «3KCIlJIMKaUHW> I1Mnep<rrop paJBI1J1 Bblwe- npHDCDcHHbli1 TCJHC 06 oco6oi1 06wcCTBCHHoH onocHocrn npocTyllJJ!:HMi1 npoTHB I1HTepeCOB CJly.>K6b1, YKa3aB. 'JTO OT «IIJH!3JH!HUR iJo./JKH()(mu... .MO- :Nrem 6Mmb i'OI.Jt'JapcmeJ, Hi! trIO'IUIO tiftkrntJro. HO U Io"Ollf'OlllOf' tII1iJeRuI!.. (3aKo- HOnaTeJ1bHble aKTbI nerpa I c. 131-131. 187-188) HeKoTopoe BpeM.II cny- CTH «3KCIlJIMKaUHH" 6bUla o$opMJIeHa B BWle oco60ro JaKObHOro aKTa, 06Hapo.nOBaHHoro 5 <tteDpWl.ll 1724 r. (nOJlHoe c06paHMe JaKOHOB. T.7 NQ 4460. C. 25(}---251). LITO KacaeTCH npoeKTII YJlO)l(eHM.II, TO BblllJe- OTMe4eHHb]e ycTdliOBJIeHMH 3aKOH01l8TeJ1S1 nony<JI1J111 B HeM OTpaA(t"Hl1e B CT. 15. 26 11 43 rn. 4-H KH. I (PfNI,A, 4J. 342. KH 33. 'J. I, n. 61---{j2. 68 06.-70 InpHJIO)KCHI1C YD. 
120 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I cylll1J1. nanaTI! 6b1J13 npl13BaHa OlT5IHyrb B CBOe npol13BOllCTBO 11 o6ecne<iI-1Tb CKopeiulIee pa3peweHHe OCHOBHO" MaCCbl HOCXo- DJ1BWI1X B CeHaT cyne6HblX llel1. OcyweCTBJ.1Tb «6e3BOJlOKHTI-loe» pa36HpaTeJlbCTBO TaKOBblX lIen npaBHTeJ1bcrnYJOlllHH CeHaT He HMeJl B03MOIKHOCTH no 06beKUIBHi>IM npWIHH8M - JaHt1M8HCb B npHoprneTHOM nopMKe Honpocam ynpaBJTeHH.II (oco6eHHO <l>H- HaHCOBoro). COCTO.llJ!a PacnpaBH851 nanan 113 n;BYX ceH8TopOB Ii "leTblpex OC06blX «pacnpaBHblX cYJJ;ej:j" (n03LlHee HX "mCnD 6bUlQ YBeJIl1'leHO.no JUITI1). Kpyr BelleHI1.I1 «HOBOH» PacnpaBHoH nMaTbl .neTaJ1bHO pe- rJlaMeHTHp(IBaJ1C.sI B ceHaTCKOM YKa3e OT 4 CeHT5I6p51 1713 r.' ComacHo H83BaHHOMY YKa3}' KOMneTeHUI1J1 nanaTbI (nO<fH1 3ep- KaJ1bHO 0TPa3HBWM cy.ue6Hble n0J1HOM09I1Ji CeHaTa) onpeneJUI- JIaCb JJ;B05lKO. C O)lHoif CTOpoHbl. PacnpaBH8R namna BblcrynaJIa B Ka<ieCTBe aneJLl1JU.lHOHHOH (1HCTaHQIU1 no OTHorneHMIO K ry- 6epHCKI1M KaHueJUlplUlM M I1MeIJrnl1M cy.ne6Hb]e YHKUMM ueH- TpaJlbHblM opraHaM BJlaCTI1, C .npyroi1: - ocyrneCTBJlWla <lfJ03lJICKU u npom'lee ynpae.,leHue no ckJHOUieHUHM fjJUCML1CKll.!tP. Bonpoc 0 TOM. KaKl1e I1MeHHO I1Hl1mUlpC)iJaHHble I1CKaJlb- CKOH CJlyJI{6oH yrOJloBHble .neJla paCCMa1])HBaJlHCb naJIaToi1, OKa3aJ1C5I COBeprneHHO o60i1L1eH IJ npe.nweCTsytOll1ei1: HCTopHKO- npalJolJoi1: JIHTeparype. I1CXOll51 M3 6YKBb] YKa33 OT 4 CeHT.II6pSl. MO)[(HO nOH5ITb, 1.JTO npennOJIanUlOCb cy.ne6Hoe pmHpaTeJlbCTBO naJIaToiJ Dcem o6DeMa nOllo6HbiX lleJi. OllH3KO, HaCKOJlbKO MO)[(- HO BHlleTb no apXI1BHblM MaTepl1aJ1aM, H3 npaKTI1Ke B Pacnpas- H}'tO na.runy nocrynaJIl1 1])H KaTerOpHI1 neJl, HHI1UI1HpooaHHblX I1CKaJlbCKOft CJI)I)[(60ii. Bo-nepBblx. IJ naJIal)' - no npellCTaBJleHl110 o6ep- MCKaJla - BOCXOllWll1ll0HOrneHHJI MeCTHblX ttJHCKaJlOB. KOTopble 6bUlM WlH npOl1fHopMpOBaHbl ry6epHaTopaMM, WlM }l(e KaCaJlHCb HX caMI1X (IJOJMO)[(HOCTb HanpaBJIeHH5I TaKOlJblX lloHorneHMi1: IJ CeHaT CneUl1aJ1bHO oroBapl1lJaJIaCb B CT. 8 3aKOH3 OT 17 MapTa 1714 r.). BO-BTOPb]X. B PacnpaBHYIO naJIa1Y npHHHMaJlMCb llO- HOWeHHJI KaK caMoro 06ep-MCKaJla, TdK M ero «TOBapMlLleiJ». H3KOHeu, B-1])eTbI1X - .nOHorneHHJI MOCKOBCKHX ttJl1CKaJlOIJ 11 npOBHHUl1aJ1- HCKaJlOB. ] nonHQe co6Jxrnl1e JaKOHOB. T. 5. NQ 2710. C. 53-54. 6oJJ.ee IIIcnpaB- HYIO nyMI1Kalll1tO TKCTa yKaJa eM: .[lOKJ1Mbl 11 npHrOBOpbL Cn6.. 1888. T. 3. KH. 1. C. 704-705. 0630p nl1TpaTYPbl 0 PacnpaBHoi1 naJIHTe npl1 QHaTC: npHBc:.n.eH Bb[We. 
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122 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I JaKOHe aT 23 OKTJlGpJl 1713 r.. C 011HO" CTOpOHbl, 6bUia BHeCeHa ropa3.Do Gonce 'leTKa51 ()JopMYJ](1pOBKa KaCaTeJIbHO npaBa H8 06- paweHHe TaKora pOlla, a c npyroH - pe'lh lill1a 06 HHOM Kl'yre npecrynJleHt1i1 (6 3aKOHe 1700 r., CTOlH HanOMHHTb, roBOpWlOCb o npaee H3BewaTb rocy.napJi 06 oco60 BIDKHblX rocy.napCTBeHHhlX npecrynJleH(1.11x). Me>K.nY reM. JTHHI1JI 3aKOH8 aT 2 c}:IeBpaJISi 1700 r. 06 YBe- llOMJlemm BepxoBHoj:j MaCTI1 0 rocy.napCTBeHHh]X npecrynneHH- fiX TaJOKe HaUlJl8 npo.nOJ])f(eHHe B 3aKOHOllareJIbCTBe 1713 rolla. B 3aKOHe, 113.DaHHOM 23n.eKa6pJl 1713 r., n01l.llaHHblM 1l03B01lSl- IlOCb C006111aTb J1H'lHO uapJO 0 TaKI1X «TpMHUHOHHhL". rocy.nap- CTBeHHblX npecrynJleHMJiX, KaK YMblCeJI Ha «i'OCyOOpcKoe 300PO- 6ber>, oCKop6J1eHHe «6t1COKaWOHOpweii I/ecmu», 6YHT H H3MeHa l . B AaHHOM cJlY'Jae MO}l(HO KOHcraTl1pOBaTb CHHXpOHHOCTb B pa3- 6(1TI1I1 TeHlleHUHif B yrOJloBHOM H B yr0J10BHo-npoueccyaJIbHOM 3aKOH01l8TeJIbCTBe: BblWeOTMe'leHHOe OTHeCeHl1e npecryJlJle- HI1M npoTl1B I1HTepeCoB CJIy.>K6bl K KaTeropl111 rocy.napCTBeHHblX npol130UlflO n<NTH O.nHoBpeMeHHo C yCTaHOBJIeHl1eM e.DJ1Horo oco60ro nopHllKa cy.nonpol13Bo.acTBa no BceM .neJIaM no.a06Horo po.na. CrpeMJIeHl1e neTpa 1 OpraHI130BaTb BCeCOCJIOBHOe npom- Bo.ae51CTBl1e .nOJI)((HOCTH051 npecrynHOCTI1 nOJIyql1JIO AaJlbHe51rnee BOJUlorneHl1e B 3aKOHe OT 25 JlHBapJl 1715 r. 1 I1MeHHo B -"TOM 3a- KOHe OK33W1I1Cb C<t>oPMYJll1posaHbl 3HaMeHI1Tbie «Tpl1 nYHKTa», co.aep)({3BWl1e COCTaBbl oco60 TJDKKI1X npecrYflJleHHii. 0 no.aro- TOBKe I1JII1 ooBeprneHl111 KOropblX TOJIbKO 11 nonYCKalJOCb 113Be- lllaTh HanpRM)'JO MOHapxa. B nepBblX nBYX nYHKTax - nO'lTH B nOJIHOM COOTBeTCTBl111 C 3aKOHOM OT 23 net<a6pR 1713 r. - <l>11- rypl1poBaJll1 «TpaDJ1UI10HHble» rOCYA3pCTBeHHb1e npecryJUleHI1J1; nOCRraTeJIbCTBO HB )((113Hb CBMOllep)((l.{3, 113MeHa 11 6YHT. B Tpe- TheM nYHKTe pe'lb UJ..Illi 0 Ka3HOKpanCTBe. I1H051 oco6b]51 nOp51.a0K cynonpol13Bo.acTBa 6bIJI npellycMo- TpeH BTOM )((e 1715 r. no '1acTH nen 0 B3HTO'IHI1'1eCTBe (KaKoBoe I nOJllioe C06pi:lHlle JdMJI-IOB. T. 5. NQ 1756. C. 76. n01l]X!6Hee 0 113HHOM JaKOHe CM.: /loiqxxJcKuil H. H. 3aKOHon;rreJIbHb]e IIICTO'D-fIlKH... C. 419-420. 23aKoHo..rr.areJ1bHb]e I.IKTb! nerpa I. c. 364. B nl1TepaJype H33BaH- Hb!H ]aKOH CneUHaJlbHO pacCM0'J'jJer:II1 E. B. AHI1CI1MOB, H. .H. nOKpOB- CKI1i1l1lliK..ne DOHH (AHl./CU.1f06 £ B Dbl6a 11 KHYT. C. 19-20. nO/(p06- CKUU H H. 3aKoHOIlaTeJ1bHble I1CT04HI1KI1 . C. 420--422; LeDonne J. Gp. cit. P.l06-207). 
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128 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I ne6Hb]e nOJiHOMO<mfl, npJ.1'1eM 06ep-KOMeH.1lliHTCIQUI KaHUeJ1S1- pH5I CTaJ18 BblcrynaTb no OTHOrneHl-11O K ye1D.HOH KOMeHn8HTCKOil KaHueJUlpliH B Kal.JeCTBe cyn.a BTOpOro 3BeHa l . BTOpoe 113MeHel-ille B MecrnOM cynoYCTpof1cTBe nOCJlellOBa- no B CB5I3H C Y'-Ipe)l(JleHHeM, no HMeHHOMY YKa3}' OT 28 SlHBapSl 17151"., ewe OllHOii HOEOH arI.M(1H(1CTpamSHO-TeppJ.1TOpHaJlbHOH enI1HHL(b] - 110JU1 - so mase c J]apaTOM. KOTOpIDI 3aMeHJ.1JIa K3K npeBHHe ye3.1lbi. TaK Ii «HOBOMaHepHb]e» npoBHHUHH (a Il8J-UJ;- paTCKHe KaHue.nlipHH 3<1MeHl1JU1 c06oH, COOmeTCTBeHHO. npe)l(- HHe KOMeHJJ.aHTCKHe H o6ep-KoMeHllaHTCKMe KaHUeJHlpI1H)l. KaK YCTIlHOBI1JI On5lTb-TaKH M. M. EOroC1IOBCKHH, HapMY C aIlMH- HHCTpaTHBHblMH YHKUHJlMH, npocyweCTBOnaBlllHe c 1715 no 1719 roll JlaHllpaTCKHe KaHueJTJlpHH 06JJauanH ewe H ()JyHKUI1J1- MH CYAe6HbIM(13. J..1CXO)UI IG cBen:eHHH. np(1Bo.nHMhIX M. M. 60- rOCJIOBCKI1M, MO)l(HO 38KJU04IITb. 'ITQ J1aHllpaTCK(1e KaHuemlpl111 f!RJlIDII1Cb cynoM nepBoro 3BeHa, npI16J1I1.>KMCb no 06'beMY cyne6- HblX nOJlHOMo<mi1: (non06Ho CBOI1M npelll1leCTBeHHI1KaM - KO- Mel-W.8HTCKHM KaHUeJ151pl1S1M) K cyn:y 06meii JOpi1CllHKUHI1. CTOHT OroBOpI1Tb. npaBlla, 'lTO 113 nOllcynHocTH Ral-illpaTCKi1X KaHUeJlSI- pl1H (B OTJlWme OT KOMeI-W.8HTCKI1X) C caMoro Ha'IMa, comacHo i1MeHHOMY YKaJY OT 28 SlHBapSl 1715 r., 6blJIO 113'bJ1TO noca.aCKoe HaCeJ1eHl1e 4 . KpoMe TOro, nOCTOHHO ynOMI1HaHI151, 'lTO B 1713 r. 3aKO- HOnaTeJ1b HeCKOJlbKO nOBblCI1JI craryc JlaHllpl1XrepoB. ComaCHO CT. 3 I1MeHHOfO YKa38 OT 24 anpeJ1S1 1713 r. naHD.PI-1Xrephl Bb[- BOllWlI1Ch 113-nOll JOpl1C1li1KUi111 J}l6epHaTOpoB 11 ncpcxolllU1I.J B no.acynHocTh HenocpeJlCTBeHHo CeHaTa. npi1 BceM ::ITOM, i1C- XOllS1 I.J3 6YKDhl TOH )l(e CT. 3 YKaJ8, RaHLIPi1XTephl nO-npe>KHeMY nOll'lMHWlMCh J}l6epHaTOpaM B a.L1MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHOM OTHOllleHI1I1. HeJ1b351 He OTMeTIlTh, HaKOHeu. 'lTO, Hap5l11Y C BBe;J;em1eM B 1713 r. oxapa KTepl130BaHHoro Bb]lIle oco6oro nopHllKa cyno- I UU M M. HCCJJe1lOBaHI1.11 no 11C1'OpI111 MeCTHoro ynpaW1e- HI1.II... C 69-70. 1 nonHoc co6pdHl1e JaKOHOB. T. 5. NQ 2879. C 140. Bnl1TeparypeonaH!!- pmCKHX KaHueJ1.11pI1HX Hal160nee noopo6Ho CM.. Eoi!oc,I06CKUU M M. Hc- CJle1IOBaHlII.II no I1cropHI1 MeCTHoro ynpaW1eHIII.II. . C q5-122; K'inrom R. Gp. fJ3ii.-2Sl1cCJJe.uoBaHI1.11 no I1CTOpI1t1 MecTHOro ynpaW1e- Htl5I C. 105, 110-113 4no nHoc C06paHtle 3aKOHOB. T. 5. N 1879. C. 14u. )3'IKOH01UlTI:J1bHb[1: aKTb] nnpa I. C 106. 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblrii 129 neJH¥:\ (1696-1716 rr.} np0I13IJ011CTBa no lleJiaM 0 rocYllapCTIeHHblx npecryTUleHI151X 11 npecryn.n:eHl1nX npOTtlB I1HTepecOIJ CJly)({6bl. neT]) I npellnpl1HM B nepBoH nOJlOBHHe I71O-x rr. TalOKe 11 npOTI1BOnOJlO)({Hble no HanpaBlleHHocTH YCI1J1I.J5I no YKpeJllleH1.J1O I.JHCTaHUl10HHOCTtI B CYllonpOH3BQIlCTBe. 17 Mapw 1714 r. 6bU11.J311aH 33KOH. comacHo KOTOPOMY n011a'la 'IeJ106IITHblX - npH OTKaJe B npaBOCY1ll1l1 I1J1I.J )((e npl1 IJb]HeceHI1I1 HenpaBOCYllHoro npl1rOBOpa - Moma ocy- ll.leCTBJl5ITbCfI )((HTeJi.llM(1 CTp<lHbl TOJlbKO nOCJle110BaTeJlbHO, CTpO- ro B COOTBeTCTBl111 C Tor.nawHeHl1epapxl1eH cYlle6HblX opraHOB I . B I.JTOre B 3aKOHe OT 17 Mapra 1714 r. OKa3a.rtaCb 3a<tJl.JKCl.JpOBaHa 'IeulpeX3BeHHafi cYlle6Ha51 CI.JCTeMa: KO1CH1laHTCKa51 KaHUCJl5I- pHfI - [)'6epHcKafi KaHUeJlflpl1f1 - 1 !paBI1RllbCTBYJQWI.Jt1 Ce- HaT - CaMO.llep>Keu. Il oKaJaTeJlbHO. 'ITO D .naHHOII KOHCTPYKUHI.J BOBce He @ IH}'pl1pOBaJJl.1 UeHTpaJIbHble opraHb] BIlacm: B 1714 r. 3aKOHOD.aTeJlb }')Ke He paccMaTpl1BaJI (1X B Ka'leCTBe UeJlOCTHOro 3BeHa cYlle6HoH CI1CTeMbI 1 . nOKa3aTeJlbHO. 'lTO B n011nl1C<tHHOM neTpOM 1 TOro )((e 17 MapTa 1714 I. I.JHOM JaKOH01l8TeJlbHOM aKTe - HeO.llHoKpaT- HO ynowlHyroM ('YKaJe 0 ()JI.JCKaJlaX I.J 0 I.JX IlOJl>KHOCTH I.J IleH- CTBHI.J» - cxmlmHI.JHCTaHUHOHHblH nOp5l110K YCTaHaBJII.JBaJlC5I I.J DJ1JJ roal1MO.lleticTBI1SJ c CYIlaMI1 ()JI1CKaJlbCKI1X opraHOB. ComaCHO CT. 8 «YKl\3am» ropOllOBb]M ()JI1CKaJlaM npellnl1CblBaJ10Cb n011a- BaTbllOHOWeHI1JJ B KOMeH!l.aHfCKl1e 11 o6ep-KOMeH!l.<lHTCKl1e KaH- UeJlflpl11-1, npOBI1HUI1aJI-()JI1CKaJlaM - B ry6epHCKI-1e KaHUeJUlpI1H. a 06ep-<tJI1CKaJlY - B npaBHTe1lbCTBYlOWI1H CeHaT 11.1111 )((e uaplO. 06parnel-ille ()JI1CKaJIa B KaKOH-J11160 BbIWeCT05lWH}1 cYlle6HblH opraH KaTerOpl.J'1eCKH BocnpernaJIOCb\ Me>KllY TeM. Ha I.JCXO.lle 1714 r. neT]) 1 erne paJ BepI1YJ1CfI K n(XI6J1eMe YKpeJUleHI1f1 (1HCTaHUI-10HHocm B CYJIonpOI13BOIlCTBe. 8 IleKa6p.ll 1714 r. 6bUJ H311aH 3aKOH. B KOTOpOM BHOBb 3anpe- rnaJIOCb np5lMOe 06p<ll1J;eHI-1e KaK K MOHapXY. TaK 11 B npaBI-1- 13aKOHon<rrelJbHb]e aKTb! nerpa I. c. 361-362. B nepooM nOJIHOM coGpaHl111 JaKOHOB llaHHblH JaKOHOD.aTeJ1bHbIi1 aKT OWI1604HO naTl1poBaH 21 v'lJiRIll (nOl1Hoe c06paHl1e 3<lKOH08. T. 5. NQ 2787 C 90). 1 B pacCMa1'PIBaeMOM JaKOHe He 6bLIJI1 ynoMHHyrbl 11 06ep- KOMeHlIDHTCKHC KaHUCJI.IIpHI1 - Hit 'JTO OOpanJJl BHIIIMaHl1e eme M. M. 00- rOCJlODCKI1i1 (Eazoc.I06CIi:UU M M I1CCJlCllOBaHI1.11 no I1CTOpHI1 MCCTHOro ynpaliJleHI1H... C. 70) nO-BI1llI1MOMY.:lTO 06bHCHHeTCH "feM. '1TO B03rnaB- JIHBWl1eC.II 06ep-KOMeH.1JaHTdMI1 npoBI1HUl111 .IIBJIJ.UII1Cb Torna, KaK)')Ke roBO- pl1J10Cb, 4JaKYnbTaTHBHOH a1lMI1H'ICT)J<ffiIBHO-Teppnupl1aJ[bHOi.j elll1HI1Ueit 33aKOHOJJmCJIbHb]C i1KTb[ nCTpa I. c. 334. 
130 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I TeJlbCTBYlOlUl1i1 CeH8T. XapmcrepHO, '1TO B ffii3BaHHOM 33KOHe nOnOJlHI1TeJIbHO npom1Cblf!aJ]OCb TaKoe OCHOMHHe n.ruI nepeHOCa ncna B BblllleCTOHJ11YIO IIHCT.lHUHIO. KaK JarnnlBaHHe cyne6Horo pm6HpaTeJ1bCTBa Ha cpOK 60Jlce no.nyrona (<<Kocda 8 n(W()()a lie 6eplUllm»). He MeHee npHMe<JaTeJ1bHO. 'fI'() B JaKOHe OT 8 lleKa- 6PH 1714 r. - B OTJ1W-II1e OT JaKOHa OT 17 Maprd 1714 r. - cpeD.l1 nOJDKHOCTHblX m1ll, 06na.aaBW(1X CYAe6Hb]M(1 nQJ1HOM04HHM(1, OKa- 3aJlI1Cb ynoMflHyrbl o6ep-KOMeHltaHTbl. a TaJOKe J13HllPI4Xrepb]l. g 5. npe06pa30BaHI1J! B BoeHHOM CYAOYCTpoMCTBe ... cYAOnpm13Bo,QCTBe Pacc".... B 1691716 rr. Kpl1rCpeXTbl III aYAI1TOpcKaSl CJ1}1>K6a 3aBeprna.ll o603peHHe (13MeHeH(111 B 06naCTI1 cynoycTpoJ.t- CTBa H cynonpOI13Bo.nCTBa, OcynJ.ecTRIIeHHblx B HaweH cTpaHe B KOHue 1690-x - nepEO" nOJlOB(1He I7IO-x rr., OCTaeTC5I KpaTKo OCTaHOBI1TbC}I Ha npeo6pa30saHIHlx B c<t:>epe BoeHHOH lOCTHUHI1. KaK 113BeCTHO, B OTMel.JeHHblM nepHOll. neT}) I y.neJHIJI Bonpo- caM nepeycTpoHcrna Ii 60eBOro npl1MeHeHI151 Boop)')KeHHblx ClUJ npl10pl1TeTHoe BHI1M8Hl1e. COOTBeTCTBeHHO. npellnpl1HSITOe Ha CTb]Ke XVII 11 XVIII BB. pe$opMl1pOBaHHe POCCI1HCKOH apMl111 He Momo He conpoBO)l(JlaTbC5I 3Ha'lI1TeJ1bHbIMI1 nepeMeHaMI1 B BoeHHOM cynoycrpoHcTBe H cynonpOI13BQllCTBe. PaCC'llfJaHHble Ha nOMeCTHO-nanYmylO OpraHl13amnO BOHCK apXaH'leCKl1e CYllbl nOJ1KOBbIX BOeBOll (3aOllHO C COlleJ)}K3lili.1eH BoeHHo-yr0J10BHble HOpMbl cellbMot1 mOOOH YJlO)l(eHI151 1649 r.) 6bUlI1. KOHC'lHO }f(e, HeCOBMeCH1Mbl C HOBOH peryJlflpHoii apMl1eH. Y)f(e B 1700-e fr. B POCCI1I1 nrnml1J1I1Cb 11 npHHUlmHaJTbHO HOBbie opraHb] BoeHHOfO npaBOcyrorn - Kpl1fCpeXTbI, 11 3aKOHO- naTeJIbHb]e aKTb]. B KOTOPb]X neTaJTbHO pefJlaMeHTJllpOBaJTOCb BO- eHHoe cynonpOI13BQllCTBO. B nepBOM neC5ITlUJeTl1l1 XVIII B. HOp- MaTI1BHYIO OCHOBy ()JYHKUI10HI1POBaHI151 Jq)l1rcpeXTOB 06pa30BaJll1 «Y1O)I(FHUe U//U npaeo nOBl!iJeHUII eeHepatlbHblX. cpeOHlJX U HUJWUX 'l.UHOfJ» 1702 f. (lUJl1 YJ10)f(eHl1e 6. n. WepeMeTeBa) H KpaTKI1H aprnKyn 1706 r. (lUJl1 KpaTKHH apTI1KYJ1 All MeHwHKOBa)2. 1 nonHoe c06paHlile 3aKOHOB. T. 5. NQ 2805. C. 134. !Itc1ltKY Ha3I1aHHbIX 3a1\IJHQ1J,dJeJbHbIX aKfOB B npmype eM.: 1'O:JeH.?£1I.'" M n. YK£13. CO'I. C. 66-81; EmI /Jam6 n n. I30HHCKlfli ycraB rle1pa BeJJI1Korol1 nerp BeJJI1KHft c. 184-190; I\jma/-wffO.E.. fle6eiJe8 B.M. Ce- uklPif.lO. YKa3.cO'J. T.l C.536-541, /1em}:roeH.A. YKa3.C04 C.44-51; .4KUUtUH M 0. Cyne6Hrn  nC1pa I: Lll1c. no C. 27-28. 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblrii 131 neJH¥:\ (1696-1716 rr.} J..131l8HHble KaK BpeMeHHble aKTbl MCKJlI04IffeJ1bHO JI.Jlfl JIeCTsy- lO111e apMMH, COCTIlBJleHHble Ha OCHOBe 3anan.HOeBpOneCKI-1X HCTOI.JHI-1KOB YJ10}f(eHHe H KpaTKI-1t1 apTl1K)'J1 06"be.1lMHHJlI-1 B CBO- eM COCTaBe KaK nOJlO.::KeHHH, JaKpenJleHHhle B HaCTOHwee BpeMH B 06weBoI1HCKHX YCTaBax (BHyrpeHHeH CJI}l)K6hl. D.HCUHJU1I-1- HapHOM. rapHM30HHO M KapaYJ1bHO CJI}0K6h]). TaK 11 BoeHHO- yroJ10BHb]e 1-1 BOeHHo-npoueccyanbHble HOpMbl C MOMeHTa nmlRJleHHH p<JCC11HCK(1e KpHrcpeXThl npellCTaB- J1JUlM c060 KOJ1Jlerl1aJ1bHble L-yne6Hb]e npHcyrcTBi-IJI. BpeMeH- HO q,opMHpOBaBllmeCfI KOMaJ-llUipOM BOHHCKOfi l.JaCTI-1 113 I.JI-1CJ1a CTpoeBblX BoeHHOCJ1)')KaI./ll'lX JI.JlH paccMoTpeHHH yrOJlOBHhlX JIe1l no 06BI-1HeHHflM BOeHHOCJI}l}K811U1X TOM }f(e <18CTI1. no CTPYKTYpe IqmrcpexT COCTOfIJI 113 Op.LUlHapHhIX cyneH (aceccopOB) 1-1 npe.1lce- JIaTeJ1f1 (npeJyca 1-111H npe3I1L1eHTa). Y'II.fTblBafi 3aBellOMYlO 101'1-1- JIl1'1ecKYIO Heno.nrOTORlleHHOCTb CTpoeBblX BoeHHOCJ1}')K8WHX, npH Jq)HrcpeXTe BB01U1JlaCh nOJ1}f(HOCTb aynl1Topa. oco60ro J1HUa, CneUHaJ1H3HpOBaBllIerocH Ha nO.1lroToHKe JIeJIa K cyne6HOMY pa3- 6HpaTeJlbCTBY H Ha npaBOBOM KOHCYJ1bTHpOB3HI-1H <meHOB cyna. no cyrnecrny paCCMaTpHBaeMOro JIeJIa K3)((LlbIH H3 cyneH l-13J1aran MHeHl1e (<<ceHmeHquJO») C npelllTO)KeHl-1eM 0 Mepe H3- KaJaHI-1'l nO.D.CYJIMMOMY. BhlHeceHHbli1 Jq)l-1rCpeXTOM npl-1roBop HanpaRllflJTC.II B 06H3aTeJTbHOM nopl1.1lKe Ha YfBep>KLleHl-1e KOMaH- JIl1py '1aCTI1 I11IH HHOMY BblllleCTOI1ll.leMY BOI-1HCKOMY H8'1aJ1bHMKY (eCJ11-1 KOMaHlll1p '18CTI1 flRIIllilCfI npe3yCOM). HmGlKoi1 aneJUlfI- 11111-1 Ha npHroBopbl Jq)HrcpeXTOB He npellYCMaTpI-1BaJlOCh. K KaKoi1 pa3HOBI1.D.HOCTH cyne6HbiX opraHoB MO)f(HO OTHe- CTH nO.llBHBllIMeCfI B Hallle ClpaHe B 170Q-e rr. KpHrcpeXTbl? KaK 1-:13BeCTHO. COBpeMeHHb]e HoeHHble Cy.D.b] P<!> paCCM8TpHHa- JOTCH 4>ellepaJIbHblM 38KOHO.D.8TeJleM KaK cynhl 06weH JOpI-1C.llI-1K- UI1I-1. OJIHaKO, npHHHM3f1 BO BHI-1MaHHe. '1TO, KaK flBCTByeT 1-13 MaTepl-1aJ10B CYJIe6HOH npaKTI1KI-1 1-1 CnelleHI1H. npl-1BOlll-1MhlX n J1I1Teparype. POCCI-1CKl1e BoeHHhle cynbl pa361-1panl-1 B XVIII B. HCKlJIQ4HTeJTbHO yrOJTOBHh]e neJJa. 3TM opraHh] npaBOCYJIMfI c1le- JI,yeT OTHeCT(1 K '1HCJTY CneUl-1arJH3I1pOBaHHh]X CYJIOB I I B COBpeMeHHOH I'JCTOpIIKo-npaBOOOii JIltTepal)'pe BOeHHble CYllbl XVIII B. K CneUHlllJMJl1poBaHHb[M cynaM OTHec - npallil3, 6eJ BCflKHX no- .IICHeHI1i1 - A. C. CMb]KaJlI1H (CVbiKaJlUH A. C. Cyne6HIDI CI1.CTeMa POCCHi1- CKOro rocy.napcrsa... C. 63). 1jTO KaCaerCH cOBpeMeHHblx BOeHHb[X cy.nOB, TO I1X K 'J11CJ1Y cneul1aJ1MJl1poBaHHblX cynoB OTHec Ll f ABep4eHKo B OT1e- tteHHOM nl1CCepTaUl10HHOM ItcCQe.nOBaHI1I1 1001 r. (A&-prI{lIlinD.. r. Y"a3. C04. C. 19). 
132 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I KpHrepeXTb] 6blB<LIIH D.BYX 1J11ll0B: nOJlKOBOM 11 reHepanbHb]M. feHepanbHOMY BOeHHOMY cyn.y nOlUle)({aJll1, BO-nepBbIX, n.e.rrn no 06BHHemuo craplllHx 11 BblCWHX ()(lmuepOB. a BO-BTOphIX, lleJIa o npecryJUleHHHX ueJlblX BOI1HCKI1X <,acTeit npellCellaTeJlbCTBO B reHepaJIbHOM Kj)l1rCpeXTe HenpeMeHHO npmmllJle>KaJlO reHepany HJlH <!>eJlb.LI.MapwaJlY. B KpaTKOM apTHK)'Jle 1706 f. ynOMHHaJU1Cb ewe 11 Tal< Ha3blBaeMble --cKopopeWUmeJIbHble cyiJt,tr. KOTopble Y4pe;+;,It3JU1Cb B CJ1Y4ae B03HHKHOBeHl1fl B BoikKax M8CCOBbiX 6ecnopHllKoB 11 KOTopble OcyllleCTBJUUlH OTnpaBJIeHile npaBOCY- .rnUI YCKopeHHO 11 no ynpomeHHoH npoue.nypel. Ha HOBblH ypOReHh HopM3n1BHoe peryJlHpOBaHHe BOeHHOro cynoycrpoHCTBa 11 cyn.onp0113BOlICTBa BblUll10 B Hae 171O-x rr. 31"0 61>1110 CBH3aHO C nmlBJ1eHHeM ('J(pamKoco 1l306paJICeHU1I npo- 1(eCOR W1U ct.d>6HbIX mfl.}l{ef). - nepBoro OTe'JeCTBeHHoro BOeHHO- npouecCYMbHoro Ko.neKca (XOHI 11 COCTIlBlleHHOro, KaK }'f)e.n(1- TeJIbHO nOK,UaJl K. nerepcoH. C Wl1pOKJ1M I1cn0J1b30BaHl1eM HOpM WBellCKOro YcraBa BOHHCKOro cy.aonpOl-l3BOllCTBa 1683 r. 1 ). B «KpaTKOM I1J06proKeHHI1 npouecoB...» 0Ka3aJ111Cb ropa3.D.0 60J1ee .aeTaJlbHO, He}l(eJll1 B YnO;KeHI1H 1702 r. 11 B KpaTKoM apTHK)'J1e 1706 r. pemaMeHmpooaHbl 1-1 oonpoCbl OpraHl-I3aUI11-1 Kpl1rcpex- TaB (nOJIKOBOro 11 reHepaJIbHoro), 11 BOJ11XICb] npoueCCYaJlbHOro nOJlO)l(eHI151 ay.aI1Topa, no.nCYll.l1Moro 11 CBruIeTeJlei1. 11 Bon)XICbI nQlJ;roToBKI1 11 npOBelleHI1.11 cYlle6Horo pa:IDl-lpareJlbCTBa. 11 Bonpo- Cbl nOCTaHOBJIeHI151 H BCTYfUJeHI1f1 B CI1JlY npl1roBopa. nOCKOJ1bKY «KpaTKoe l1306p(t)/(eHl1e npoueCOB...» - C co- llep;+;:aTeJlbHOH CropOHbl - y:>Ke HeOllHOKpaTHO paCCMaTpl1BaJ10Cb B OTe l leCTBeHHoi1 11 3apy6e>KHoi1 I1CTopI1KO-npaOOBOH mrrepaTY- peJ, B paMKaX HaCT05lWeH pa60Tbl OCTaeTC5I KOCHyrbC5I J1I1Wb OT- lleJIbHblX He.aOC TaT04HO np05lCHeHHbiX MOMeHTOB, CB5I3aHHb]X C I BeCbMa I1HTepeCHYtO CBOllK)' 113Il11e'leHHb]X 113 ony6nI1KOBaHHblx IIIC- T04HMKOB DaHHblX 0 npaBonpl1MeHI1TeJ1bHoit npaKTHKe Kpl1JCpeUOlJ B KOH- ue 1700-x - Ha'ta.rle 171O-x rr. eM.. AKUUIUH M. O. Cy.ne6HaH pe4x:!pMa ne- a l-' Z'ri:,: 3i339. y.c.;;nw C;t.: :Op6oreC.M: C]1. P. 336-342. HjJpe.uooa H. H. Cy.T1O\'CIJXMcJB PoccI1I1... C. 74-76, &a- coo B.I1.. FOH'Iap06 H. C/>. YKEl3. co'!. C 50-53; 'Iuctrui1w6 0. 11. Ilpoueccy- :::rT2.<=C =-; =!::: fl:y . JlPJuna..JeO J/ A Cyne6I-!o-npaooFlble pe4xJpMbl... Dl1c. .. C. 79-157; AKU- UlUH M. 0. Cync6HID1 pc4Jopm nC1])a I: Lll1c. ... C. 31-32, 57-t'i1. 73-83. 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHblrii 133 neJH¥:\ (1696-1716 rr.} ero npOI1CXO>K!lemleM 11 np....MeHeHHeM Ha npaKTI1Ke. Bo-nepBb]X, CTOHT OTMeTl-1Tb HeTO'-lHOCTb 06wenpHlulTOH nOHb]He n.aTl-1poBKJ1 «KpaTKoro H306pa:>KeHH5I npouecoB...» 17/52000/11. .3Ty naTl-1pOB- K)' npe1lJlO)I(}IJ] erne B 1880-e IT. n. O. 606poBCKHH, HCXOllHBlllHH H3 TOro, 'iTO nepBoe ne'-laTHoe H31l8HHe (,KpaTKoro H306pa:>KeHH5I npouecoB...» 6bUJO OCY1l1ecmneHO (H COell(1HeHHH C BOHHCKHM ap- mK)'JlOM) B CaHKT-neTep6ypre B anpeJle 1715 r. 1 Bn.dkTB(1TeJlb- HOCTI1. KaK nOKa3aJl11 COC,dB....TeJ1H OCTIIBlllerocfI BHe nOJl51 3peHHfI npaBOBellOB YI-IJJ.8MeHTMbHoro 8K,UleMI1<1eCKoro KaTanOra (,01111- caHHe lun;nlliii rpaiKlIaHcKoii ne'1aTH. 1708 - 5IHBapb 1725 r.», nepIKJe nmorpa$;Koe H3l18HHC <,KpaTKoro I1HM5I npoue- COB...» ynl1lleJlO CBeT B CaHKT-neTep6ypre B HlOJIe 1712 rona (113- n.aHHe >Ke 1715 r. 5IBJlWTOCb B peanbHOCT(1 BTOpblMP BO-BTOpbIX. 6JIaro.napfi M31laHl1fO 1712 r.. B03MO)l(HO co BeeH onpe,!J;eJ1eHHOCTblO yCTaHOB....Tb HMfI COCTamITeJIfi «KpaTKoro H30- 6pa:>KeHJ.1.11 npouecoB...»_ B Ka<leCTBe TaKoEOro}lli Tl11)'JIbHOM JIHCTe I1Jn.:lHI1511712 r. 0603H8<1eH <,3picrCl>piHpix KpoMbnei"u" - 3pHCT C!>pI11lPHX KpoMneiiH (Ernst Friedrich Kromrein), COCTOHBlllHii B 1)' nopy o6ep-ayn.HTOpOM B )XICCJ.1HCKOH apM....H (<lTO xapaKTep- HO, EO Beex nOCJ1 ellYfOWHX H3l18HHHX ero HMfI He ynoMHHaeTcfI)3. 1 6o({XI6C.l(uiI n. 0 BoeHHbie 33KOHbi nerpa BeJlI1Koro II PYKonl10lX III nepBOne4MTHbiX IIIJJlliHI1.11X. Cn6.. ISH7. c. 52. 10nlilCaHI1C mlUIHIllj.:j Jp3)I(!IaHCKOii ne'lam. 170H - .IIHBapb 1725 r. I Coer. T A. EiblKOsal1 MM. fypellH4. M.-JL, 1955.C. 130-131, 175-176. YMeCTHo .no6aBIfTh. 'ITO B nCpOOM nOliHOM co6paHl111 3aKDHOEI «KpaTKoe 1I306paA<c- Hille npouecoB...." OKaJ.VlOCb nOMeweHO BOsce noo 1716 fQl10M - B KaqeCTBe =;arlJor=Iogo;; reM, 'ITO, no scei1 sepoHTHOCTII. COC"JaBI11eJIII ncpBOro nOliHOJO co6raHll.II PH='::::t= 77:911(O:":lrr;:ea.C B oKmfpe HHH3-T:nb=[= CKOH rocynapcTBeHHoi1 6H6JJl'IOTeKe cnlllCOK KooeKca) J][]epBbIl" onpeLleJIeHHO yKaJaJ1 JJ..A. POMaHOB IJ pa60re 1999 r .[1.0 TOro Ha 3. !\poMneHHa KaK Ha C0CrdlJl1TeM «Kparxoro I1306paJKeHWI npouecolJ..... - B Ka'JelTIJe npe.nno- nO>KeHII.II - )'Ka3b1BaJ1I11 n 0 Eio6POSCKI1H. K nerepcoH H 0 11. 1.JI1CTHKOB. GXHaBWHCb Ha 1]JY.n n Q. Eio6poOCKOro, 0 COCTaBlleHl111 «l<pImcoro l1J06pa- .lKeHWI qxureCOlJ.. .. 3. KpoMnei1HoM K.lIK 0 J1QI<dJaHHOM I]MKre }rOO\IHHyn H M.o. AKl1WI1H (6OOfxHK:Kuil n. 0. I30eHHble 3<lKOHb[ neTpa I3eJ1I1K0ro... C. 52; Itter.l" C Gp. ell. P 337; l.JUCIIiJIJW8 0. 11. npouecCyaJlbHoe JaKOHQl1a- TeJJbl.TOO. C. 799; AKUUIU/l M. 0. C)Ile6HaH pe4x:!PMa nerpa I: J].Hc. no C. 31; lblOH08 0.. A. Peq,opMHpooaHltC CYlionpol1JOOJ]CJBd B PoccI1l1... C. 8). 
134 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Ko BCeMY np04eMY 6eJiOBlUI pyKOnHCb «KpaTKom ltl06pIDKeHI1S1 npoUeCOB...», 3HaJlOrl1'lHO CO.1lep)(ffi1illU1 ynoMHHaHHe 06 3. KpoM- neHHe, mnmKJ.1JIaCb He rne-HH6YD.b, a B JlH'lHOH 6116JUlOTeKe ne- Tpa I (CBelleHI151 0 cocraBe KOTOpoH OIanaJIl1Cb TaiCKe He Y'1TeHbl B npellllleCTBYfOWeHI1CTopI1KO-npaOOBOH JUITepal)'pe)l. Tenepb CTQ(1T 3arpoHyrb nOlfTH He oceweHHb!j:j B JlI1Te- paTYpe Bonpoc 0 npaKTI14eCKOM nplilMeHeHI1(1 HOpM «KpaTKoro I-1306pa)f(eHHJI npolleCOB...». llnJl Ha'laJI8 He06xOllHMO nOBTO- pl1Tb, <jTO B poCCI1HCKI1X BOeHHb]X CYlliIX XVIII B. - B OT1I11- "me or lllBe.nCKHX - H"KOrna He paCCM8rpHBaJII1Cb rp8)KIlaHCKHe I1CKI1 (KaKOffiUI B03MO;KHOCTb npen:yCMaTpl1BaJlaCb B CT. I 11 2 rJI. 2-H 11 B rmmax 3-H 11 4-H <18Crn I «KpaTKoro 11306pmKCHHSI npouecoB...I». B CB5I311 C 3THM MepTBoH 6YKBOH OCTaJlHCb H no- JlO)f(eHI1JI rJlaBh] 5 «KpaTKoro 11306pa)f(eHI1.11 npoueCOB...». B KQ- TOPOi1 pemaMeHn1poBaJlOCb }"-I8CTlile B BoeHHOM cYAonpoI13BO.1l- CTBe «UOOOKamOB U nO,QI/OMO'Il/blX [npe.JJ;CTaBl1TeJJeu CTOpOH]»2. B OTe'-leCTHeHHOM BOeHHOM cynonpol13HQD.CT1Je XVIII B. HI-I- Koma He npI1MeHSIJIC5I. 1-1 aneJIMlUHOHHblH nOp5l.1l0K nepeCMorpa CY.JJ;e6HhIX peWeHl1H (KaKOBOH np5l.MO npe.JJ;YCMa1]JI1BarIC5I. B cr. 5 H 6 m. I -H 1-1 B m. 2-H <faCTI-! 3 «J(pmKoro H306pillKeHI-I5I. npJuecon...»). COOTReTCTBeHHO. BOnpeK(1 n0J10)f(eH(151.M cr. 5 m. I-u 'iacm 3 «KpaTKoro 11306pIDKeHHJI npoueCOB...», B POCC(111 He cyIUeC1roB3.- 110 HIilKaKOU - H(1 OpraHI13aLlI10HHOU, H(1 (1HcraHUI10HHOU - CO- no.a'-lI1HeHHOCTI1 Me)f(]ly nOJIKOBblMH (1 reHepaJIbHb]MI1 Kpl1J"CpeX- TaMH. B neUCnnneJ1bHOCTH ::no 6b1JII-I COBepWeHHO 06oc06J1eH- Hhle npy.- OT npyra opraHbl BoeHHom npaBOCynHJI, I-IMeBWl1e 11I-1Wb pa3JlH'IHbIH $:JpMaJlbHo-HepapXI-I'ieCKJ1H CTa1}'C. KpoMe TOro, n «KpaTKoM H306pa:.KeHHH npouecon...» ocraJIC5I. He3aKpeJUJeHHbiM de facto CJ1O>HIBWI1UC5I K TOMY Bpe- MeHH B pOCCIilUCKOU apMl111 nopJillOK. no KOTOpoMY CMepTHblu nplilroBOp. BbIHeCeHHb]U BOeHHb]M Cy.aOM oq)Huepy, nocrynM Ha yrBep)f(]leHl1e He TOJIbKO BblwecrO}lWeMY BOHHCKOMY Ha'-lMbHI1- KY. HO H HenocpellCTBeHHo MOHapxy. TaKoBoi1 nopHllOK nOJ1Y'-!HJ] $)pMaJlbHOe yr Bep)f(]leHHe n03llHee. )l)Ke no 3aKOHY OT 3 MapTa ] 6116JJI10TeKa neT)Ja I; YNl3dTelb-cnpaB04HI1K I COCT. E. H Ei06POf!3. 11., 1978. C. 32. npoBC.nCHHoe COCTIlBJ{f]].IIMIil «OmIC.lHI1H lIIJD.aHIlli1 rpa;K- llaHcKOii ne'laTH..." CJ1114eHl1e llaHHoH pyKOn(1CH C ntIlOJpdI]x;KHM lIIJD.a- H(1eM «KpaTKOro (1:J06paA;eHI1.11 npouecoB..... 1715 r. Bbl.llBI1JIO IIIX BJaHMO- l{1IeHTI1'1HOCTb (Onl1CaHl1e I13ll8HI1i1 rpaAJIaHCKOI1 nflmlL C. 175-176) l3aKOHO.1laTeJJbCTBO neT)Ja I. c. 827. 829-830. JTaM JKe. C. 839-840. 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHbll1 135 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} 1719 r. 1 HH CJlOBOM OKa3aJlHCb He ynOM5IHyrb] B «I(paTKOM H30- 6pIDKeHI1(1 npoueCOB...» H BoeHHble I1CKaJlbl. XapaKTepHO, '1TO BBe.n.eHHe CHCTeMb] KpHrcpeXTOB He np(1- BeJ10 K yrpaTe cy.ne6HblX nOJ1HOMOlJH(1 ueHT'paJIbHbIM(1 opraH8- MH BoeHHoro ynpaMeHH5I. Ha npcrrmKeHHI1 1696-1716 rr. cy- .ne6Hble HKU(1(1 COXpaWIJlH H Pa3p5l11Hb]fi npHKa3 (BITJ1OTb .n.o ynpa3.n.HeHH5I B 1711 r.), H BoeHHlliI KaHUeJ151pH5I, H Op(1Ka3 ap- Tl1J]J]epHH, H AnMHpaJlTei1cKHi1 npHKa3, H pH.n. HHblX npHKa30B H KaHUe1l5lpHi1. OpH 3TOM Bee 3TH opraHbl OCTaBaJI(..ICb BHe BC5IKoii CB5I3H C KpHrcpexT8MH (KaK C nOJ1KOBbIMH, TaK H C reHepaJIb- HbIMH). TeM caMblM. Ha npOT}I}I(eHHH OnHCblBaeMOro nepHOlla HOB05lMeHHaJI CI1CTeMa KpHrcpexroB OCTaBaJlaCb. no cyurecmy. .neueHT'paJI(130BaHHOH. BCeueJ10 3aMKHyrofi B OpraHH3aUHOHHOM 11 cy.n.e6HOM OTHOWeHHI1 Ha CTpoenoe KOMaHllOHaHlile. OCTacrc.II .n.06aBI1Tb, '1TO OKOH'-IaTeJ1bHoe 3aKpeJ1JleHI1e HO- naJI OpraHl13aUI151 OTe'leCTReHHoro BoeHHOro cy.na HaWJla B Bo- I1HCKOM YCTane OT 30 MapTa 1716 r. Bo BCeUeJ10 nocn.llWeHHOH BOeHHOMY cy.n.oYCTpOfiCTBy 11 cy.nonpol13BOllCTB)I fJI. 50 Ha3BaHHO- ro YCTaBa no.Ll.)X!6Ho nponHCblBaJlCH COCTaB reHepaJIbHoro (1 nOJl- KOBOro KpHrcpeXToB (KaKOBb]e ewe I1MeHOBaJ1!1Cb B Ha3BaHHOfi fJlaBe COOTBeTCTBeHHO «6b1WIiIlM» 11 «1IUJlCHIUf» cy.naMI1). a TaK)I(e npOnHCblBaJlI1Cb HeKOTOpble npoue.n.ypbl cy.n.e6Horo CJ1e.n.CTBH5I H nOCTaHOMeHH5I CMepTHoro npHroBOpa 1 . OpI1Me'laTeJ1bHo. '1TO B CT. 1 fJI. 50-H BOI1HCKOro YCTaBa BnepBble npe.nYCMaTpHBaJlOCb ycrpoDCTBO TaKOro HUJlCliei!O cyaa». KOTopblD MO)l(}{O C'-IeCTb npo- o6pa30M COBpeMeHHoro rapmnoHHoro BOeHHOro cy.na (<<IiUJlCIiUU cya. KomopoiL. 8 Kpenocmu y i!}'6epHamopa W1U Ko.Meliaalima"Y. 3cIBepwaH paccMmpeHHe nepeMeH B ooeHHo-cy.n.e6HOfi c<t>e- pe 3a 1696-1716 fT., I1MeeT CMblCJI ynoMJIHyrb 0 3apOlIl1BWeOCJJ Torlla «(1 MaJlOl13}"-1eHHOfi nOHblHe) aY.D.HTopcKoH CJIY..K6e poc- CHikKOH apMHH 4 . CJ1yA<fia 3Ta TeM 60J1ee npHMe'-laTeJ1bHa. 'ITO ee I nOJ1Hoe co6paHl1e 3aKOHOB. T 5. N 3316. C. 670. 13aKOHon.attllbtTIJO nerva I. c. 195-197. TaM >Ke. C. 195 :'fi..k:HMcO"CY nerpa I: D,vrc no C. 62-70. 06Ul11H 0630p p.DIJIlTWll"JIY"AW B XVIII B. CM. B if)Jlb;an2001-m; Ay.nurop__KaH CJl}')K6a Pocu-TiiCKOJO rocYilllpCTB!I II 3m.oHHOClb.. 1001. NQ 9. C. 50-5--1-). He 6vD.V'JIII. no ocdi BepC»ITHOCTII. O3HaIo.OMIleHa C HaJBaHHblMH p1tiarID.IH npen.uiciBeHHI1KOB, C. B JIOHCKa.1I 0I'\fEIlUIa B }"Ie6HOM noco6IlH :(H=:K B:y=:.MH 
136 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I npellCTaBJ.UeJ1l1, no BepHOMY 3aMe'lliHI1IO M. n. P03eHreiJM3, «BO- flIlOTJ1JlH B ce6e IOpl1.1ll1<1eCKH(:J 3JleMeHT HOBora BoeHHoro cy.na,.,I. B cm',10M D.eJle, camaCHO CT. 7 rn. I-j,j «KpaTKoro H306pa:>KeHM5I npouecoB...», I1MeHHO K aymrrol:6M 6bUlH npell'bHBJIeHbl nepBhle B I1CTOpHI1 OTe<JeCTBeHHoro rocy.napCTBa 11 npaBa KBaJlH(]>I1KaUt1- OHHb]e Tpe60eaHI1SJ 0 3HaHHI1 .neikTB}'K)Wero 3aKOHO.llaTeJ1bCTBa. KaK pe31OMI1pYfOllle npoBo3maWanQCb B Ha3BaHHOH craTbe. «I/o()- Je)ICUm OHblM {ayiJumopa.";tj iJo6pblM 6blmb ropucma.m 1 . <!I<lKTI1<JecKoe CTaHOBJleHl1e aYluITopCKOM CJiY)l(6bl npoH3o- lllJ10 B HarneH apMHI1, nO-BI{IU1MOMY. K KOHUY 1700-x rr. CcaMoro HaljaJIa CJ1\')f.."6a CKJ1MhlBaJIaCb leaK TpeX3BeHHa5l: nOJIKOBOH aYllH- TOp - o6ep-aym1Top 6pHranbi HJlI1 Kopnyca - reHepan-ayllHTOp apMHI1. no urraTaM OT 19 ()x:Bparm 1711 f.. B CYXOnyrHblX 80"- CKaX nOJIaraJIOCb HMeTb Tpex reHepan-ay)U..fTOpOB, TpeX reHepan- aymnopoB-I1diTeHaHTOB (3aMeCnlTeJ1ei1 reHepan-ayAl.1Topa), 1206ep-<iYllJ.1TOPOB 11 87 nOJIKOBblX aYAl1TopoB J . B OKOH'laTeJib- HOM Bl11le B neTpoBcKoe BpeMJI npaBa, o6H3aHHoCTH H npouec- cyanbHoe nOJIO}f(eHHe feHepan- H feHepan-aynHTOpa-JIeHTeHaHTa 6bUlH nponHc8Hbl B OC06blX 24 H 25 fJI8BaX BOHHCKOro YCTaBa OT 30 M8pTa 1716 f. 4  6. CMCTeMant3aLIMJI npOLjeccy8J1bHOrO 3aKOHO.AaTeIlbCTBa POCCMM B 1696-1716 IT. 3aKJU04HB Ha 3TOM 0630p I13MeHeHHH B cynoycrpoK.:me H cy- nonpmnBQllcTBe POCCHH. OCyurCCTRlJCHHblX 38 MeHHoe .D.BaIJ.UaTIUIerne 1696-1716 fr., He06xollilMo Jo..P81KO OCTaHOBHTbC5I H8 BOnpocax KaK 0 Jl]X'lI.IlJJItH51TbIX B Te fOllbl nOnbITKaX Cl1creMml138- lll1l1 npoueCcyaJIbHoro 38KOH0Ll3TeJIbCTBa (38 HCKJ1J04eHHeM BOeHHO- n)Xl..leCcyaJIbHOro - pacCMcnpeHHOro Bblwe), TaK H 0 pa3BHTHH CI1CfeMbl npaBOBOH nponal:-tJ-UlbI. '-1m KaCaeTCJ1 npo6JJeMbl K01U/[(PI1- KalU1H OTe'lecrneHHoro .JaKOHOD.aTeJlbCTBa B Ha'laJIe XVIII B., TO K ee H3)"1eHHJO BnepBble OOpanIJlCSl. B 1830-e fr.M. M. CnejDHCKI1H, 8 'leTBeprb BeKa CnyCT5I - 60JIee yrnyfirIeHHo -)1. B. nOJIeHOB S . ] ftJ3eItleiLw M n. YKa3. C04. C. 168. l3aKOHQillITJ1bCTBO ne1pa I. c. 825. JitJ:JeHceiLwMfl. YKa3.co4.C.170. 43aKOHQillITeJ1bHb[e aKTbI ne-rpa I. c. 176. SCnepaHC.KUU M M YKaJ. C04. C 116-128; floleflOfJD. B. f1anaTd 06 YnoIKeHI1I1I1J111 nepBaH 3aKOHOD.aTeJlbHIDI KOMI1CCI1.11 1700 roLla. Cn6.. 1865 IMmpllarJb[ rom I1CTOpHI1 pyCCKOro 3UKOHlJJJafCJibCTBa. Bbln. II. 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHbll1 137 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} Bene.!( 3a ll. B. nOJleHOBb]M KOnMtP(1KaUMOHHble MeponplulTMJ! 1700-x - nepBoil nOJlOBI1Hbl 171O-x rr. I1cCJlenoHMB. H. J1aTKI1H B paMKaX nonroToBKM nOKTopcKOil llMccepmUM(1 «3aKOHOllaTeJlb- Hble KOMt1CCI1t1 B POCC(1t1 B XVIII CT./>, 3aUlHweHHoii H8 IOpW:J:H'le- CKOM $lKYJlbTeTe CaHKT-neTep6yprcKoro YHt1BepcmeTa B 1887 r. (1 l1J[I;aHHOi1 B TOM >Ke rony B Bl1..Qe MOHOrpa(}ml1. B naJlbHeH- llIeM TeMY 06 OTeyeCTBeHHb]X KOnl1tPI1Kall(10HHb]X MepOnp(1.11HIJIX 1700-x - nepBOH nOJlOBI1Hbl 171O-x fr. Cnelll1IDlbHO 3aTpOHYJlI1 M. M. EOroCJlOBCK(1il B LTdThJIX 1927-1928 rr. (1 M. B. Ea6wJ B nHCCepTalU10HHOii MOHorpa<lmt1 2003 r. I nepmul B neTpoBcKoe BpeW! nOnblTKa Bce06weii KOllt1- tPt1KaUt1t1 OTelleCTBeHHoro 3aKOH0.1l8TeJlbCTBa COCTOM8Cb B ca- MOM HallaJIe XVIII B. I1MeHHblM YKa30M OT 18 tPeBpaJIJ! 1700 I. 6bUIa OCHOBaHa naJIaTa 06 Y110)l(eHml no.n PYKOBOTBOM 6051- pl1H8 11. E. TpoeKYPoB8. 3aKOHOllaTeJlb nOCTaBHJI nepe.Q na- JlaTOH lIeTKO OnpelleJIeHHYIO 3MallY: nOnfOTOBHTb 06HOBJIeH- HYIO - C Y'-IeTOM 3aKOHOnareJIbHb]X HOBaUMil BTOPO" nOJlOBI1Hbl XVII B. - pellaKUl110 Y110)l(eHM5I 1649 r. COlleVA\aBlllMii Hat160JlbllIee KOJ1t1l1eCTBO npoueccyanbHblX HOpM npoeKT fJ1aBbl IO-il HOBoro YJlO)l(eHMfI 06cy>Kl1aJ1c5I CHaJaJ]8 Ha 34 3aCenaHI1f1X naJIaTbl, C 24 anpe.n.ll no 12 aBJ}'CTa 1700 r., 8 nOTOM ewe H8 CeM(1 3aCenaHI1.11X. C 6 HIOJl.ll no 13 8BJ}'CTa 1702 r. XapaKTepHO. liTO naJI8Ta npeHMYll.leCTBeHHO CIilCTeMaTM3Hposa- 11a HMellllIHHC5I II ee pacnOp}l)l(eHl111 M8TepHaJI, nO'-lTI1 He BbIllB(1- ra51 co6CTBeHHbiX 3aKOHOnaTeJlbHbiX npe.u.nOJlO)l(eHHH. OnHHM t13 HeMHOfHX npMMepoB 38KOHOllaTeJlbHOii MHI1UH8THBbl nanaTbl 06 YJlO)l(eHMM J!BWlOCb npe1U10)l(eHMe 0 nepeBone OCHOBHOii lIacTH COCT05lBllIt1X B BellOMcrne uepKBM 11MU, He HMeBllIMX lIYXOBHoro 3BaHH5I, H3-no.Q IOP(1C.QI1KUI1I1 uepKOBHb]X cynOB B nO.QcyllHOCTb rocynapcTBeHHblx cyne6HbiX OpraHOB. no He5lCHbiM H8 cerollH5I npHlIlilHaM pa60Ta naJIaTbl 6bUJa Hemf(I1118HHO cBepHyra B H05l6pe 1703 r. COOTBeTCTBeHHo, n04- Tt1 3aBepllIeHHblj..j npoeKT HOBOro Y110)l(eHM5I (COCT05IBWt1ii, KaK IJJamKuH B. H 3aKOHOill!TeJlbHb[e KOMI1CCHIII B PoccIII1 B XVIII CT.: I1CTopHKO-JOpl{1ll1'JecKoe IlCClellOflaHl1e Cn6.. 1887. 4 I C. 1-22. 60- ZOCI06CfWU M M Il:l.II:rra 06 YJlQ;iKCHI1I1 1700-1703 n. 4. I II I1JBeCTH.II AH CCCP. Cep. 6. NQ 15-17. C. 1347-1374, OII.JKY!. n'llJaUl 06 YJlO.:KeHMH 1700-1703 IT. 4. 2 II I1]BeCTIlH AH CCCP. Cep. 7. 1928. NQ 2. C. 81-110; 6a6u'1 M B. fOCY.napcTBeHHble y:Jpe>KlleHI1H XVIII BeKa. C. 3(}--32. 119 I1llp. !nOJlHoe c06paHl1e JaKOHOB. T. 4. NQ 1776. C. 14. 60JJee I1CnpaBH)'1O ny6J1I1KdU1t1OTCKCTa VKtJaCM..  pIJpMbI. T. 4. Cm. 1119-1121. 
138 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I " YJlO)f(eHHe 1649 r., 113 25 rJlaB) He nOJlY'-l11Jl Bb1CO'-l8MllIero yrBep)((D.eHIHI. CJ1e.D.bl 6e.nOBOH pyKOnl1CI1 3aKOHonpoeKTa 3aTe- p5lJlHCb B 1722 r., B H3CTOHlllee BpeW! ee MeCT0H8"(O}KIleHl1e He- H3BeCTHO. BTopaH 33 Onl1CblBaeMblH nepl1011 nOnblTKa KO.D.H$I1KaUHI1 oeCTBeHHoro JaKOHO.D.aTenbCTBa (1MeJ1a MeCTO Olll1HHaIluaTb neT cnyCT.II nocne JaKpblnl.ll nMaTb] 06 YJlO:>KeHHR 3 HIOHSI 1714 r. nOOBWlC.II ceH3TCKI1H YKa3, cormCHO KOTOPOMY CeHaTOpy B.A An}UI1HY nopY'-IarIOCb B03maBl-1Th oco6}'JO KHHUeJmpHIO no COCTaBJIemllO I1C'-IepnbIB<uolllei-i CBO.DKM 3aKOHQQare..rlbHblX aKTOB H YK<D0B, tn.lI.aHHhlX K TOMY BpeMeHI1 B.D.OnOJIHeHHe H BO t13MeHeHHe YJ10)({eHI1f1 1649 r. OllHaKo, KaK (8 onponep)f(eHHe TO'IKI1 3peHHfI B. H. llaTKI1Ha) BJaHMOHe3aBI1CI1MO ycraHOBJ.UlI1 A. C. 3aMypyeB H M. B. OO6}.14. KO.D.114mKaUI10HHIDI KaHUeJlJlpl1Jl B. A. AnYXTIlHa B neHCTBJ.ITeJlbHOCTIil TIlK H He Ha<laJIa q..yHKLlI10HI1POBaTb]. B I1TO- re «nOCJlellHI1M CJiOBOM» 3aKOHO.DZrelm no paCCMafpmJaeMoMY BO- npocy CTafI 3aKOH OT 20 MM 1714 r., B kOTOJXIM BpeMeHHo -.QO mB.aHIffi HOBOro YnO)((eHt1S1- nOB.TBep)K,OaJlOCh .QeiicTBe YJlo}!(e- HIUI 1649 r. npt1 :ITOM 3aKOHO.LIaTe.llhHhle aKTbl BTopoii nOJlOBt1- Hhl XVII- Ha1JaJla XVIII B. «W06OJ1w3HblecmambU u cenopoml/ble YK03b1»). npomoope'Jt1BWJ1e HOpMaM YJlO)l(eHt1S1 1649 r., cy.uaM npe.D.nI1Cb]BaJ!OCb He npl1HI1M8Tb BO BHI1M8Hl1e 1 . Ocr..-teTCS!, H8KOHeLl. CKa3aTh HeCKOJ1bKO CJ10B 0 CJ10}!(I1B- rueiJcS! B nepBOiJ nOJIOBJ1He 171O-x rr. HOB<ITOpCKOiJ TeHlleHUI1J1 B c<f>epe npaBoBoiJ nponaraHllbL 3m TeHlleHUSI 3aKJIJO'JaJIaCh B pa3BepThlBaHt1t1 Jlt1Ht1t1 Ha Tnorpa$:Koe J131IaHt1e Bcex Hat16o- Jlee 3Ha1Jt1MhlX HopMaTHBHhlX npaBOBblX aKTOB t1 pacnopS!}!(eHHH. Ha $)pMWlhHOM YPOBHe llaHHasI JlJ1HHS! Hallilla 3aKpenJ1eHJ1e B HMeHHOM YKa3e 01 16 MapTa 1714 I. 06 06S!3aTeJlbHOM Tl1no- rpa$:KoM ony6nHKoBaH(1H HMeHHblX J1 CeHaTCKI1X YKa30B «0 Bcex 2Ocydapcm8eHHbIX i?eHepa.f/HblX de.f/ID/>J. I 3GMypye6 A C. CywecrnoBaJla1l11 3aKOHo.aaTeJlbHIDI KOMI1CCf'I.II 1714 ro- lla? II Te]I1Cb] noKJIarIOB H1I)"JHOi1 KOH<PepeHUHH npenOllaBaTeJleH HOBro- po.nCKOro rocy.napCTBeHHOro ne.aarom'[eCKoro I1HCJ1f")yr.1. HOBropOJl. 1991. 4. I. C. 114-117; Ea6u'I M. B. focynapcmcHHbre )"lpcjf(j}CHI1H XVIII BCK.'I. C. 119.114-115. 23aKoHOnaTeJ1bHbte aKTbl ne-rpa I. C 40-41 B ny6J1I1KaUI1.11X B nepBOM nOJlHOM co6paHI1I1 3aKOHOB 11 B «3aKOHOQaTeJIbCTBe ne-rpa I.. naHHb[H 3a- KOH OWH601.JHO naTl1posaH /5 UIOHR 1714 r. (nOJ1Hoe c06paHI1e 3<lKOHOB. T. 5. NQ 1828 C. 116. 3aKoHo.aaTeJlbCTBO ne-rpa I. c. 749). J nOJlHoe c06paHf'le 33KOHOB. T. 5. NQ 2785. C. 88-89 
rIlasa2 Cy,Qe6Ha.llCI<1CTeMaPoCCI1I<1BIlMeHHbll1 139 n8JH¥:l (1696-1716 rr.} Pe8JI113aLlIUI OTMe'leHHOH JlI1HI1I1 OKa38J18Cb HanpJIM)'1O CB5I3aH8 C Y'-'pe)K1l.emleM B 1711 r. CaHKT-neTep6yprcKoM HI- norpatPt1l1, H8 llOJIIO KOTOpoit 11 BhJn8JI8 OCHOBHaJI H8rpY3Ka no Tt1JXUK11poBaHt11O 0$HUt18J1hHhIX aKTOB. nepBOHa<l8JlhHO rnno- rpill]>J.UI COCT05IJIa B BelleHt1t1 CaHKT-nerep6yprcKoH ry6epHCKOH KaHueJI.IIpt1t1. 8 C <tJeBPaJT5I 1712 r. - Op}'xeHHoH KaHUeJ[.IIpHt1. OCHOBaTeJIeM 11 nepBblM PYKOBo.nt1TeJleM CaHKT-neTep6yprcKoH nmorpatP(111 CTaJI M. n. ABpaMoB, B llOMe KOTOporo OHa H pac- nOJIanUlliCb C MOMeHTa C03Jl8HH}I nO 1714 r. 1 nepBOH KHMroH. (1:w.aHHO nmorpill]>Hej..j, - 'lTO r.rryOOKo CHMBOJIHljHO - SlBWIOCh COCTaBJleHHoe 3. KpoMneHHoM «l<paTKoe nJ06pa)KeHHe npoueCOB WIH cyne6Hhix TSDKe6». B ueJ10M .>Ke, no nOllC'-IeTaM SBTopa HaCT05lweH pa6oThl, npoH3DelleHHhiM no yno- MJlH)'TOMY «On(1caHI1IO 113118HI1H r()IDKl18HCKOH ne'laTIil. 1708 ---ijH- Bapb 1725 r.», 38 1714-1715 rr. C8HKT-nerep6yprcKoH TliinOrpa- tPHeH 6bUlO Ony6nHKOBaHO 56 HOpM<iTI1BHbIX npaBOBblx 3KTOB, 8 TIllOKe HMeHHblX 11 CeHaTCKl1X yKa30B pacnOp}llll1TeJIbHOrO xapaK- Tepa (6e3 yYeTa nepet1:w.aHI1j..j)1. Toma, B 'l8CTHOCTH. 6bUlH H8ne- 'laTaHbl paccMoTpeHHhle Bblllle JaKOH OT 17 MapTa 1714 r. «YKa3 o tPHCKaJlaX H 0 HX nOJl)l(HOCrn H lleikTBHH»3, 3aKOH OT 17 MapTa 1714 r. 06 YKpenJ1eHI1H HHCTaHUHOHHOCTH B cyL\OnpoI13BOllCTBe, 3aKOH OT 20 Ma5I 1714 r. 0 nOllTBep)l(1l;eHI1H JJ;eHCTBH5I YJlO)l(eHJ.UI 1649 r., 3aKOH OT II (1IOH5I 1715 r. 060co6oM nOpJUIKe CYllonpo- H3BOllCTBa no nen8M 0 B3}1T04H(1'leCTBe KOMa]-UUlpoBaHHbIX nOJOK- HOCTHW. J1t1u. T peMSl H3D.8HH}IMH Bblwen B re rollhl t1 BOI1HCI<J.IH: I nOn.p06HOCTl1 0 nepBbIX ro.1lax lle.llTeJ1bHOCTH CaHKT-neTep5yprcKoi1 THnorplK!J11111 CM., npCjf(j}C BCero, B BeCbMa COllCpJKaTeJlbHOM 1l0Howe- HI1I1 M. n. ABpaMoBa CI1HO.ny OT anpeJ1S1 1726 r.: PfHA, 4J 796. on. I. N 402, n 67-69 06. B JII1Teparype paHH1010 I1CTopHtO TI1norpa4J1111 Hal1- 60nee neTaJlbHO OCBeTI1lI A B. faBpl1ll0B (l"aepwoeA. B.OlepK I1CTO- pHI1 c.-nerep6yprcKoH CHH01laJIbHOH Tl1nOrpa4JHI1. cns., 191 L Bbln. I. C. 3-7.19-30 11 Dp) lKaK HI1 YllI1BHTeJlbHO, B .nOCTaT04HO 06Wl1pH0t1 nI1TepaT)'JJe. no- CBHWCHHOt1 KaK pa.:lBHTI1IO KHl1rone'JilTdHI1H B POCCI1I1 nepBoi1 'JemeprH XVIII B., TaK H KHHrol1:l11aTelJbCKOi1 nOJJI1TI1Ke ne-rpa I, CTOJIb B:DKHaH nl1- HI1.11 no 11:1IlaHI1tO expHUI1<L%HbIX aKTOB CneUHaJlbHO He aHaJlHJHpoBaJJaCb. 3 nOKaJaTelJbHO, 'JTO «YKa3 0 4JI1CKaJlax...<> 6bUl Hane'JaTIlH He TOJ1bKO C1HKT-nC1CJ)6)'(JfCKOH THnofJXl4mei1 (THp3)KOM 459 3KJeMIDlHpoB), HO 11 MOCKOBCKOH - IlpI-NeN T1fPIDKO\t 2400 (!) £]eMnJHIpoB (OnI1CaHHe H3l18- HI1H rpIDK.!laHCKOH ne<lam... C. 148. 151). no.n06Hb!w oOheM TH))<"UKHpoBaHIII.II 6bUl. HecoMHeHHO, CBHJaH C oco6cJ&.i pe3OJ11OLlHeH ne-rpa I. I-IaJ'1()JI(eHHOt1 Ha 6eJ1000H Cnl1COK llaHHoro JaKOHa' «Ceu j7\O.11f011e'«l1'1JO U ROC.IGfflb no zy- 6ePIIUJW 60 6Ce.?OQ (3aKOHOlIdfCJlbHbIC MKThI ne1JXll. c. 335). 
140 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I 3pTI1KYJl - nepBblH OTe4eCTBeHHblH BoeHHo-yronoBHblH KQlJ.eKC (BneKa6pe 1714 c. B anpe..n:e Ii Hon6pe 1715 r.)I. ECJ\H BcnOMHHTb, 'ITO 3a BeCI> XVII BeK B Hawe" CTpa- He rnnorpa4x;KH 6bUl 113.D.8H (xonl H IIBYM5I TI1JXUK3MH) OllHH- e.lU'lHCTBeHHbljj CBeTCKl111 3aKoHOllaTeJ1bHblH aKT - YJ10IKeHHe 1649 f.. TO KOHTpaCT 6YlleT 04eBH.1leH. OCTaeTC5I llo6aBHTb. "lTD, Ha'uma51 C I7IO-x rr.. ne<J8THble 3K3emJ].IIpbl 3aKOHOB H YKa30B pacnpoCTpaH5IJlI1Cb TpeM.II nYTJIMI1: Bo-nepBblx. LleH- -rpaJUl30S8HHO paCCbUlaJUICb no rocyn.apCTBeHHbiM OpraH3M 11 Y'-Ipe)l(lleHI1HM, BO-BTOpbIX, IIblBeUUmaJmCb B MOCKBe 11 CaHKT- neTep6ypre BJUO.nHbIX MeCTaX. B-TpCTbI1X, nepenaBaJll1Cb B CBO- 6011HYJO npon,a)j(Y. 3TO o6ecne<nmaJIo, KOHe'IHO, ropa31l0 6oJ1ee Wt1poKoe OCBellOMlleHt1e HaCeJleHI1H 0 COllep>KaHI1I1 OItJI1Ul18JIb- HblX 8KTOB. He)({eJlI1 TPMI1l{110HHOe Ja'U1TblBaHlile HX Ha JlJlOll(a- J151X 11 Toprax. g 7. BbIBO,Qbl nO.DBOlUl HTOr BblllleCKaJaHHoMY, CJ1elIYeT KDHCTaTl1poBan. 'ITD K Ko.HUY XVII B.. Ko. BpeMeHH YCTaHOBJIeHJ.UI ellI1HOllep>Ka- BH neTpa I. cy.ue6HIDI CHCTeMa HaweH CTpaHbl OTJlH'iaJl8Cb CJ1ellYIOWI1MI1 maBHeHW(1MI1 oCD6eHHOCTIlM(1. B 06J1acm CYJJ;o.- YCTpo.HCTBa: OTcyrCTBHeM opraHOB npaBOCYJJ;(1.11, OpraHI13al.{110H- HO H q..yHKU(10H8J1bHO OTlleJIeHHblX OT opraHOB ynpaBJJeHH, OT- cyrCTBlileM CYllOB 06111eH JOP(1Cll(1KU(1I1. OTcyrcTBlileM ell(1HCTBa CYAe6HOH CHCTeMb] B 06J13Cm CYJJ;o.npomBOJ],CTE3: AOM(1H(1po- B3HHeM 'laCTHOro (1CKa K3K OCHOB3HJ.UI DJUI I1HI1Ul1l1poB3HH5I yroJ10HHOro npeCJ1ellOH3H(1}I. He'leTKI1M nopRDKOM npoxo.>K1leHH5I JJ;eJ1 no. HHCTaHUHM, HeCHCTeMaTl13l1poBaHHo.CTblO HDPM npo- ueccyaJlbHo.ro np3Ba. npH 3TOM np3BDBa nponaraHll8 CBOlll1- J18Cb K YCTHOMY omaweHHfO O<!JI1UH8J1bHbIX aKTDB, <{TO. 06YCJ1aB- J1I1BaJtO BeCbMa HmK(1H ypoBeHb 03HaKo.MJleHH5I H3CeJ1eHH C neHcTBYlOll.lI1M 3aKDHQ1laTeJlbCTBOM. Bce 3To. B cOBoKynHocTH npl1BeJlO Ure<leCTBeHHYIO CYAe6- HYfO cHcTeMY B COCTOJIHHe I<pH311ca. Hey.nOBJIeTBOpHTeJIbHOCTb n0J10)j(eHH B c()x:pe np3BocYlll1 CTaJt8 OlJeBI11lH8 neTpY 1 B nepBble )ICe rollbl caMOCT05lTeJIbHOro npaMeHI151. OllHaKO no- CJ1ellOBaBwee B aBfYCJe 1700 r. BCl}'JUleHHe POCCHH B BeJU1K)'1O ] OnlilcaHl1e 1131laHI1 rpIDKLl,aHCKOfi ne4am . C. 165-166. 175-17(). 181-182. 
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142 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I BO-BTOPb]X, B 1713 r. nOCJlenoKUJO BBelleHI1C oc06oro nopM- Ka cynonpomoonCTBa no .neJIaM 0 npeCTyJ1JIeHIHIX npoTIilB I1HTe- peCOB C.I1)0K6bl, KOTopblt1 3aKJIlOlJaJlCH BO BnepBble 3aKpeJUleHHOM npaBe n01l.llaHHbIX 113BelUaTb 0 coomeTCTBYJOIlleM npec1)'JUIeHHI1 HenocpellCTBeHHO BepXOBHYIO BJlaCTb. Torm )({e aHaJlOrH<lHb[jj nop.ll.!lOK cyIIOnpm13BOllCTBa (Kap1lI1HaJlbHO HapywaRUJI1(1 ern HHCTaHLlI10HHOCTb) 6bUl npe.nYCMOTpeH 11 no jJ;eJ18M 0 rocynap- crBeHHblX npecl)'JUIeml.llx. Hap5l.ny C 3TI1M, neTp I npe.u.npHH.IUI H npoTIilBOn0J10)((}{ble no H<tnpaHlJeHHOCTI1 Mepbl no YKPermeH1110 I1HCTaHUHOHHOCTH B cynonpml3BOllCTBe, ...pyrlHeUrueii m KOTO- pblX flBlUJOCb t13JlaHlie 3aKOH8 OT 17 MapTa 1714 r., B KOTOpOM OKa3aJ1OCb 3&1>HKCI1DaHO <leTbIpeX3BeHHoe nocrpoeHJ1e cyne6- HOi1 CHCTeMbl. npl1 seeM TOM, '1TO npe,QnpI1H5ITble B 1700-1703 fr. 11 B 1714 r. nonblTK(1 o6ll.lei1 KQD;J1tPI1ICaUI1I1 QTe<leCTBeHHOro 3aKOHO- nare.nbCTBa nOTepneJilil Hey.na'lY. Ha'l8JlO 171O-x rr. 6bUlO 03H8- MeHOB3HO n05lBJ1eHl1eM COCTaBlleHHoro 3. KpoMne(1HOM «KpaT- KOro m06pa:>KeHIHI npouecoB WIll cyn.e6HblX 'TSIACe6. - nepBOro OTelJecrneHHoro BoeHHo-npoueccYaJIbHoro KOlleKca. KpoMe TOro, B nepBOH nOJlOBt1He 171O-x rr. B CTpaHe Ha HOBblH YPOBeHb Ha- "iaJla BblXOllHTb OpraHI13aUI1JI npaBOBOU nponaraHllbl. 6bJJ1 BBellCH nop.llllOK 06K3aTeJlbHOro nmorpa4x;Koro ony6nI1KOBaHI151 Ba)I(- HeHllU1X HOpMaTI1BHblX npaBOBblX aKTOB t1 npaBI1TeJ1bCTBeHHbIX pacnOp5l)l(eHI1i1. CYMMI1PY51 BblllieCKa3aHHoe. MO)KHO 3aK)UOlJI1Tb. '1TO K cepe.nI1He 171O-x rr. B cyn.e6HOH CIilCTeMe POCCI1I1 CJlO)K1UI3Cb D.Boi1CTIeHHa5l, Tl1nl1'1HO nepexOllHM CliryaUI1JL C 011H0i1 CTO- poHbl, 6b1JlI1 C03.naHbl 11 Ha'laJll1 ycnewHo t:MtHKUI10Hl1poBaTh OnlipaBWl1ec51 Ha COBpeMeHHYIO HOpMaTHBHylO OCHOBy TaKl1e peqJMl1poBaHHble opraHbl npaBoeymJfl 11 yroJlOBHOro npeCJ1e- D.OBaHI1, KaK Kpt1rCpeXTbll1 I1CKaJlbCKa5I cJ1}')K6a. npoH30UlllO 3apO)KJleHl1e 11 opraHOB npeliBapl1TeJlbHoro pacCJ1ellOBaHI1JI. C D.pyrou CTOpoHbl, Ha3BaHHbie opraHbl 0Ka3aJ111Cb COCTbl- KOB3Hb] C OCTaBwej:ic B OCHOBe apxal14Hoi1 CIilCTeMOH He OT- D.eJ1eHHbIX OT opraHOB ynpaBJlemlfi 06werpIDK.IT.aHCKI1X eyn.OB, npon.0mK3.BWI1X onHpaTbC.II B cBoeiJ n.emeJIbHOCTIi Ha ycmpeJ10e B npoueCCYaJlbHOM OTHOllIeHt1t1 Y]Jo)KeHl1e 1649 J. non.o6Haf1 cliryaul.J Hy.:+:.1laJIaCb B cKopeHllIeM npeOllOJleHI1t1. Ha nOBeCTKe D.H Bee C 60JJbllIeH OcrPOTOi1 npoCl)'nan Bonpoc 0 nOJIHOMaC- wTa6H0(1 Cyn.e6H0i1 pe<tJopMe. 
rnaBa 3. nop,roTOBKa cY,Qe6Ho pe4>opMbl neTpa I Cero1lH5I BPM 1111 B03MO>KHO C TO'-IHOCTblO OnpeLl.eJU1Tb TOT MOMeHT, Koma uapb (1 BeJlI1K(1M KHJI3b ne-rp AneKceeBI1'1 np(1- )-[}IJI perneHl1e ocyrnecTBHTb CHCTeMHble npeo6pa30BaHJ.UI B c(]>e- pe npaBOcyllH5I. nO Kpaf1Hejj Mepe, 3TO npol130llliIO He paHee 1714 r. - nOlI BJlJ.UlHHeM. npe)l()le Bcero, 6J1aronpH5ITHbIX nepe- MeH B BOeHHo-llHTU10MaTH'IeCKof1 Cl-fryaWfH l . I1MeHHo K TOMY BpeMeHI1, C OLl.HOM CTOpoHbl, CTaJIa olfemuIHoi1 Heo6paniMocTb nepeJ10Ma B Boi1He co WBeU(1ei1 (nocne 38H5ITI151 POCCI1i1CK(1MI1 BOi1CKaMIil B XOne KaMnaH1111 1713 r. IO)I(HOM <b(1HJ151HJJ;1111 11 no- 6ellb] npH raHryre B HJOJle 1714 r.). a C n.pyroi1 - CTariO o'-le- BMHbIM, '1TO yn.anOCb MaKCHMaJlbHO CM5IrlfI1Tb nOCJIellCTBlliI. Ka- TaCTpo4JwlecKH HeYlla'1HOrO npyrcKoro nOXOlla 1711 r. (nOCJle 3aKllIO'leHHfll3 HJOJle 1713 r. Anpl1aHOnOJlbCKOrO r.mpa C TYPul1- e(1). KpoMe TOro, KaK}')Ke rOBOpHJlOCb. I1MeHHO B 1713-1714 rr.. 6J1aro.nap51 (1H(]>CT!MaUI1(1, nOJl)"-leHHoi1 OT (]>HCKarlbCKOM CJI)0K- 6bl, neTpy I CTarll1 Olfem'J1IHbl KaK B ueJ10M yn<l;J;OK 3aKOHHOCT(1 B CTpaHe, TaK 11 He3(]>iPeKTHBHOCTb (]>YHKUI10H(1poBaHH5I cYlle6HoM CHCTeMbl B '1acTHocnL B I1TOre B cepellHHe I71O-x rr., Hapm:IY C BOeHHhlMH H BHern- HenOJ1IITH'IeCKH MH lle.naMH, KOTOpblMH neTp I npl10plITeTHO 38- [nOl<d3neJIbHO, 'JToeme B 3BI)'CTe 1712 r. - Bcyry60nosepKrtJlbHOM nl1CbMe uap"ue EKaTepHHe .AJ1eKceeBHe - nerp I ceTOBaJI. 'JTO e.3e.W mR- ;w:eHO Jl<.Umb. u501l lefJUIeIO llefJOii PYKOUj He JIWO elOikmb. a e aiJHou npa60ii PYKe npt.lHy;wiJeH iJep:HwfTlh UIIICk'J' U nepa» (nI1CbMa 11 6y\farl1... M.. 1977. T. 12. 8Mn. 2. C. 36). 
144 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HI1MMCfI co BpeMeHI-1 BCTyJUJemm POCCI-U1 B BeJlHKYJO CerepHYIO BOHHY. OH H8'l8J1 Bee 60nbwe 06pal.ll3TbCn K np06JleMaM BHY- TpeHHeii nOJUlTI1KH H rocynapcTBeHHoro crpOJ.tTeJ1bCTBa. OcBe- nOMJleHHblH 6paYHWBeHr-JUOHe6yprcKHf1 pe3HJleHT npH pOCCHf1- CKOM llOOpe <D. Be6ep LlOKJ1aLlblBaJI B anpeJ1e 1714 r.. "ITO PYCCKHH uapb nrXmOLU.JT «60.-1bUJYIO 'fOCmb 6peMeHU 6 oiJUHO<fffI1I6e, U3Y'Ul.fI U 06aY.Mbl6{15/ 6Ce60311fQ,)J(1fble IKNe3Hbie YlfpeJKdeHllfl6 ceoeu cmpaHe»]. T aKHM 06pa:mM, pewem1e 0 nrX)8e)J;eHH(1 cyne6Hbix npe06pa3o- BaHI-1M CJlO)l(l1J!OCb Y nerpa I. lJepo5lTHee Bcero. B 1714 f. Tenepb, npe)((lle lJeM nepexo.m1Tb K paccMorpeHl11O Mep no Henocpell- CTBeHHOH nOllroro8Ke cyne6HoH pe4>oPMbl, t1MeeT CMblCJI KpaTKO OCTaHOBHTbCfI Ha Bonpoce 0 nOJlI1THKO-npaBOBbIX 8033peHIDIx 3(l- KOHO.LI.aTeJIH, I1HI1UHI1poOO8wero nrXnieneHl1e pel!:>oPMbl. S 1. nOmtntKO-npaBoBble B31'"I1bl neTpa I. KoH4em.jllls:l Polizeistaat OOJlHTHKO-npaBOBble B3fJ1Mbi OeTpa I onnOllh He J'lMJUOT- CJ'I Ha cerollHJ'I terra incognita DJUI cOBpeMeHHhlx I1CCJlellOBaTeJleH. Ha n)X)TH}I(eHI1I1 nOCJ1ellHero CTOJleTl-1H 3Ta CTopoHa lIYXOBHOro o6JJI1Ka nepBoro POcCHHcKoro HMnepaTopa HeOllHOKpaTHO OCBe- WallaCb B I1CTOpH'leCKOH 11 B I1CTOpI1KO-npaBoBoH JlI1TepaType2. lLrUI Ha'lafl8 311eCb He06xOlll1MO OTMeTI1Tb, '-ITO, 6Yl(yY11 no Ha- TYPe pa3HOCTopOHHe JU0603H8TeJ1hHbIM ". KaK Bblp(\)l(alOTCH ne- naron.}, 06)"-18e MhIM. nepBhlH pOCCHHCKMH I1MnepaTOp He nl1TIU1 g: O;n:::C M M OOOacTHIDI  nerpa BeJll.JKoro. e. 3-4, 11-13, 16-17; CbI[Xlll1lmtfUK06 E 11 «PeryJlj.Jp- Hoe>'> rOCYllaTRO nerpa nepROro 11 era 11llOOI1OI1I.II. M.-J1.. 1943. '-I. I. e. 150-154. fiaaleH100 H. 11. nClJIl (K IIJ}"IeHl1tO COI.HlillbHO-nOJlI1TH'JOCI,J1"( B3rJ1JInOB) II POCCII.II B nepl1o.n pe$opM nerpa I. M. 1973. e. 60-71; 3aii- 'ieHKoA. E. B3fJ1Hllb] ne1pa I Ha BlJaCTb 11 3:)t..""OH II I1cropHKo-npaBOBb]e I1CCJlellOBaHI1H. e. 103-109: -4Huaa06 E. B. BpeMH neT]XIBCKI1X pe$opM. 11., 1989. C. 40-42.137-139; OH:JICe. focYJrarneHHb]e npeo6pmosaHl1H... e. 99-107; TOVCUH06 B.A. I1cropHH PYCCKOW [JOJIIIITH'leCKOW 11 npaBOBoi1 Mb!CJlI1. X-XVIII BeK<I. M . 2003 C 168-174. OcT3eTCH llo6aBl1Th, 'lT0 nep- 1k1.!l'l<lCThyJ<a33HHOi1 MOHQrp;$1111 Ei.I1. CbI(XX'MITI-Il1KOBa 1943 r. npt'J1CTIIB- n.lleT Co6oH paJBepHyTblH I1CTOPl1orpaI1'JeCKl1ti 0630P. a BOT BTopaH 'J<lCTh nOCBHlllaJI<lCb «yrny6,eHHoMY IlCClJe.nosaHI1IO 3aKOHODaTeJIbCTBa nerpa I B acneKTe reopeTIl'JOCM1X ycrdHOIJOK, f"J01J()}treHHb]X B OCHOBY pe$opMbl>'> (Cbi- po'llflmllU1W6 E. 11 «Peryn.llpHoe>,> rocyllapcrBO neTpa I... c. 3). OllHaKo 3TII BTOpaH 'JaCTh l]JYJra Ei. 11. ChlpoMIITHI1KOBa rdK 11 HC Bh[lllfIa B CBCT 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 145 CKJlOHHOCHI K OTBJle'leHHoMY 3HtlHlUO. no CKIlaIlY }'M8 ne-rp I 6b1J1 nOCJlellOBaTeJlbHb]M nparM8TI1KOM. KOTOPb]M, no BepHOMY 3aMelJ8HHIO X. 6arrepa. «oueHHBaJI TeopHH no CreneHI'i l'iX npH- rOllHOCTH K neJIy»l. PyKOBOllCTBYHCb nOll06HbiM ynu1I1rapHCTCKI1M nOllXOllOM. ne-rp I HcnOllBOJIb YCBOWI Hb]pa60TaHHYIO npeHl'ltyWeCTHeHHO repMaHCKI1MH npaBOBe.naMH XVII B. KOHuemlHIO «nOJiHueikKO- ro» roCYll3pCTBa (Polizeistaat), HCXOllHOj:j OCHOBOj:j KOTO)XIj:j no- CJlY)({l1JIa TeOpl11 eCTecmeHHoro npaBa (pa3pa60TaHHllil B Tpynax, npe)Klle BCero. f. fpoul1f1 H T. f066c8P. UeJIb «nOJIHueiicKO- ro» - 111111, no pOCCHilcKoH TepMHHOJIOrHH nepBoH lJeTBepnl XVIII B., <peZJVlpIIOlO. - rocynapCTBa K./IlOllaJIaCb B TOM, l.JTo6bl 06ecnelJHTb nOlUl8HHbIM 1l0CfH>KeHHe «06wero 6J1ara») (<;a1us publica). B CBOIO O'fepe.nb. 1.JTo6bl CTaTb «peryJI.IIpHbIM». cnOC06Hb]M npHBeCTH HaCeJIeHl1e K HCKOMOMY Bceo6weMY 6J1a- rolleHCTBI1JO, roCy1l3pcTBO caMO 1l0JI>KHO 6bUlO 06pecn1 CT)XIro onpe.aeJIeHHoe YCTpOj:jCTBO. TeOpeTI1'leCKOii OCHOBOii DJUI nOCTpoeHHfI MexaHH3Ma «no- JlHueilcKoro» rocY1l3pCTBa HBl1JIaCb KOHuenmUI KaMepaJIH3Ma. pewalOlllMj:j BK./I all B Bblpa60TKY KOTOPOf1 BHec HeMeUKHH IOpHCT I EaZi!f!JJ X P$pMb] ne1p3 BeJJI1KOrD B PocCI1I1 II Uapb ne1p III KOb Kap.ll:D.BafllJWlneIDlllllxHapQlI.b[/nep.collllK:lJCM)fO.M.,I999 C.138 Cpo CXQ!lHb]eMHeHI1H H.I1. naBJIeHKOI1 E. R AHIICI1MOBa(/"lafuew.:o H. H ne1p I. C.5ik==:=H=::Pcrsa(paB_ HO KaK 11 nOnbITKH ee peaJIl1JaUHH B npmcnnce rocy.napcrBeHHOm C1pCmTenb- CTsa B 3anallHOH EBpone 11 POCCI1I1) Hall60rree pa3BePHYTO OCBeTWI M. PaeH (Paf'fl M. PeryflHpHoe nOJlI1ueHcKoe rocynapcroo tI nOHHTHe MOliepHtlJMa B EBpone XVII-XVIII BeKOB: nOnblTKa CpaBHlfreJlbHoro J1Q/IXUlId K npo6Jle- Me II AMeplIKaHCKlliI pyCI1CTHKa. BeXl1l1CTOp1roJ]:w)Jlm nOCJle.1lHI1X neT. 111'11- nqmqJCKI1i1 nepI1011. AHTO!lOrH.II I r1cp. C tlHfJI. Crnapa, 100(). C. 48-79). CM. TdlOKe IDlCcepnWUOHHCJe J.IOCJ1e1I:()Bal1e 3 E. Kyp3eHI1Ha. CneUHaJ1bHO nocIDIweHHoe paoc\tlJJ])eHl1tO nOliIITHKo-npaBOBbIX B3rJ\.llJ10B C. ny$eHllOp- $I. BHecwero JH!i<IHTe.IlbHb]i1 BKJlM B pa.iBIfJhe KOHUenWJII «IlOJII1Uei1cKoro rocynapcrsa,,' K....'JBC-HUII 3. E. nOJlIffHKO-npaBOBOe )"JeHl1e CaMt03J1.11 nytfJeH- 1l0:,\ fuP::n :.nY «oolllero 6nara" nerp I Bb[CKa3aJlCH B pe<ll1. nocBHweHHoi1 TIlKOAlY 3HaMeHaTeJ1b- HOMY C06bITl1tO, KaK JaKJIt04eHI1e HI1WTallTCKOro Ml1pa. B 3TOi1 1<paTh000j pe'JI1, n)JOl-l3HeceHHOH 22 OKTH6pH 1711 r. B CT0J1114HOM TPOHUKOM co6ope. nepBblH pocCl1flCMfi1 tlMnepaTop Mf'KllY I1HOro non'JepKHyJl. 'JTO ,HOiJre- :l/l:um R1{'Jrlurm(a 0 1IQ,IJe U IIpU6unure 06U{eM, mom '1elO row."Tfet/ 6yikm lia- pod» (3aKOHonure.rIbHb]e tlKTb[ nCTpa I. c. 156). 
146 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I XVII B. B. CeKeHJlOpq:. (Veit Ludwig van SeckendorlJ)[. rlpMH- wmb] KaMepaJll13M8 3aKflIO'-IMMCb, BO-nepBblX, B KOJIJIerwaJIbHOM xapaKTepe PYKOBo.D.CTBa opraHaMH BJIaCTi-'I. BO-BTOphIX, B no- CJlellOBaTeJlbHO oTpaCJleBOM xapaKTepe KOMneTeHUI1t1 ueHlpaJIb- HbIX opraHOB, B-T]JeTbl1X. B .aeTaJlbHOH pemaMeHTaU1111 nJX4>ec- C(10HaJlbH0i1 lleRTeJlbHOCTH rocy.napCTBeHHbIX CJJ)')KaWHX Bcex YPoBHek Oco60e MecTO B KMlepaJIHCTCKI1 ycrpoeHHOM «OOJUI- ueHcKoM» rocyllapCTBe npHHaIlJ]e.IKaJlO 06J1anaBweMY HeorpaHH- 'lCHHO" BJIaCTblO npaBl-1TeJIJo!. HeCJ1YlJai1Ho n03ToMY, '1TO B nep- BOM lJeTBepTH XVI 1111. OTelJeCTBeHHblH 3aKOHO.D.aTeJIb BnepBble COPMYJlH)XIBa.n - B TOJIKOBaHl-U1 K CT. 20 Apn.JKYJ1a BOI.JHCKOro 1714 r.11 KCT. 2 KH. 5-H MOj)CKoro}CTaB.11720 f. - onpelleJ1eHt1e a6cOJTf0111CTCKO-MOHapXH<JeCKOH $JpMbl npaBJ1eHHH (<<...em eeAU- wcmflO ecmb CQlfQfl,lQcmHbiU J,IOHapx, KomopblU HUKO\tY I/Q C6eme 0 CBOUX oc lax on'I6i'my (Jamb He i.kJJ/:HCeH...» )3. KOHl.lenmUI «JlOJumej:jCKoro» rocY.AapCTBa He OTJlH'lanaCb CJ10)({HOCTblO. [lpe.nnOJlliraJlOCb, 'ITO D.OCTl1rHyTb «o6lllero 6JIara» B03MO)({H0 B TOM ellHHCTBeHHOM CJI}"Jae. Koma «nOJ1l.1Uei.1cKoe» rOCYllapcTBO, C OllHof1 CTOpoHbl. BceCTOJXIHHe pemaMeJ-mtpyeT >KH3Hb nO.D1l8HHbIX nocpellcmOM t131l8HHH «npamU1bHbIX» 3aKO- HOB t1 pacnopH>KeHHi1. 8 C llPyroi1 - 06eCne'-lt1T t1X HeYKocHH- TeJ1bHoe HCnOJ1HeHHe. l1.1{earIbHb]H nopJl1IOK. KOTOPOMY npellcTO- IDIO yTBeplU1TbC.II npl-1 BOJUlOweHHH KOHlleml!-m HH npaKTHKe, Hal16oJ1ee SlpKO onHca M. M. OOroCJiOBCKHi1: «[lO.D1laHHblj:j He TOJ1bKO 6bl1l 06maH HeCTH YCTaHOBJIeHHYIO YKBJaMH CJlY>K6y rocyn.apcTBY, OH n.OJ1)KeH 6bVl .>KJ.1Tb He HHa'le KaK B )I(}lJJHllle, nOCTpoeHHOM no YKa3HOM)' 'lepTe>K)l. HOCHTb yKa3HOe nJlliTbe H 06YBb. npellaBaTbCH YKa3HblM YBeCeJIeHHHM. YKa3HblM nopHllKOM 1-1 B YKa3Hb]X Me CTax Jle'lHTbC5I. B YKa.JHb]X rpo6ax XopoHI-1TbC.II H I nO.npo6Hee 0 KOHuenffi'ltl KaMepanl1JMa eM: PeTerson C Gp. cit. P 5-10, 114-115. AHifepc 3. HCTOPI1.11 eBponei1cKoro npaBa I nep. co WBe.nCKoro. M.. 1996 C. 239-141; AmlCU!408 E. B. focYl{aJJCTBeHHble npe- HIII.II.. C. 104-105: Paffl M. YKa3. CO'J. C. 60-62 !B HOBeHweH I1CTOpI1Ko-npaBoBoH ntlTepal)pe n0JIp06Hee 06 3TOM eM.: HOfluqKW! T E npalkl tI npeHMYlllecTsa tlMnepaTOpa... C. 47-49; KoiJaff C. B. POCCI1HCKafi BepXOBHafi B..lacTb. CTaHOBJ1eHl1e a6cOJlIOTHJMa B npaB!leHl1e nerpa I II IOpHc. IOpwJ.H'JccKHe tlCCJJeJlOBaHIliI. AnbMaHRX npa:lb:{76?.mMeTiUl 3. AImepc, B l"OCJ1BeTCTBYlOwei1 pocCl1HCKOf.i 4xJpMYJll1poBKe 6bU10 .nOC_OBHO BOCnpoH3- BeLleHO onpe.neJ1eHl1e aOCOJIIOT113Ma 113 LleKJ18paUI1I1 0 CYBepeHIfff'Je WBell- CKI1X cocnooof1 1693 r. (A1mepc 3. YKa3. C04. C. 155). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 147 YKa3HbiM 06pa30M l1e)l(aTb H8 KJIa1l6I-1we, npeJIBapl'ITeJIbHO 041-1- CTHB .aymy nOKaflHl-1eM B }'K83Hb]e CPOKI1»I. J.1MeHHo npOHI-1Kll1I-1Cb KOHuenUHett «nOJIl,meHCKO.-o» w- cy.aapcrna. OeTp 1 YBe)XIBaJI BO BCeCHJ1He HaIlJIe.:Kawe I1cnOJI- HHeMora «np8BHl1bHoro» 38KOHa. TeM C8MbIM, uapb-pe<1>oPM8Top CTaJI - nepRblM 113 OTe'-leCTReHHbIX npam1TeJlei1 - C03HaTeJlb- HblM n060pHHKOM If.!J;el1 38KOHHOCTI1 2 . Y)({e npl1 COCTaRIJeHHI1 B 1718 r. n)XIeKT3. 3aKOHa <<J]OA.JlCHOCmb CeHama» OeTp I C06CTBeH- HOPY'-lHO Bnl1CaJI CY)f(lleHl1e 0 TOM, 4TO «xaK .AWJKem 2ocyiJap- cm80 ynopafJJeHO 6b1mb, aaa yxa3bl aeUCm8UmeJIHbI He 6 11 '-JTO OT HeHCnOJlHeHIDI 38KOHOB «maiKO o6UI,GJ/ ,JOlu6e'b CAeflo- 60mb 6J'ckm»3. Ewe 60JIee <JeTK)'1O $)pMYJ1H)XIBKY 0 He06xoIlH- MOCTI1 co6mo.aeHI1f1 38KOHOB I1MnepaTOp BHec B npoeKT 3aKOHa OT 17 anpeJiSl 1722 r.: «HUl.Jmo mOK KO J'flJX161eHUIO 2ocy(Jopcmea HYJiCHO ecmb KOK Kpi!flKoe xpaHeHue nparP 2paJ/CiJaHcKux, nOHe.JlCe 6cye 3aKOHbI nucamb, K02iJa UX He xpaHumb...p4. Crper-,uICb yrBeplll-1Tb pe)l(J.fM 3aKOHHOCTI1, nepHb]M pOC- CHiiCKJ..:IM HMnep8TOp nomeJl H8 He HMeBWYIO npe)l(!le 8HaJIOroB Mepy: OH 06513aJ1 c.ny-A\alIDIX Bcex opraHOB RlJaCTH 3HaTb .aett- CTBYlOwee 38KOH0ll8TeJlbCTBO. B CneUHaJIbHO H3.aaHHOM H8 3TOT C4eT 3aKOHe OT 22 SlHBap51 1724 r. YKa3blBaJ]OCb, 4TO npellCTa- B(1TeJlflM rOcyllapCTBeHHoro 8nnapara HallJIe)l(l1T «6eiJamb 6ce ycmi18b1 2ocyaoJXm8eHHbl5I U 6aJ/CHocmb UX, RKO nep80e U 2JlQ8HOe deAo.... DoJIee TOro: TeKCT 3TO.-o 3aKOHa (BMeCTe C teKCTIIMI1 ynOM}IHyroro <1}'Tb Bbillie 3aKOH8 01 17 anpeJUI 1722 r. 11 JaKO- lID OT 21 HHBap51 1724 r. 0 co6Juo.aeHI1H firIarollHHIDI B cy.aax) OeTp 1 paCnOp5l11HJICH H8ne l [aTaTb H8 OC06bIX J1I1CTaX H HaKJIeHTb H8 rpexrpaHHY IO npl13MY (<<3effluiOi», KOTOPYIO nOJlaraJIOCb Bbl- [EococI06CKUU M. M. 06JIaCTHIDI  ne1]XllkrIl1KOro. c. 11-)] 1B n1OIUeH JlI1Tep,fJ)rpe H8 3TO 06cTOHTeJIbCTBO HaH60- 1Iee onpeneJ1eHHO YKa3aJI P. YopTMaH (Y<YJI1IMOH P. B.r1acTHreJll1 11 Cy.nl1l1. pa3B1mte npaooBOro C03HaHI1.11 B I1MneparopcKo POCCI1I1 I nep. C aHrn. M.. 2001.. C. 54). 113 'JIIICJliI OTC'ICCTBeHHblX ilBTOpoB JJ1CCb MOJKHO BcnOM- HI1Tb 3. H. EiepewlTca, KOTOPb]H erne B )J<16oTe 1897 r. o6pa3Ho BbICKa:JaJICJI. 'fTO ne1p I «JToce.IIJI IB POCCI1I1)lt1leJO JaKOHHocm» (Eepeoonc 3. H. He- CKOJIbKO CJ10B 0 «KOJIJ1erl1J1x» nerpa IkrII1KOro II Bpe}.ieHHI1KJ],eMIt1l0BCKO- ro tOl;:;:=;::::e':bi. 8nOe C)')K1leHHe BO- lliJIO. B I1TOre, B CT. 12 JaKOHa ..L\.omKHOCTb CeHaTII» OT HeKa6pH 1718 r. (TaM>Ke (' 290). 3aKoHruroelJbHble aKTbl ne-rpa I. c. 105. TtlM >KC. C. 263-264. 
148 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I CTaBJl5lTh B CJ1y>Ke6HbIX nOMelllemmX H8 CTOJI8X nepell PYKOB01UI- lllHMH nOJD({HOCTHbIMH 1lI1UaM(1[. COOTBeTCTBeHHO, CJlellY51 KOHuenmU1 «nOJll1uem:Koro» .-0- cyn.apcnm, nepBblf1 POCCHf1CKHH HMneparop npmlBI1JI ce651 H KaK BeCbMa aKTHBHblf1 JaKOHOlIaTeJlb. .uOCTaTO'IHO BCnOMHHTb. 'ITO eCJl" 33 47-J1eTHe. c <l:>enpaMI 1649 r. no <l:>enpaJlb 1696 L. n Ha- meli ClpaHe 6bV10 ooHapo.noBaHo 1458 3aKOHOB 11 YKa30B (npH- "leM In-lllIb 746 1-13 HI1X I1CXOllirno OT sepXOBHOi1 BJlaCTl1). TO 3a 6-11erne 1713-1718 rr. TOlIbKO BepxoBHoi1 BJl8CTblO 6bl110 11:ID.8HO 3877 3aKOHOB H YKa30B 1 . 3aKOHOTBOp'-leCKot1 pa60Te rlerp I BO- oGllie YlleJHUI 3H81.JI1TeJlbHOe BHHMalU1e, oco6eHHO B nOCJIellHHe neC5ITh ]JeT npaBJleHJ.UI. DJTarollap51 OTMe'leHHOMY TPYD.Y H. A. BOC""]JeCeHcKoro. H8 CerO)lHSI H3BeCTHO. HanpHMep. 'lTO 3aKOH «I!.OJDKHOCTb CeHaTa» HMel111IeCTb nOJJ;roTOBJIeHHb]X C Y'-IaCTl-1eM uap51 pe.u.aKUHi1, a re- HepaJIbHblH pemaMeHT - 11 BaBee 12 J . no 8BTopi-lTeTHoMY cY)I()]e- HI1IO 6. M. Cbl)XIMJITHHKOBa, rlerpy I «npmffilLlIeiKMH KaK HHH- Ulmnma H HanpaBJHllOlllee PYKOBOllCTBO BceM 3aKOHOllaTeJlhHOH pa60TOH. TaK H C8M8 lleTaJlhH8H pa3pa60TKa H penaKTH)XIBaHHe OTlleJIhHhlX 3aKOHOll8TeJlhHhlX 8KTOB. npH'leM B ll]XIuecce 3TOH pa60Thl He TOJlhKO BhIlleruutHCh H q.OPMYJ1H]X)BaJlHCh OTlleJlhHhle npaBOBble nOHSlTHSI. HO H BbIpa6aTbIBaJl8Cb HOBM IOpH.JJ;H4eCKa.ll TepMHHOJIOrHSI. Sl3h]K npaBa»4. BMecre C TeM. HeJlb3H He OTMeTI1Tb. 4TO Hili B KOHUenUI1H KaMepa..n.H3Ma, HI.J B KOHuenUm! «nommeMcKoro» rocynapCTBa He YlleJlIDlOCh CneUHaJlhHoro BHI.JMaHIDI. cYlle6HOH cHcrcMe, B 3TI1X KOHuenUHSlX - n.m+::e MHMOXOllOM - He craBHJJC5I Bonpoc H 0 pa3- ]Om:lCaHI1C tl311aHl1ii rpiI)KIW.HCKOIi nC'laJll... C. 3HO. 431-431. CTOI1T BCnOMHtlTb, 'JTO 1])3DI1UH.II BblCTdBlIeHI1H «:Je]JUaJJd& COxpllHWIaCb B OTt4e- CTBeHHOM 6JqXJKp3l1t'JOCKOM o6Hxone 110 Ha4aJ1a XX (!) BeKa. n01Ip06Hee o «3epuane" eM B ocofioI.i CTaTbe R EaTnepa «K 4>opMI1POBaHI1tO )JOCCldi- CKOro npaBollOro C03HaHI1S1: 3epuanO» (Butler W E. On the FonnatlOn of a Rus,<;ian Le,gal Consciousness. Thc Zcrtsalo II Butler W. E. Russia and the L1W of NatIOns in Historical Per;pectlve: coUected essays. London- Idy1lwlld. 2009. P 91-101). 2AffUCUM09 E. B. focy.naPCTBeHHble npeo6paJoBaHIUI C. lRO; MOffb- K06 A. t: 3aKOH01IaJJlbCTBO tI npaBO POCCI1I11... C. 16. }3'IKOHOllHTI:J1bHb[1: ilKTb[ nerpa I. c. 1M-195. 411-511. 113 'JtlCJ1a npe.IUIR'CTB)-'I'1llUIX aBTOpoB JaKOHOTBOp'leCK)'IO lIeHTeJJbHOCTh nerpa I HaH- 60JJee nOllp06Ho OCBeTI1J1 E R AHI1CI1MOB (AItIICIl.If06 E. B. focYllarX:TBeH- Hble npe06pa30BaHtI.II... C. 177-181) .CbfJOllJlmHUK06 5.11. PeUI:H311.11 . C. 125. 
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158 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I nOJ]HOMOlJl1). IJ ..acne I1MenCJ1 ellle 01111H acneKT: OTKpbUJOCb, "lTO KaMeprep COCTOJUl B HenolloGalOwe 6JU13OCTHb]X OTHOllleHiHIX C cynpyroi-i HMnepaTopa EKaTepl1Hoi-i AneKceeBHOW. B 3TI1X YCJ10- BI1JlX, I1Me51 nOJlH)'1O B03MO.:KHOCTb OCYIU1Tb B. MOHca elU1HO- 1II1'1HO HJ111 BOBee paCnpam'ITbCH C HI1M BO BHeCYlle6HOM nopffil- Ke, neT]) I npellJlO'leJl co6mocTI1 Bce npOUe.1lYPbl oplU1HapHoro CYJJ;eGHoro npOM3Bo.nCTBa. B I-Hore nOCJ1e npellBapmeJIbHOro CJ1e.nCTB(1J! (ocyweCTBJleHHoro B BeCbMa C:>KaTble CpOKI1 I1Mnepa- TOpCKI-1M Ka6I1HeTOM) lleJiO B. MOHca 6bUlO H3npaBJIeHO B BhI- WHI1" cyn., KOTOpblj..j BblHec eM}! 14 H05l6p51 1723 r. CMepTHblH npHfoBOp, He38Me.DJ[I1TeJ1bHO yrBep)({fleHHblH MOHapxoM l . OCmeTC5I Il06aBI1Tb, <no npH BblHeCem!i1 11 ymep)({fleHI1I1 npl1rOBOpOB - B Ka"lecTiJe llOnOJlHHTeJlbHOH CaHKUl111 - neT]) I perylUlJIHO npaKn1KOBaJI TaKYIO ClmeoGp83HYIO Mepy, KaK 33- npe-r norpeGaTb Te1l3 JlMU, KaJHeHHblX 33 roCYAapCTBeHHb]e npe- CT)'nneHI-1f1 1-1 3a npeCT)'nneHI-1f1 npOTl1B MHTepeCOB C1Iy)K(jbL TaK, npMfOOOpl1B 24 c}:>eBp<UUI 1712 r. K cMepTHOI1 Ka3HI1 1-130611M'IeH- HOro BO B3f1TO'lHI1<JeCTBe KOMemaHTa r. Jlyxa CPo A B01lKOBa, uapb CneUl-1aJ1bHO npe.nnl1CaJI <lmpyn e80 8 3eMJIlO He xopOHumb (HO 'lm06 JleJKXL1 n08epx 3e,11.1U, 6UiJuM 6ceM),}J. He 6bl1l11 npellaHbl 3eMJIe 1-1 TeJia KaJHeHHblX no De1lY uape- BI-1'13 AneKceJl neTpOBI-1'13 - B '13CTHOCTM. rnecrepblx JlMU. 06e3- rJl3BJ1eHHbiX B CaHKT-neTep6ypre 8 neKa6pR 1718 r. 4 06111e- (138eCTHO. '1TO 6bLJ10 OCTaBJIeHO H3. BI1CeJII-1Ue Teno Ka3HeHHoro ] I1cropH.II BJ.1HMOOTHOllleHI1H B. MOHca 11 EKaTepI1Hb[ A.J!eKceeBHb[. a TaJOKe BHelllHl1e 06crmrreQbCTBa pa306J1a'JeHI1.11 11 OC}')K1I.eHI1H KaMepre- pa neTaJlbHO OCBellieHbl M. H CeMeBCKI1M (Ce'df'llCl<.-uil M. H. UapHua Ka- repHHa A.J!cKceeBHa. AliHa 11 BI1JJJII1M MOHC. 1692-1724. 2-e 11311. Cn6., 1884. c. 106-129. 170-226). C IIICTOpHKo-npaBOBOH CTOjJOHb] npouecc HM BI1J]I1MOM MOHCOM M. 11. CeMeBCKHH. npaBll3, He aHaJlI1Jl1jJOBaJI. IpfNJ.A, 4>. 6. NQ 157. KH. I, JI. 578-579. npecryrrHb[eneHHI1H B. MOH- ca 6blJll1 KBam.«)mUl-ipoBaHbI CYllOM no CT. 2 fJI 50-H feHepaJIbHOrO perna- MeHTa 1710 r. M no CT I JaKOHa OT 25 OKTH6pH 1723 r. 06 YCl1J1eHl111 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH Ja npeC1)'I11leHI1H njJOTl1B I1HTepeCOB clI)')K6b[. Jnl1CbMa 11 6YMam M., 1975. T. 12. Bb]n I C. 89. CTOHT 3aMe- THTb, 'JTO neT)J I OTHlOllb He .IIBI1J1CH HOFlaTOpoM B npl1MeHeHI1M nOll06HOH CaHKUl111 CneUl1aJ1bHoe pacCMorpeHl1e CIlO.lMtBWeHCH B XVII B. (11 npo- T}JHyBwei1cH 'Jepe3 BeCb XVIII B.) OTe4eCTBeHHOH Tj)aD.I1UI1I1 t1ill-yJIbTaTHB- HOJO Henorpe6eHI1.11 Tell Ka.3HeHHbIX CM. B MOHOIJD4Jltl1 E. B. AliHCI1MOBa 1999 r. (A#/I./CII.!IfC6 E. B. 'ubI6a 11 KH}fT. C. 584-588). 4.}CmpJl.106 H. r. YKd cO'{. T. 6. C. 617. 
rIlaBa 3. rQ::\rollEK8 CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 159 16 M8PTa 1721 r. M. n. rarapI1Ha[. He 6b]JlO norpe6eHo 11 Teno 06e3ffI8f1J1eHHoro 15 HOJI6pH 1724 r. B. MOHca!. TSiroTeHl1e nepBoro POCCI1j..jCKOro I1MnepaTOpa K no.no6- HOti $)pMe llOnOJlHt1TenbHOfO YfOJlOBHOro HaKa3aHt1S1 npl1BeJlO K YHI1KaJIbHOMY CJ1YlJ8fO, KOflla, nOJlY"II1B CBelleHI1S1, nOllTBep- 11I1HWl1e 3n1130.Llbl KaJHOKPallCTBa YMepwero K TOMY HpeMeHI1 B XO.Lle npe.nBapl1TeJlbHOfO CJ1ellCTBI1S1 llb5lKa n. K. CK)'pI1XI1Ha, ne-rp 1 BblHec eMY nocMepTHblH (!) npt1roBop. 15 anpeJ1S1 1724 r. I1MnepaTOp yK83aJJ 113BJ1e'lb TeJ10 n. K. CKypl1XIo1Ha 113 MOfl1Jlbl 11 nOBeCt1Tb ero «110 :JICeJIe3IIoU 'tene 30 MOCK60fO peKOfO 110 /)0- .lOttle... 30 mo, 'imo OH, nOKpbJ6QJ/ U om6b16GR C60ei!0 60jJ06cm60, 60 6ceM 30nllptLlCJ/ U... n06UIIHOU He npUlleC1>3. B TaKOM KOHTeK- cre He npt1XO.Llt1TbCSI Ylll1BJ1SITbCSI OCTopmKHOCTl1, npo5lBJIeHHoti B 1721 r. fJl8BOH OllHOH 1013 «M8HOPCKI1X» CJlen;CTBeHHbIX KaHue- JlSlpl1H M. A MaTfOWKI1Hb]M. Y3HaB 0 nOCJ1ellOB8Bwei1 29 I1fOHSI 1721 r. CMepTI1 nOllCJ1ellCTBeHHoro - 6bIBllIero apxaHreJ1oropo.n- CKOfO Bl1ue-ry6epH8Topa A A Kyp6aTOBa, M. A MaTlOWKI1H He peWI1J1C5I HaTb pmpellleHt1e H8 ero 3axopOHeHl1e. 8 Janpocl1Jl oco6oe YKaJaHl1e neTpa I Ha 3TOT c'Ie'f'l. HaKoHeu. HeJlb351 He OTMeTI1Tb. '1TO nepl3bri1 POCCI1j..jCKI1i1 I1MnepaTap HepellKO npaKTHKOBaJI 11 nOMI1J10BaHlo1e - cnYCT5I KaKoe-TO BpeMSI - OC}0K1leHHblx C em YlJacnleM JlIo1U. npl1 3TOM ne-rp I HI1KOrna He OTMeH5IJI npe)f(Hl1e npl1roBOpbl nOJlHOCTblO. Ocy}f{JleHHble OCB060}f{JlaJJIo1Cb B TaKI1X CJlYlJa5!X JlIo1Wb OT '18CTI1 1-183Ha'leHHoro t1M 1-18K833HI151. 125 HmropH 1721 r. ne1p I .non(}J[HI1}JbHO pacnopHllHJ\CH nepeBeCIIITb TeJlO M. n. farapl1Ha Ha oco60 mrOTOBJleHHYro uenb (PfADA 41. 1451. KH. 1e2.;,u M. H. Uapl1lkl KaTepHHa AricKceeBHa . C. 224. 3PfAllA,4J.148. KH. 703.11.134. 4PfNlA, 41. 9. OTIl. 1, KH. 56. n. 219. XapaKTePHO. 'JTO K TOMY Bpele- HI1 6b!J\O JaBepweHO pacCJIellOBaHl1e TOJlbKO 11113 17 3nmOllOB, no KOTO- pblM OOOI1H5IJ1C5I A. A. Kvp6aToo. 11 caM OH Ha'\QDIWCSl He non C"l]JIDKeH. a non nOllnl1CKOIi 0 HeBb]e:yJ,e (TaM >Ke. JI. 231-231 06.; 41. 148, KH. 118, JI. 106) CXO.1lHbli1 CJ1)14ai1I1MeJI MeCTO 11 B CBSl311 C IlOC.I1enosaB1.1Jei111 neKa6pH 1724 r. KOH'JI1HOH rtTMaHa 11eB06epe)!(HOH YK)XII1Hbl n.11. nOJly60nca. Ha- xo.nI1BWerOC.ll noo Cy.nOM CeHaTa 11 BblwHero cy.na 11 collep)!Q\BlllcTOCH no.n ClpIDKdi. BblWHI1H cyn HanpaBIIIJI Toma neTpy I oco6oe .1l0HOllJeHI1e C Ja- npocoM 0 BO}M())J(H()CT1i norpe6eHI1H n. n. nOJly6OTKa - 'JTO 11 6blllO caHK- Ul10HI1po&lHO (c OroOOpKOH «fiee /,/,e{Je..HJHeu..) t!l>leHHbIM}'Kd1ON. OT ntKd6p1J 1724 r. (TaM >Ke. KH. 1935. JI. 241 06.; on. 110. NQ 160, n. 60). 
160 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I K IlpI-1Mepy. ynoM5IHYfblH nmpmU1 nop)"JMK H. T. P)({eBCKMH, OC}0KDeHHb]H B 1714 r. 3a H3JITOlJHI1'leCTBO, 6blJl OCoo6o>K.!1fH m CChlllKH - B paMKaX aMHMCTIIUlIOHHOH KaMnaHHH no CJIY'-laJO no- 6e.1lbl PoeCH" B BeJlHKOH CeBepHoH BOHHe - no HMeHHOMY YKa3Y OT 26 flHnapij 1722 r. 1 ()cy)((LleHHbIH D 1718 f. 3a nOC06Illi<lecTBO uapeRI1'-IY ArreKcelO nelpORW-J} B. B. LlOJ1fopyKOB nOJJy'JJ.U1 OCBO- 6o.)l(n;eHJ1e M3 CCbU\K(1 no YKIDY nelp3 I ar 7 Mall 1724 L. M3J¥1HHO- MY no HHOMY nOBQ!ly: B CB5I3H C KOpOl-GllUleH EKarep&.tHbl ArreKce- eBHb[. fOpa3ll0 MeHbwe nOBeJ1OCb O)l(l.tJl3Tb I"OCy.napeOOH MlUlOCTI1 OC}0KDeHHhIM Ha npouecce n. n. Wa$MpC)Ba t.J f. f. CKOpHflKOsa- nt1capeBa ceHaTOpaM n. M. fOJU'lUbIHY 11 f.. LlOJ1rop)'KOBY. npHrooopeHHble 13 (]>espaJUI 1723 r. 3anoc06Hl1'lecTBO n. n. Wa- 11JX!BY K JlHWeHHIO "{I-1H08 H WT]Ja<t>Y B 1550 py6Jrefi K<OKIlbIH. .n. M. fOJU1UbIH (1 r. cD. LlOJlropyKOB 6b1JU1 BOCCTaHORJTeHbl Mfo,me- pampOM B 'U1Hax (1 D.OJDKHOCT5IX y)((e J9fjJe6paJIR 1723 r. J Pe3IOMI1PY5I BbIWeCKa3aHHoe. 1o.1O)l(HO KOHcTan1pOBalb, 'ITO neTp I npOJIBJ1J1 ce651 KaK seCbM8 8KTI1BHbIH cyneGHb]H .neHTeJlb, XOTH M OllHOCTopoHHe oocpenOTOl.JeHHhlH Ha YlJacTHH B yrOJloB- HOM cynonpoo3BO.nCTBe. 3.nech B ueHTpe BHHMaHHS! nepBoro POCcHHcKoro HMnepaTopa Hel13MeHHO HaXO.1lIDIHCh .ae.na no ro- cy.aapcTBeHHhiM npecT)'lUIeHHHM H no npeC1ynJleHHHM npOTl1B I1HTepeCOB CJI)')K6bL npl1 paccMOTpeHl111 yroJlOBHhlX lleJi nerp I Bb]CT)'naJI B caMblX pa3Hoo6pa3Hhix npoueccy3JJbHblX pOJl5lX - OT I1HI1Ul1a- Topa yrOJloBHoro npeCJIe.1l0BaHH5I no cynhl1, BhlHOCI1Bwero IDIH yrBep)Kmmwcro npHroBop. YTBep)f()l8S! npHroBophl. neTp I npen- nO'II1TaJI B 6oJJhwei-i Mepe JlH6ep3JJhHhli1 nOllXOll, He )')KeCTO'la5l, a, HanpoTl1B. HepenKO CMHPI851 H83Ha<'eHHhle HH>KeCT05lllIJ1M cy.aOM HaKa3aHI1.11. T aKI1M 06Pa30M. CJ1ellYeT 3aKJIfOlfHTh. lfTO K npoBe.neHI1JO nepBoi1 OTelfeCTBeHHoi1 Cy.ae6H0i1 peopMbl npH- cT)'naJI He TOJIb KO I1MeBWI1i1 ymy6J1eHHoe npe.nCTaBJIeHl1e 0 00- I PfALI.A, 41. 248, KH. 1881;, n. 177 06. BepHYBllJl1Cb 113 CI16H- PH. H T PIKeOCKHH cyMeJl (HanOMHHB 0 CBOI1X 60eBbIX 3acJ1yrax) .n06I1Tb- CH nOJlHof1 ped6I1J1HTaUI1I1. KaKOsaH nOCJl€:llOBaJJa.. no I1MeHHOM)' YKa3)' OT II r.Eao:A1;:'';I1' r\:e CeHaTa. T. I. C. 129. He- KOTOpoe BjX:MH cnycTH. 23 neK<\6p)lI724 r. mmepaTOp BOCCTaHOBHJ\ 6b1B- llJero reHepaJI-nei1TeHaHTa B B. D.OJlropylillBa B 'lIme nOJ1KOBHI1Ka (TaM >Ke. C. 137) JpfNlA, 41. 14h, KH. 1912. JI 77 06.. KH. JOO, JI. 331-33206. 15 JlH- BapH 1724 J neT)J I TaJvKe OCBo60LlI1J1 060l1x ceHaTopoB OT YlllJaTbl He BHCCCHHOH K TOMY BpCMeHI1 CYMMb] WTpa$J (TdM >KC. n. 345). 
rIlaBa 3. rQ::\rollEK8 CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 161 BpeMeHHOM OTe<JeCTBeHHOM 3aKOHOllaTeJ1bCTlJe M 0 HOlJel1WMX .3apy6e)I(Hb]X nOJ1MTMKO-npalJOlJb]X KOHuenumlX aKTMBHb]11 .3aKO- Hon.aTeJlb, HO M He MeHee aKTMIJHblii cyneGHblj..j neHTeJlb, MHoro- KpaTi-io conpl1KacalJwl1iicSI C npaKTI1KOH yroJ101JHOrO cynonpo- H3BOllCTBa. !j 3. nOMCK MHOCTpaHHblX 06pa34oB AJ1fi CY,Ae6HOVI peopMbl. reHpMx cnMK M ern MMCCMfI Kro Mor II cepem1He 171O-x rr. BblcTynHTb COBeTHHKOM I1JII1 }l(e OCHOBHblM nOMornHt.JKOM neTpa I B neJ1e npeOOpil3OBa- H51S1 cynoYCTpoj..jCTBa 51 cynonpoH3BonCTBa? KTO 113 TOrnaWHero OKIJ}1KeH51S! oopS! Bo06rne 06J1auaJ1 CHCTeM8TH<JeCKHMI1 fl03Ha- HHSlMM IJ JOpMcnpyneHllm? liTO KacaeTCS! JOpJ.11{M'IeCKM 06pa30- BaHHblX JIMU, TO TIlKOBb]X B 6J1M>KaHWeM m,.-pYA<eHMI1 neTpa I no- npocT)' HMKorna He 6blJ10. Hal16cmee }({e WMpOKI1MM n03HaHI1}1MI1 B 06J18CTM rocy..oap- CTBOIJelleHI1S1113 <Jt.JCJ18 «nTeHUOB fHe311a neTpOBa» 06J1anaJ] ent.J- CKon 4Ieo$aH npOKOnOBI1<J. KaK vf:emrrel1bHO nOK83arJ r. ryp- BI1'I, 4IeOQ>aH SlBJlSlJICH npHBep)l{eHUeM Teopl1H ecrecroeHHoro npalJa, 3HaTOKOM TPYnOIJ r. rpom1S1. T. ro66ca 11 C. nYH1l0p- al. 06WeI13BeCTHO TalOKe, <JTO I1MeHHO tDeo$aH npOKonOBM<J cblrparJ Klll04esylO pOJ1b B H;:J;e0J10rM<JecKoM 06oCHOBaHI1I1 KaK pOCCI1HCKOm 8 6C0J1IOTM3M8. TaK 11 caMI1X nerpoBCKI1X pe4x:lPM l . I FYP6U'I F. «npaW13 BOllI'! MOHapwei1" @eo$lHa npOKOnOBI14a 11 ee 3aJTaJIHoeBlxmeHCKHe I1CTO'JHI1KH. IOpheB, 1915. C. 29-111. CTOIIT ]3- MeTHTb, '1TO B oco6oi1 CTan,e 1981 r.. xapaKTepHO 03arnaBlleHHoi1 «nl1- CaJI JlI1 B CID>IOM .neJle f1Jeo$lH npoKOJTOBH'J «npaM,Y BOJ1I1 MOHapweH"?". 1J.;K. Kp3t..pa4rr YCOMHH.1CH, 'ITO <DcOQx]H 6b1J1 e.nI1HCTBCHHb[M dBIOpOM .noro nOlJl1THKO-npaooBOro "lpaKTaT8 (Qacrqfi J. D]d Fcofan Procopovich Really Write Pravda Voll Monarshel? II Slavic Review. 1981. Vol 40 NQ 2. P. 173-193) Ho DIDKe eCJJl1 npl1H.IITb BO BHI1MaHl1e n0311Ul11O D$. Kp3- Kj)a4rra. -no HMK8K He onposepraer TOro $lKTa, 'JTO f1Jeo4JaH npoKOllOBI1'J ofuJaruUl r.1y6oKitMI1 nOJtlliHl1.11MIII B COBpcMfHHOH eMY 3aJlW1HOCBponei1- CKOH €f1\1JlOCOI}:!I111 npalkl. 106 3TOM eM., npejf(j}e seem. B CTaTbHX A. Ei. npOCIilHOH 1968 r. 11 B ynOM.IIHyrblX MOHo!J'04>lm" P. BKJTIJ<IMa, E. B AHI1CI1MOsa M RA. TOM- CIIIHOB.1 (Witfram R. Op. cit. Bd.1. S. 119-120, flpocuHaA. E. AnOllorH.II a6cOJlKmuMd B }"leHI1I1 4'leo4JaHa npoKonoBH'Ja 0 rocynapcTBC 11 npaBC II BeCTHI1K MfY. Cep. "npaBO». 1969. NQ 1 C. 51-59; OHa:Nee. TeopeTl14e- CKoe o6oCHOBaHl1e 4' npOKOnOBI1'1eM pe<t>opM nerpa I I I TaM >Ke. NQ 6. C. 6J-71; AHucu..11f)1f E. B. focynapCTBeHHble npeo6pa:JooaHI1.11... C.170- 1:15. ToocU1KJ6 B.A. YKll CO'J. C. 176-185). 
162 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Ho c:t>eOrpaHY npOKOnOBM<lY He C}0K1leHO 6blJ10 Jl}X)HBI1Tb ce6}1 HH II no.nfOTOBKe, HI-! II ocyweCTMeHl111 cyneGHb[X npeo6- pa30BaHI1 1717-1723 fr. C onHoj..j CTOpOHbl, XOT.II 3H3KOMCTBO neTpa I c C1>eorpaHoM COCT05lJlOCb erne II 1711 r. (npOKOnOBI1<1 ycne.n lIa)f(e nOY'IaCTBOBaTb II 3JlOnOJ1Y"IHOM npyrcKoM noxo.Lle). HO II OKpy"A<:eHl1e uapsl OH BOWe.n He paHee 1718 r.. y)((e JlOCJIe nepee3,1la (13 KI1eBa B CaHKT-nerep6ypr[. C JJ;PYroi1 CTOPOHbl. c:t>eorpaHa npOKOnOB(1'13 - pa3HOCTOpOHHero (1HTeJUleKTYaJIa 11 qropeTl1K3» no CKJ1Nly yMa - COBeprneHHO He I1HrepeCOEIaJlI1 BonpoCbl H(1 cyn.oyc-rpoi1cTBa, HI1 cynonpOH3BOllCTBa. KaK mBHO YCTaHOBJIeHO, H3 CTIlHOBJ1eHHe 3aMblCJIOB ne- Tpa I 0 npooelleHHH roCYllapcrneHHblX npe06pa'.mn3HI1H no- BJUUlJTO era 06111eHHe co 3HaMeHHTbiM (»11J10CO<!>oM ron1>pl1.!lOM BHJlMeJ1bMOM Jlei16HI1UeM. Ha npOT.II>KeH(111 1697-1716 rr. nep- IIbl" pOCCMHCKl111 (1MnepaTOp n5m, pro Jlwmo BClJJe'-JaJlCJ1 c clm- J1OCO<!>oM, a TIlJOKe CDCT05Ul C HMM B nepem1cKe 1 . He I1MeH cne- UJllaJ[bHb]X nOJlI1TI1KO-npaBoBblx TpynoB, r. J1eM6HI1U BblCTym1JJ TeM He MeHee c npHMe'laTeJlbHblM npoeKTOM peopraHH3aUHH ueHTpaJIbHblX opraHOB BJJacm B POCCHH. B 1711 r. WIOCO<tJ Ha- npaBI1Jl neTPY I MeMOpl1aJI, B KOTOpOM npelUlo}l(l1J! Y"QJelll1Tb B H8wef1: CTpaHe neR.IITb KOJ1J1erl1f1: - B TOM 'H1CJ1e OTBe48BW)'1O 3a npaBOCYAMe IOcTI1U-KOJIJ1erl1lQ «<Ju.<;tice-Collegium»)3. OJI.H8KO nOCJlenOBaBW8H B 1716 r. KOH'lI1Ha r. J1ef1:6HMua (HOMMHaJlbHO 'lI1CJlI1BllleroC5I, KCTaTl1. C H05l6p51 l7ll L Ha pyCCKOi1: cJly)((6e C 'lHHOM Taf1:Hom COBeTHI1Ka) npeceKJ18 em B03MO}l(Hoe )"l8CTl1e B nOllroTOBKe nepBoH OTC<JeCTBCHHOH Cyn.C6HOH PC<t>oPMbl. B HTore Bcem. OCHOBHblM KOHCYJlbTaHTOM neTpa I no cy- ne6Hoi1: pe(}JopMe CTaJlllPyroi1: BblXOlleu H3-3a py6e>Ka. 3TO 6bLJ1 reHpl1X <l>I1K (Heinrich Fick), KOTOpbli1: I1MeHOBaJI ce6H BnOCJIen- CTBMI1 B POCCI1 I1 AH)ijJeeM AHllpeeBl1yeM OH <l>HKOM. Ha pac- ] '1UCR'/fl6U't M.A. $eo4JaH njXIKOnOBI14 11 ero BpeMH. cn6.. 1868. c. 15-17.27.43-46. 111CTOPHH BJal1MOOfHOWCHl111 nC1])a I c f. Jldl6HI1UCM nCTdJlbHO 1113- }"JeHa HeCKQlJbKI1MI1 nOKQlJeHI1HMI1 ure<J.ecrneHHb[X 11 Japy6e>KHb[X I1CCJle- noBaTeneH. lli 'I.I1CJJa Hal160J1ee 3Ha'lI1TeJ1bHb]X pa60T no 3T0i1 TeMe eM.: fepbf! B. H. OrHoWeHI1.11 Jlefi6HI1ua K POCCMI1 11 ne1])Y EeJIMKOMY: no He- I1:ID.3HHb[M 6yr.w.rdM Jlci16Hl1ua B faHHOBepcKOH 6116n11OfeKe. Cn6.. 1871; 'l)v.uopetJ B. H. f.-B. J1ei16HI1U 11 PYCCK!I.II Kynbl)'pa: I13I1CTopl111 Me>KllYHa- IXJ1lHbIX Ha)"-IHbIX 11 K)'nb"J)1JHb[X CIDl3efi. M., 1968; Pr>tschaUf!l' P. The Phi- k:.N>pher and Ihe Refonncr Tsar Peter, G W. Leibmz and the College Sys- tem/I Canadlan-Amencan Slavic Studies. 1979. Vo1. 13. N 4. P.473-487. n0npJ6Hce OlIDHHOM IIp(X:KTC CM.: ItIsduJer P Gp. clI. P. 478- 473, 486. 
rIlaBa 3. rQ::\rollEK8 CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 163 CMOTpeHMI1 06CT05lTeJlbCTB em 6110rpa4J1111 Bl1!ll1TCfI YMeCTHblM OCTaHOBI1TbCfI. HeCKOJlbKO no.np06Hee[. Po.nl1l1wl1i1cfl II faM6ypre II 1679 r. feHpl1x 4tl1K He nUJI)"-lwl. HaCKOJ1bKO MO)I{HO Cy.nI1Tb, HI1KaKOm CI1CTe1aTWleCKom 061'830- BaHHfI. no CJlOBaM caMora f. 411110, OH «flpo6eJ IOIiOCnib C nepOM 6 PJ"Ka'C&l. TO eCTb TpYlll1JlCR R KaKo(:1-TO KaHUeJI.IIpMI1. B 1700 r., nOCJIe Ha'J:aJla BeJlI1KOI1 CeBepl1011 BO(:1Hb]. f eHpl1X 4tl1K BCrynl1Jl n06pOBOJlbLleM B wBe.ncKYIO apMMKJ (1 6blJl 3a'J:I1CJ1eH B JI.I1CJ10UI1- pOBaHHbl(:1 B J111€t>J15IHllMM neXOTHb111 nOOK Mcimyc<I HMpOT<I. BoeHHafl Kapbepa r. 4tl1Ka CKJla1l.bIBaJIaCh BnOJIHe ycnelliHo. )l)Ke 'lepe3 Tp(1 ro.na OH CTaJI KBaPTHpMCiicTepoM nOJ1Ka. Omm- KO B Mae 1710 r.. no HeflCHhlM np(1<IHH8M. feHpHX 4tl1K BblWeJl B OTCTaBKY 11 HanpaBI1JlCSI 06paTHO B fepM8HI1IO. XapaKTepHO, 'J:TO npM OTCTaBKe B'lepalllHM(:1 nOJIKOBO(:1 KBapTl1pMel1CTep cy- MeJl nOJ1)"-1I1Tb 6J1arOnpWHHble peKOMeHllaItM(1 OT TaK(1X BI1IlHb]X llIBe;:J;CKI1X neSlTeJ1el1. KaK KaHlIJIep ApBI1Il fOpH M KOPQJJeBa (!) YJlhp(1Ka-3J1eOHopa. Ho. HecMoTpfl Ha CTQJJh BeCOMhle peKoMeHlIaUI1I1, CJly:>K- 6a f. 4tl1Ka B fepMaHl111 He 3aJ1a11.l1JI8Ch. HeCKOJlhKO JleT OH npo- pa60TaJI B CKPOMHO(:1 DOJl)I{HOCTH 6yproMI1CTpa B He6oJ1hlliOM ropo.ne EKepH4Jopll (Eckernforde) B fOJllllTI1HI1I1. KaK n03;:J;Hee nORCHJU] feHpMX 4t(1K. OH «o6pemaICR 6 a!PU,OKOfIOII f&fJl¥NO OJ1- lllmUI/CKOCO] Cl/y.JlC6e KllMUCapOM, nomnpae lR.l 6 opoiJe 3KeJKjJepiJe IOCmUKue, 3KOHOMU'/eCKUR U 'JOJ1UeiiCKUR cJeJ/O...f>J. B BpaJIe 1714 r. feHpl1x tDi1KJll1lliI1JlCSI nOJl)I{HocTI16yp- rOMl1cTpa 11 OCTaJICSI fie3 cpellCT13 K cyIUecTBOBaHI1IO. B nOBcp- llleHl1e Bcero, B HOSl6pe 1714 r. OH 6hlJl 8peCTOBaH DaTCIG'IMI1 BJIaCTRM(1 (no nono3peHI11O B lllnl10Ha:+:e B nOJ1hJy WBeum1) M npooeJ1 BoceMh He..o;eJ1b nOli apecToM B KpenOCTM PeHllc6ypr. B KOHue KOHUOII. 6bIBWI111 KBapTMpMel1CTep M 6yprOMMCTP pe- WIDI nlXUICUl>KHTI. Kapbepy B POCCMI1. I Heop.nI1HapHb[H (11 MeCTIlMH nOHb]He "J)'MaHHb[H) .>KH3HeHHblfi nyrb reHJ!1fX3. (JJHK<1 He01lHOKj)aTHO OCBeW<1l1CH B Jlwrep:nype. Ha :!TOT C'leT CM.. B nepayJO O'lepe.nb, 4JYH.l:!.rnlielITaJlbHYJO CTIlTbtO A. Ue.aep6epra 1930 r. 11 p<'I:1oen B MOHOrpa<fJ1111 K. nerepcoHa (CederlJ£lgA. R. Hemrich Eck Ein Beitra,g zur Ru'iSl.'iChen Geschichte des XVIII. JahrhUilderts II Acta et Com- mentaliones UniversitaS Tartuensis. Tartu-Dorpat. 1930. Bd. 17. S. 1-103; Peterson COp. cit. P.70-79). 1 UHT. no: Cec!erbetT: A. R. Op. C][. S. 8 3CM. I<paTKI1H JlOCIlYJl<.HOH CIlI1COK f. (JJHKa 1719 r.: PfNlA, $. 1411. KH. 654.n. 93. 
164 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I C KeM I1MeHHO 113 pocCJ.1iJCKI-1X npellCI"dBlrre.n.eiJ 11 B KaKOH MOMeHT BCT)'nWI B KOHTaKT reHpHX <tII1K, Ha cero.1lmllllHM".n.eHb HeI13BeCTHO. C yocpeHHOCTbIO MO)I(HO JlI.1111b yrBep)l()laTb, 'lTO 3TO np0I130UlJ10 He paHee 1714 r., Ii 'ITO - H8 npaBl1TeJlbCTBeHHOM yjX)BHe - K neperooopaM cr. <DHKOM 6bVT npwlacreH BIUlHbljJ cnOl{RH>KHHK nerpa I reHepaJI-<l:>e;1l:,!lUeHXMeikTep.R B. OPKJC. no Kp3HHeM Mepe, He KTO l-.JHoi1, K3K $I. B. EplOC, HanpaBWI 3 neKa5p.ll 1714 r. Ka6HHeT-ceKpemplO A. B. MaKaJxmy nl1CbMO c npocwoH nono.iKlffb uaplO 0 HeOOXOlJJ1MOCm OKaJaTh COllei1CTBl1e Bbe31l.y B POCCt11O ('lepe3 PHI)' I1JU1 PeBeJlb) «UJiOEWI{V FeHpUXY (/)uk)...I. l{To6bl TaM HM 6bUlO, B 1715 r. r. <DHKnoHBWIcH B CaHKT- nerep6ypre. me 6bUl BCK0pe npenCTaMeH neTPY I. 3aKOH'1H- JlOCb lleJTO TeM, 'ITO B KOHue 1715 r. feHpHx <DI1K 3aK./lIO'-IWi C PYCCKHM LtapeM KOHlpaKT 0 12-JTeTHeii cnyM6e. nOCJIe 3TO- ro f. (})HKY AOBeJIOCb B3JHbCH 33 I1CnOJIHeHHe seCbM3 HenpoCTO- ro nOpy'Jem1S1 neTpa I. B .n.eKa6pe 1715 f. feHpHx K ompamUlC}! B CTOKroJlbM n;UI c60pa I1H$)pMalll1H KaK 0 rocyn.apCTBeHHoM ycrpoi-icTBe WBeUl111, TaK 11 0 ee 3aKOHO.LIaTeJlbCTBe. He pa3 OCBeIUaBWlliI- CH B JTI1Tepal)'pe MI1CCI1 r <DHKa (He cooceM TOllHO Ha3BaHHaH P. BI1TIpaMOM «CBoero )X).!la n)X)MblUUleHHblM 11111110HaACeM»1) 33- seplllHJIaCb ycnexOM. npoBeJUI B WBemm n04TI1 BeCb 1716 ro.n 11 BOCnOJlb30BaBlllI1Cb nOMep)l(KOH «rOJ1llITI1HCKOH napnm» B lllBeD;- CKOM npaBHTeJ1bCTse. reHpHx <Di1K CYMe]] 33nOJiY4I1Tb 11 BbIBe3T11 B Paccmo orpoMHoe KOJll1l1eCTBO KOm:lj..j WBellCKHX HOpMaTI1BHblX npaBOBhlX aKrOB, I131J.aHHhlX B XVI - Ha'laJIe XVIII B. Oco6eHHO MHOro - CBblwe 500 - r. <DHK n.06bUl HOp- MaTIlBHblX npaBOBblX aKTOB aKrOB, KaCaBWHXCH yroJ10BHOro 11 13aKOHQillITeJ1bHb[e iiKTbl ne1pa I. c. 42. Ha OCHOsaHl111 3TOro nl1Cb- Ma fl. R EplOCa K nerepcoH BblCKa3aJ1 COMHeHl1e B nOCTosepHOCTI1 clle- lleHI1i1 0 npeOblNlH1111 f. <DHM II naTCKoH TtOpbMe B KOHue 1714 r. (Peter- son C Op. dr. P. 73). Me)KJ),Y TeM. KaK npe.nCTdB!lHftCH. cj:JaKT HanpaB!leHI1H OTMe'leHHoro nltCbrlffi HI1KaK He npoTl1BOpe'llIT IklHHb[M 0 JaKJIJ01.jeHI1I1 feHpl1xa <DHKa B Kj)enOCTI1 PeHllc6ypr. npl1 60J1ee BHI1M,rrelJbHOM npo4Te- H(111 cosepweHHo OLJeHI1D.HO, 'JTO B nl1CbMe SI B EplOCa A. B MaKap:my OT 3 lleKa6pH 1714 r. pe<lb l1.lleT BOoce He 0 HeMe11JleHHOM. a Bnl1Wb 0 npedno- '/lM1t!VO'll npHe:w.e f <DHKa B POCCl1tO. :t':. b:H MIIICCI1I1 f. cDHK£1 1716 reM.: CeclerOOy, A. R Op. Clt S. 13-11. Peterson C Op Clt. P. 73-75, AHU- CU,1I06 E. B. focynapCTBeHHble npeo6pa3oBaHI1.11... C. 110-115; Eal2ep X YKa3. C04. C. 141-143. 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 165 CJXUK,lIaHCKOW npaBa, cyn.onJXI"3BOllCTBa. HCnOJlHeHlUl cyne6- HblX peWeHI1H 11 opraHH3aUHI1 cy.na B WBemm]. K npHMepy, feHpl1X cDl1K n.OCTaBI-1J1 B Hawy cTpaHY KOnl111 3aKOHOB «0 qep- K06HbIX HGK03GHUfIX>' 1586 r., (,0 nopn()Ke pe6U3UU e ()e1GX npoeo- cyiJll1l& 1662 c., HHCT]JYKUI1H «0 nopfioKe paClle<tOmbleOHUfi nuceM e HoiJeopHblX c)'QOtl'- 1688 c.. 3aKOHa 0 npeJlOOOlle.llHI1H C BllOBOH 6paTa 1700 r., «(/JoPMbl KAflmebl nepeo aiJeoKamo""" 1709 r. 1 He- CJlY'JaHHO, BClpel11BWI1Cb C f. cDl1KOM B AMCTep.lI.3Me. neTp 1 3aKJUOlJl1Jl C HI1M 27 JIHBapM 1717 r. HOBblH 12-J1eTHI1H KOHT]JaKT, B KOTOJXlM npOI13BeJI 6bIBwew WBe.nCKoro KBapTl1pMeHCTepa B «Oeucmeume..lHble Ka"eppambli> (KaMep-COBeTHtHrn) C BHYWI1Te1lb- HblM >KaJlOBaHbeM B 800 lepBOHHbIX B roll J . MaTepHaJlbl, npHBe3eHHble feHpl1XOM cDHKoM, B caMOM JJ;eJle 0Ka3aJ111Cb L(aplO OyeHb KCTaTI-1. 3To 6b1J1o CB.H3aHO C TeM. YTO. KaK y6eD.HTeJlbHO nOKa3aJlI1 K. neTepCOH 11 E. B. AHI1CH- MOB. B cepeD.J.'lHe I7IO-x n. neTp 1 pellll1Jl npeo6pa30BbIBaTb OTe- yeCTBeHHblH rocy.napcTBeHHblH annapaT He «C Hyml", a I1CnOJlb- 30BaTb DJm 3TOH ueJlI1 roroBble I1HOCTpaHHble 06pmUb1 4 . MHblMI1 CJlOBaMl1, B re rollbl 6yn.ylllHH I1Mneparop B3ill1C.sJ ueJleHanpaB- JleHHO onpeneJ1.sJTb TY CT]JaHY. rocynapCTBeHHoe YCTpoHCTBO 11 3aKOH01l8TeJ1bCfBO KOTOpoi1 B Hal160JlbllleH Mepe cc:xJrBeTCTBOBa- JlH 6bl l1lleaJIY «nOJIHueHcKOro» cOCYJJ;apCTBa. B nOHCKaX BOJUlOlUeHHOCO Ha npaKTHKe l1lleaJIa Polizeistaat 6YJJ;YlUI1H I1MnepaTop 113y'Hm nOJlY'JeHHble B 1714 c. OT r. flOH- ceHa CBeJJ;eHIDI 06 ycrpoHCTBe repMaHCKlL'l rocynapcTB (npe)l(lle BCero, npyccl1l1). HaXO.!UIcb B 1716 r. B KoncHrareHe, nCTp 1 3HaKOMI1JlCH C pa6oTOH DaTCKHX KOJUJerl1H 11 D.IDKe J1H<IHO (1) nepenl1CblBaJI I1X pemaMeHTbl s . KpoMe TOro, B TOM >Ke 1716 r. nOCOJi B!laHI1H B. 11. .llOJICOpyKOB npHCJ1aJ1 LtaplO. no eco npOCb- 6e, nO;:J;50PKY .naTCKHX KO;:J;eKCOB 11 HHblX 3aKOH0D.8TeJlbHb]X aK- I Cederberg A. R Op. ell. S. 16. nepe4eHb HaJsaHHblX MaTepl1aJ10B npl1- BelleH B OCo6oM paJ.!le1!e - «IAKTbl. oTHoclJll1HecS!lllo lOCTI1Ul111 11 I1C- nOJlHCHI1H npl1roBOpoB» - nplll..O}KCHI1H I K CTaTbC A. lle.nep6cpra (lb]d. BeiI.S.3J-55)  =:X4J'6KPiI' 'Jt 1i7 S il 3 . 35. 43. 54. 4 Peterson C. Op. Clt. P. 6.5-70. 415-416; MUCUMOB E. B. focy.napcrBeH- Hble_npeo6pwoBdHI1Hm C. 107-108. 116.  W1ttram R Op. cil. Ed. 2. S. 113-114. KCTaTH. 113Ha'laJIbHO nelp I 01ll11604HO nO:JaraJl. 'JTO naTCK3H CI1CTeMa KOnnerl1H .IIBl1J1aCb npoo6paJOM AIlS! }')Ke 113BeCTHOH eMy IllBenc,,"Oii (8 llekc'mmelbHOCTI1 CI1l)'aUI1.11 6bLfla 06paTHoi1) (Peterson C. Op. dt. P. 68-69). 
166 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I TOB «<.llamL(Klk?O KOpoJ/e6Cm6a JlO:HCf!1/Ufi. npaBQ u apmu«YJ/b/»). B 6b[THOCTb B 1717 r. B napH)I(e neTp I I1HTepeCOBaJ1c}J. KaK YHKUHOHt1pyeT HeJaIlOJIro no TOro peopraHH30BaHHaH ueH- TpaJIbHaH MMHHHcTpam1S1 <fipaHUHI1 (la Polysynodie)[. npHBJTeKaJ10 BHHMaHHe 6YD.Ywero HMnepaTopa 11 Wnell- CKoe KoponeRcTBcY. I1H()JopMaw1lo 06 opraH(13am1H ynpaBJTeHH.II H cyna, paBHo KaK H 0 3aKOHoaTeJ]bCTBe :HOi1 cTpaHbl [{apb liMe]] B03MO.>KHOCTb nOJlY'U1Tb 113 MHOB'IX I1CTOlJHI1KOB. 1J.n51 H8'larIa MO)I(HO BCnOMH(1Tb, LITO B Wnew1I1 nOJIfOe BpeM}j Ha'{()JJJ.UU1Cb B I1I1eHY TaJrne I1I1lI.Hble cnOllBIDKHHKH neTpa I, KaK A A Heiur.e (BepHYBwHitcH B POCCI-UO B 1710 r.) 11 R cD. D.OJlfOpyKOB (Bep- HYBWHHCfI B 1711 r.). B Ka1.JeCTBe 3H8TOKa WBe.!lCKMX WlMI1HI1CTPaTHBHblX nopJ.LI- KGB LlaplO 6bUl B HIOHe 1717 f. cneUHaJlbHO npeDCTaBJTeH 6aJXIH AH8HI1aC J1KJ6epac (Anamas Christian Pon van Luberas), B I1lOJ1e TOro .>Ke COlla npl1HSlTblH Ha PyCCKYIO CJIY}l(6yJ. Hap5l.ny C 3TI1M, neTp II..J3Y'JaJI (CYDJI no BCeMY, caMOCTOSlTeJlbHo) I1YlaHl-1)'1O H8 HeMeUKOM Sl3hlKe B 1707 r. B PereHc6ypre YI-W.8MeHTaJlhHYJO n.syxroMH)'JO pa6crry «J1cmopuKo-nOJlUmU'ieCKOe u rjJu'ieCKOe onucaHue KOp{ueecmea Weel(uli 6 ee cmopdU Ii HbilieumeM .?Ocy- iJapCm6eHHOM ycmpoilCmee»4. Ho Hal160JIee nOlllXl6Hhle CBe.lleHI1S1 o rocYJJ;apCTBeHHOM MeXaHI13Me 11 0 3aKOHOllaTeJIhCTBe WBeUl111 LlaplO npe.nocrd BJ.U1. KOHe'lHO }l(e. reHpl1X (})HK. ] 3aIWHO.1liiTeJ1bHble aKTb! ne-rpa I. c. 53; Eal2ep X YKa3. CO'J. C. 143. B I1CTopI1Ko-npaBoBOH nM1"Cparype Ha BOnpoce 06 03HaKOMJIeHI1(1 ne1JJa I C rocy.napcrBeHHbiM ycrpC)liCTBOM 3apy6e)l(HblX CTp<lH Hiil160J1ee n01lp06Ho OCTIlHOBI1JICH D. A. POMaHOB (PoIldHOl/ /l A. Pe<jJopJa rocy.napcTBeHHoro ana POCCI1I1 Dl1c. C. 51-54). .113 'l!1cna npc.nWCCTB}'tOllll.JX arrropoB HaH6o.rree UCJlOCTHO aCnCKTbl I1HTepeca ncrpa I K WOCUI1I1 pacCMOTpeJI nmeparypoBen D. M lllapbln- KI1H B CTaTbe 11 OOHOrp;3.4JHI1 1980 r (JJJapbUlKUH/l. M. WBe.nCKIDI TeMa B PYCCIWIt nl1TepaT)'JJe neTpoBCKOI-i nopbl II PyccKaH I<)'nbTYpii XVIII BeKa 11 JananHoeBjJOneiicKl1e JlI1TeJmYPb1' Co. CTIlTeH. 11.. 1980. C. 15-18; OH:Nee. CKaH!lI1HaDCKa.II J](1TCJXITY(Ja B PocCl'lI1.11.. 1980. C. 41-46). } P/er.son COp. cit. P. 81--81; MUCliV06 E. B. focYllapcTBeHHb!e npe- ::eT CjmH. Hlstonsh-Polltlsh- und Geo,graphlsche Bes- chibung des Kiilligrclchs Schwcden Nach dcm altcn urn:) Jctzi,gcn Slaat eillgenchtet und in zwei 111elle verfasset. Regensburg, 1707. KHI1H] Ha- XOllIJJJaCh B nOllp)"lHoi1 6116J1110TeKe ne-rpa I .no I1tOJI.II 1718 r (rype- 6U'I M. M KHl1ra C 1.-ynep3KCIJ116pI1COM ne-rpa BeJ1I1KOro II C6OPHI1K CTa- TeH 11 MaTepI1a.oB EiI16JJ110TeKI1 Al<a.n.eMl111 HayK CCCP no KHl1roBe.neHl1tO (I< 4OO-nCTl1tO PycclWro KHl1ronc4aTaHI1.11). 11.. 1965. C. 321-325). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 167 KaK ItlBeCTHO. B I1TOre B Ka'leCTBe 06pa3ua lUm nJX)EJe.aeHltll anMI1HJIICTpaTI1BHO 11 cyne6HoH pe<t:JoPM B POCCJ1I.1 nerp I 113- 6pan I1MeHHO WBellCKoe KOpOJleBCTBO. nOKa3aTeJlbHO, 'lTO )l)Ke B co6crBeHHOpytIHO Hanl1caHHOH B MapTe 1716 r. npeaM6YJle K BoI1HCKOMY }'CTII.BY neTP I OT03Ba.11CH 0 WBell8X KaK 0 «C//06HOM U pezy.'IJ1fJHOW HopoiJe»l. no BceMY 3TOM}' W8ellCKoe BJTI1SIHl1e Ha ocy- ll.leCTBJ1eHHoe B KOHlle I7IO-x - Ha'laJIe 172Q-x rr. nepeyCT]XJiJ- crBO OTe'leCTBeHHoro rocynapcTBeHHoro annapaTa OKa3aJ1OCb BeCbMa 3Ha'JlfTeJlbHblM ('ITO BnOCJle.aCTBJII(.1 He Momo He npl1BJle'lb BHJllMaHlliI I1CCJl ellOBaTeJleiP). 11 COBepllleHHO a:reCIBeHHO, 'lTO [3aKOH()J]JfellbHb]e aKTb[ neTpa I. c. 51. lKpynHei1wl1M BKJ1MOM B 113Y'1eHl1e TeMbl 0 WBellCKOM BIlI1.11HI1I1 Ha ro- CY.fu1jJCTBeHHb[e npeo6p;noBalUI.II B POCCIIIIII nepooi1 'leTBePTH XVIII B. He.%3H :B3a:;n=eWe%ur[H== Llet:C I1X allanTJ.UHI1". Jall.U-uueHHYIO B 1979 r. 11 1131l8HHYlO B TOl >Ke rony B BMe MHOroKJXITHO ynOM.\lHyroW NOHorJYiI1Ml1. B HallJeH CIpaHe paccwnpH- BaeMYJOTefI.fY BnepBble JaTPOHYJ1 B 1850-e rr. npaBOBe.n <D. M D,MI11]JHeB. aJa- TeM-HeCKOJIbKon01I]J06Hee- A.D,. fpa!lOOCKluil13. H. 6epeHJITC. BXXs. Teia 0 WBellCKOM BJ1I1.11HI1I1 prJpaGaTblBallaCb B POCCHI1 I1CKJlt0411TeJIbHO I1CTOpHK.1MI1. Hal160ree []JJOliOTBOpHO - f.A. HeKjJOCOllblM 11 E. B. AHIIICI1- MOBbIM. B Ha'Jane XXI B. 3TY TeMy. I<8K Y>Ke roOOpJ.L'IOCb, Kj)aTKO OCBeTI1!1 TI:=;plPY'44.4)ley  c. 92-93. 96: /5epeHtJrrr 3. H. HeCKOJIbKO CJlOB 0 «XOIUIerHHX"... C. 6. 8. He- I<.paa16 f.A. Y4peJKlleHI1e KOJlIlefi1H 11 WBencKoe JaKOl-lOll.iITelJbCTooII 06we- CT1!O 11 rocynapcmo B cPeoD.aJlbHOW POCCHl1. CG. cr.rreit.. M. 1975. C. 334- ;;HHuS:;;:I1ni.e 1}prBIrn7::i wq,:uii c. M 06 I1CIlOJlb30BaHl111 OnbITa WBeUI1I1 npl1 IIp)IIe.UeHl111 a!lMI1HI1- C1]J311IBHblX t B POCCHI1 B nepBOit 'ICTIJePTH XVIII BeKa II I3onpocbl Itc"Iq)III1. 1977. NQ 2. C. 67-75; AHuc.UII06 E. B. «WBe.!lCKaH Mone:tb» C pyc- CKOW : pe$JpM;J BIlaCTHI1 ynpaBllCHI1H npl1 nC1J)C BeJ1I1KOM II 3Re3ila. 1995. N2 I. C. 133-150; PaIflU/OO/l.A Pe$q:I12I rocynap..."TIIeHHOro annapara POCCHIII... D,l1c. ... C. 48--51. 5.5-59. AJffiC(:'e6(I E. B. J.1cnOJlb30Bl]- ;Ooo6l'f1ar;.: H:;e, n= KI1 MHOJKeCTIJy naRHO ycraHOaJIeHHblX 4>aKTOR 0 npe06rJaZ1a1-1l1l1 WBellCKOro BIl(olHHI1H Ha npoBe.neHl1e nCTpOBCKHX aalItHllcrparI1BHoi1 11 cy.ne6HO pe- 4:10PM. M 0. AKHWI1H CO BCeii K.£re"'JHOCTblO IJb/CM3J..IICR B DJ.lccqJGI- UI10HHOM ItCClJenoBal1l1111006 r., 'JTO npl1 pe4x:!PMl1posaHIII(oI 0Te4ecraeHHOro cynO}ClJci'1CJBa 11 cy.nonpol1JOOnCTsa ncrp I «opIIeJ-illlpoBaJlCH Ha JaKOHOD..'l- TeJIbCTOO WBeUl1I11.llaHIIII1. 4>paHUI1I1. CaKCOHI1I1I1 JIpyIlIX (?) esponeHCKI1X CIpaH" (AKuruun M 0 Cyne6HIDI  ne1p3 I' !b1C. C. -t). \.ITO 1<8- caeTC.IIlf3bICK3HHH 06 (oICnOJlb30saHI1I1 HOpM WBeJlCKOro npaBa npl1 KOIlII.pI- KaUHI1 0Te4(:CTBeHHOro 3J.MI1IQl1aTeJlbCTBa B ncpOOH 'JeTBePTH XVIII B.. TO TaKOBble 6y.nyr oxapak"R'plt30saHhl HH>Ke 
168 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I B nOno6Hb]X 06cro.llTem,cTBaX OCHOBHbJM KOHcyJ1bT3HTOM 6yn.y- mero I1MnepaTopa B lleJIe nOllfOTOBKI1 11 aD.MI1Hl1crpaTI1BHoii. 11 cYlle6Hoii pe4xJpM (KaKOBble nerp I. crOHT nOBTOpI1Tb, Cyfu,eK- THBHO He paJrpaHl1'1HBaJI) CTarJ HOBOHBJ1eHHblf1 KaMep-<:OBeTHI1K feHpHX <DI1K I . KOHJ<ypeHUl1iO r. cDI1J<y B 3TOM ne.ne nbITa.rJCH CO- CTaB(1Tb - BnpO"leM. 6e3YCJleWHO - eLlHHCTBeHHO A. fl106epac J . Ha Bonpocax opraHH33L{1111 wBeJJ;CKoro CYAa feHpHX (J>(1K Hal160nee nonpo6HO OCTaHOBI1JIC5I B lLBYX 3am1cKax, no.n;fOToB- IleHHb[X B 1718 r. 3To GLum: COCT05lBwee 11319 nYHKToB «Kpam- Koe onucaHue cl£0. i!y6epHUU U 8 HUX 06pemalOUI,UXCR 'IUHO(/», B KOTOpOM CO.1lep.:KaJIaCb pa3BepHyrMI xapmcrepl1CTHKa nOJlHO- MOlll1" nOJl)f(HOCTHbIX JlHU MeCTHblX MMI1Hl1crpaTHBHblX Ii cy- lle6HblX opraHOB WBem111\ a TIUOKe «&:elloiJiJoHHeimlUe 3OMe'fQ- HUH 06 ycmpoeHUU umeikKux eepXHUX U IIUJ/CHUX 3eMCKUX  (0 nOCJlellHeii 3anl1CKe pe'Jb nofuIeT Hl-DKe). YMeCTHO OTMeTl'ITb, 'ffO r. cDI1K (parJHo KaK AH3HI1ac JlIo- 6epac 11 .npyrl1e 3apy6e.JKHb]e COBeTHI1KI1 neTpa I) 113'b}ICHWlCS'I 11 nHCM I1CKJllOlJt1TeJlbHO nO-HeMeUKH. BCJIe.ncTBHe :HOro B Tor- DarnHI1H OTe<JeCTseHHbIH 61OpOJcpaTHlJeCIG'IH 06t1XOll nJXIHI1K- JIO 3Ha<II1TeJIbHoe KOJ1t1<leCTBO HeMeUKoH MMI1HI1CT]JaTJ.1BHOH 11 lOpIUlH'-IeCKOH TepMI1HOJlOnm 4 . HMeHHo HeMeUKHe TepMI1Hbl I1cnOJIb30BaJ1I1Cb r. cDI1KOM «co TOBapl-Jli\l1>) )J.JUI 0603Ha'leHI1S1 I-J WBellCKI1X cYJJ;e6Hb1X OpraHOB. {-IT0 >Ke npellCTaBJISlJIO co60H cyn.e6Hoe YCT]JOHCTBO WHeJICKOro KopOJJeBCTBa no COCTOHHl1lO H3 171O--e rr.? ] 0 poJ111 f. (]Jl1Illi B nOl!JUfOBI(t: aJIMI1HHCTpaTHBHOW pe<tx>PMbl eM: HeKpaCOfJ r A. )'t{pf)!{1leHl1e KOJUJerl1i1 .. C. 340-341; Peterson C. Op. Clt P.81--83, Af/I./CILIWO E. B. focynapcrBeHHble npeo6paJosaHI1S1 m C. 115- 117; Km.108O H. B. YKa3. CO'l. 78-79. 2 Hn.:pllWII r. A. Y4pejf(j}el-Jl1e KOJUJerItH... C 342-343: Pt!ter.iOII C. Op. dt. P. 83-84. Y'l3C11re A. Jho6epaca B nOl!JUfOBKe aJIMI1HltcrpaTltBHOW ;e ?:9rp 3.°:J.tH !X. TnC r:;nc ycT])OllCfBC KOJUJemi1 B POCCHI1. Cn6.. 1891). JpfALlA, I}:>. 24g, KH. 58. JI. 1-16 (pyc. nepeBOll). J{eT<L'IbHoe pacc1O- TpeHl1e ..){paTKOro OnIilCaHI1H...>} B nl1Tepa1)'pe CM Peter.vn C. Op en P.248-151. 4 no .npo6Hee 063TOM CM.: CVUp1KJ8 H. A. YKa3. C04. C. 4-6. npHMe4a- TeJlbHO, 'ITO 26 HOHGpH 1718 r nerp I Co6crBeHHOp)"IHO Hanl1CaJI nepeBO.n Ha PYCCKHW .IIJbIK pml3 HaI1MeHOBaHI1t1 1l0JlJKHOC'l}jblX mw. .IIBJI.IIBWI1XCH KaJlb"O C HeMeUKoro Jl3b]Ka, B 'JacTHOCTH «a"Jop..WHrrrlfJUXH1ep - 8fJ«UIfeii :Je.1fCKI'JU CyaWl. ...npor/xJC - cmopocma TTIlQfJt'..VIIOii, /laHmbpWW/{p -.Je1lClWU QrlMo- (3aKOHOJJ,:ITCJJbHb]e aKTb[ ncrpa I. c. 63). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 169  4. Cy.Qe6Hafi C"CTeMa WBeLl"M - o6pa3eLl AIlfi cYAe6Ho pe4!opMbl neTpa I K OJU1CbIBaeMOMY BpeMeml B WBeUl111 4JYHKUI10HI1P0Ba- 113 cyne6H8f1 CI1CTeM3, CepnUeBI1HY KOTOpOi1 COCTalJJlWl3 'leTb]- peX3seHHaSl. CI1CTeMa cynOB 06weH IOpI1CnI1KUI1I1]. npl1 3TOM, B OTJII1<Jl1e OT nope4:>oPMeHHoH POCCI1i1, naHHble lllBenClOIe cynbl 6bUll1 (B nepBblX Tpex 3BeHbRX) OmeJIeHbl OT opraHOB ynpalJJle- Hi1fl. .uOCTOHHO ynoMI1HaHi1fl. <ITO BO 4JparMeHTapHOii xapaKfe- pl1CTHKe llIsencKoH cyne6HoH CI1CTeMbl, nOMeweHHOH B nOKJIaue IOcn1U-KOJlJlerl1l1 OT Ma.ll 1718 f.. 6bUlO naHO eMKoe H TO'lHoe onpeneJleHl1e cyna 06wei1 IOpI1CD!1KU!1H: 3T0 cyn. B KOTOJXlM «6e3 ffCJ/K020 U3l>5lmWl ffce Oe.!la ynptlfLlRIO/Rt{G. KomopbIf! do IOCmu- t{UU HaiJJIe:HCaml. nepBoe (OcHoBHoe) 3BeHO cynoB 06wei-1 IOpl1CnHKUMI1 06- pa30BbIBaJII.J iJucmpuKmHble cyiJw (no-llJBenCIOI haradstratt, no TepMHHOJlOrHI.J r. cDHKa - «YHTeprepHxTbl»). COCTOflBWl1e H3 D.I1CTpHKTHOro cynbH (no-wsenCKI1 I1MeHOBaBwerocfI haTad- sh6vding. 8 Ha HeMeLtKI1i1 MaHep «JI8H)ijJHXTepOM») 11 Tpex-rmTI1 3aCenaTeJiei1 H3 KpeCTb.llH (namnden 111111 «HeM6neHOB»). KaK oco60 nOS'lCHI111 r. cDl1K B «KpaTKoM OnHCaHI1I1....», B HeM6ne- Hbl «ffw6upalOmCR UC KpecmbflH nlOrJu y,WHblR u cocmORHUH o06pam, maKJlCe U nOJICumO<tHbl5l...». IOpl1cnl1KUI1H nl'lCTpI1KTHblX cynOB paCnpOCTj)aH5UlaCb - nO'lTH no BceMY KPYry yrOJlODHblX 11 rpa)f{- naHCKHX lIeJ1 - H8 Bce H8CeJIeHI1e lIHCTpHKTa, nJXI>KI.JB8BWee B CeJlbCKOH MeCTHOCTH. 8 T8K)f{e B He60J1bWI1X foponax, He I1MeB- WHX MafI1CTpaTOB. CynoM BTOpOro 3BeH8 B WBeUl111 Ha'larJa XVIII B. HBJUI- JlI1Cb npo6uHt{UQ/lbHble cyaw llagmansriitt I1JlH «06epJl8HllrepHX- Tbl»). B cocraB naHHblX cynoB BXOnl1Jl11 npOBI.JHUl1aJIbHblH cynMI (lagmal1l1Jll1 «o6ep-JI8HllPI1XTep») [.1 <leTblpe-llIeCTb 3aCellaTeJleii, D Ka'leCTBe KOTOpblX BblC1)'naJIl1 D.I1CTpHKfHble cynbH. no OTHO- WeHl110 K nHCT pI1KTHOM)' cyny lagmanstratt BblC1)'naJI B Ka'leCTBe 10 cynO}'CTPOffCTBe WBeUI1I1 Ha'JaJla XVIII B. CM.: Petmon P Op. cit. P. 1\3:bcl;;;il t 368. JpfAl1A I}:>. 248. KH. 58. n 9. B 1l0KJIaJJ.e 0 HIt30BblX 3BeHbHX cyne6HoH CI1CTeMbl WBeUHI1. JaCJIywaHHOM Ha 3aCeJ1aH(1111 CemrTa 4 .neKa6p.ll1718 r.. KacaTeJJbHO namnden 6bLIIO nOHCHeHO. 'JTO Ka.+.llbIi1 <'i'e{XlIIt{lef!iJulf... IDI1C- TPI1KTHblH Cy.nbH] «u..lfel?m HeIWI1IOfJW< npa8aM UCf..}'ClfblX tqJeCmMlfcKux MY- .JIfUK06 6 G«ClJfXlX» (3aKOHOJ:JafC/IbHb]e aKTb[ ncrpa I. c. 371). 
170 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I 3neJ1JUIUHoHHOi'i I1HCTdHUI1I1. KpOMe Toro, JlJXIBI1HUI-1anbHbIH cy.n Mor .aei1.CTBOBaTb 11 B Ka'leCTBe cy.na nepBOI1 I1HCTaHUH" - B CJ1y<me nepeHoca oco60 CJlO)l(HOro neJla 143 DHCTpHKTHOro cyna (KaK OTMe<[arJ r. <Dt1K, 4'ie20 KOinopmi J/GHI11pILunep e ducmpuK- me ceoe'tt OICOH"iamb He .MO)J('ern, Olloe npoucxooum npeiJ 06ep- J/tlHmpllV1lepa»I). CynoM TpeTbero 3BeHa B TOUJ;aWHei1 WBemU1 JlRJ1J!JU1Cb ane.JUJJ/l{1I0HHble cyiJbI (hovraU HIlI1 «rocprepHxTb]»). E)YllY'U1 maB- HblM 06p<l30M aneJlJiJlU1-10HHOH I1HCT<lHUHei1 nO OTHornemno K npOBI1HUt1aJ1bHbIM Cy.naM H ManlCTpaTaM. aneJIJHlUHOHHble cynbl Bblcrynarll1 11 B pOJlI1 cyna nepBot1 HHCTIlHUHH - npH paccMo- TpeHt111 oco60 Ba)f(HbIX lleJI no 06BHHeHI1J1M HBOp5lH, a TaJOKe nen o npeCTyJUleHI1JiX npOTHB I1HTepeCOB CJ1}?K6bJ. npl1 3TOM, B OT- JTI1'lHe OT lU1CTpHKTHbIX (oj JlJXIBHHLtI1aJ1bHb]X cynoB, pa3MellleHHe KOTOPb]X COQTHOCJ.1JIOCb C arIMHHHCTpaTI1BHo-TeppHTOpl1allbHbIM neJ1eHl1eM WBencKoro KOp.:JJ1eBCTBa, aneJUuu.t110HHbJe Cyn:b] I1Me- JlI1 Meerl1oHanbHYIO DI1CJlOKaUI1IO, 6yn:Y411 ueHTpaMI1 cBoero palla cyne6Hbix oKpyroB. K 1700 r. B WBem1l1 cYllleCTBOBaJIO 'leTblpe aneJUUlUl10HHbiX cyna: B CTOKfOJ1bMe (OCHOBaHHbIH nep- BbIM, ewe B 1614 r., WBellCKI1H aneJ1J1f1UI10HHbIH CYll - Svea howatt), B J/feH'lenI1Hre, B A60 (Hb]HeWHeM TypK)') 11 BD.epme (HbJHeWHeM Tapry). non06Ho HIHKeCTO.IIIl.ll1M cyn:e6Hb]M opraHaM. aneJUUlUI1- OHHble L1'n:bl I1MeJJl1 KOJLl1ernanbHOe YCTPOMCTBO. l)oJlee TOro: no OpraHI13aUI10HHoi1 CTpYKT)'pe aneJl.lUIUHOHHbJe cynbl n04TI1 He OTJ1I1'lanI1Cb or ueHTpa.nbHblX opraHOB ynpaMeHl1.I1 - KOJIJ1emit B cyneHcKHH COCTaB aneJLl1HUl10HHOro cyna BXo.Ullill1 npe3l11leHT, Bl1ue-npe3lUleHT 11 aceccopbl (B COCTaB Svea hovratt - ewe 11 cOBeTHHKH). no CBelleHI151M. co6paHHb]M r. <Di1KOM, UITar aneJT- J151UHOHHoro cyna B CTOKroJlbMe BKJlI04aJ1 B Ha'Jane XVIII B. npe3H1leHra. BHue-npe3H1leHTa, 'leTbJpeX COBeTHI1KOB 11 13 acec- COpoB (a TalOKe (]>I1CKaJIa, BHue-(]>I1CKaJIa. 12 KaHuemlpcI<JIX 11 llleCTb TeXHI1'leCKI1X CJI}0KaJ1.U.1x)!. He06xoIDIMO OTMeTHTb, 'lTO WBencKHH aneJLII5IUI10HHbIH cyn I1MeJT CTal)'C primus inter pares Cpelll1 OCTaJIbHblX aneJTJ1H- UHOHHblX cynoB. B <DopMe npaRlleHI1SJ 1634 r. aneJlJTHUHOHHb]j:j cyn: B CTOKrOJ1bMe 6bUI ynOMHHyr B p.ll.QY KOJLl1enlM 11 Ha Hero 6bUI B03J10)((eH HaIt30p 33 ell11HOo6p83HbJM npHMeHeHl1eM 33-  : %: i: : :: 7' 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 171 KOHomrre.n.bCTBa (B nepBYIO O'-lepeDb, nJXIUeccyanbHOW) BCeMI1 cyne6HblMI-1 OpraHaMI1 WBe.JlCKoro KOpOJleBCTBa. ComaCHO CT. 5 C!>opMbl npaBJIeHI1H, npe3HneHT Svea hovriitt o6.nanan npeJXIra- Hmott <'KoHcyAbmupoeamb, npeOc1ll00lRmb Inepeo Kopof/l'uj u nod- iJepJICueamb» Bce npo<me CYlIbl KOpOJTeBcrna l . BMecTe C TeM, He- CMOTpH Ha OC06b]H cnrryc. aneJTJ1S1UI-1OHHb]H cyll B CTOKroJ1bMe OTHIO.nb He o6JU1llan YHKUI-1.11MI-1 ueHTpanbHoro opraHa cYJJ;e6HO- ro ynpaBJIeHI151 (noll06HbIH opraH BJlacTI-1 B WBeUl11-1 OTcyrCTBO- B3.JJ KaK TaKOBOH) HaKoHeu, cynoM 'leTBepTOro (Bblcrnero) 3BeHa B WBeUHI1 I7IO-x rr. HBJUUlaCb KopOJle6CKl1J/ cyiJe6Hlm peeU3W/ (Justitie- revisionen)2. COOTBeTCTBeHHO. B Ha3BaHHYIO I1HCTaHUI-1IO B anell- JlSlUI-1OHHOM nop5lDKe nocrynaJlH D.eJTa H3 aneJTJ1HUI10HHbIX cy- JJ;OB 1 . EYlly'm ClpYKTYpHb]M nQApaJD.eJleHl-1eM focYllapcTBeHHoro Cooern. KOpOJTeBCKa51 CYJJ;e6Ha51 peBI13I-1.11 paccM8'TJ)I-1BaJla lIel1a nO.Jl npellcellliTeJ1bCTBOM HenocpellCTBeHHO MOH8pxa. He06xOllI-1MO OTMeTI-1Tb, '-ITO cynhl 06lUeH IOpi1CllI1KUHI-1 B WBeUHH 6bL1l1-1 He3aBI-1CHMhl OT Opr8HOB ynpaBJIeHH5I OTHlOllb He HOMHHaJ1bHO. B 3TOii CB5I311 my60Ko npI-1Me'laTeJlbHa51 I-1HTJ}Hra pa3blrpaJlaCb B Ha<JaJTe 171O-x rr. C .n1-1JTHH1lCKI1M aneJTJlSlUHOH- HblM CyooM. OKaJ8BWI1MC5I K TOMY BpeMeHI1 H8 TeppHTOpl-1H Pac- CI1H. KOrJrn JXlCCI1HCKHe ry6epHCKI1e 3llMHHHCTpaTopbl B351J]11Cb, no CTaJXIMOCKOBCKOMY 06b]KHOBeHI1IO. BMeWI-1BaThCSI B CYJJ;e6Hb]e ne.na. TO BCTpeTJ1J]1-1 COnpOTI-1BJleHl1e npl1BblKWI1X K WBellCKMM nOplllKaM cyneii ane..rUUlU110HHOro cyna. nolUJlo no TOro. 'lTO plDKCKl-1tt ry6epHaTOp n. A rOJlHUhlH D.a.:+::e nO.:+::aJTOBanC5I H8 He- npHBbl<JHO He3aBI-1CHMblX cyneii nelpY I. nOJl)l'lHB nl-1CbMeHHble paTh5lCHeHI-1H OT BHue-npe3HneHTa CYDa f 6penepHa 06 «oco6w; npaeox... cJm.o. uapb YKa3aJT ry6epHaTopy BnpeDb npl1HHMaTb so BHI1M8HI1e MeC THb]e "IpNl.l1Lt11I-14. [UHT no: Peterson C. Op cil P.310. ! DaHHYtO cy.ne6HYIO I1HCTaHIDItO HeMeuKoH3bl'IHble KOHCynbTaHTb] ne- lpa I o6ooHa'IWlI1 HaH60JJce p.']3HOPC'II1BO. f. <l>I1K B ynoMflHyrblX «}kcno.n- llHHHdiwHX 3aMC'laHI1f1X..." HaI1MeHOI3<UJ ec: «Justm-&l'I'QOfIt> ICYlle6HIDI pOOI1JHHj, a A. Jho6epac B 3anl'ICKe 0 rocYllHpcrBeHHOM )O])Oi1CJ13e WBe- 00111 - «Hohe Gericht des /(ijniges oder die REvisiun» IBblCOKHW cy.n KOpoJl.llWlI'I Peg ( 5e :e:;\saB HeMeUKHH -repMIIIH «revNon,,) OWH60'IHO }'K<133J1. '1TO neJIa nOCTyIJaJll1 B npol13BQ1lCTBO KOpo.lleSCKOH cy.ne6Hoit peBH311111 B KaCC<iUHOHHOM nopHllKe (Eoroc.J{)(JCKUU M. M. 06naenutH pc4x:!PMit nCTpa )kJ1I11KorO. C. 166). 4 Hcnnann's von Brcvcm Leben. S. 246. 
172 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I K 'UICJlY Cnemla-.113I1p0BaHHbJX cynoB II WBellCKOM KO- polIeBCTBe H8'laJl8 XVIII B. OTHOCI1JlI1Cb, npe)K1le IIcero, M8f11- CTpaTCKI1e cynbl, pa3611paBUJI1e lleJI8 ropO)f(8H. a TaJOKe ooeHHble 11 BoeHHO-MopCKHe cynhl, pa3611paBllU1e neJI8 CTpoeBblX BOeH- HOCJI)')KaWHX. KJXlMe TOro, cneW\aJTI13HJX!BaHHbIMH CYl18MI1 II Tor.uaWHe(:i WnemH1 SlBJUUTI1Cb Ko\.1Mepu- (oj KaMep-KOJ1J1enm (Komme['Skollegium H Kammarkollegium). KOMMepU-KOJUJenm paCCM8YpI-IBan80THOCHTeJibHO WI1JX1KHM Kpyf rpIDK..!J;aHCKI1X nen, KaC<lBlllIIXC}( cynoxo.nCTBa, TOproBb]X 11 npOMblllUJeHHblX npell- npmlTl1i-i, paBHO leaK Ii !lena no 06BHHeHHSlM .fiOJDKHOCTHbIX 1II1U TaMO)l(eHHblX opraHOB II npecryTUJeHI1S1X nJXIHm HHTepeCOB CJ1y;+::6bl, a KaMep-KOJUlerH5I - ne.rm no aHarJom<IHblM 06BI1He- H"SiM 1I0JDKHOCTHbiX JU1U opraHoB (]>I1HaHcoBoro ynpaBJ1eHHfI. CI1CTeMa M8n1CTpa-rCKI1X cynoB COCTOHJIa H3 llBYX 3BeHbeB; .lfQ.lba CYOO6 (kamnerst..att) 11 aJpOiJcKux cyiJ()8 (rltdstuvu..att). npl1 3TOM CTpYKTYPHO Wpon;CKl1e cyn;bl BXOlll11111 B COCTaB Ma- rl1CTpaTOB - opraHOB ropon;cKoro caMoynpaBJIeHml. XapaKrep- HO, 011HaKO, 'lTO aneJlll.llWIOHHOii I1HCTaHUl1ell DJI.II Man.JCTpa- TOB flBJHLlICfI. KaK y.+::e ynOMI1HarJOCb. cyn;e6Hblii opraH 06weii fOpI.JCn;I.JKUI.JI.J - aneJ1J1f1UI10HHbIH cyn. COCTO.llBWl1e aHallorl.J</- HO 113 nBYX 3BeHbeB BoeHHble 11 BoeHHO-MopcKl1e cynbl I1MeJ111 B Ka'leCTBe BblWeCTO.llWI1X cyne6Hb]X I1HCTaHUI1H COOTBeTCTBeHHO BoeHHYfO 11 AnMl1p<UlTeHCKYIO KOJ1J1ernl1 (legium 11 Adnu- raJitetskoliegium). npI1Me'l8TeJlbHO. LITO B nOllcynHOcnl BoeHHoH KOJ1Jlerl.J11 HaXQDJ.IJU1Cb T810Ke crimina laesae majestatis (neJ1a no rocynapcTBeHHblM npecryl1JleHmlM) 11 ne.na 0 nOKYllJeHl.JfIX H8 .>KJ13Hb BblCllJl1X o<tJlmepoB. OiellYeT I1MeTb B BIUlY, "iTO 3Ha<IHTeJ1bHYIO cneum!JI1KY B XVII - Ha'laJle XVIII B. I1MeJ18 OpraHl13aUl1Jl cyna B nBYX npl1- 6arJTI1HCKI1X npoBI1HUl1.11X WBeUl.Jl1 - J111t!J.nflHJJ;1111 11 3CTJ1f1H- nl1l1[. - nOJiHOCTbfO 3aBOeBaHHb]X K H8'laJ1y 1710-x rr. pyCCKM- MI1 BOHCK8MI1. H83BaHHbie npOBI.JHUI1I1I13.1l8BH8 ne.nI1J1I1Cb He H8 D.I1CTpI1KTbl. a Ha ye3ll.bL 11 XOT.II B 1690 r. B J111(]>J1f1HIlI.JI1 BCe- TaKM 6bLlII1 y<ipe >K1leHbI nBa nI.JcTpI1KTa 13cTOHCKI1H 11 J1aTblllJ- ]0 Cy.noycT)JOHCTBe JII14llJlHllHI1 '" 3cTJIHHllI1I1 XVII-XVIII BB. CM.: Elopo6 /0. A. Bonpocbl I1CTOpl1111 rocynapcrrn] 11 npaBa 3CTOHCKOH CCP 110 OKTJl6pbCKOH peBOJItOUHI1. Tap-ry. 1971!- Bb]n 4. C. 47-50. 56-61. KaA- HblHb B. E. OJepKHI1CTOpl111 rocy.napcTBa 11 npaBa J1aTBHIII B XI-XIX BeKaX: 3noxa <Poonanl13Ma 11 DOMOHOnOJ1lfCllI'JeCKoro Kanl1TaJllfJMa. Pl1ra. 1980 C. 77-80; J1CTOPH.II TaJlJll1Ha (no 60-x ro.nOB XIX BeKa) I COCT P nyn_aT. TWIJII1H, 1983. C. 207-209. 191;-299. 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 173 CKHM), ye3JlHoe neneHHe COXpaHIUlOCb B HenpHKocHoBeHHoCTH. no BceMY 3TOMY, W B flHt!wIHD.HI1, 11 B 3CTJI}IHlll1H OTcyrCTBOBa- JlI1 llHCTpI1KTHble CYllbl. BMecTo llHCTpI1KTHblX cyllOB B npi16a.rrn1f1cKl1X nJXIBi1HUHflX WBeUl1l1 B Ka':leCTBe cYlla nepBOro 3BeHa - Ha ypoBHe Tex ca- MblX ye3110B - YHKUHOHI1POBaJll1 OTlleJleHHb]e OT aLlMHHI1CTpa- THBHblX opraHoB 3eMCKHe CYllbl IUlH J1aHOlejJIL'01IbI (Landgericht). C03JlaHHble llIBen3MH B 1630-e n.. SlBJlflBWHeCSI no ofueMY nOJl- HOMOlJHH Cyn.aMI1 06lllei1 IOpI1C1l11KUl111 IlaHllrepl1XTbl COCTOHJII1 113 npence.naTeJlfl (n8HllPHXTepa) 11 m6HpaBWHXC}1 MeCTHblM llBO- p5lHCTBOM llBYX 3acellaTeJlei1 (aceccqX)B). OTCyrcTBHe B JIaHllre- Pi1XTax 3acell8TeJlei1 113 <mCJla J...']JeCTbSIH (nollo6HblX WBe.1lCKHM namnden) 06"bflCH5I"JlOCb TeM, "ITO B TorllaWHeH npH6aJ1THKe - B npOTHBonOJlO)f(HOCTb WBeUHH - COXpaH.IIJlOCb KpenOCTHoe npa- BO. K Ha'laJlY XVIII B. B 3cTIlSIH.1lI1I111eHCTBOB3JlI1 Tpl1 JIaHllre- pHXTa: B lI.epme, B nepHOBe (HbIHeWHeM n5l"pHY) 11 H3 OCTpOse 3.JeJ1b (HblHe CaapeMaa). He 6b1J1H y<ipe)K1leHbl B npH6a.rrmHcKHx npoBHHUHflX WBe- UHH H nJXIBHHUHaJIbHble CYllbl. BMecTo TaKOBblX llIBe.1lCKHe BJla- CTH OTKpbLJ1H B 1647 r. B PeBeJle (HblHewHeM TaJlJlI1He) BepXHI1i1 3eMCKHH CYll - o6ep./laHdzepuxm (Oberlandgericht), B KOTOpblH BX01UlJIH 12 1136HpaBllIHxcfI llBOpflHCTBOM JIaHllpaTOB. B OTJ1H- "Ii1e OT npOBHHUI1aJlbHblX CYllOB B KOHT11HeHTaJlbHoi1 WBeW1H, PeBeJlbCKHH o6epJlaHllrepl1XT BblC1)'naJI B 60JlbWeH Mepe B Ka- '-JeCTBe cyna nepBoro 3BeHa, HHKaK He 6YJIY'-lI1 I1HCTaHUI10HHO CB5I33H HH C JIaHllrepHXTaMH. HH C MarHCTparOM PeBeJUl I . EnHHcTBeHHblM cerMeHTOM WBe.1lCKoi1 MO.1leJlH CYllO- YCTPOHCTBa B npH6aJ1THKe K Ha«aJlY XVIII B. flBJlflJlC5I MeCTHblH aneJlJlJlUl10HHb](1 CYll IUlI1 zo(jJzepuxm (Hofgericht. B 6YKBaJlbHOM nepeBolle H3 PYCCKHH Jl3b]K «Ha080pHblU cy(»). OCHOBaHHb](1. no KoponeBCKOMY YKa3y, B ceHTfl6pe 1630 r. fll1$mHllCKHM rocp- repl1XT pacnOJlara.n:cn nepBOHNa.n:bHO B llepme, 8 B 1702 I. 6blJl 113-38 HaC1)'l1JleHHfI PYCCKHX BOi1CK 3BaK)'l1JX1BaH B Pm)'. CYlleHcKHi1 urraT H33B3.HHOrO rocprepHXTa BKJ1IO'JaJI npe3WleH- Ta, BHue-npe3H1leHTa 11 12 aceccopOB. npl1 .flOM, B OTJ1H"Il1e OT OCTaJIbHblX aneJlJlflUHOHHblX CYllOB WnellcKoro KOpOJleBCTBa. [lk:>rou.H m Bb[llJeCKa3aHHOro. Tpy.nHO COrnaCI1TbCH C )'IBfpJl(!leHI1- eM B. E. KanHbIHH. 'JTO «1IIBel1ClJfe JaBoeBaTe.n11 C01ll.aJl11 B J1114v1S1H1lHI1 CI1CTeMY cYlle6Hb]X OpHtHOB llJBellcKoro 06proU!l» (KallfblHb B. E. YK!I]. C04. C. 77). 
174 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I lh-t$J1J1HllCKI1H n:t4JrepI'lXT 6bUl cynoM He Tpen,eco, a lU1Wb BTO- pora 3BeH3 - anCJIJUlUI10HHOH 11 peBI13HOHHO-pelluuolliei1: HH- CT8HUl'let1 DJl5I. n8HnrepMXTOB 11 Man:lCTpaTOB (KpOMe PrnKCKOro, PeBeJlbCKOrO H HapBCKoro). CneUl.faJTH3HpoBaHHbleCYllbl B npI'l6aJTTHikt<....nx npoBl.fHUI1J1X lliBemm 61>1n" K 1700-M fr. npellCTaBJTeHI>I. fJT8BHhiM 06paJOM. Mafl1cTpaTaM(1 (B HeCKOJlbK(1X 3CTJTSlH.QCKHX ropo.nax B Ka'-JeCTBe CYAOB W151 roP0)(illH BMecTO M8rHcTpaTOB ttJYHKUHOHHpoBaJIH opraHH30BaHHb]e ewe B XVI B. TaK H83blBaeMb]e f/JoxmeucKue Cydbl). B TaKI.JX Gonce KpynHbLX Topon.3.X. KaK PeBeJ1b 1'1 HapBa, MafHcTpaTCKHM cynoM nepBom 3BeH8 SlBJ1S1J1MCh HIDIGU1e ropo- DOBbIe CYlll>I ('1eM-TO CXOllHble co l1IBenCKI1Mt1 kamnerstratt). a B Ka1.JeCTBe CYD.a BToporo 3BeHa BblCTynaJU1 co6crneHHO ManlcTpa- Tbl. BeCbMa xapaKrepHO, '1TO ane.nJTSlL((10HHOH (1HCTaHU(1ej:i lUI.II PJ.DKcKoro H PeBeJlbCKOrO Marl1cTpaToB 6blJ1 He Jl(141J1.IIHJJ;CKJ.di roc]:Jrep(1XT. a aneJ1JUluHOHHb[j:j cyn B CToKroJ1bMe (Bb]llIeynoMH- HYfb](1 Svea hovriil:t), a.rum HapBcKoro MarHCTpaTa - aneJlJUlUI1- OHHblH cyn B A60. HapSllLY C Man:!cTp3TCKJ..:IMH cyn3MM, B PeBeJle neikTBOBaJlM TaKl1e CneUl1aJTH3MpOBaHHble cyne6Hbie opraHbI, KaK MOPCKOj:j (1 tlJpa'ITOBbIH cyn, a TaJOKe TOproBblH cyn - 6em- mzepliXI1I (Wettgericht). 3aBepllIa.ll 0630P cynoycrpolkTBa JlJ.Kj:lJ1.11HJJ;H(1 H 3CTJ]HH- nl1H, HMeeT CMbICJ1 OTMeTHTb, 'lTO co CneUl1ttJHKoj:j OpraHH33UHH cyna B 3TI1X npoBHHU(1HX CO'-leTaJlCH H napl11KymlpH3M MecTHoro npaBa l . ileJ10 B TOM, 'lTO no caMOro MOMeHTa npMcoelIMHeHH}1 K Paccm:! HCMeUKOH3bl'lHOe npH6illIT(1I1cKOe nBOpHHCTBO H 6fOp- repCTBO ynOpHO (t1 n.aneKO He 6e3ycnellIHO) conpoTHBJlSIJIOCb pe- uenUt1H llIBellcKoro npaBa, TBeplIO OpHeHT(1pyHCb Ha CKJIa.IlbIBaB- weeCH C XIV B. (H ueJ1OCTHO He KOlIl1ttJHUHpoBaHHoe K XVIII B.) MecTHoe ropOlI cKoe H 3eMcKoe npaBO. 60J1ee TOro, nIDKe B )(3- ] 0 napTI1Ky..mpI13le npH6aJmti1cKOro npaBa B XVII-XVIII BB. CM: JJeec.tIt'IIm JI. R. 06 OC06cHHOCTHX nptlMeHeHlII.II WBe.nCKOro npana B npH- 6armiKe B XVI-XVIII BB. II npo6..rJCMbl tlCTopl1t1 rocy.napcrBa tI npa- Ba 3cTOHCKOH CCP (M:rrepl1aJ1b[ pecnyfuJ. Ha}'4H KOHi):J.) Tap"!)'. 1968. C. 3-5; K{UHblHb B. E. YKa3. CO'I. C. 80-85; £!OjXH! 10. A. HCTOpl1'JeCKl1e apr)'J<teHTbl KOHuenlll111 npaBaBOro IlJ1tOpaJIl13Ma (I<mepJ.la!1bII1CTOpl1l1 npa- Ba 3cTOHHI1 B XIII-XIX BB.) II Y'JeHb[e 3anI1CKH TaprycKoro YHtlOCpCI1Te- Td'1 \bH'i-e21 ;meCb .IIBWlaCb Hapsa. npl1HSlBlilaH eme B 1585 r. IlJOCllCKoe ropo.nCKoe npaBa (SladoJag) (Elo- po(j 10. A. fOPO.nCKoe npaBO ropo.na Hapabl II Y4eHbIe 3anI1CKI1 TapT)CKO- ro YHtlBepCl1Tl:Ta Tapry, 1975. Bb]n. 370. C. 78). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 175 4eCTBe cy6cl1lll1apHOro npaBa npH6aJ1TI1ikKa.ll npaB.IIwa.ll 3JJHTII npl13HaBaJla He WBellCKOe 3aKOHon.areIIbCTBO. a npI1MeH.IIBUJeeC» B repMaHCKI1X rocynapcTBax Usus modernus pandectum, peuen- THpoBaHHoe pt1MCKoe npaBO. OCTaeTC.II n06amfTb, 4TO cyweCTBeHHOH OC06eHHOCTbJO cy- neikKoro Kopnyca WBeUHI1 Ha4aJ1a XVIII B. SlBJlSlJlC.II ero BbICO- KI1H o6p330BaTeJlbHblit YPOBeHb (:JTO KaCaJlOCb B nOJlHo11 Mepe H npH6aJ1TI111cKt1X npoBJ.1HUt1(1). npo4>ecCt10HaJlbHoit nonroToB- J1eHHOCTH UmenCKI1X cynejf CnOC06CTBOBaJlO TO 06CTOJlTeJlbCTBO, 4TO no COCTOJIHIUO H3 1700 I. B KopoJleBCTBe HaC'-It1TbIBaJIOCb 1.JeTblpe YHt1BepCI1TeTa, Bce t13 KOTOpbIX t1Me.r"" fOpl1JlHlJeCKJ..1e $1- K)lJ1bTeTbl. K TOMY BpeMeHt1 B WBeUt1t1 pa60TaJlt1: OCHOBaHHblH ewe B 1477 r., 3aKPbITbIH B H81.JaJle XVI B. t1 BHOBb OTKPb1TbIH B 1593 r. YHt1BepCt1TeT B YncaJle. OCHOBaHHb]jf B 1640 r. YHHBep- CI1TeT B A6o. OCHOBaHHb]it B 1668 r. YHt1BepCHTeT B JlYHlle t1. HaKOHeU, OCHOBaHHb]jf B 1632 r., 3aKpbITblit B 1665 r. t1 BHOBb OTKPblTb[jf B 1690 r. YHI1BepCJ.1TeT B D,epme (Academia Gustavo- Carolina)l. HeynHBHTe1lbHo n03ToMY, 4TO, no BnOJIHe penpe3eHrn- H16HbIM DaHHblM A. Tept1Hra. B KOHue XVII R Bee aceccopbl aneJlJlSlW10HHOro cY.I1a B D,epnTe I1MeJlt1 Bblcwee IOpJ1llt14ecKoe o6p33oBaHt1e. MaJlO Toro: B TO BpeMSI .I1t1nJlOMHpOBaHHb]Mt1 JOpt1- crar.m B Jlt1c1}J].IIHlICKOM ro4Jrept1XTe 6bUJH He TOJlbKO C}lllbl1, HO H ctJJ.1CKaflb]. H nlDKe 4acTb cmpwl1x KaHUeJl5lpCKJ..1X CJiy)«awl1X (HO- rnpt1YCOB, aK'l)'apl1)'COB t1 ceKpempeilF. BnpO'-leM. lJTO roBOpt1Tb o nepcOHaJle aneJUHIUHoHHOro Cy.I13. KOnIa t13 123 mm, COCTO.llB- Wt1X B 1630-1710 rr. 'V1eHaMt1 PH)«CKOro MarHCTparn, 544eJ10- I HCTOpl1H TaprycKoro YHtlBepcl1TeTa 1632-1982 I no.n pe.n. K. CHH- ntlBaCKa. TaVItlH. 1982. C. 18.28.33 1 Tering A. Ober (lie Juris!enausbilding rler Mlt,gbeder (les Holgerichts in Darpa! (Tal1u) 1630-1710 II Y'JeHble Janl1CKI1 Taprycruro YHI1BepCl1TeTa. Tap"!)', 1989 BbIn. 868. S. 30. 49-50. npl1Me4aTeJlbHO, 'JTO 113 'JI1CJla nl1U. 3aHtlMaBWI1X cync6HbIC nOffiKHOC11I B J1t1qmHH1ICKOM n:xtJrcPH':u: B 16]0- 1700 rr.. 20 'JeJlOBeK nlXHllJlI1 06)"1eHllle B YHI1BepCI1TeTe B YncaJle, 15 - B J1efuIeHe, 10 - B KeHlllrc6epre. CTOJIbKO >Ke - B l1eHe 11 B XeJlbMWTenTe. lJ,eBTb 6YDYLill1X cynei1 f<$repI1XTa (1)"1I1J1I1Cb B yHHBepcmere B POCToKe. ceMepo - BDcpnTe. llieCTepO - BO <J>paHK<tJypTe-Ha-Ollcp tI BA.r1bTllOP4Je. n.llTepO - 8 J1ei1nUHre. 'JCTBejX) - 8 A60 (lb]d. S. 34). LlOCTOi1HO ynoMtlHa- HI1H TIJlOKe. '1TO B 4.eBpa.e 1693 r. p)'KOOOIICTBO DepmcKoro YHI1BepctlTe- Ta BblCTynl1J10 C I1HI1Ul1aTI1BO (Bnpo'JeM. 6e3pe3YJIbTaTHO) OpraHI130BaTb npaKTHKY cryneHTOB lOpIlD.Il'Jecmro 4:JaKYJIbTeTa KaK pa3 B J11141.IIH1lCKOM rc$rcplllXTc (I1CropHH TaprycKOro YHtlOCpCt!Tl:Ta. C. 38-39). 
176 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I BeKa (44ar,) HMeJiH YHHBepCI-JTeTCKOe 06pa30B3HHe (B TOM 'UICJ1e J..I IOpWlI1'leCKoe). A, CKa)l(eM. B MarncTpare HapBbl B 1703 r. (nepen C3MblM B3HTIleM PYCCKHMH BOt1cKaMH) H3 10 paTM3HOB <1eTBepo HMHJlHCb IIHJUlOMHpOBaHHblMH IOpHCTIlMH - BblnyCK- HHKaU1 YHHBepCWreTOB YnCaJlbl, A6o, HeHb! H J1ef1nwua l . HTaK. peJIOMHpYI1 BbIWeCKa3aHHOe, CJ1ellYeT KOHCTan1po- BaTh, 4TO Ha Jl)X)HDKemU1 1715-1717 rr. neTp I lleJleHanpaB- I1eHHO onpeJJ;emmc.ll C Bbl6opOM TOH eBponeikKoit CTpaHbl, rocy.naPL,BeHHOe YCTpoj:jCTBO H 33KOHOll,lTeJlbCTBO KOTO}XJi1 B HaH60JIbwei1 CTeneHH COOTlleTCTOOBaJU1 6bl l1neaJIY «nOJIHueH- CKoro» rocYllapCTBa. TaKaH CTpaHa llOJl.:KHa 6bUJa B n.aJlbHeHWeM nOCJI}')KHTb OCpaJUOM DJm npoBellemrn 3a.nyMaHHbIX uapeM CH- CTeMHblX rocy.aapCTBeHHblX npe06pa30BaHHf1 B HarneH CTpaHe. B (1Tore. BOJUJoweHHeM PoIizei<aaat neTp I nOC'lJ.1TaJI WBencKoe KOlx)JJeBCTBO. MaKcHMYM HHttJOpM8UHH 06 opraHH3auHH rocynapc-meH- HOro annapara H 0 JaKOHOnaTeJ1bCTBe WBem1H 6ynyweMY HM- neparopy npellOCTaBHJ1 - nOCJ1e ycnewHoH pa3BellbiBaTeJlbHOH n0e311KH B CTOKfOJ1bM B 1716 r. - feHpHx CfiHK no 3T0f1 npH- 'mHe HMeHHO f. CfiHK, ypo.>KeHeu faM6ypra C He COBceM HCHOH 6Horpal!meH, B 36 )JeT o<lmUHallbHO noc-rynHBwHH Ha PYCCKYIO CJI}0K6y, CTaJI OCHOBHblM KOHcyITbTaHTOM neTpa I npH no.n.rOTOB- Ke aIIMHHHCTpaTHBHOH H CYlle6HOH pe$)pM.  5. KOHLLenLLMfI Cy,qe6HOVI pecJKIPMbl neTpa I: onblT peKoHCTpyK4111111 I)blJl3 ITH Y neTpa I KaKaSl.-J1H60 KOHUenUI151 cyne6Hbix npe- 06paJOBaHHH - KpoMe 06l1lei1 YCTaHOBKH MaKCHMarIbHO )"-IeCTb onbIT WBencKoro cynoycrpoHCfBa H cynonpOH3BOlICTBa? Pa3Y- MeeTCH, B YCJ10Bl-1HX BToporo neC5ITHneTHH XVIII B. 0 Bblpa6oT- Ke paJBepHyroH nporpaMMbl CYlle6HoH pe4>oPMb] (BPOlle 60nee n031lHHX «OCHOBHbIX nOJlO>KeHHH npeolSpaJOBaHHSI. cyne6HoH 'laCTI1 B POCCHH» 1862 r. H KOHuenUHH CYlle6HoH pe4>oPMb] B PCCfiCP 1991 r. ) He MOrITO 6blTb H pe'!H. BMeCTe c reM, npH- ] Tepull.? A. O. 0 JOpHJlH'leCKOM 06pa3OB<lHIUI 'VICHOB ropo.nCKI1X Marn- crpaTOB 3eT.lIHHllHH III J1HqmHHllI.JH B XVII - Ha4aJ\e XVIII BB. (11':;30-1710) II Y1.JeHb[e 3anI1CKI1 TapryCKOro }fHI1Bepmrern. Tapry, 1989. BbITI. 868. C. 10. 10.22 XaPaKTejJHO, 'JTO B 1681 r. PeBeJ1bCKHi1 Mal1lC1]J<Cf nblTd.I1CH (XOTH. B KTore. H 6eJycnewHo) npl1BJ1e'Jb K COl]JYllHI'!'IeC11Jy B Ka'teCTBe tOPHCKOH- CYJ1bT'd 3H..I\ICHI.JTOrO rocy.napcmooena C. nY\1JcHlloJ$a (11!M .lKC. C. 7). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 177 cryna.ll K nposellemuo pec]:JOpMbl, 3aKOHOllaTeJlb B JUlue neTpa I He Mor He I1MeTb 60Jlee KOHtq)eTI-lb]X I1CXOllHblX npe1l.CTaMeHI1i1 o TOM, KaKllOJl)I(H8 6bITb BblCTpoeH8 cnoco6HaH Hnea.nbHO <!JYHK- UI10HI1poBaTb HaUHOHaJlbHaH CYlle6H8H CI1CTeMa. KaK npellCTaBJUleTCSI, elll1HCTBeHHblH 1l0WellWI1H llO Hac CJlell 113H8'laJIbHoro 3aMb]CJl8 uapH no pe<t>oPMI1PORaHl1fO OTe'le- crBeHHorocyna OKa3aJJC5I 3ane'l8TJleH B npenBapl1TeJlbHOH pocnl1- CM KOJlJ]en"'H I1I1X llITaTOB 1717 r. 3ToTMHOroo6pa3HO npHMe>-J8- TeJlbHblH 1l0KYMeHT, co6c'rneHHOPYlJHO Hanl1C8HHblH neTpoM I B nepl101l. Me)l(Ily oKHI6peM 11 Ha'laJIOM neKa6p}\ 1717 f.. 6bl1l BBeneH B H8)"-1HbltJ 060POT 11 ony6J1I1KoBaH H. A BocKpeceH- CKI1M. Olll-J.aKO He pa3 npl1MeKaBllIl1i1 BHI1MaHl1e I1CCJlenOBaTe- J1ef1 1l0"1'MeHT 8HaJIl13l1pona.nCH B npellllIeCTBYlOwef1 JTI1Tepm)'pe I1CKIlf0411TeJlbHO B CBH311 C HOMeHKIlarypof1 nepe'-JI1CJleHHbIX B HeM KOJlJlerHf1 I . Me)({]ly reM. B npellBapl1TeJlbHoi1 pOCnl1CI1 KOJlJlefl1f1 1717 r. 3aI1KCl1poBaJJOCb TalOKe YHI1KaJ1bHoe. He nOBTopHBweeCH 60Jlee n05lCHeHI1e, 'lTO >Ke neTp I HaMepeBaJICH nepe.naTb B BelleHl1e npoeKHlpyeMoi1 lOcTI1U-KOJlJ]erHI1. no 3TOM)' nOOOllY B llOK)'- MeHTe 3H8'II1JIOCb; «...lOcmUl{-Ka1ei!UYM - 6CRAoU cy() 60 mca iJe.2. J1MeHHo B npl1BelleHHOH <!JpaJe. D,YM8eTCSI. 11 OTpaJJ.UI- CH I1CXOllHb]f1 3aMb]CeJl JaKOHo.naTeJl51 no peopraHl13aUHI1 OTe'le- crBeHHoro CYlla. 3aMb]CeJl 3TOT 3alUlf04aJlCH. teaK MO)l(HO BJ.W.eTb. B C03ll.8HI111 CTpora UeHTpaJII130BaHHOH CI1CTeMbl cyne6HbIX opraHOB, BCeUeJlO 3aMKHyrOi1 - 11 B cync6HoM, 11 B aIlMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHOM OTHOllIe- HI1I1 - H8 IOcnm-KoJlJ]erl1fO. I3YDY'1H BOnJlorueHa H8 npaKTI1Ke, nOllo6H8f1 CI1CTeM8 OTJ1I1'-JaJTaCb 6bl, Bo-nepBblx, OpraHI138UI1- OHHb]M e.nI1HCTBOM ('-JTO, B CBOfO O"lepellb. cnoco6CTBOna.n0 6bl ycraHOBJIeHHIO CllHHOO6pa3l1J1 B npl1MeHeHHH npoueCcyaJIbHoro 3aKOH01l.aTeJlbCTBa), a BO-BTOPb]X. BellOMCTBeHHof1 06oc06JleH- HOCTblO ('JTO cnOC06cTBOBaJ10 6bl crPYKrypHOMY OTlleJleHHfO op- raHOB npaoocynHH OT opraHOB ynpaMeHI1H). COBepllIeHHO Ol(e- BMHO, '1TO peaJIl13aUI1H TaKOra 3aMbICJJa neTpa 1 JlBI1Jl8Cb 6bI Ba)KHbiM llIaroM Ha nym YKpeJUJeHHSI He3aBHCI1MOCTH cyna 11, reM CaMbIM, Ha nym <!JOPMHPOBaHHSI B HaweH CTpaHe Benm cy- lle6Hof1 BJl8CTH . [HeKjJGCOfI f. A. Y'JjJeJK.lIeHl1e KOJlI1erHi1... C. 340; Peterson C Op. C]t. P. 84--85; AHUCIL'lf06 £. B. focynapcmeHHb]e npeo6p.\:JooaHl1.II... C. 117-118. ! 3aKOHOJJm"CJIbHb]e tlKTb[ nCTpa I. c. 218. 
178 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HaKOHeu. HeJIb3H nOBTOpHO He ynOM5IHYTb, KaKI1M.>Ke o6pa- 30M nepBbli1 pOCCHHCKI1HI1MnepaTOp OC03HaBaJI UeJ1b cyn.e6Hoi1 pe$oPMbL Ceoe nOHHMaHMe UeJ1H pec]:JOpMbl neTp I H3J10)l(I1J1, npaB1J.a. He B 1717 f., a n031lHee - II ynoMHHaBllleHCH npeaM6y- Jle K I1HCTpyI<..WIH peKeTMef1crepy OT 5 4JeBpaJUI 1722 f. B 3TOM HOK)'MeHTe 3aKOHon.aTenb OTMeTI1J1, '1TO ocywecTBJleHHble K TOMY BpeMeml H3MeHeHl1Jl Bo6JIaCTJlI cYJJ;oycrpoHcma H CYJJ;onpOl-\3BO.n;- CTBa 6bU1H npen.np(1HJlTbl DJl5I Toro. '.JT06bl K3)(([lOMY Itl nO.D.1laH- HblX «no de1lLW e20 cyi} 6bUIIpllt1eiJnoii U 6ecnpoiJo,.JICUI11e.uwiio>l. g 6. XPOHoIlofMt.jecKHe rpaHI1bl cy,c.e6Hoa;1 pe4>opMbl neTpa I Tenepb Heo6xo)]J..jMO KOCHyrbCl1 Bonpoca 0 XpoHOJlOnl'le- CKHX paMKax cYJJ;e6Hoj:j pe<lJoPMb] neTpa L npH seeM TOM. 4TO 03Ha'leHHb]j:j BOnpoc llOHb[He Cnemta.JlbHO He paCCM3Tp(1BaJlC5I HHKeM H3 npe.DlJ1eCTBylOlllMX aETOpOI!, II HCTOp(1KO-npaHOHOH JlHTepaTYpe Bee }/(e CJ\mKJ1.1J1.1Cb .nile TO'lKI.J 3pemul KaCaTeJlbHO BpeMeHt1 npoBelleHt1H xapaKTept13yeMoH cyne6HOH pe$opMbl. ComacHo nepBOH TOlIKe 3peHI1H, cYlle6Hble npeo6pa30DaHt1S1 ocy- weCTBJ]JU]t1Cb 6eCb nepl1011 elll1HOllep)f(aBI1S1 neTpa I, TO eCTb Ha nponDKeHHH KOHua XVII - nepoo" 'leTBepTl1 XVIII H. llaHHa.ll TO<JKa 3peHI1H Hallum OTp3)l(eHHe B I1CCJlellOBaHHJlX H. H. Ecppe- MOSO", A 11. AJIeKcaHllpoBa. O. E. Kyra<1mH8, B. M. 11e6ellesa 11 r. 10. CeMl1rHHa. 11. A. XpycTaJleBa. ComacHo BTopoH TOlJKe 3pCHI1H, cyne6HlliI pe$opMa neTpa 1 6bUJa npoBelleHa B KOHue 171O-x rr. B CHOIO O'lepellb, B PYCJle :no" TO'IKH 3peHt1S1 6bUJO BbIllBt1HyrO HOCKOl1bKO DaTHJXlnOK. no MHe- HHIO M. A. l:IeJTbUosa-Eie6yrosa. BocnpoH3BelleHHoMY 3aTeM B pa- 60Tax 11. C C(1MK(1Ha, C A. nawHHa. R H. Ea6eHKo, neTpOBCKa5I 13aKOHOillITeJ1bHb[e aKTb1 neTpa I. c. 341. B 1113l1aHHOM Ha OCHO- se I1HcrpYKlll111 peKeTMeticrepy ceHaTCKOM yJ<a3e OT 23 I!>eBpaIlSl 1721 r. .,0 i'etlefXLle-peKemveiit:mepe» npHBelleHHoe cyjf(j}eHHe JaKOHOl1<fJeJIl1 fibUlO ct1>oPMynl1poBaHO 6oJ1ee paJBepHyrO:" .D.a6b1 U[JICiJoItfY {lIoikkufflOVY} no ux deAaM 60 6ceM cyd 6bL.J  U 6e'JtJpodcM;}/(.'IJ//f(!.JHOU, U iJeqa 6 peuKUU... npa80 U 6 YKaJHoe 6peMf1, U IIenfX16bIMU 6 C}d2Nu U 6OIOKUII117MII HUK(R() He )'lllf'CflM1l" (3aKOHOllaTe!lbCTBO neTpa I. c. 86). 2EtJpeIlOfltlH. H. feHe3HC cyne6Hoi1 BlJaCTH B POCctll1. C. 89; AJeK- CGffiJP06 A. 11. YNJ.1 C04 C. 153-154. A)ff 0 E.. flefieiJefj B. M. Ce- WUcUH r 10. Y"a3. C04. T. 2. C. 110; XpJ'Cmale6 fl. A. Cy.ne6Ho-npaBoBble pc4x:!PMb] nCT))<] 1...: ABTOpe$. ... C. 5. 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 179 cyne6HIDl pe4>oPM8 COCTOWIlICb B 1719 r. 1 no MHeHlllO H. E. ro- J1HKOBOi1 H 11 r. KHCJHlfI1HOi1. cy.ne6H851 pe4>oPM8 HMeJIa Mecro B 1719-1720 fr.. a no MHeHHIO M.o. AKHrnHHa - B 1718 f. 2 nepB<UI TOlIKa 3peHHH BblfJl5l.1lI1T oc06eHHo cnopHo. H ne.no 3l1eCb He TOJTbKO B TOM, ':ITO pacTHH)'BrneeCSI nOllTH Ha 29 neT e.nH- Ho.nep)l(aB(1e neTpa I - ::ITO nep(10n. D.JmTeJTbHOCTb KOTOporo He COOTBeTCTsyeT xpOHOJIOfl1':1eCKOMY KpHTepHIO (13 npe1ll10)l(eHHoro OnpeneJTeH(1.11 cyne6HOH pe$opMbl. neJlO ell.le H B TOM, ':ITO, KaK 6wIO nOKa3aHO Bb]We. Ha npOTH>KeHHH 1696-1716 fr. H3MeHe- HIDI leaK B o6J1acTH cy.noycrpoilcTBa, TaK (1 B 06J1BCTH cy.nonpoH3- BOnCTBa ocyweCTBJl5IJI(1Cb 6eccHCTeMHO H 6e3 B3aHMHOH YBH3KH. BTOpaH TO'lKa 3peHH5I npellCTaBJ1HerC5I TaJVKe He 6eccnop- HOH. He.ilOCTaTO':lHaH OCHOBaTeJlbHOCTb 3TOH TO'-lKI1 3peH(1S1 CBH- 3aHa C TeM. 'ITO npH nampoBKe neTpOBCKoi1 cyne6HOH peopMbl nepHO.ilOM 1718-1720 rr. aBTOpbl npHHHMa.;m BO BH(1MaHHe I!(1Wb npoBelleHHble Toma npeo6pa.JoBaHH5I B 06J1aCTI1 CYllOYC1poi1cTBa, 3aKJllO'-IBBWHeCH B nocrpoeH(1H C(1CTeMbl OTlleJleHHblX or opfaHoB ynpaBJ1eHIDI cyllOB 06weil IOpHC.ilHKUH(1. O.ilHaKO npH Beeil 3Ha- <1HMOCTH OTMe<1eHHbIX npe06pmoBaH(1H I1MH OTHlQlI.b He OXBaTbl- BaeTCH conep>KaHHe cyne6HoH pe$opMbl neTpa I - .na)l(e B 06- I!3CTI.f OpraH(13aUH(1 cy.na. llocraTO':lHO BCnOMHl1Tb. '-ITO, nOMHMO OCHOBaHI1JI CHCTeMbl cynOB 06wei1 IOpHCllHKLlIm. H3 npoTIDKe- H(1(1 1718-1722 fr. 6Wl0 TalOKe Y4pe>KlleHO HJlH npe06pa3oBaHo HeCKOJ1bKO nOllCHCTeM CneUHilJTH3HpOBaHHblX Cy.nOB (B nepBytO 04epe.nb. no.nCHCTeMb] MafI1CTpaTCK(1X H uepKOBHblX cy.noB). KpoMe Taro. B 1717-1721 fr psiJJ, 3H3'mreJlbHbIX H3Me- HeH(1H 6b]JI npoH3BelleH B c1lepe YfOJloBHoro npouecc8. B Ha- 3BaHHb]e fO.ilbl cocrOMHCb KaK Bbl4JleHeHHe CrallHI1 npen- BapHTeJ1bHoro pacCJ1e.nOBaHHH, TaK H lllHpoKoe BHe.ilpeHHe peBH3HoHHO-pernalOll.lero nopMKa yrnep)l(JleHHSI H nepecMoTpa cy.ne6Hblx pern eHHH (3TH H3MeHeHHSI. leaK }')Ke ynoMHHaJTOCb. ['le.lbl¥J8-Ee6ymoo M. A. YK!l3. C04. C. 701: CUVICUH fl. C YKa3. C04. C. 210; flawuH CA. YKaJ. CO'I. C. 161; Ea6eHKOB. H. Cy.ne6HIDI CI1CTe- M3 POCCI1I1. C. 89. }:lnSl nonHOTbJ ItCTOplIOrpa4Kt'JecKOH KapTI1Hb] yMeCTHO .no6aBIffb, 'JTO 1719 roll B J..a'JecTBe naTbl Hal160J1ee 3Ha'JI1MbIX cy.ne6Hblx npe06pa30BaHI1H neTpa I BnepBb]e npelUlO)l(11)I Ii. H Cb]poMSlTHI1KOB (C!>/- fX)'tfRmtlUK06 E 11. 04epK I1CTopHH cyn3 C. 154) O.1lHaKO Ii. 11 CbIPO- MHTHI1KOB He pacCf>HUpHBaJI npeo6pa3oWHI15I. 1719 r. B Ka'JeL"TBe Cyne6HOO pe4x:!PMb] 1 FD.iIUK06G H. E., Kuc.IRCUHG fl. r. YKa3. COL]. C. 68: AiauuuH M. 0. Cy- lle6HIDI pe4x:!pMa nClpa I. D,I1C no C. 170. 
180 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I OKaJaJU1Cb COBepWeHHO o60fuleHbl npeD.llIeCTBYiOlll(1M(1 <tBTO- paMH npH 8HaJIH3e o6crosneJIbCTB pec]:JOpMbl). TCM C8MbIM, na- THpoBKH cyne6HoH ped>opMbl nerpa I H 1718 r., H 1719 r., H 1719-1720 rr. He Mmyr 6blTb npHHSlTbl. KaKHe >Ke xpoHOJlOm<JeCKI1e rpaHJ.1Ubl neT]JOBCKOii CYlle6- HOM pe4K>PMbl npe.!lCTaBJlJlfOTCs:I HaH60Jlee o60cHoBaHHbIM(1? D,y- MaeTC.II, 4TO OTC'leT cyne6HOH pe4K>PMbl neTpa I CJlenYeT BeCT" C 1717 L B YK33aHHoM rollY. BO-nepBblx, COCT05lJlOCb Y4pe>KJJ;eHJ.1e IOcrnU-KOJIJlerI1H (KOTOpoi1 npellcTowlO BCKope B03mHBHTb CH- CTeMY cynoB o6rnei1 fOpHC1U1KUt1H), a BO-BTOpbIX, npol130ll.LllO OCHOBaHHe Ci1CTeMhl «MaHopcKHx» KaHUeJUlpt1H ('-JTO cnoco6- CTBOBaJlO ynoMHHYfOMY Bb[lIJleHeHHIO CTMHH npellBapHTeJlbHoro paCCJle.LlOBaHHSI B yrOJloBHoM npouecce). r0110M >Ke JaBeprneHHSI xapaKTepH3yeMoH cyne6Hofr pe(}Jop- Mb] MO)l(HO npH3HaTb 1723 r., Koma 6bUJ 'lli Bb]llIHHH cyJJ;. nOJl)"-lHBWH de jure l{1]eHTI1'-lHbl cnnyc C npamneJ1bCTB}'IOUlI1M CaiaTOM BblllIHHH cyn ellBa He CTarJ cynoM Bblcwero 3BeH8 B pe- c]:topMHpoBaHHOH cyne6HoH CHCTeMe POCCHH (nollp06Hee 06 3TOM pellb nof\lJ.cr Hl{)({e). TaKHM 06pa30M. BpeMeHeM npOBelleHIDI cy- lle6HoH ped>oPMbl neTPa 1 CJTe.11YeT npH3HaTb 1717-1723 IT. S 7. Bblpa60TKa HOBOM MIla.l cy,qe6HOI'"O YCTPOMCTBa. nroToBKa 3aKOHa OT 19 ,qeKa6pH 1718 r. 06 YKpenIleHa.lM MHCTaHLlMOHHOCTa.'I B cy,qonpoa.l3Bo,QCTBe B COOTBeTCTBI1H C Bb]llIe06pHCOBaHHOH KOHUenUl1e cyn.e6- HOi1 pe<t:>oPMb] Ha'larJbHblM waroM Cyn.e6HOro pe<t:>oPMHpoHaHIDI SlBI1J\OCb OCHOBaHHe lOcrHU-KOJUIerI1H. 3m OCHOBaHHe llOClIe.no- BaJIO (OllHoBpeMeHHo C y4pC}l(1leHHeM erne BOChMH KOJUlen1H) co- rmCHO HMeHHOMYYKa3Y OT 1511eKa6pH 1717 r. [ 11 Y}I(e OlJeHbCKOpo ] 3aKOHQillITI'J1bHb[e i!KTbl ne1pa I. c. 220; 3aKOI-IOJ1Il"I"eJlbCTBO nerpa I. c. 97. B nllTqJaJypC MO)K}{O BCTpeTHTb I1HYIO - OllJI1604HYlO - nalY C01lla- HI1f1lOcTl1u-KOJIJIervrH. 9MWlI7/8i'. (C06eTCK8H HCTOpl1'JeCKaH :JHlll1K.10- ne.1ll1f1 M.. 1976. T. 16 C. 831. E.tjJpe1lf)flQ H. H. Cy.noycTlX)ltCToo POCCMI1... C. 44. Dlla J/Cf!. feHeJHC cyne6Hoi1 BJI!lCTH B POCC(o!lll. C 91). nOHBJleHl1e .nai .oaTb! MO)KHO CBfl3aTb C TeM 06CTOfITbCTBOM, 'JTO nepBb]tj nOKYMeHT. Henocpe.ucrneHHO KaCallWI1HCfI 1OcT1111-KOJ1J1ervrl1. KOTOpblH OKa3aJJCJJ no- MellleH B nepooM nOJIHOM C06paHI1I1 3aKOHOB - .nOK.IJaIl IOcTHU-KOJUlerl1l1 c pe3OJ1JOUI1JJH nerpa I -.1IaTl1posaH KaK pm 9 MIDI 1718 r. (nOJ1Hoe co- 6paHI1e JaKOHOB. T. 5. NQ 3202. C. 568-569). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 181 l1MeHHO KkJl1U-KOJl.l1enm CY)l(1leHO 6WlO B3HTbCR 3a HCnOJ1HeHHe CfIO)f(Hei1rneM 3aD.a4H no nepeycrpoiiCTBY cy.ae6HOH CHCTeMbl Poc- CI-1I-1. KOMY xe nepcmillJlhHO 6bUlO cy.>KLJ.eHO HenocpellCTBeHHo OT- Be'F<lTh Ja nOMOTOBK)I H npOBeneHHe cyne6HhiX npeo6pa30BaHHH? npeJl11leHTOB H BHue-npe3HlleHToB KOJlJlerHH neTp I Ha- 3Ha4WT TeM >Ke YKa30M OT 15 neKa6pJl 1717 r. npH Bhl60pe nep- BblX JlHU HOBb]X opraHOB BJ1aCTH Llapb npHMeHHJI CJle)lylOWHH KaJJ;POBb]H npHHLlHn: npe3HlleHT - pyCCKI1H aJlMHHHCTpaTOp. BI1Ue-npe:U1.lleHl - HHoCTpaHHb]H CneUI18JIHCT (HCKJlIO'-IeHHe 31leCh 6hUlO ClleJiaHO 11HWh DJUI KOJU1entH HHocTpaHHhlX .neJl)I. Coo6pa3Ho OTMe'1eHHoMY npHHUl1JlY. npe:n1.lleHTOM IOcnlU- KOJlJlerHH CTaJI 52-JleTHHH rpa4J Al-LllpeH ApTaMOHOBH'1 MaTBeeB, BI-1Ue-npe3H1leHTOM - 55-neTHHH repMaH ()penepH (Hermann von Brevern). Cb]H 3HaMeHHTOro 60RpHHa A C. MarBeeBa (c KOTOpblM eMY llOBeJlOCb npoBeCTI1 rneCTb 11eT B cCbUlKe). ellBa He nom6- rnHH BO BpeMJI crpeJleUKoro BOCCTaHHSI 1682 f.. C IOHOCTH 11H4HO H3BeCTHhlH neTpY I. A A. MaTBeeB HMeJI K MOMeHTY onpeneJle- HHJi B IOcnlU-KoJU1erHIO 3Ha'1HfeJlhHhIH onhlT rocyn.apCTBeHHoH CJly".A\6hl. K TOMY BpeMeHH fJJill1> Al-LllpeH APTaMOHOBJ.fl1 ycneJl no- 6hlBaTb Ha llOJl>KHOCT5IX llBHHCKOro BoeBOllbl (B 1692-1694 rr.). nOCJIa B rOJIJlal-LllHH (B 1699-1712 rl.). nOC11a B ABCTpHH (B 1712-1715 rd. npe3HlleHTa MOpcKOH aKaIleMHH (c 31 .IIHBa- L npHMe4aTeJlbHO, 'JTOllOi!JKHOCTbJO Bl1ue-npl:"Jl1!leHTd 0Ka3dJJ0I «060i1- neH» feHpHX <DHK, CTaBllll1H JII1111b OPlll1HapHblM COBeTHI1KOM KaMep- KOJIJierHH. He MeHe npHMe4aTCJlbliO, 'JTO BI1Ue-npe3l1!leHTOM KaMep- KOJU1erHH (TO eCTb Henocpeno..-rneHHbIM Ha'JaJlbHHKOM f. <DHKa) ne-rp I HaJHa'll1J\ 1511eKa6pH 1717 r. MarHyca HHpoT!I (Magnus Wilhelm von Nle- roth). B nOJlK)' nOll KOMaHLlOBaHl1eM KOJOjJO£O. CTOI1T HanOMHI1Tb, feHpHx <DI1K CJ1)')K1t/1 B WBe.1lCKOH apMI1I1. npl1'-ll1Ha, no KOTopoi1 ne-rp I He Ha3Ha- 'iHJl f <DHK!I H8 6o.rJec BblCOKYIO 1l0J])KHOCTb, HeHCffiI tI nOHb[He. 13 ilaHHOM cnY'lae HeJ1b3H He pa3D.eJ1I1Tb He.1l0YMeHI1H A. Ue.nep6epra, oT'-lero "raOIi cnoc06Hb]H 'JI1HOBHI1K KaK <DHK He nOJ1Y'1l1J1lnpl1 )"Jpejf(j}eHtll1 KOJ1J1erHH) BJ1I1HTeJ1bHoro nOCTa» (Cederberg A. R. Op. C]l. S. 66). fu.ll nonHOTbl KapTH- HbI CTOI1T ll06aBHTb, 'JTO uapb Bce >Ke He OCTaBIt/1 6e3 HarpIDKIleHI1H BeCbMa aKTI1BHoe YlacTHe feHpl1Xa <DHKa B .nene nonrmoKl1 Cy.ne6H0i1111 aLlMI1- Hl1CTpaTI1BHoi1 pet):JOPM. I1MeHHbIM }IKIDO\t OT 24 neKa6pH 1720 r. KaMep- COBeTHIIIK)' 6bllJO nO)((aJlOBaHO KJJynHoe IIIMeHl1e 06epnarreH (Oberpahlen) B LlepnrcKoM ye3D.e (Ibid. S. 69-70). HOBeUJyIO CBOllK)' llaHHblX 0 llarrbHe- wei1 cy.nb6e f. CDI1Ka, nepe)((HBwero BnOCJIe.nCTBI1I1 JreCsrrnJIen-JlOtO CCb[}]K)' B JlK)'THtO H CKOH'laBweroc.II B 1750 r., eM.: Cepoo fl.. 0. AuMI1HIIC1]XIUI1S1 neTpa I. 2-e tlM. M.. 1008. C. 78-79. 
182 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I pH 1716 r.)I. A A MaTBeen OTJII14arJCSI WHpoKOi1 o6pa30BaHHo- CTbID. MMeJI Jl8TI1HCKI1M. nOJlbCKI1M 11 4!paHuY3cKI1M Sl3bIKaMH, HcnblTblBaJI HecoMHeHHblH I1HTepee K JOpl1cnpyneHUt-m l . BMe- CTe C TeM, XOT5I HOB05lBJIeHHblH npe311JleHT lOcrnu-KoJUJenm Ii HMeJl npellCTaBJIeHJ.1e 06 opraHt13aWlH roCy.uaPCTBeHHOro anna- paTa paLla enpondicKwx cTpaH (oco6eHHo rOJUJaH.LIJ1H Ii <DpaH- I..U4""), B rOCYAapCTBeHHOM YCTpOHCTBe WBe)lCKoro KOIX)}leBCTBa OH Op(1eHTHpoBaJIC5I cJlaGo. I1HO" )f(!13HeHHbIH H KapbepHblft. JlYTh K 1717 L nporneJ1 r. IJpeBepH3. EynyuU1H Blme-npe3l1JleHT IOCnm-KOJ1J1enn1 pO- mUlCH 20 HIOJl5I 1663 r. B PHre B ceMbe 3tl>K.IiTo'moro 610prepa l10raHHa 6peBepa. no OKOH'laHHH B 1683 r. PJ.DKCKOf1 n1MH3- 31111 repMaH EpeHep nOCTYnHJ1 B YHI1BepCHTeT B AnbTllo}:$e 611113 HlOpH6epra. npofu151 B 1683-1686 rr. nOJlHb[j:j IC}IpC o6Y4eHH.II B Ha3B3HHOM YHHBepc(1Tere Ii ycnewHO 3aWl-1Hm llHccep-raUHIO no pHTopHKe, r. Epesep HeKOTopoe BpeM5I nocewan 3aHJlTI151 B }'H1.-\BepcHTere l1eHbl. a 3aTeM D.Ha fO.na H3}1'-1aJ1 IOp(1CnpyneHUI1IO B YHHBepC(1TeTe JleiinUl.Jfa. nOCJ1e 3TOro Ha npcrrH&eHm1 ljeTblpeX JleT fepMaH npe- Bep COBepWaJI 06pa30BaTeJ1bHble nOe3.ilKH B npary. BeHY. Pe- reHc6ypf. MIOHxeH. 3aJ1bU6YPf. T(1POJlb. (}>eppapy. <!JJlOpeH- LlHIO. PHM. TYPHH. napH)/(. feHT. AHTBepneH. faary H Jldi.D.eH. 1 HOBeHWYtO CBODI<)' DaHHblX 0 6110rpaI]JI111 A. A. MaTBeeBa eM.: Ce- po6 n. 0. AuMl1HHCIJXlUIt.ll nCTpa I. c. 56-57. YMCCTHO 33Me11fTb, 'JTO 1l0JUKHOCTb npc3HllCHTa MopcKOi1 alQUleMMM A. A. MameeB coxpaH.IIJI 11 noclle Ha3Ha'JeHM.II B IOcmU-KO'l1Il'rl1tO - ».0 3 SlHBapH 1719 r. no.apo6- Hee 0 pyKOBOIlCTBe A. A. MJrseeBbiM MOpCKOli a!caJIeMl1eH eM. B oco6ofi CTan.e 11. M 6anaKl1peooi1 (DaIOKUpe6G fl. M A. A. MaTBeeB BO maBe MOpcKOH alCa!lCMMIil (1716-1718 ro.nb[) II BOCHHOC I1pOUUlOC rocynapcTI!U PoccMikKOJO: yrpa'JcHHoe tI COX(BHeHHOC: M:neptHUlb] Bcepocc. H!I)'4HO- npaVB:6o;ee6AA\r:-tMeJ1acb He06bl'JHO 06Wl1pHIDI lUl.II C!lHOBHtlKa nClJ)OBCKoro BpcMeHtI nOll6opKa KHl1f npaBOBoro Co.ncp- >KaHI1H. 3Ta nOll60pKa BK.lJt04W1!1. B <rncTHOCTH. CO'IMHCHM.II f. fpowm 11 C. nYHilop4Ja, KQJJ.eKC JOcrI1HHaHa. «flpa60 (/ll!l/l1fJOOlKH! pu-\!.c/(()(">. «Pe- 'z'IaKt!lltnbl /(O{JO-letl KUX» (.n..vnrlO6 c. fl KHl1ra B POCCI1H B nepBoH 'JeT8ePTH X\'I11 8eKa.11.. 1973. C. 225) 3tfuM6oJJ.ee nerd.IJbHoe I1JJ\O)l(CHHe 06crmrreJ\bCTB 6HOrpa$HH fepM..u-rn 6pesepHa CM. B QCTaJIIlJl'MCSI MaJl0I13seCTHb!M B POCCI1I1 I-JJ}aMeHTaJlbHOM reHeaJIOrH4eCKOM MCCJlel1OlklHl111 0 po.ne 6peBepHOB, nolll'OTOlilleHHOM B XIX B feoproM 6peBepHOM. a Tdl0Ke B ynoM5IH}'TbIX Bblwe 3anHCKaX fep- MaHa 6peBepHa (Brellem G. Zur (ie..chlchte del' Famlhe von Bl'evem. Berlin, 1878. Bd. I. S. 23-5S, Hermann's von Brcvcm Leben. S. 225-259). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 183 5 OKUI6p}l 1694 L lllBellCK(1M KOIX)}lb Kap.ll XI B03BeJ1 repM3H8 6peBepa B nBOpS'lHcKoe nOCTOHHCTBO, napoBaB npH 3TOM (]>a- MHJlHIO 6peBepH. rocynapcTBeHHlliI cJ1y.+::6a repMaHa 6peBepH8 Ha<ffiJlaCb B 1693 r., Koma OH nOCT)TIHJI Ha nOJl.:KHOCTb cyDbH B PJ.DKCKHH JlaHllrep(1XT. B 1704 r., no KopoJleBCKOMY yJ<a3Y, r. 6peBepH 6b]JI H83Ha'leH aceccopoM B JlH(]>J1.11HllCKHH aneJIJlS!- 11110HHbIM CYA (nepen(1CJ10LlHpoBaHHbIH K 3TOMY 6peMeHH. CTOHT noBTOpHTb, H3 J].eprrra B PHry). B 1708 L repM8H 6peBepH HeKOTopoe BpeMS! HCnOJ1H5IJI 06S13aHHOCTH JIH$1S'1HllCKOro ry6epH8Topa. a B 1709 L IIblexaJI BMeCTe C CeMbeH H3 PJ.1rJ.t II JlI06eK. nocJle B03BparneHHS'I B 1711 r. B Pm}' (y.+::e 3aHS'll}'1O PYCCKHM(1 BoikKaMH) r. 6peBepH 3aHHJI B aneJlJlS!WlOHHOM cy.ae .aomKHOCTb B(1Lle-npe3l1LleHTa. KTO HMeHHO nopeKOMeHllOBaJI r. 6peBepHa ncrpy IlIJI.II H83Ha'leHI1JI B IOcTJ.1u-KoJlJlen1lo. II T04HOCTI1 OCT8eTC5I He5lCHbIM: no KpaH- HeM Mepe, l1H'lHO uapb C repM8HOM 6pesepHoM no 1717 L He BCTpe'l8JlCn. He HCKJlI04eHO. 'lTO npoTeKuHlO BJ.1Ue-npe3llileHTy aneJIJISlUl10HHOro cyna COCTaIlHJl 3HaBwHH ero pH)f(cKl1ii ry6ep- HaTop n.A. rOJIHUbIH I . 4TO 6bl TaM Ht16bUlO, t1MeHHO 6blBwe- MY DHnJlOMal}' A. A. MaTBeeBY (1 6bIBweMY wBellcKoMY cy.abe r. 6peBepHy.aOBeJ10Cb B 1718 r. B351TbC5I 3a nOCTPOeHHe HOBOro POCC(1MCKOro cy.aa 2 . nepBb]H cepbe3HblH nOllCTyn K peOpraHH33U(1H OTe4eCTBeH- HOro CYllOYCTPOHCTBa IOCTHLl-K0J111erl1n npellnpHHIDI3 B H3'lane MIDI 1718 L Torna A. A. MaTBeeB HanpaBI1JI neTpy I nonroTOB- JIeHHbli1 npt1 8KTHIIHOM Y48CTHH r. 6pcllcpHa 3 ..D.OC100 0 Ko.ue- i!UU IOCmuu,uu». KOTOpbli1 COCTOM t13 nsrr(1 nyHKTOB, COllep)KaB- Wt1X BonpOCbl (1 npocb6bl K uaplO no pa3JlH'IHblM HanpaBJIeH(151M .ae.llTeJlbHOCTI1 KOJlJlerl1H. no BepHOMY Ha6J1I011eHHIO K. neTep- I nOlljJ06HOCm 0 BJaHMOCJ'O{CHlJf'HI1HX r. E'ipeaepHa c n. A. fQJIlllllb]- HbIM eM: Hermann's von Brevem Leben S.246-247. ! <])aKIJ1'1eCKOC BCl)'[]J1eHI1C f. E'ipeBepHa BDOIJ;KHOCTb BHlle-npe:mlleHra COCTOHJlOCb He paHCC nOCJleDHMX <rnCeJ\ anpcml 1718 r., nOCKOJlbKY OH npl1- 6blJl B CaHKT-neTep6ypr nl1Wb 14 anpeJIH (Hermann's von Brevern Leben. S. 249). OcraeTCH ynolllSlHyrb, 'ITO, HecMoTpH Ha BbICOKOCJ6pTIoB1.HHOCTb. fepMaH E'ipeaepH TaK 11 He OMMen rol"CKI1M .113bIKOM. 0 'JeM OTl<poaeHHO ynowlHYJJ B CBOHX 3anl1cKaX (Ibid. S. 247). B peJYJJbTaTe. KaK YllPY'leH- HO KOHCTaTHpoBaJlOCb B 1l0HOWeHI1H K>crnll-KCIIlfIerl1t1 CeHal)' OT 13 MIDI 1719 r., «(ju/(e-npe:1UOeton IT: Epe8epHj u npom'lWl Uf/{XmptllIHbIJIlJ!/eHbI{npu- C)f1llmt!Wl Koue<:uuj:J(j If£'8f'iJetmeu PJ'CI<O;;O RWlUl6eC nepefJOi})' CKOpO 8GJI{'- ItbiXJ=::n": r:r4948. KH. 511.JI.1I3). 
184 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I COHa, 1-13 «1l0KJIM8...» 04emULHO. 4TO Ha MOMeHT em COCT8B- JleHIHI. A A MaTBeeB ewe He I'IMeJl «JICHOro nOHI'IM<1HI-1S1. HM 0 IOpI-.JC1U1KUtm cBoeH KOJUlenm, HH 06 ee Mecre B [pe4>oPMMpye- MOM] cyne6HOM cHcTeMe»l. KaK6bI TO HH 6bUlO. OeTp I He OCTa- BI1J1 6e3 BHHMaHlU1 06paweHHe npe3111leHTa IOcTHU-KOJUJefHH. Y>Ke 9 MIDI 1718 r. uapb c06cmeHHopy<-1HO HaJlO>KW! pe30nlOU(11'1 H8 Bee nYHKTbJ «1loK.JIMa 0 KOJ1J!eml'l fQCTI1UHH» 2. Oco6oe 3Ha4eHl'le .II.1UI naJIbHeihuero xo)];a cyne6HoH pe4>oP- Mb] "Mena Bb]CO'-/aHWIDI pe3OJU0Ul1JI H8 fl. I nOlUmlla A A MaT- BeeM. B 3TOH HaH601lee npOCTpaHHoH 1-'13 pe30JUOUHH OT 9 MaS!. 1718 r. neTp I OnpelleJUIJI: «...flavecmHoMY npuKo3y 6b1mb oco- 6AU80 (OAR YMHOJKeHW1 0e1), OOl/aKO JIC nOG ynfX/6JJelme..., JOcmul{- KO/le2UU. A cnopHble ae.na OAR peweHWI npUHocumb 6 /Ocmul{- Ka1ezUlO. (viJau 6blmb no i:'O}JOiJalf, a Z/I06HbiM 6 KOJlCiJoU zy6ep- HUU no Oal/OMY, a Malble noo OHbIM. a 2/1a8Hbie zy6ep[H]CKue noo JOcmUl4.-KCLlei!UU».J. B npl..me.rreHHoi1 pe30JllOUI11'1 JaKOHO.D.aTeJlb, Bo-nepBbIX, nO.nTBepllHJI peKOHCTpYl'lpOB3HHbli1 Bblllle I'ICXOllHblM 3aMbICeJl H3 C031l8HMe B POCCMM CTporo UeHTpaJIM30B3HHOH cyne6HoH CI'ICTe- Mbl BO maDe C IOCnm-KOJlJlenlei1. a BO-BTOPbIX. BnepBble KOH- KpeTI'I311pOBaJI CDoe Bl1lleHl'le YCTpoi1CTBa HI'I30Bb]X 3DeHbeB 3T0i1 CI'ICTeMbL PeaJJl.13}'JI I'ICXO.rrHblj:j 33Mblcell pectmPMbl, 6YlWWI'lj:j I'IM- nepaTOp orooopl'lJl no.rr'-U1Hem1e IOcTI111-KOJlJlerl1l'1 CTapl'lHHoro nOMecrHoro npl'lK33a - cnem1aJll'l3l1pOBfIHHoro cYlle6Horo op- .-aHa, paCCMaTpMBaBlllero nella no nBopHCKO"'IY 3eMJIeManeHI'lJO (xonl M npl'l COXpaHCHl'I1'I ero CTpyKT)'pHOM 060co6neHHOCTI1). LITO KaCaeTCJI: 6ynyweH opraHl133UMI'I HI'I30BblX 3BeHbeB cy- ne6Hoi1 CI'ICTeMbl, TO M3 BbICO'-laj:jlllej:j pe30J1JOlll1l'1 Ha nepBbli1 nYHKT llOKJ1ana A A MaTBeeBa Bblpl'lCOBb]BaJJaCb cJlel(yIOIl.la.ll KOHcrpyKUI'l5l: nepBoe 3BeHO - ropO,.!J;OBble C}'llb], BTOpoe 3Be- HO - ry6epHCKl1e CYllbl, TpeTbe 3BeHO - IOcTl1u-KoJ]J]erl1. Ko BceMY npo'-leMY (H3 1.J:TO y)f(e yKa3bIBaJIOCb B Jll'ITeparype), no- n06Ha KOHCTpYKUI151 COOTHOCl'lJlacb - nycTb 1'1 B 06UH:lX 1.J:ep- TaX - co lIlBe.rrC KI-1M l'I1leaJIOM: ropolloBble cynbl -lll'lcrpl'lKTHble = : BeCbMaCOllep.lK:lTelJbHoro.nOKYMeHTd 6bLfla ClCyIUlXJBJJf:Ha. CTOHT nOBTOplITb, B nCpBOM nOJiHOM C06paHI1I1 JaKOHOB. a IlOBTOpHIDI (no apXI1BHOVY nOlUlI'IHHI'II<)') - H. A. BOCKpeCeHCKHM (nOJ1- Hoe co6paHI1e 3aKOHOB T 5. NQ 3102. C. 568-569; 3aKOHOl1aTt"JIbHbie aKTbl ne1K0::J;e aKTb] nfiPa I. c. 368. 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 185 CYllbl, ry6epHCKlile cynbl - npOBI1HUI1MbHble CYllbi. KkulU- KOJIJIeflHI - 8neJ1JI5IUHOHHble cynb[]. npH 3TOM npe.nweCTBYfOlllHe 8BTOpbl He ofpanulI1 BHMM<J- HH5I H8 TO 06cT05ITeJ1bCTBo. 11TO B pe30J1fOUH5IX OT 9 M851 1718 r. neTp 1 HH CJ10BOM He ynOM5IHYJ1 0 np8BHTeJ1bCTB}'IOWeM Ce- HaTe. H lleJ10 3,!leCb 6blno He TOJ1bKO B TOM, 'lTO A. A. MameeB He nOCTaBI1J1 B MaMCKOM 1l0KJ1aue BonpOC8 K8C8TeJ1bHO cYlle6HO- l1epapXH'leCKHX B3aHMOOTHOllleHI1M IOcTI1U-KOJ]JlerHI1 11 CeHaTa. He Bbl3bIBaer COf\.1HeHI1M, 'lTO B r.rne 1718 r. 3aKOHQJJ.aTeJ1b ellle He onpeneJ1HJlC5I. COXpaHJlTbJlM Boo6we 3a npaBHTeJ1bCTBYIOIJlI.'IM CeH8TOM cy)];e6Hble 4JYHKmm. To. 11TO neTp I HcnblTblBaJI 3H8'mTeJ1bHble K0J1e6aHHSI H8 3TOT C'-JeT. 0geBHlIHO H3 COCTaBJIeHHOH 110 lleKa6p51 1718 r. nep- 80M pellaKUl111 3aK0H8 «!J.OJ1>KHOCTb CeHaTa». B :noM pellaK!..l1111 HI1 CJlOBa He CKa3aHO 0 lle5lTeJlbHOCTlil CeHaTa KaK opraHa npaBO- CYllH5I 1 . BMeCTe C TeM. CTOJIb)({e O'-leBHlIHO, 'lTO B Mae 1718 r. JaKOH01l3TeJJb H nOMblCJIl1Tb He Mor, '-ITo6bl JlHlllHTb cYlle6HOH Rfl8CTH MOH8pxa. Ha OCHOBaHHH BblllleH3JlO)l(eHHoro npenCTaBJI5leTC5I, 11TO npaKTl1'lecKoe BOnJlOweHHe npHl3eneHHof1 Bblllle pe3OJ11OUHH OT 9 Ma5I 1718 r. MorJ10 6bl npHneCTM K C03ll3HHfO B POCCHH CTpoHHOH 11 BHyrpeHHe UeJ10CTHOH '-JeTb]peX3BeHHoH CHCTe- Mbl CY)];OB o6weH IOpI1CnMKUHH: JUIXIDOBOM cyn - J)'6epHCKI1M CYll - KkTI1U-KOJ]Jlerl1S1 - C<lMOlleJ»Keu . K poMe TOro. Hap5l- 11.Y C ynOMJIHyrb1M B pe301I1OUMH OT '} MaH 1718 r. nOMeCTHblM npMKa30M, K IOcTMu-KoJ1JIerHH KaK K aneJ]Jl5lUHOHHOH HJlH KaK K peBH3HoHHo-pernalOweH HHCTaHUHH MOrJ1H 6bl B nepcneKTH- Be - c006paJHO llYXY HCXO.1lHOro 3aMblCJI8 neT}Ja I - OKaJaTbC5I npHCTb]KOBaHb] H npYrI1e cneLll18JlH3HpOBaHHble CYlIbJ: OT npe- 06pa)l(eHCKOro npl1K338 )];0 KpHrcpexrOB. B 3TOM cJI)"ffie H81l1a CTpaffii nOJi)"-lHJIa 6b] nepelloB}'lO (1lIDKe no CT}JOrl1M esponei1:- CKHM MepKaM) CYlle6HYlO CHCTeMY, cnOC06HylO co BpeMeHeM nepepacTIl B .>KJ.l3Hecnoco6HYfO BeTBb cy)];e6HOM MacrH. OnHaKo npHBeneHHa.sI PeJOJ1lOUIDI OT 9 Ma.sI 1718 r. JlBHJ1acb OTHfO.llb He nOCJ1ellHHM CJlOOOM 3aKOHODaTeJ1Sl. no nceH Bepo.srr- HOCTH, neT]) 1 HCnbITaJI onaCeHHe, '-JTO llaJIbHeHWee p83RHme ero JaMblCJI8 nO(t.aeT BpaJpe3 co CTpaTerl1'-JeCKOH J1HHl1eH Ha M8KCI1- 1/ioa;cl()(CI<.UU M M 06JJacTHIDI pe4x:!pMa nerpa BeJ1I1KOro. C. 167; Peterson C. Gp. C]l P.312-313. !CM.: J:JKOHOlIDTI:J1bHb[e aKTb] ncrpa I. c. 184-185. 
186 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I M<LllbHoe I'ICn0J1b30BaHl1e lllBe11CKoro OnbiTii. A pa3 TaK, TO He06xo- flI.1MO 6bUlO npoo01DKJ.fTh pa6my no an.anraUI1I1 111Be.ncKo MO.JleJll1 cy.noycrpotlcTBa K OTe'lecmeHHblM YCJlOBI.JJlM. no BCef\.iY 3TOM}', oceHblO 1718 r. nmlBlUIHCb DBa npoeKTIl peopraHH3aUHH OTel[e- CTBeHHOH cYlle6HOH CHCTeMbl. 3ro 6bU1H npoeKTbJ npe3M1leHTa IOcn1U-KOJTJlerl1l1 A. A. MaTBeeBa 11 KaMep-COBeTHIilKa reHpHxa <})I1Ka. npoeKT r. <bHKa 6bUi ncmrarOBJIeH no npoCb6e BJ.1Ue- npe3l1!leHTd KkTI1U-KOJU1en1l1 r. EpeBepm, npoeKT A. A. MaT- BeeBa - BO I'ICnOJlHeHHe paCnOpH)I(eHHH CeHaTa OT 3 H05l.6pH 1718 r., B KOTOpOM npennHChlBaJlOCb ('0 'iUHOX 3eMCKUX cyoeii, zae CKa1KO OHbl.M 6b1mb Hod..1eJfCUm. 63f/mb 6e()eHue om npeJUiJeHma /Ocmu-Ko./II1eZuu»]. npoeKT reHpHxa <bHKa 6bUl H3JlO)({eH B yKa- JaHHb]X Bb]llle (,BCenOMaHHdillll1X 3aMe4aHlrnX 06 YCTpoeH(11'1 lllBe;:J;CKI1X BepXHI1X 11 HI1>KHI1X JeMCI«(1X cy.nOB» OT 3 OKT.II6pH 1718 L, npoeKT A. A MaTiJeesa - B em JJ;OHOllleHI1I1 CeHal)' OT 15 HOj.J6pH 1718 r. 06a 3THX npoeKTa OTJlO}f(}\JlHCb K H3CTOJ:lweMY BpeMeHH B y;+::e ynoMHHaBweiicH KHHre 58 4JOJ-UIa (,CeHaT» PoccHiicKOro rocynapCTI3eHHOrO apXHBa DpenHHX aKTon 2 . I3YllY<1H nnelleHbl B HaY'fHbIH 060POT H nnepBb]e npOaHaJlH3HpOBaHbl M. M. l3oroc- JlOBCKIilM. JJ;aHHb]e npOeKTb] BJlOCJ1eACTBHI1 pacCMaT))I1BaJlI1Cb T,UOKe K. ne-repcoHoM,l1. M. l3aJ13KMpeOOH, a T3K)({e aBTOpOM HaCTOJI.lI..leH pa6OTbl J . npoeKT A A MaTBeeBa 113.ll3Jl H. A Boc- ] 3aKoHo.naTeJ1bHb[e aKTb] nerpa I. c. 61. 2PfAUA, 41. 148, KH. 58. .1. 34-35 (npoeKT f. 4II1Ka), n. 314-314 06. (npoeKT A. A. MaTBeesa). «Bcen01J.llaHHeHWHe JaMetmHHH..." Hanl1CaHbl nO-HeMeUKH 11 npe.nCTIJBJI.IIJOT co6oi1 aBTorpa4J feHpl1xa 4II1Ka. Opl1f11HaJI OJarnalVleH: «Unknhunig..te A/ltlI{rlwllgf.n iiber die Eintheilung der tdrwedfidl- en Ober- und Unter-Gemhte». COBpeMeHHblH nepeF!o.1l «BcenOLl!l.3HHeHWl1x JaMe4aHl1it.." Ha PYCCKHi'I .ll3blK Bbl.llBI1Tb Ha cero.1lHH He y.naJIOCb. J lXRoclO6CKUU M. M 06JJacTHaH peqx,pta nerpa BeilI1KOro. C 161- 172, Peler'oon COp. ell P. 319-324; 6o o 1011.1.IpuIOJI. M Cyne6HaH peqx,p- Ma nerpa I c. 119-121; Cep06P.. O. nOLlroTOBKa cy.ne6Holi pe4x:!PMbl nerpa I. c. 821-813. CneL\)'eT OTMeTl1Tb, 'JTO B JunepaT)'pe. Ha'JI1HaH C ynOMj.JHyroro TPYIW M. M. 6orocJ1oUCKoro, yrBeplUL'Iacb HeT04HaH illIT3 H,IIlI1CaHI1.11 «BcenolUl3HHei1uJI.:!x J3Me4tlHI1i1..." - 3 tJeKa6pfl 1718 r. MC)I(- DY TeM. B npocralllJeHHOM PYKOH f. Q)I1Ka B HIDKHeM JleBOM ymy n. 35 KH. 58 BpeMeHI1 COCT,UjJleHI1 Ha3BaHHOrO nOKYMeHTIJ - B Ka'JeCTBe YKa- 3aHI'IH MeC}llli! - COBepllJeHHO OT'-Iernl'IBO 'II1TaeTCH pl1MCNUI uH4Jpa «X". HO HI1KaK He «XII". 
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rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 193 HOWeHl11O K ropo.nOBOMY cyny. TeM caMblM. ry6epHCKl1e cynbl npeBpaTI1JU1Cb 1'13 cyna BTOpora 3BeHa (B KaKOBOM CTaTyce OHM 4JMrypHPOBaJlM B neKa6pbCKOM nOKJIMe A. A. MaTBeeBa) B cyn TpeTbera 3BeHa. B CBOIO O'1epe.nb, IOcTMU-KOJV1erHSI (MMeHOBaB- waHCH nO-npe)({HeMY «BbIWHMM HallBOpHblM cynoM'}) CTaJIa B TpeTheH pelUIKUI'II'I cynoM 'leTBepToro JHeHa. Me)((1()'TeM, Ha nOJT.IIX Bce TO" >Ke Tpen.eH penaKU111'1 npoeK- Ta 3<'1KOHa OT 19 neKa6p51 1718 r. n05lBHJIaCb BeCbM8 I1HTepeCHaJ1 ceKPeT.'lpcKllil nOMem: "lla'iOJlCUmb. e 6blmb iVlD8HbIM cydall»l. B 3TOH naKOHl'IllHOH nOMeTe oTpa3HJTOCb Ha'1aJ1bHOe pa3MblllUle- Hl'le JaKOHOllaTCJUI 06 OpraHI'lJawm KaKOra-TO HOBora - cpell- Hero no HepapXH'1eCKOMY n0J10)({eHI'lIO - JBeHa cy.ne6Hoii Ct1CTe- Mbl. npt1 3TOM Dt1CJ10KaUt1S1 COCTaBJTSlBWHX ::ITO 3BeHO cyDOB He nOJJ>KHa 6bUla COBnMaTb C aLlMI1HHClpaTI1BHO-TeppI1TOpl1aJlbHbIM neJTeHl1eM CTp3HbL OKOH'JaTeJ1bHO ll8.HHbJH 3<'1Mb]CeJ1 uapH CJlO)l(I1J]CSl B xone paJpa60TKI1 npellnOCJlenHeiJ, nJIToi1 penaKlil1I1 J.."lKOHOnpoeKTa. B 3TOH penaKUt1M nelp I co6cTBeHHop)l'-IHO BbmpaBI1JI BTOpoH nyHKT neKa6pbcKoro nOKJ1aua A. A. MaTBeeBa. Tenepb 3aK./lIO'm- TeJlbHOe npelln0J10)l(eHt1e naHHoro nyHKTa CTaJlO 'lHTaTbCH TaK: «...A Haa HUMU 6ceMU {ZOpoiJ08bJMU U np08UHliUa1bHbIMU CJoOaMuJ 6 3HamHbIX Zy6epHUfiX Ylfpe:>lCaeH 6yaem 6blUlUWU HaiJeopHOii (}YJ,,2. 113 npl1BeneHHoro npelln0J10)l(eHHSI co BCe" OT'JeTllI1BOCTblO BblpHCOBaJlOCb HOBoe 3BeHO OTe'JeCTBeHHoi1 cYlle6HO" CI1CTeMb]: Me)l(lJeft10H8JlbHble HMBopHble cynbl (no MHepUt1M nponamKaB- lime HMCHOBaTbCH «BblllllllHMt1»). I1HbIMt1 CJ10BaMt1, BHeCeHt1e B JaKOHOnpOeKT npOUt1U1pOBaHHOro npelln0J10)l(eHt1J1 03HaqanO. 1.jTO 3aKOHOnaTeJlb npHllIeJ1 K pellleHHIO - nOlI O'lenHllHblM BJ1t1- SlHI1eM r. cDMKa (a. 6bffb MO>KeT, TaK)I(e r. 6peBepHa 11 A. J1106e- paca) - 0 nepeHeCeHHI1 Ha OTe'leCTBeHHYIO n01.jBY KOHCTPYKl..t1111 llIBenCKI1X aneJIJlSlW10HHbiX cynoB. HapJUlY c 3THM. npH non- fOTOBKe nSlTO" pe.naKUHI1 nelp I BHOBb CHeJI B e.!lI1Hoe JBeHO ropOD.OBble 11 npOBHHUt1aJ1bHble cynbl, a JaO.!lHO YCTpaHI1JI TaKoe paHee npoeKTHpOBaBllIeeCH 3BeHO cyne6HoH CMCTeMbl. KaK He OTneJIeHHblH OT opraHa ynpaBJIeHI1S1 ry6epHCKM" cyn. '-ITO KacaeTCH IOcTHU-KOJIJTenJI'I (paJlleJI 0 KOTOpOH He Me- HRJlC.II co BTOP OH pe.naKUHH), TO B nSITOH pe.naKUI1H OHa npe- 13aKoHonareIJbHble aKTbl nerpa I. c. 374 2TaM )1(1:. C. 375. CrJOBa «6 31/Wf/I/biX Z}t3epHwv:: JJ<lpeJlCrJeH 6yiJem» Bnl1- CaHb] nerpoM I. 
194 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I BpaUIJIaCb B aneJIJUIl.l110HHYiO I1HCTaHUHIO no OTHOrneHI-UO K HallBOpHblM Cy.naM. a TalOKe EHOBb 06peJ18 CTm)'c cyna 'IpeTbero 3Bem. OOCKOJ1bKY B XOlle pa3pa6oTKH rnecTOj..j pen.aKUHI1 pa3neJ1 JaKOHonpoeKTa, Kac8Bwt1ilcH opraHH3aWJH cyna. He nOllBeprC5I 60Jlee 113MeHeHt1SJM, I1MeHHO cy.noycrPOHCTBeHHble npelln0J10- }l(eHI1.11 mrroi1 penaKUI1M oGpen" cWlY 3aKOH8. B "Tore, comaCHO JaKOHY OT 19 JJ;eKa6pJl 1718 r. CYJJ;OM nepBOro (OCHOBHOro) 3BeHa CTaJIl1 ropo.nOBble 11 npOBHHl.lI1aJlbHb]e cyllbl (KOTopble npl1 no));- roTOBKe wecToi1 pe!lliKUI1I1 33KoHonpoeKT<i OeTp I o603Ha'-jl1J] e1l,l1HblM TepMt1HOM <'HWICHue cydu..). CynoM BToporo 3BeH8 CTaJU1 HallBOpHble cynbl. cynoM Tpe- Them 3BeHa. KaK y;+:e fibUlO CKa3aHO, - IOcTHU-KOJUlenUi. HeJlb- 351 He OTMeTHTb, "ITO KaK 0 ropOllOBblX 11 np0DJ.fHUHaJTbHbl)". TaK (1 0 HallBopHblX CYJIaX B CT. 2 3aKOHa rOBopWlOCb B 6YAYllIeM BpeMeH(1, (1X OCHOBaHMe B lIeKa6pe 1718 r. TOJ1bKO npellnOJ1ara- flOCh. B KfI'-JeCTBe 3neJ1J151U(10HHoi1I-1HCTaHllim no OTHOWeHl-11O K IOcrnu-KOMerl1l-1 B 3aKOHe OT 19 .aeKa6pH 1718 r. onpe1leJ1}JJ1c5I npamrrellbCTBYlOllmi1 CeHaT. npl-1 :nOM, KflK }0Ke OTMe<ffiJ1OCh Bblwe, comaCHO CT. 4 xapmcrepl-13}'eMoro 3aKOHa, .ae.rm MomH nOC1)'naTb B cy.ae6Hoe npOr13B01lCTBO CeHaTa flt1Wb C caHKllHH MOHapxa ('-jTO napaJIJleJ1bHO 3aKpeJll151J10cb. CTOHT nOBTOpHTb, B CT. 4 JaKOHa «lloJ])KHOCTh CeHaTa» B pen.aKUHH OT .aeKa6p51 1718 r.). A BOT cy.ae6Hble peweHH5I, BblHeceHHble npaBHTeJ1bCTBytO- WI-1M CeHaTOM. nepeCMOTpy }0Ke He nOlUle)f(aJ]H HM B KaKOM no- pH.QKe. ComaCHO CT. 5 3aKOHa OT 19.aeKa6p.ll 1718 r. npl1HOCMTb 'leJ106HTHble Ha peWeHI-1Jl CeHaTa Bocnpell.laJlOCb noli. yrpo30i1 cMepTHOI-1 Kfl3HM I . TeM caMblM, no CMbICJ1Y Ha3BaHHOH CTaTbH, npaBHTeJ1bCTB)'IOLUHi1 CeHaT npeBpaWaJ1C.II B CYll 6b1CWeZO 3Be- HR. npl11l3H11e CeHaTY nOJIHoMo'-mi1 Bblcwei1 cyne6Hoi1 HH- CTaHUI-1M He 03H8'-JaJlO, O.1lH3KO, J1l-1l11eHH}J TaKOBb]X nOJlHOMOlJHi1 MOHapxa. CTOMT OroBOpHTb, npaB.1la, 'lTO C03113.HHe KflKoii-J1I160 C-rpYK1Ypbl, KOTOpa51 06De1lHH5IJIa 6bl MOHapxa 11 CeHaT B .QeJle ompaBJ1eHHSJ n paBocy.QH5I (Hanoll06He lIIBelicKoi1 KopoJleBcKoi1 I Cnen,yeT OTMeT1fTh.. 'JTO 3anpeT Ha nona'J)' aneJlJ1J1Ul10HHblX JKaJl06 Ha peweHI1H CeHaTa He 03Ha'JaJl alX:OsllOTHOro 3anpeTa Ha o6palUeHl1e no.1l- naHHblX K MOHapxy. KaK}')Ke roBopWlOCb paHee. comacHo CT. 7 3aKOHa OT 19 lleKa6pH 1718 r.. nO-npeJKHeM)' .nonYCI<aJlOCb npHMoe 113ReIUeHI1e caMO- llCPJKWI 0 rocy.napcTBeHHb]X npecryllJlCHlII.IIX (no nepBb[M .nBYM «n:yHt..T.JM" JaKOHa OT 25 .IIHB<]p.ll 1715 r.). 
rIlaBa 3.  CY,Qe6HO pe4xJPMbl nerpa I 195 cyne6HoH peBI131-m 11JJl.1 Bb]CllIeH cyne6HOH peBI13HH 113 npoeKITI r. (])JI(Ka) B 3aKOHe OT 19 neKa6p51 1718 f. He npe.aycM8TpHBa- J1OCb. DOJlee TOro: no 6YKBe 3aKOHa OT 19neKa6pH 1718 r. caMO- nep)({eu nillKe HeCKOJlbKO o6oco6J1HJlc5I OT CeH8rn B cvne6HoM OTHoweHHH. no CT. 6 pacCMaTpHnaeMoro 3aKOHa (B KOTOpoif. KCTaTI1, 3aKOHOD.aTeJlb nO<JTH nOCJlOBHO BOCnp0I13BeJ1 npOUHTHpoBaHHoe Bblwe npe.D.JIO)({eHHe 1-13 n. 6 neKa6pbcKom nOKJIana A. A. MaT- BeeBa l ). npaBI1TeJlbCTBYIOWI1H CeH3T Mor B CJiYlJae 3aTpynHe- HHSI B pa36HpaTeJlbCTBe cyne6Horo ne.na 06pawaTbC5I K MOHapxy (BbIHOCHBweMY B :nOM CJiYlJ8e pellleHHe ellHHOJlH<JHO). TeM He MeHee, He Bbl3bIBaeT COMHeHHii. 'HO. no 3aKOHY OT 19neKa6pH 1718 f.. caMOllep)({eu BCe-TaKI1 He 06pa30BbIBaJI C060H OTlleJ1b- Hoe 3BeHO CYlle6HOH CHCTeMbL HCXODJI H3 CMbICJ1a CT. 4 H CT. 6 33K0H3. MOH3pX 3aHHMaJI no OTHoweHHIO K CeHaTY K3K op- raHY npaBocynl1S1 nOJ!Q)KeHHe CKOpee npellce.nareJ1S1 cyne6Horo IlpHcyrCTBH}J. HO HHKaK He BblllieCTosnueH HHCTaHUHI-I.llpyrHMM CJ10B3MH, B 3aKOHe OT 19 neKa6pH 1718 f. 3aKOHOllaTeJlb paCCMa- TpHBaJI npaBHTeJlbCTB}'lOllil1H CeHaT H caMOllep)({ll8 B Ka'leCTBe eduHo2o 3BeHa cyne6HoH CHCTeMbl. T3KHM 06pa3oM. B 3aKOHe OT 1911eKa6p51 1718 f. OKa3aJ13Cb 3aI1KCMpOBaH8 'leTblpeX3BeHHa5I cyne6Ha51 CHCTeM8: HM)({HHi1 CYll (rnpolloBOit/npoBI1HUMaJlbHbIH) - HarIBOpHblH crn  KOJUJerM5I - IIJXtBHTeJlbCTByJOlliHI-I ceHaT/caMOllep.>Keu . b:n M BCnOMHHTb, 'lTO nBa HH30BbiX 3BeH3 :nOM CHCTeMbl ellie TOJIh- KO npe.aCTOHJlO comaBaTb, MO)({}{O co BCeii onpeneJleHHOCTblO ymep>K1laTb. 'lTO B 3aKOHe OT 19 neKa6pH 1718 r. 3ane'JaTJleJlC5I OKOH'IaTeJIbHbli1 IaMblCeJl neT]Ja I no peopraHH3aUI1H OTe'le- CTBeHHoro cY1{a. HH3'le rOBop5l. B paCCMOTpeHHOM 38KOHe 6bUJa H."lJ1O.>KeHa nporpaMMa pe1ll31Olltem :;nan3 cyne6Hoi1 pe<tXJPMbl B 06J1aCTI1 cynoY CTpoHCTBa. [3aKOHOD.aTeJlbHb]e 3KTbi neTpa I. c. 379; cp.: TaM >Ke. C. 373. 1 He;lbJH lie OqJaTI1Tb BHI1MaHl1e tta HeT04HOCTb B I'IHTepnpeTaUHI1 CY.IlO\l.-rpoicTBeHHbIX nOJlO>KeHI1i1 JaKOHa OT 19 neN16p.ll 1718 r., .nony- llieHHyJO K. neTepcoHoM. WBeJlCKHW npaBOBe.n oIlJl160'IHO C'leJl (BOnpeKH CMblCJIY CT. 2 :J:lKOH1.) OTHOCHlllHMCfI K pa:JHbIM 3BeHhIIM cyne6How CIilCTeMbI ropo.noBble 11 npoBI1HUHaJJbHbie CYDbI. BcJ1enCTBl1e :noro K neTepcoH npl1- weJ1 K HeBepHoMY Rbi BOllY 06yraep)IQeHI1I1 B JaKOHe OT 19 neKaf\p.lll718 r. nRmUJ(JeHHOU cyne6Ho CIICTelllbI (Petersvn C. Op. cit. P. 326). OcracTC.II llOOaRI1Tb, 'JTO 3aKOH OT 19 neKa6pH 1718 r. 6bUl HeJa\ten.III1TeJ1bHO l13.1laH B TOM >Ke 1718 r mnorpa<tx:KI1, npH'JeM nBV\tJIl'MpIDl{3MI1 rlOilpHil (Onl1ca- Hl1e l13llaHI1 J]JrdAI.IJOIHCKOi1 ne-.aTH... C. l'Ui). 
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fIl8Ba 4. OCHOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 213 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. JUf'll1e OT KOJ1J1emi1. B rc$repl1xrax OTCyrCTBOBMH COBeTHHKI1). KaHUeJI5Ipl1lO COCTaBJUiJU1 KonHHCTb]. no.nKaHUeJI5IpI1CTbl, KaHUe- lliIpl1CTbl H HOTapl1Yc, KOropblX B03rJ1aBJHUI .nb5lK I1JII1 }l(e ceKpe- T3Pb. HaKoHeu, «HH}I(}{He CJI}I}KIITeJTH» 6bUlH npellCT8BJleHbl TeMH }l(e CTopo»:ID.IH, paCCbUlbWHKaMH H 3aJUle'IHbIMH MaCrepaMH. KpynHeiiwHM no 'mcneHHOCTI1 KaHueJl.llpCKoro 11 TeXHH'le- CKoro nepCOHMa cpe.!l.l1 ore<jeCTBeHHbIX HMBOpHblX CYJJ;OB .llRII.IIJI- C5I MOCKOBCKI1i1. no COCTO.llHI1IO Ha 51HBapb 1722 r. B MOCKOB- CKOM rorepl1xre Tpynl1Jll1Cb ceMepo eynei1 (BI1Ue-npe3I11leHT 11 llIeCTb aceccopoB), 28 K8Hue1l5lpcKJ..:Ix CJly:>K8lllm (n.Ba ceKpeTap.ll, JJ;Ba .nMIKa, HOTapHYC. nJlTb KaHUeJISlpHCTOB, BOceMb nOllKaHue- J1S1pHCTOB. II KOnI1I1CToB) 11 llIeCTepo CTopo)f(eii (no KYPbepaM 11 3aJUle'lHb1M MaCTepaM CBelleHI1S1 OTcyrcTB}ItOT). no naHHblM }l(e Ha 1726 r.. B MOCKOBCKOM HaasOpHOM eyne pa6OTaJII1 weCTepo cynei1: (npe3HlleHT 11 n.llTb aceccopOB), 27 KaHueJUlpCK(1X CJ1Y- }l(aW(1x. Tpoe cTopo)f(ei1:. 12 paCCblJ1bWI1KOB 111lBOe 3aJUle<jHblX M8CTepOB[ . B npo'll1x rorepIXTa" llITaTbl 6bUlH cKpoMHee: 4-6 cy- JJ;ef1 H 14-16 KaHueJl5lpcKI1X «CJIy)KI£reJ1eii». Hanp(1Mep, B Bo- pOHe)f(CKOM HaLlBOpHOM cYJJ;e B $enpaJle 1723 r. COCTO.llJlH 'leTBe- po cYJJ;eH 11 14 KaHUeJIJlpCK(1X CJ1}')KaWl1x. LJeTblpe rOlla cnYCTJI. B 1726 r. B BOpOHe)l(CKOM rorepHxre 'lHCJlI1JIOCb }')Ke llIeCTb cynei1: (npe3HlleHT, B(1ue-npe3HlleHT 11 'leTBepO aceccopoB). no- npe)l(HeMY 14 KaHUemlpcKJ..:IX CJI}')KaIl.lI1X 11 nnoe CTopo>Kei1:. A BOT n H81160Jlee ynaJIeHHOM OT CTOJ1I1U EHI1CeHCKOM HaJIBOpHOM cy.ne n 1726 r. TpymlJlHCb llIecrepo CYJJ;ef1, 14 KaHueJl5lpcKHx CJ1y.:Ka- Il.lHX (n.Boe ceKpempeH, 'leTBepO KaHueJlHpHCTOB 11 BoceMb KO- nl1l1CTon) H nnoe CTOpO}l(ef1 2 . Oco6oe YCTpOi1:CTBO I1MeJI P(1}1(CKI1i1: rc$repHxT, n KOTOpOM 6bUl B HenpHKocHoneHHOCT(1 coxpaHeH urraT. YCTaHOBJIeHHbli1: ell.le WBellaM(1 B 1630 r. nOllo6H3.11 cneUI1(]mK3 opraH(13aUI1I1 cyna B p(1re 6b1JIa - B o6weM BHl1e - nO.nTBep}l()1eHa B .>KarJ0- BaHHOH rpaMOTe ropony PHre OT 30 ceHTH6pJl 1710 r. B .naHHoH rp8More OroBa pl1BaJlOCb. 'ITa pIDKCKHe >KHTeJlH COxpaHRIJI1 «ece I PfADA, 41. 286. KH. 1. n. 125-116 06.; /Uq;wloe H K. YKa3. C04. C. II]. lprAllA,4J.285.on.I.KH.5951,NQ IOl.JI.l06.-3;/wpluOfl H. K. YKa]. C04 C. 183. Il6. CBeD.eHI1H 0 llITaTax CaHKT-neTep6yprcKoro. KaJaHCKOro, KjJl:KOro, HI1JKeroponcKoro, C\foneHCKOro. T060J1bCKOro l1.Rpoc.naBCKoro HaLlBOpHblX Cy.nOB - no C()('T().IIHl1tO Ha 1716 r.; eM.: TaM )l(e. C. 41, 101. 155-156.173,206.214.260. 
214 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I UX npll6UlUU [npufJUJlf'2UUJ zpaiJcKue. npa60, cmamymbl, Cyi)bL. KOK OHU omdpe6qe OHbie u om ax;yiJclpeii do zocyOapeu do ceco 'iUC- /10 nOf/y'fWlU U Wlft?1U"I. BnOCJlellCTBHt1 oc06oCTb plUKcKoro cynoycrpoikTBa Ha- UlJ1a DOnOJlHHTeJlbHOe 3aJ<penJleHHe B CT. 21 ceHaTCKoro YKa3a OT 15 mOHS! 1722 r., H3llaHHoro B OTBeT H8 o6paweHHe lIenyra- '-U"'" >K1.ueJleiJ P"UH H nOHb]He He OCBeli\anwerOC51 II HCTOpHKO- npaBOBGM JlI..JTeparype 2 . B I-1TOre. B 1726 r., KaK H B XVII 8., B PIt>KCKOM HaJ1BOpHOM eyne COCTOHJUI 13 cynei1 (npe3J.U\eHT, BI1Ue- npe:u11leHT H II aceccopoB). o6ep-<fJHcKaJI, l.JeTBepo KaHue.rulp- CIVIX CJ1y.:KalllHX 11 weCTb TeXHHl.JeCKHX cOTpynHHKoB ('leTsepo <<CIIYJlCume.;reii npu Jt"JCeiJaHuu.} H llBOe «i!orjRepu.,:mcKllX c..1JV&)3. POCCHi1CKoe BJ1I1JiHHe np05iBJIJlJlOCb JlHlllb B TOM, <ITO npe3HlleH- TOM Ha3BaHHOro cYJU H8 npOHDKeHI.fI.1 1715-1729 fr. HaJH8'laJI- C5I pJ.DKCKI1i1 reHepaJI-ry6eplUlTOp. LITO KaC8erC5I npOBHHWiMbHb]X CYAOB, TO, nOl106Ho. KkrnU-KOMerl1J.f 1-1 ro$repI1XT8M. o.HI1 COCTOSInI1 1-13 KOMern- arIbHo.ro cyn.e6Ho.ro npl1cyrCTBWI, KaHueJl5lpcKJ..1X 1-1 TeXHW.leCKJ..1X CJ1)'JK3lID1X. rJI8Ba npoBI1HUHallbHo.ro cyn.a Ho.CHJI Ho.BOBBelleHHblH <II-1H o.6ep-JI8HllP}lArepa ('lTo., HeCo.MHeHHo.. HBJUlJIo.Cb o.T3BYKo.M paccMOlpeHHo.ro Bblwe npo.eKTa A. A. M8TBeeBa o.T 15 Hoo6p51 1718 r.). no.ll H8'laJIo.M o.6ep-JIaH;:qmxrepa o.6blKHo.BeHHo. pa6o- TaJUI 3-4 cynei1-aceccopoB 1-1 18-20 KaHUeJI.IIPCKHX CJlY.AillIl.lI1X. TaK, B .HpOCJl3BCKo.M npoBI-1HUI-1a.JIbHo.M cyn.e B anpeJIe 1722 r. Tpyn.I1.I1I-1Cb o6ep-JIaH;:qJIL'ITep, 'leTBepo aceCCo.PoB. 21 KaHUeJl}[p- CKHH CJly.:KaWHH 1-1 n.Boe CTOtx>.:.KCit J.1 TOJ1bKO B KpynHcHlllcM MOCKo.BCKOM npo.BI1HUl1arIbHo.M cyn.e B HHBape To.ro)({e 1722 r. 'lI-1CJlI-1J1HCb 'leTBepO CYlleH (o.6ep-JIaHllPI-1XTep 11 TpI-1 aceccopa) 11 39 KaHueJTHpCKJ.fX CJT)l)KaWI1X (He C'lHTaH HeoKllauHbIX)4. CBen;eHI1i1 0. I.lfJaTaX ropo.no.BblX cyno.B Bbl5lBHTb K HaCTOH- weMY BpeMeHI1 He Yn.arJo.Cb. HaCKOJIbKO Mo..>KHo. no.HHTb no. KOC- BeHHblM n.aHHbIM, TaKo.Bb[e WTaTbl 6blJll-1 HeBeJ1I-1KI1: npl-1 ropo1l0- BOM cyn.he COCTOMI1 2-3 MJIa.lUlJl-1X KaHueJlSlpcKI.JX CJIIl.lI.JX H 1-2 TeXHI-1<1eCKI1X Co.TPYllHHKa. HI-1 n.bHKOB, H" ceKPeTapei1. HI-1 HOTapl-1YCo.B B ro Po.llo.BblX cyn.ax He npellYCM8TpI-1BaJ1OCb. ] 3aKOHOllaTJ1bCTBO nCTpa I. c. 506. = Ti. :: \\HI1.11 0 urrarax 1630 r. CM.: KiM- fib/fib B. E. YKa3 C04. C. 78. 4PfNJ.A, 4J. 286. KH. 2. JI. 229-2]0; 41. 285. on. I. KH. 5947. NQ 104. JI. 6-6 06. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 215 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. OCTaeTCfI n06amlTb. 'lTO, KaK MO)l(HO Bl11leTb 113 <iPXI1BHb]X MaTepI1aJlOB. WraTb] pyKOBODl.neJ]e «npl1cyrCTBI1» pe<}:>oPMI-1- poBaHHbJX opraHOB npaBocynHfI YKOMfUleKTOBblBa.nI1Cb B nep- BOti '1eTBepn1 XVIII B. He nOJIHOCTbJO. CKIDKeM, BeCb nepl10n cyweCTBOBaHI151 6e3 npe311LleHTOB npopa6OTaJTI1 SlpOCJlaBCKHH 11 CaHKT-nerep6yprcKI-1H (!) HannopHble cynb!. B MOCKOBCKOM )((e rorepl1XTe npe:3I'1)J;eHT BnepBble nOflBWlCJI 11I1Wb B I1IOHe 1725 L. Ha llIecro roll nOCJle OCHOBaHI1J1 CYAa. Bcero JlB3 rolla (1722-1724 rr.) OTpCl6oT'<lIJ BI-1Ue-npe:uw:eHT B Ka3C1HcKoM HM- BOpHOM cy.ne. lJ,a 11 caMa IOcTl1U-KOJ1J1enHI - nOCJle nOCJIe.no- BaBweti 3 HIOJI5I 1721 r. KOH'1HHbl r. EpeBepHa l - OCTImaJIaCb 6e3 BJ.me-npe3I11leHTa no 1726 r. lla.nee CTOHT 3aT})OHYfb Bonpoc 06 06'beMe JOpl1CD.l1Klll10HHblX nOJIHOM0411H pe<}:>opMI1POBaHHblX opraHOB npaBocynl1Sl. lJ.;JJI Ha- '-JaJla I1MeeT CMblCJI OrOBopliiTb. '-JTO OTe1..JecTl1eHHbIH 3aKOHQQaTeJlb nepBO 'leTBepn1 XVIII B.. B OT111'14He OT COBpeMeHHoro, He pa3- neAA1I - Ha TeopeTlt'leCKOM ypOHHe - cynbl 06wel-1 1'1 Cnelli1arJb- HOti IOpI.JC.nHKUI.JI1. BMecre C reM, no.n06Hoe ne.nCHHe y.>Ke Ha'l.l1- HaJlO MillIo-noMWIY OC03HaBaTbCH - eCJII1 11 He CaMJ.:IM nerpOM I. TO PYKOBOlll1TeJIHMI1 IOcnm-KoJUJeml'l. BeCbMa nOKa3aTeJlbHbIH B 3TOM OTHOWeHl'I11 parMeHT 6bUl BHeceH B OXapaKTepl130BaHHblH Bbille «lJ,OKJI<J.[J; 0 KOJIJIen.m IQCnlUI1I1» OT MIDI 1718 L CTOI1T nOBTOpI1Tb, 'lTO B HCI'lliJIbHOM pa3.DeJle nOKJIaJJ.a, no- CBHweHHOM llIBellCKI1M ClneJUJ5I1l110HHbiM cynClM. 6bUlO. nO cyllle- CTBY. .naHO onpe.rreJIeHl1e cy.na 06meH JOpI-1C.nI1KUHH: 3TO TaKofi cy.n, B KOTopoM «6e3 8CRK020 U3bHmUR 8ce Oe,qa omnpa8.1RlOmCR, I(Otn0phle DO IOcmuquu HoiJAeJICOllroJ.. ECJIH Y'-JeCTb, JTO .nOKJIM no.nnl1can A A. MaTBeeB, a pa31leJI 0 llIBeliCKOM cy.nOYCTPOH- CTBe roTOBI1JI r. EpeBepH 3 , TO MO)l(HO KOHCTaTl1pOB3'Tb, 'lTO l11leJl o cy.nax 06meH IOpI.JC.n(1Klli111 y.>Ke BblKpl1CTaJUJI130BbIBaJTaCb HCI pOCCI-1HCKOH nO'-lBe. B OKOH'lareJIbHOM mille KOMneTeHlll1J1 Kkrnu-KOJUJerl1l1 6bUia onpelleJIeHa 3aKOHo.naTeJIeM B npl1HUl1nl1aJlbHO Ba)I(HOM .wJSI pa3BI1TH5I BCei-i OTe'JeCTBeHHoii KOJUJe)((CKOH C(1CTeMbl yno- MI1HaBWeMCH 3aKOHe OT 12 .neKa6pfI 1718 r., OCHOBHOH pa3.ll.eJI Koroporo I1MeJI OTBe'laBWee co.nep)((aHI1JO 3arJIaBJ.fe: «0 OOAJKHO- [13m!em G Op. dr. S. 52. TeJ10 f. EipeBepHa 6blJ1o nepeBeJeHO B PHI)', me Top)l(eCTBeHHO 3aXopoHeHo 23 4;JeBpmul 1723 r. B 4JaMlUlbHoi1 rpo6HI1Ue B co60pe CB. neTPa (Ibid.). ! 3aKOHon;m::nbHb]e flKTb[ nCTpa I. c. 368. -' Hcrmann's von BI'C\Im Lelx:n. S. 149. 
216 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I emu KOuaeii, IJmo 6 KomopoU J'IlfX161R11Jb 1/oJ,1e:JK'Um». B H33BaH- HOM 3aKOHe Kpyr Be.D.eHIHI IOcn1U-KOJlJleOfl1 pem3MeHTl-1poBaJI- C5I CKOJlh eMKo, CTOJIh H t1ClIepnblffiUOllle: «CydHbIR U p03blCKHbiR iJeAD. B lllOU JKe K()iUe2UU U nuuecHoii npllKl13»I. Kmo'leooe ycraHoBJIeHHe npm3e.LleHHOrO $pafMeHTa - 3aKpe- nJleHl1e B BelleH"" KOJlJlenn1 6('j¥JHblX U jXfJbICIIlIblX iJeA» - 03Ha'ill- JIO, 'ITO pacCMOTpeHJ.UQ IOCTIlU-KQJ1,'1erl1H n0lll1e)IQUJl.1 6e3 J.f31>JITHSI RCeyroJIOBHb]e «]J03bICKI/bl€») (1 rpIDK1laHCKl-1e «<qrlHble» )neJIa. npl1 3TOM HeJ1b3S1 He 06paTlHb BHI1MaHHe H8 3Ha'll1TeJlbHoe CXOllCTBO npI1Be.neHHoro4JparMeHTa I1MeHHoroYKa3aOT 12.neKa6pSl1718 r. c pacCMOTpeHHOH Bblwe 4>oPMY1111poBKOH neTpa I 113 npellBapt1- TeJIbHOH pocnHCH KOJlJ1emH 1717 r.: «JOcmu-KO'l&UYM - eCflKou cyiJ 60 6bCex Oe'leW. TeM caMblM, CJlellYeT KOHCTaTHpoBaTb. 1.jTO B .neKa6pe 1718 r. 3aKOHOJI.aTel]b (B C()('1JEt'1'CTEHH co CBOHM J.fC- XOJl,HblM 33Mb]CJ!OM) H<\,I:I;eJ]HJ] IOcTI1U-KOJlJlermO nOJIHOMOYHSlMJ.f cyna 06111ei1 topHCllI1KW1H. Hap5l.D.Y C 3TI1M, BCT. 3 33K0H8 OT 19 neKa6p.l1 1718 r. 6blllO nOn'l.epKH}TO. 'l.TO IOcnm-KOJ1J1erH.I1 Y'-lpe)K.D.eHa .ocofh,U60 mO/lb- 1(0 tUR pampaebJ [omnpoe.,reHuR npaoocyi)uRJ,,2. KpoMe TOro, CTOHT BcnOMHHTb. <ITO, no CT. 3 H83BaHHOrO 3aKOHa. IOcTI1U-KOJ1J1enUI 3aHIDIa B pe$JPMHPOBaHHOH cyne6HoH CHCTeMe POCCHH nOJ1O- >KeHHe cyna Tpen,ero 3BeHa TeM caMblM, He Bb]3blBaeT CO1He- H51H, '1.1'0 IOcTIm-KoJ1J1erHSI B03HI1KJ1a HMeHHO KaK opraH npaBO- cynl1S1. no BceMY 3TOMY HaJ.'lMeHOB3HI1e non06Horo cyne6Horo opraHa «KOJlIlerHeti" - KaKOBblM 06meeBponeiicKJ.'I npHH.I1TblM TepM51HOM 0603Ha'l.aJl51cb Torn.a ueHTpaJIbHble opraHbl BJIaCTH C 51CKJllOlJ51TeJlbHO (11)151 npeHMYlliecTBeHHo) aiJMuHucmpamU81/OU KOMneTeHUHei1 - CJ1ellYeT np513HaTb HeTO'lHbIM. HeynHBI1TeJ1bHO, 'l.TO 3Ta TepMHH0J10r51'1.eCKa5I Hecoo6pa3- HOCTb (OCTIlBWaJlCSI, npaB.D.a, He3aMelJeHHoi1 nCTOpl1KaMH H npa- BOBellliMH XIX - Ha'lalUi XXI 8.) Bb[3BlliIa BO.3pIDKeHH.I1 Y reHpl1.'1(3 <tII1Ka. KOTOPb[i1 nOnE>lTaJlcn n06I1TbDI nepeJ.'lMeHOBaHHfl IOcnm- KOJLIlerHH. B 3anl1CKe OT 9 HOH6p.l1 1723 r. r. <tIHK npe1lJlo>KJ.U1 Ha3BaTb IOcTHU-KOJUIerHIO dOc:mul{-poowueu.., CnpaBe1lJlHBO OT- MenlB, 'ITO ./10 o6bJKIfO(jet/uIO 8cex /WpoiJo6 om zocyiJapcm8eHHOU 1(00000Je/U ane411IRU10 Y'IUHUmb He 1jf(}")J(1f('J»\ BnpOlJeM, nO'l.aCTH HaHMeHOBaHHSI KOJUlefHH COOH pC30Hbl MOfJIl1 6bITb 51 Y neTpa I- ] 3aKoo0.1I.aRl1bCTBO nerpa I c. 98. 23aKoHOlWTtJ1bHb[t aKTb] nerpa I. c. 378. JpfNJ.A, 41.148. KH. 58. JI. 51 06. (COBp. nepeB01l). 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 217 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. Bo-nepBblx, He06xoLUIMO nOBTopHTb. '-HO HOMHHaJibHO CTOKfOJIbMCKI1H 8neJlJUIUHOHHbli1 cyn (Svea hovriitt) TatoKe BXO- nl1J[ B 'lHCJlO KOJUlemM ('lTO 6bLllO 3aKpenJleHO elUe fPopMoH npaBJIeHHH 1634 r.)I. 0 'leM. KOHe'lHO )ICe, 6bLllO H3BeCTHO poc- cHilcKoMY uapfO. BO-BTopb[)', He06XOLUtMO OTMeTHTb, 'lTO - B 3H8'lHTeJlbHOe oTcryTUJeHHe OT WRe.D;CKHX (H Boo6we eBponei1- CKHX) 06paJuoB - nel]) 1 C'leJI Heo6xo.D;HMblM BBeCTH B POCCHH HHCfHTyr eyne6Horo ynpaBJIeHHSI, 'lTO npe.nnOJIarano C03JlaHHe B TOM 'lHCJle H UeH1]JaJlbHoro opraHa eyne6Horo ynpaBJIeHH}[. 3rI1M-TO opraHOM H CTaJIa IOcTHU-KOJIJIerH}[2 - XOTH HarreJle- HHe ee KaKHMH-J1H60 aIlMHHHCl])aTHBHhIMH nOJIHOMO<UlHMH H8- npHMYfO He oroBapHBaJIOCh HH B o.UHOM 3<1KOHO.1l8TeJlhHOM mcre nepBoi1 <JeTnepnf XVIII B.' LJ..n.ll Ha'lafm CTOHT OTMeTHTb, 'ITO B onHCblBaeMblH nepHO.D; IOcTHU-KOJlJlerHSI 3aHHMallaCb K<J.[IJJOBbIM o6ecne'!.eHHeM cyne6- HhlX opraHOB 06wei1 IOpl1C1lI1KUI1H. I1MeHHo IOcTHU-KOJUlerHJI npelICT3BJ1fLT]8 B npaBl1TeJlbCTBYlOllUfM CeH8T KaH1ll11wrypb] DJm Ha3Ha'!.eHI1JI Ha CJ1e.aYlOlliHe cYlIe6Hhle lIOJDKHOCTH: aceccopOB H COBeTHHKOB B co6CTBeHHoe npHcyTCTBlle, aceccopoB HaIlBOpHhlX eynoB, 06ep-J18HllPt1XTepoB H aceccopoB npOlmHUt1arJhHhlX cy- lIOn. Ha.JHa':leHHe ropollOBhlX eynei1 IOcnJU-KOJlJlerHSI npoH3BO- nHJTa caMOCTQjHeJlbHO (3<1 HCKJ1f04eHHeM CH6HpH). COOTBeTCTBeHHO, no npe.ncraRlleHJ.f1O IOcTHU-KOJIJIerI1H ocyweCTRIl5UIOC b H YBOJlbHeHJ.fe cynei1 HMBOpHblX J.f npoBHHUH- [Peterson C. Op. cit. P.31O. 1 CBe.neHHH 06 arI\iI1HHcrpaTHBHoi1 1K'srreJJhH()CTII KkmU-KOIlJ]erHH nepBOH '1e1'Bl'pT11 XVIII B. BJilITepmype eM.: 60.?0c,/06CKUU M M 06;'1aCTHIDI pe$opMa neTPa Be;mroro. C. 182-183; '1e.Jbli06-&6J'11l06 M A. YKa3. C04. C. 702. CmeuIfflKO JI. A. 06pa30BaHHe Ko'L'lCrI1HIOCnuU1l1... C. 6S, 001aKU- peea JI. M CYlle6HaH pe4x:!pMa ncrpa I. C. 151-160; Poccl1i1CKaH IOcrHU- KOJUlefHH. C. 33; Eq;pewoea H. H. feHeJHC cy.ne6Hoi1 RJlaCTl1... C. 91, 93; .AKuunut M O. Cy.ne6HaH pe4>oPMa neTPa I: llHC ... C. 187-188. JD;1.II nOJlHOTbl KaprHHbI CTOI1T 3aMeTi1Tb, 'JTO B oJll1cblBaeMbli1 ne- PHo.n OprdHI1JaUI10HHo-p}'KODOD.SJ1llI1e 4JYHKUHIII IOCnm-KOIlJ]erI1H npe.n- nOJJafaJI 4JparMeHTapHO JaKpelU1Tb Be1l0MCTBeHHb]H HOpMOTBopeU B CT. 2 ynoMHHyroro npoeKT3 HHCllJ}'KUHH HarIBOpHOMY cy.ny OT .neKa6pH 1722 r. B Ha3BaHHytO CTaTblO 6blJ10 BHeceHO npl'WJQJKeHl1e. B KOTOpOM - XOTH 11 B HeCKonbKO PacruJb]B'JaTOii I]>opMe - fOBOpWlOCb 0 nOll'lI1HCHI1H IOcrHU- KOJIefHH KaK opraHY ynpaBJIeHI1.11 H3llBOPHb]X cynoB (<<OHOU IHa060pHwul l}-Dwo!.l!l!m ceoe nptl61l'11Ul' nod i!..1UeHbIM cvompl'Hue.\1 U Had3upaHueM f"ocy- OOfXmeeHHQU IOc:mulj-/C(ut!mu U 6ce<:iJa no y'W3aM mou KO.1emu uc..nol- Ifumb OO,/.JlCl!H'» (l.>ozoc..'I(J6Cf;UU M M. 06JlacTHaH pe4JoPMa neTPa BeJlHKO- roo npllllruKCHI1.11. c. 6). 
218 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I MbHb]X cynOB. fOlXtliOBblX cynei1 OTCTpaHRJl3 OT llOJDKHOCTI1 11 YBOJIbHAAa CaM3 IOcmU-KOJlJlefJ.ffl.. HanpHMep. paCnOpI.)Kem1eM OT 8 HHBapH 1722 r., IOcnm-KOJlllefl1H OTCTpaHl1Jl8 OT .nOJDK- Hocm MypoMcKoro Cyn.bJO C. BJlMbIKHHa, B CMJI1 C HeHa!IJle- >KaWHM BblnOJlHeHl1eM KOTOpblM CJI}')Ke6HbIX o6H3aHHocTeH 61>LJI CQRepWeH no6er rpynnbl co.aep>KaRWHXC.II JlOll CTp3)f(eH B ropo- JIOBOM CY)J;e oco60 on3CHb]X npecrynHJ.fKOB I . KpOMe Tom, IOcnU.l-KOJ]J]enrn ofuJaD.aJl8 npaBOM HaJl3- raTb H3 CYllei1 HH)I(eCT05llUI1X cynOB lU1CW'lnJlJ.fHapHble 631>[- CKaHHH. B TOM 'u.JCJle B opMe .neHe>KHbIX llITpaOB. TaK. Ja HapyrneHHe nopHllKa lleJIOnpOH3BOllCrna IOcnm-KOJlJlerHH OWTpill}JOBaJla B 1723 r. Ha BHYlllHTeJlI>HYfO CYMMY B 300 py- 6nCH CYlle6Hoe npHcyrcTBHe MOCKoBcKoro HarlBOpHOro cy.ua, a B 1724 r. - Ha CYMMY B 100 py611ef1 cyne6Hoe npHcyrCTBHe K333HCKOro rotlJrepHxTa 1 . Ho pa3perneHHeM Ka;lJJ0Bb]X Bonpo- COB opr3HI-133l{HOHHO-PYKOB01UlWa51 pOJIb IOcHIU-KoJlJlerl1J.f He orpaHJ.f'lJ.fBaJl8Cb. OpH BceM TOM, 'lTO, H8CKOJlbKO H3BeCTHO, IOcTHU- KOJUlenl51 (B OTJlH'lHe OT MJ.fHJ.fCTepcTBajHapKOMaTa JOCTHUHH XIX-XX BB.) He npoBOllHJ18 B neT)JOBCKOe BpeM5I peUJ.f3HH cy- .uOB, OHa peryJlJlpHO nOJly-Jan8 OT rowrepHXTOB P83HOo6pa3HYIO OT'JeTHOCTb, H8'lJ.1HaJI co CBelleHJ.fH 0 HaJIl1'lHOHlleHe)l(HOH Ka3He 11 JJ;0 CBelleHJ.1H 0 KOJIJ.f'leCTBe JlJ.fU, HaxOllI1BWJ.fXC5I nOlI CTpa)l(eH. OOPMOK npe.nOCTIlBJIeHJ.f51 OT'leTHOCTI1 (KaKOBOH J.fCXOllHO pe- rJl8MeHTl1poBaJIC5I pa3po3HeHHO I1JltaHHblMI1 H He BWIBJIeHHblMI1 JJ;OHbIHe BCllOMCTBeHHblMIil aKTaM(1) npelln0Jl8raJIOCb 3aKpenJ.fTb B I1HCTPYKUI1H HallBOpHblM CYJJ;aM. npoeKT KOTOpOH 6bVI. CTOHT HanOMHHTb. p83pa6oTaH B IOcTJ1U-KOJ1J1erl1J.f 11 Hanp8BJ1eH Ha yrBep)l(,!leHJ.1e B CeH8T BJJ;eKa6pe 1722 r. B CT. 27 J.f 28 Ha.JBaHHO- ro npoeKTII npell.1laraJIOCb, 'lTo6bl OT'JeTbl 0 nOCl)'ruJeHJ.fJ.1 lleHe)l(- HblX cpe.nCTB HMBopHbie cyllb] HanpaBJUIJIJ.f B IOcnJU-KOJ1J1erl1lO nOMeCH'lHO, 8 OT'JeTbl 0 Bb]HeCeHHbIX J.f yrnep)l(,!leHHblX npJ.ffO- BOpa"<. B KOTOpblX Ha3Ha'l8JlHCb CMepTH851 Ka3Hb IlJII1 CCbVIKa Ha KaTopry. - no TpeT5IM ro.n.a 3 . OOMI1MO HCT]JeGoBaHI151 OT"lernOCrn, IOcTHU-KOJ1J1em51 113- .uanaJla 06weo6513aTeJ1bHble ll..IUI Hl1}1(eCTOSlWI1X CYJJ;OB pacnop5l- }l(eHJ.f51 aIlMJ.fHJ.1 CTpaTHBHOro xapaKTepa. TaK, pacnop5l>KeHl1eM 8 0,:;.' 5p::;'ha BeJlI1KOro. C. 181. 3TaM )I(. npIJI())I(CHIilSI. c. 17-19. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 219 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. IOcrnU-KoJUlerl1l1 OT 14 3BJ)'CTa 1719 r., HMBOpHblM 14 «HI1)((- HHM» cynaM 6bV10 3anpeWeHO pac.xon.OBan co6l1paBlIIHec5I HMI1 nOllUlHHHbie CYMMhl 6e3 COrJJaC0I38HI151 C KOJlf\erHett. A pacno- p])KeHHeM OT 12 51Hl3ap51 1722 r. 1Oc1l1U-KOJ1J1erHSI npen.JlHCaJla «noalfuHeHHbIM qila'll" YCKOpJ.fTb p336HpaTeJ1hCTBO Tex D.eJ1. no KO- TOpblM CO,LJ;ep}f(aJlHCb no,LJ; CTpIDKdi nO,LJ;CYllHMble 14 D.OHOCHTeJ1I1 I . BeCbMa JlOKa33TeJ1bHO. '-no, KorD.a B 1723 r npO.llBl1JIaCb TeHlteHI.{I1JI HrHOpHpoBaHH5I roifJrepl1XTaMH paCnOpsi)((eHHM IOCTIJU-KOJiJIerHH (a 38011HO TeHlleHUI151 HeBblruJaTbll1X cyllMIMH HaJlO)/(eHHhlX KOJlf\eme llJTpa(])()I3). 3TO nOCJ1}')KHJ1o OCHOBaHH- eM D.Jl51 06paweHI1JI npoK)'paTyphl IOcTHU-KOJ1J1erHI.J B reHepaJl- npoKYPal)'PY CeHaTa. B SlHB8pe 1724 r. reHepaJl-npoKYPal)'pa npeD.CTaBHJla CeHal)' 1l0K.lla.!l. 0 H8l1BOpHhlX cYD.ax, «U3 KOf1IOfJb1X no lJ,/1I0i?Wrl nOCIIQllllblJrl om /lOcmu-/K(Hezuu YK030M lie ucnOJ/- IIH10m.__ u 60 6ceM IIU1/5lma om IIUX /lIa060pHblX q'iJ06/oCJIywa- 1/UJ/». B OTEeT, yK330M OT 17 SlHBap51 1724 r.. CeHaT npe.nnH- caJI IOcTHU-KOJ1J1efHI.J «lIeoc1a61/oJ. B3blCKHBaTb HaJlO)((eHHb]e Ha cYD.et1 HMOOpHhlX CYD.OB llITpa4JhI 2 . OCTaeTCSI D.o6aBHTh. 'ITO IOcTHU-KOJlf\efi151 onpeneJ1HJ1a MeCTa D.HCJlOKaUlU1 ropoD.OBbiX H, no Bcd.j nep05lTHOCTH. npOBHHUl.JaJlbHhlX Cyn.OB. a TaJOKe D.06H- BaJlach - npl1 Heo6xo,LJ;HMOCTH - OTBona D.JlSl HI1X nOMeweHI.JM (0 'IeM ewe nofu(eT pe'lb HI1>Ke). YMeCTHO TalOKe ynOM5IHyrb, 'ITO B 1723 r. B annapaTe IOCrnU-KOJiJIerHI.J n05lBHJlOCb I.J CTPYKTypHoe nOllPa31leJleHl1e, Ha KOTOpoe 6b1JlH B03l10)KeHhl n011rOTOBKa H peaJII13aUH}! Mepo- npl1S1THt1 KOJlf\Cfi1H B 06J1aCTH cYD.e6Horo ynpaBJ1eHH5I. TaKOBblM nOnpa31leJleHHeM - comacHo )')Ke ynoMI1HaBweMYCSI pacnop5l- )l{eHl.JfO IOcruu-KOJlJlenm OT 13 ceHHl6p51 1723 r. 0 p33D.eJleHI.JH annapaTa KOJlJlerl1H Ha TpH «npaBJ1eHHSI» - CTaJI npHKa3HOH CTOJI BToporo npaBJIeHHSI. B Kpyr BeJJ;eHI.JSI npl.JK33Horo CTOJ1a BOWJlI.J, B 'laClliocnl. BonpoCbl K<J.[IJJOBOro 06eCne'leHI1S1 HI-1>Ke- CT05l111HX cyD.OB «<cnucOic 6cex lIao60pHblX u 1/u:JICHUX C)!dOB cyObJlM U celCpemap5lM»)3. HCXOM 1.J3 Bb!WeI.J3Jlo.:+::eHHoro. CJ1ellYeT co Bcd.j onpe- D.eJleHHOCThIO KOHCTaTHpOBaTb, <ITO IOcTHU-KOJlJlerH5I ocy- weCTBJlSlJ/a B nepBoH 'leTBepTH XVIII B. <WHKUHfO cyn.e6Horo I PrNJ.A, <fl. 282, on. I, NQ 11595, JI. 1906.; DaJIaKupeeG JI. M. Cyne6- HaHManeTPalC.258. JW: *: ::: :.JJ21t3775 06. 
220 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I ynpaBJIeHI.fS1 - npH'leM DJl5I pa3perneHHfI 3aa3'!. KaK KOHlpOJlbHO- Onepan1BHb]X. TaK J.f OpraHI-13alli10HHO-X0351ticTseHHbIX. 011H3KO npHo6peTeHHe IOcnm-KOJUlen.Jd:i 4>YHKIU1H cYlle6Horo ynpaB- JIeHH.sI OTHK>llb He 03Ha<ffi.110 ee TpaHa]>opMam....1 B KJl8CCH'lecK)'JO KOMen-flO, B npeHM}'WeCTBeHHO aIlMt1HI1CTPaTHBHbIH opraH. KaK npellCTaRiTSleTC5I, IOcnJU-KOJTJlenm JlBJlSUTaCb Bce-TaKH cy.ne6- HblM opraHOM. npOCTO 3anOJl)"-lHBllUfM - B Ka'leCTBe iJonOdI/U- meJ/bHOu. <l>YHKLlJ.f11 - nOJIHOMO'lH5I no ynpaBJIeHIHO HI-UKecr05!- WI1MI1 OpraHaMJ.f npaSOCYllHn]. I1MeHHo no::nOMY H3J.fMeHOB<lHJ.fe neTpOM I cylla Tpen,ero 3BeH3 «KOJLIlemeH» CJle.nyeT npH3HaTh TepMHHOJIOn:l'lCCKOH HCTO'lHOCTblO. BnOJIHe, BnpO<leM, 06"b5lCHH- MOM HanpmKeHHOH OOCTaHOBKOH MaCWm6Hblx rocYllapCTBeHHblx npeo6paJoBaHHH. lho 6bl TaM HJ.f 6b]JlO, CYJJ;e6HblJ.f opraH, HMeHOBaBIIUfHC5I «lOcn1Ll-KOJUJerl1eH», aKK)'MYJUfpoBaJI B cBoeM KOMJleTeHLlMJ.f cy- ne6Hb]e JlOJlHOMO'-l11.l1 pHlla nopecpopMeHHb]X a;IMHHHCTpan1BHO- cyne6HbiX opraHoH. Ewe A A MaTBeeB OTMe'lM B nOK1lMe, HaJlpaMeHHoM neTpy I B KOHue 1721 r., 'lTO «nQflo:HCeHOHa KoA- Ae2WO IOCmuf.{UU npeJICHUX ceMb npUl,xl308, mo ecmb flQUecHOU, cya- Hble 6ce, CblCKHOU, 3eua..-ou...»2. B caMOM nelle, na)!(e npH 6ernoM B3rJ1H1le Ha cynoYCTpof1CTBO POCC",H XVII - H8'iM8 XVIII B. O'-leBHllHO, '1TO IOcTI1U-KOllllenul 3aMeHI1JI8 c060H Ce.Mh cywe- CTBOBaBWI1X K 1696 r. JlpHKa30B (BJ1MI1MHpCK(1j:j CYllHbIH,lI.BOp- UOBblH cynHblH, 3eMCKI1H. MOCKOBCKI1H cynHb]H, nar]:mapllmH cynHhlt1, nOMeCTHb]H 11 ChICKHOt1 - 6blHilll1t1 Pa36ojfHblt1). a TaJOKe He ynoMHHyryfO B nOKJlane A A MaTBeeBa 4JYHKUI10HI1- poBaBrnylO C 1713 r. PacnpaBHyJO nMal}' CeHaTa. ] YMCCTHO 1lO5.uJmb.. 'ITO nOllo5HIDI MOllCJ1b cyne6Horo ynpaBJIcHI1H OK oa.rmCb noBrOpHO 3JlI130saH!I B HallJei1 CTp!lHe B 1]JeTbei1 'JeTBepm XX B. B BeCbMa CXODHOH C IOcTHU-KOJUlerl1eH ponl1 cyna TpeTbero JBeHa, 06peMeHeHHoro npH 3TOM nOJ1HOM0411S1MI1 no cy.ne6HOMY ynpaBJ1eHI4JO, Bbl- CT)'naJI BepXOBHbIH cy.n PC$CP B 1%3-1970 rr. - B nepl10Ll npeJ..pIlUe- HI1.11 ne.ll1"fJlbHOCTI.J MIIIHI1CTcpcrBa tOCTl1U11I1 PC$CP (no.llp06Hee 05 JfOM eM: KUJt1KOO A. If. I-h IIICTopl111 neHTeJJbHOCTH I3epwBHOro cy.na PODCP no ocyweCTBlleHllltO cyne5Horo ynpaBlleHI1H II (1CTOPI1KO-tOpI11lH4eCKl1e HCClel1OII8Hl1.11 npaBOBblX I1HCTHT)'TOB 11 roCYll8pcTBeHHbiX )"Jpejf(j}eHI1i1 CCC:b::;'ICCP31B'Jr85O::BO B06- UleM BI11I.e He pa3 YK£13b]BaJ!OCb BJlI1Tepa1)'JJe (Cmt!lJH!HIW Jl. A. 06pa30lklHl1e KOJl:ierI1I1IOCTHUI1I1...C. 65; Petemm COp. Clt P 307,AI/I./CuM()8 E. B. fo- cynapcTBeHHble npe06pa30BaHWI... C. 117, 6a"w..upe8a Jl. M Cy.ne6HaH pe- I]>opM!I ncrp!l I c. 382) 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 221 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. 113 nepe<lI'lCJ1eHHb]X npHKa30B lliITb OKa3ll1ll'lCb ynpa.mHeHbl B 1698-1709 rr. (CbICKHOH, I\1OCKOBCMUI, BJ1aDJ1MHpcKlUI, Oarpl1- apllm 1'1 DBOPUOBbIIt eynHble). Onl1H - peopraHH30BaH B 1719 f. (3eMCKJ.1H npHKa3 - B MOCKOBCKJ.1H npoBI1HUl1aJ]bHblH eyn). 00- MeCTHblH npl1Ka3 B 1718 r. BOWeJ1 B cocraB IOcTI1U-KOJlJ1erl1l1 B Ka1.J:eCTRe OTneJ1bHoro CTpyKTYPHOro nOllPa3lI.eJleHH5I - B01"'-l11H- HOit KaHueJUlpm1 (nepeI'lMeHOBaHH011 3aTeM B B01"'-lI1HH)'K> KOHTO- py). PacnpaBHa5I nMara CeHaTa, KaK }0Ke ynoMHHMOCb, 6bU1a B 1719 r. npe06pa301xulli B CaHKT-Oerep6yprCKI1M HaD.BOpMbIM cyn. OOKa3aTeJlbHO. I.JTO caMa IOcnm-KOJ1Jlen:lSl oc06eHHo peB- Ht1BO OTHeCJIaCb K YHacJ1enOBaHHhIM OT CblCKHOro (Pa36oHHoro) npl1Ki.na nOJIHOMO'II'I5IM MOHOnOJlbHoro paCCMOTpeHt1Sl neJl no TaKI1M npeCTynJleHHSlM, KaK YMhlWJleHHOe y6l'1ikmo. pro6ml 11 rpa6e>K (TaTb6a). TaKOBb]e co6cTBeHHbie nOJIHOM04HJI KOJlJlerMJI C04JIa He06xOJJ;HMb]M nonTBep.nI'lTb B Cnelli'!aJ1bHOM pacnop5l>Ke- HHI'IOT IS SlHBap51 1719 r., B KOTOpOM oroBapl'lBaJIOCb. 'ITO "'-KpO- Me UII03eM06, IIUKOKUM fItOORM U3MlmbLtt U3 CyOO mou KOJ/euu lie 6b1mb... 6 deJJax y6u6cm8eHl/bIX, pa360UHbIX u mamUllblX, KpoMe roma oc06 orjJUepcKux U co.liJomCKllX, U1U Komopble oco60 eeiJoMbi 6 KaHe mpuu flpeofipuJlCeHCKOeO u AiJMupOJ/meitcmea»l. B OTJ1H1.J:l'le OT IOcTt1U-KOJlJlerHH, Kpyr BeneHI1SI KOTOpOH onpeneJlSIJI 3aKOHo.naTeJlb, KOMneTeHUHSI H<l.U,BOpHblX 1'1 «HI'I)/(- HI'IX» cynOB peryJ1l'1poBaJIaCb B neTPOBCKoe BpeMJI BenOMCTBeH- HhlMI'I aKTIlMI'I. OepBblM 1'13 nOn06Hb]X aKIOB JlBI1JIC5I Bb[llIeHa3- BaHHhlH nmOBOI1 Ha...-u ropOllOBblM cynb}IM 1719 r. COrJIaCHO HaKa3Y, K BeneHHIO ropolloBOro cyna 6hU1t1 OTHeceHhl «qdHblJl U po3biCKHbIR U CblCKl/biR U npOm'iUR 3eMCKUR iJeJJa, npullaiJ_1eJ/CaUJl iJo rocyiJapcmeeHHou K&I.JeZUU IOCmul{uu,>2. TaKt1M 06paJoM. no Wl'lpOTe 3aKpenJleHHbiX B HaKa3e nOJIHOM041'1H roponoBoH eyll TalOKe cneltyer OTHeCTJII K CYllaM 06weM IOpl'lCltl1KUHI'I. MeHee nOltp06Ho OKa.JaJlaCb B nepBoM 1.J:eTBepTl'I XVIII B. HOpMaTI1BHO 3aKpen.n:eH8 KOMneTeHUI1JI HallBOpHblX eynOB. J1I'1Wb B pacnOp5l>KeHt1H IOcTHU-KOJlJlernH OT IS I11OJl5I 1719 r. 060p- raHt13aUt1H pa60TbI pe<tJopMl'lpoBaHHblx opraHoB npaBocynl1Sl Me)f(lly I1HOrO oronapl1Ba110Ch. ITO fOpl'lCnl1KUI151 ro<tJrepl'IXTOB pacnpoC"rpaHWJaCh Ha «6CflKue c.t1(mbie U p03b1CKHble U npo'iue npu- HaO:le:HcoU411e iJo /(o,ueeuu IOcmulJ,UU OeJI(J»J CXOD;Hb]M 06pa30M B I UI1T. no: Cmelueww JI. A O6paJooaHl1e KOJU1er1111 IOCTI1UI1H C. 66. ;, :6HaB'l';'403. c. 712. 
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226 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Cyne6Ho-HcnOJlHI..rreJIbCKa5I. neJUeJlbHOCTh peOpMl1pOBaH- HblX OpraHOB npaBOcymlJl JaKJUO'-!aJlaCb B Opraml3aUi1l'l npHBe- neHI-UI B t1CnOJlHeHHe KaK C06cTBeHHbIX npHroBOpoB 11 peweHt1ii, TaK H ymep>KlleHHblX nplifOBOpoB HmKeCTOlUI1X cyne6HblX I1H- CTaHUt1it K npHMepy, II MapTa 1725 f. JlPOCJ18BCKHH HallBOp- HblH cy.a. ymepDI1B npHroBOp, BbIHeceHHblH Cy.ae6HbIM opraHOM KI1HeWMb] no neJIY 0 DBOiiHOM y6i'likTBe, npe.U,JlI1CaJI npOlU- Been'! CMepTHYIO Ka3Hb JJ;BOI1X OCY)(([leHHbIX no MeCTY COBeprne- Him npeCl)'JlJIeHlm - B KI1HeWMe, a TpeTbero Ocy}l(!leHHoro - B JlpOCJlaBJIe l . full npliroBopeHHblii 3U[BJI}/j} nepe,Q Ka3HblO 0 .>Ke- JIaHrU1 naTI> HOBbie nOKaJaHHH, eyn Mor npellnJ.JCaTb OTJiO}f(}jTb «3KCeKYUI1JO'}. HOTaplUlJlbHble opraHbl (COCTOflBWHe c 1701 r. B BelleHl111 OCOGOfO np(1KaJa KpenOCTHblX 11eJl) 6blJll1 nepe.naHbI B Be)J;eHHe IQcnm-KOJlJlenm I1MeHHblM YKa30M OT 16 eBpaJISi 1719 r. Bo HCnOJlHeHl1eAaHHOro YKa3a, pacnOpIDKemlJ]MH IOcTl1u-KoJUlel"I1H OT 2 H4 MapTa 1719 r., B CaHKT-neTep6ypre npH KOJVIeOm 6blfla C03.D8Ha KpenocTHM KOHTOpa, CTIlBW3J1 PYKOBOllHIJ.ll.1M opmHOM poccHi1cKom HOT3pHarn l .llef1cTBoB3BlUHe Ha MecTax B pOlm CO- B}JeMeHHbIX HOTapHYCOB «nucbI KpellocmHbIX de,. JlH60 BOllJJTI1 B COCTaB KpenOCTHblX KOHTOp. y-Jpe>Kl1eHHbIX npH Har:\BOPHbIX CYAax, JlI160 nepellum B no.n'lHHeHl1e «HI1)((HHM» cylUlM. npHMe4aTeJlbHO, 'lTO Opl"aHI13alll10HHoe np"KperuJeHl1e HOTap(1aJlbHblX opraHOB K Cyn.aM pa3JI114Hb]X ypOlmei1 npe.Q- nOJIamJlOCh B 06weM Bl1lLe 3aKpenl1Th B CT. 33 I"JI. 2-H KH. 1 npoeKTa YJlO}f(eHHJI POCCI1HCKOm mCYAapcrna 1723-1726 rr. (<<6Ce oeAo Kpef1()(mHbJX KOHmop, 2iJe nUUlymo Kpef/OCmU, eeiJomb U OHbIM wiJep:JlCOHUe ILwemb 8 Ko.tle2UU IOcmuuu U 8 noiJlfuHeH- HblX (})-'. KpoMe Tom. npl1KpenJleHl1e HOTapl1aJlbHb]X op- mHOB K HMBOpHblM H npOBI1Hl.lI1aJlbHblM cynaM npe1I.JlamJlOCb pemaMeHTl1pOBaTb B CT. 36 npoeKTa HHCTPYKUI1I1 HaLlBOpHOMY cyAy OT neKa6p51 1722 r. 11 B CT. 16 npoeKTa HHCTPY1'-UH(1 npo- BHHUMaJlhHOMY cyny OT 111OW! 1722 r. 4 B I1TOl"e. no. BBTOpl1TeT- HblM D8HHbIM H . K. Kl1pHJlOB3. B 1726 r. Kpeno.CTHble KOHTOpbl H 9;.=} 'Jl M C03ll3HHe KpenOCTHoH KOHTopbl npHIOCTI111-K0J1JJerHI1 (1719 r.) II POCCHHCKoe caMOnep;;G3BHe 11 6tOp)lq:m"H.II C. 201-118. u41: 'X:.. 'c 4JopMa ne1pa BenI1KOro. npl1Jlo- >KeHI1H. Cll. 37. 
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228 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HI1f! HB .nOT C'leT llOBeJ10Cb BCTpeTl1Tb Jll1l1Ib K:'ICareJJ.bHO oKpyra CaHia-rle-rep6yprCKoro Ha.1limpHOrO cyna. B KOropblH Bin) r. BXOD.IUU1 .fiBa npOBHHUHarJbHhlX eyna (CaHKT-rleTep6yprcKHHI1 HOBropollcKI1f1) 11 14 ropollOBblX cynos l . '-ITO KacaeTCfi <]JYHKUiU1 CYlle6Horo ynpaBJIeHUI, TO 3.LleCh CJ1e.1lYeT, npe}l(!{e Rcero, OTMemTh, 'iTO B nOll411HeHHe Hxl>rep(1X- TaM JlOJlaJIH BXQJIJiBW(1e B (1X OKpyfa roponOBble 11 npOm1HUl-I3J1b- Hhle CYllbL XapaKTepHO, 'iTO HaneneHl1e HarIBOpHblX CYllOB clJYHK- uHei'i cyn.e6Horo ynpaBJIeHI151 HI1KaK He 6bUIO ()«IK 11 B CJly'-l8e c IOcrnU-KOJ1JlerHeii) 38Kpel1JleHO Ha 3aKOHOnaTeJ1bHOM ypOBHe. BenOMCTseHHble >Ke 8KThl H8 3TOT C'leT 6hUUI BnepBble t13.LlaHhl, HaCKOJ1bKO YII.8JIOCh YCTaHOBI1Tb, TOJlbKO B 1721 r. ComaCHO pac- nOpfl>KeHt1f1M IOcHJu-KOJ1J1enm OT 15 11 31 MaR 1721 r. (no.11- TBep)l(,!J;eHHb]M 3aTeM pacnop5DKeHHeM OT 24 anpeJUI 1722 r.), npOBl1HU(1aJ]bHbIM 11 ropollOBb]M CYAaM H<UI.Jle)((aJIO BblnOJ1HflTb Bce YKaJaH(1J1 rorepJ.1XTOB, a TaJOKe o6pawancJ1 K HI1M 3a pa3- peweHl1eM JU06b]X BOnpOCOB. HeCKOJlbKO p3Hee, pacnOpJDKeHI1- eM IOCmU-KOJlIlenm OT eBpaJIJl 1721 r., HaIlBOpHblM cy.naM 6bUlO npen.oCTaBJIeHO npaBo H8K./1aD.bIB8Tb H8 cyneii HIDKeCI'OSl- UlJ.1X cy.non nJ.1cUl1nJTI1HapHble B3bICKaHI1J1 (n TOM <II1CJTe 11 n $:>p- Me neHe)f(HblX mfpa$:>B) 6e3 comaCOBaHI1J1 C K)cr(1U-KOJ1JTerl1eH «<lie onUCbi6{lf1Cb 6 TocyOapcmeellllYIO IOCmUI.{-KQuezUIO»)l. o TOM, 4TO CYJIe6Ho-ynpaBJIeH4eCKl1e nOJTHOM0411J1 ro- repl1XTOB J1BJ1W1I1Cb OTHlOllb He CI1MBOJiW-IeCKI1MI1, B03MO)((HO }6eIDtTbCJI H8 npl1Mepe KOHqmI1KTa, pa:uopeBwerOC}1 Me)f(11y Mo- CKOBCKI1M HaD.BOpHbIM 11 MOCKOBCKJ1M npOBI1HUl1aJTbHblM cyna- MI1. 06pa30naBWl1iicH, CTOJ.1T HanOMHI1Tb, nyreM peOpraHI138Ul111 CTapl1HHOrO 3eMcKoro npl1Ka3a, a nOTOMY npHBblKWHH K caMO- CTOJ1TeJTbHOCTI1 11 pacnOJTaraBWI1H KOMneTeHTHblM cyneHcKI1M 11 KaHueJTJlpCKI1M nepCOHaJlOM MOCKOBCK(1H npOBI1HUl1aJ1bHb[H cyn cpa3y 3aHJlJl He3aBl1cI1MYIO n0311UI11O B OTHOWeHl111 MOCKOBCKO- ro ro1>repl1XTa. HeollHoKpaTHo (11 He6e3ycnewHo) BCTynafi C HI1M B cnopbl no npoueccYaJlbHblM oonpocaM (B 48CTHOCH'I, no no- BOllY nOllBen.OMCTBeHHOCTH KOHKpeTHblX neJI). ECTeCTBeHHO, no Mepe 06peTeHI1J1 HaD.BOpHbIM cy.nOM nOJ1HOMO'II1H no cyn.e6HOMY ynpaBJIeHI1JO MOCKOBCKltH npOBHHUHaJlbHb]H cyn OKa3b]BaJlCH ] fopo.noBwe Cy.nb! BL&6opra., Ikm..JKHX J1YK. Toponua. nopxom. Cmpow J1aoorl1. CTapOii PyCbl. nCKOBa. fnosa, H36opcKa. On04KH, OcTpoaa, Kpac- HOro 11 0J10HlUi (PfAllA. 4J. 185. on. I, KH. 5943, NQ 117. JI. 5-5 06.). lpfNlA, 4J. 285. on. I. KH. 5943. NQ 74. n. I; NQ 126, n. I-I 06. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BLoITlile CHCTeMbl CYPPB 229 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. so Bce 60Jlee YH3BI1MOM nOJlO)((eHI1R B more, CYllbl1 npOBI1HUI1- aJlbHOro cyna npomYJlH 11 H3BeCTlUII1 IOCTHU-KOJLIlenuo - no- HOlUeHl1eM OT 28 4>eBpaJul Inl r. - 0 CBOI1X onaceHI1HX. 'ITO cynbl1 ro1>repHXTa (,6yClym HOM Mcmumb 6CRKUMU C60UMU npOUCKU, iJa6w Hac 6 npa60e Haweu 6 'ieM n08peoumb U o6ecUlecmumb 6e3- 6peMfiHHO, Ha 'imo IOHul YJlCe U X6al1lma...»I. HaCKOJlbKO 3llMI1Hl1crpaTI1BHIDI n01l411HeHHOCTb «HH)((HHX» cynOB H311BOpHbIM ycneJUl B H84aJ1e I 720-x rr. YTBep.lIl1TbC5I H8 npaKTI1Ke, MO)((HO Bl1IleTb 11 H8 I1HOM npl1Mepe. nepBb]M co- 06111eHl1eM, KOTOpoe BJIaCTI1 n0J1}"-111J111 0 MaclllTa6HOii aHTI1- npaBI1TeJ1bCTBCHHOii aKUl111 - np0l130111ellllleM 27 MIDI 1722 r. B CI1611pCKOM ropolle Tape MaCCOBOM OTKa3e )((IHeJlef1 npl1CSlraTb HOBOMY (6e3bIM5IHHOMY) HaCJlellHI1K)' npeCTOJIa - crano KpaTKoe llOHeceHl1e «<omnucKo»). nHHO nOCJlaHHoe 29 MIDI 1722 r. np- CKHM ropOllOBblM CYllbeH 11. BepewafJ.1HbIM. H llOHeceHHe 3TO CYllb51 11YKb5lH Bepelllaom H8npaBI1JI He B CH611pCK)'IO ry6ePH- CKYIO KaHUeJ1Jlpl1lO 11 He B npeo6pa>KeHCKl111 npl1K83. a CTporo «no KOMaHlLe» - B T06oJ1bCKI1j..j Ha!lBOpHblj..j CYll. He06xOllt1MO .n06aBI1Th, 'ITO 4>YHKUt11O cYlle6Horo ynpaB- JleHt1S1 ro4>repHXTbI ocyrneCTBJUIJlt1 HellOJlro, Jlt1lUb no cepelU1Hbl 1722 r., no JlI1KBt1llaUt1H «HI1)((HI1X» cynOB, nOJlHOMOlfl1S1 KOTO- pblX nepeuulI1 K ry6epHCKHM H npOBI1Hl.{I1aJlbHblM KaHUeJlSlpH- SlM. H XOHI, KaK CJleltYeT OTMeTI1Tb, 386erIDI Bnepell. npoBHHUH- aJ1bHble 11 ry6epHCKl1e KaHueJJJ]pl1H coxpaHIUJH nOlt'lHHeHHOCTb HMBOpHblM cynaM no BceM BonpocaM, CB5I3aHHbIM C OTnpaBJIe- Ht1eM npaBocynl151 (npl14eM TaKOBYIO I1X nO.D.4t1HeHHOCTb npClt- nOJlaraJlOCb 38KpenHTb B CT. 1 npoeKTa HHCTpYKUI1t1 HMBOpHblM CYllaM OT lleKa6pH 1722 r. 11 B CT. 2, 10 11 13 npOeKTa HHCTPYK- UI1H npOBI1HUHaJlbHOMY cYllY OT I1IOHSI 1722 r. 3 ), BeCTI1 pe4b 0 cYlle6HoM ynpaBJIeHHH 311eCb }0Ke He npHXOllHTCSI. nOCKQJJbKY nO KOMneTeHUl1H ry6epHcKHe 11 npOBI1HUHaJ1bHble KaHUeJl5lpl111 6b1JlI1 He TOJ1bKO opraH8MH npaBOCyD.HfI. HO 11 - B nepBylO Olfe- peltb - OpraHaMI1 06111ero ynpaBJleHI151. B03Bparna5lCb K paCCMOTpeHl11O C06b1THj..j cyne6Horo CTpot1- TeJlbCTBa 1719- 1720 rr., CJlellyeT J<paTKO OCTaHOBI1TbC5I H8 Bonpo- b 2i7.ncB;r:e'' ;lroBCKIDI nOBeCTb 0 Tap- CKI1xc06b11W1X 1722 r. II I'yKonl1CHIDI TPru:JI1UH.II XVI-XIX BB. Ha BOCTOKe POCCI1I1. HOBOCI16H)XK. 1983 C. 58. 3 fu'OC.I06CKUU M. M. 06.rmCTHIDI pc4>oPMa ne1])3 BenI1KOro. npHJlO- )«CHI1H. c. 5, 30. 34, 36. 
230 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I ce 0 TOM. KaK B neHCrBl-neJlbHOCTH np0I1CX01U1JU1 CBepTblBaHl1e cyne6HoH ne5lTeJ1bHOCTI-1 MeCTHb]X OpraHOB o6wero ynpaBJleHiHI 1-1 nepen.a'la COOTBeTCTBYlOWt1X nOJIHOMOl(t1H peq:.opMl1pOSaHHbIM OpraHaM npaBOcym1Sl. 113 apXHBHblX M8repl1aJlOB H TpynoB npe.n- WeCTBeHHI1KOB O"leBHJJ.HO, 'lIO npouecc TaKOBOH nepella"lH ,Ua- JTeKO He Bcern.8 npOHCXOllWl 6ecnpemrrCTseHHO. np(1BblKWl1e K "CCTap'" CJ!O>HlBweMYCJJ e)lJ1HOBJIaCnUQ pefHOHaJlbHble 11 MeCT- Hble aItMI1HI1Clp8ropbl HepenKO npOTI1BWlI1Cb - B C8Mb]X pa3- Hoo6pa3Hb]X q:.opM<tX - ymep.JK1leHlUO H8 nOllBe.nOMCrBeHHbiX reppliTOpIDIX HHKaK He nOllll.I1HeHHbIX HM HOBOSl.BJ1eHHhlX cyneiL BoeBOllbI 11 KOMHccapbl He nepen.aBaJU1 cynbHM neRa, OTKa3b[- SaJlHCb OT BCHKOro B3aHMOlleilcTBHSI C H"MH, npOl101DKaJlI1 (60- npeKH oxapaKTepH30BaHHbiM Bblwe nOJlO>KeHHSlM HHCTPYKUI1H 1719 L) 3aHI1MaTbCfI ompaBJTeHHeM npaBocyn(1S1. TaK, BoeBona BeJlI1KOJIyuKOH npOBI1HU(111 He npellOCTaIlHJI DJUI npl1CJ1aHHOrO rOpollOBoro cynbJ.1 HJ.1KaKoro CJlY.>Ke6HOrO nO- MellleH(1JI. caM pa:ml1paJI cyne6Hbie neJIa, npw-JeM 4eJlo611T'-JI1KOII, KOTopble lice .>Ke 06palllWU1Ch K cynbe. lIoellOlla "ycmpaUfu6aJ/i>. CXOllH8H ctnyaUJ.1H t1MeJl8 MeCTO 11 II Ym(14e, me npOIlJ.1HUH- arIbHblH lIoellOlla He nepellaJI npl16bll3weMY II 4JenpaJIe 1720 r. ropollOIlOMY cym,e HI111eJI. Ht1 KOJIOllHt1KOII, a DJIH pa3MellleHlliI. cyn.a OTlleJI t1:my. y KOTOpOH "U Kp06JlU pG.l8lL1WlUCb, U me'1b om iJoJICOll 6e.1UKOll, U 6 OKOUJKax OKOH'1UH HettI"'. He MeHee THroCT- HID! cmyauml CJTO)f{HJlaCb C OTBOllOM nOMellleHHH DJUI cyna (1 II HOBropOlle. TaM BoellOl1a - npH4eM}0Ke nOCJ1e IIMernaTeJlbCTBa IUf'lHO A. A. MaTBeeBa - npeJI.]10.>K11J! cyny p83MecmTbCH II He- CKOJIbKI1X MaJ1eHbIGlX KOMHaTKax, pacnOJlO)f{eHHblX Han MeCT- HblM Ka6aKoM I . A KOMeHllaHT OJlOHUa reHepaJI-MaHop B. H. feHHI1H (1 BO- lice OTKa3aJICH npJ.1HHTb onpelleJleHHOrO TYn.a cynblQ M. H. )f(eJl- TYX(1Ha. B anpecollaHHoM IOcrI1U-KoJUJerl1l1 llOHOrneH(1(1 OT 18311rycTa 1721 r. B. H. feHH(1H npflMOJlI1HeHHO npeJI.]10)l(HJ], 'lT06bl H83H34311WHj..jCfi H8 OJlOHeu cyllbfi HaxO.DHJlCfi «nO() MoelO KO.M(lHrJOIO U 6e3 Moe20 66etb.vo HUW20 He iJelal»l. B nOllo6HOH 06cTaHOIIKe He npl1XOllt1TCfi YllHBJlfiTbCH, <ITO H83H8'leHHbIH II 1721 r. roPOllOll blM CYllbeii: II Xnb]HOII H.D.. TeJlenHell 336J18rO- I Eoroc.J06CKUU M M 06naCTHIDI pc$JpMo.J nCTpa Iknl1Koro. C. 233- 234. npl1Mepbl IlpOTHBQllej.jcmH.II MeCTHL]X aJIMI1HIIIClpaTOpoB HOOO!iiBI-Ja- 'JeHHbIM CYllbJIM B 1719 r. eM TaK)!(e: 5a.lOl(Up€fJOJ/ M. Cyne5HIDI pe4JopM3 nClfa I. c. 153-256. PfNlA, 4J. 21;5. on. I. KH. 5945. N2222. n. 1. 
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232 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I npl1HI1MaJb .neJ18, CaM(1 BcrynaJiH B KOH4mI1KTb] C BoeBollaMI1 11 ry6epH8ropaMI1, a TO 11 BOnce He Sl.BJlSIJII1Cb K Mecry CJl}I)K6b1. H3BeCTHO, Hanpl.JMep, 'lTD OnpelleJIeHHblj..j 3 I1IOJHI 1719 r. ropoIIOBbiM cynbeH B Ee>KeUiodi Bepx B. H. TapaKaHoB, nOJlY- '111B HaKa3, TaK 11 He npl1CTym1JT K HCnOJIHemllO 06H3aHHOCTeH. B pe3YJTbTaTe '-Jero IOcTl1u-KoJ1J1enul OKa3aJ1aCb Bb]H}0K.!leHa Ha.JHa- 'IlITh TYlW HOBOro cy.nblO. B 1720 r. QT np(1eMa y BoeB01lb] CYAeG- HblX .DeJI 11 KOJIQ1lHI1KOB BCfl4eCKI1 YKJIOH5IJICfI ropo.noBo(::i cyllb51 B Toponue. OnpelleJ1eHHblH cYllbei1 B Apx,lHreJ1bCK H. A. XPI1- nyHoB cpa3Y no npl16blTHI1 BCrynl1Jl B KOH$1t1KT C Bl1Ue- ry6epH8ropOM n. E. J1011bDKeHCKJ.:IM I . KaK 6bl TO HM fibUlO, HeCMOT])H H8 Bce B03HHKaBWI1e 3aTPYII- HeHHH, pe$:JpMHpOBaHHaH CYlle6HaH CI1CTeMa POCCI1I1 3apa6oT8- JT8. B «HOBOMaHepHb]e» CYllbl nOHIHYJTHCb 4eJlo6HT'-II1KH. B HHX nOBeJU1 CXBa'leHHb]X TaTeH 11 nywery6ueB. nOHeCJlI1 AOHorneHHfI I1CKaJlbL llocr8TO'-lHO CKa3aTb. 'lTO. no Heony6JII1KOBaHHbIM naHHblM 0. E. KOWeJIeBOH. B 1723 r. B C8HKT-nerep6yprcKI1H HMBOpHblj..j cy.n O.1lHI1X TOJIbKO I1CKOBhlX l.JeJ106l1THblX nOCTynl1- JlO: B HHBape 100, B (]>eBpane 76, B M8pTe 114. B CBOIO O'1epellb, Ja nepl10.1l C to HHBapH no 21 ceHTH6pfl 1720 r. TOT .>Ke CaHKT- nerep6yprCKI1H rorepHxr BblHec 98 npl1rOBOpOB 11 peweHI1H, 8 TaK)I(e I13,!I,(lJI 427 nOCTaHORJIeHI1H, pacnOpIDKeHI1H H np11Ka30B cYAe6HO-CJ1ell:CTl3eHHOrO, cYAe6Ho-HCn0J1HHTeJIbCKoro. OpraHI1- JaUJIIOHHOro 11 X03f1HCTBeHHOrO COllep)l(aHI1f1!. <1>Hrypa 06oco6JleHHoro 01 BOeBO.1lbl C8MOCTOJlTe1lbHOro Cy.nbJII H8'1M8 MaJlo-noMa.rJY CTaHOBHTbCfI npl1Bbll.JHoi.1 KaK DJl5I. KpeCTbHH 11 nOCaIlCKHX, TaK 11 DJlSI '1I1HOBHI1KOB. fJly60KO no- Ka3aTeJTbHO, 'lTO B 1l0HoweHI111 OT 27 Ma})Ta 1721 r. TaM60BCKI1H npoBHHuHa.rJ-I1CKaJT M. A. Ll.aHlUToB C'leJT He06xo.nHMb1M OTMe- THTb KaK HeraTHBHoe 5I.RJleHHe, 'lTO OTAeJIbHb]e rOpO.1l0Bb]e CYAbl1 npOBI1HUHI1 «c I1Of!6OiJa.wu U 3 cJPY.?UMU KaMOHOUpbl U'Ifi>1Otn maKOU COlO3, RKo6b1 noooaHlwu e6ep,3. HHblMH CJ10BaMI1, }0Ke B 1721 r. PYKoBo.nl1TeJ1b Teppl1Topl1a.rJbHoro opraHa I1CKaJlbCKOi1 CJ1}I)K6bl BOCnpHHI1MaJI KaK Henpl1eMJleMYIO (XOT5I. 11 He npOTHB03aKOH- HyJO) CI1l)'aUHIO, Korna cy.nbH OTKa3hlDaJlI1Cb BeCTH ce6H He3a- BI1CI1MO no OTH oweHHIO K npellCTanI1TeJ1J1M WlMI1HI1CTpaUHI1. I AKTb] YfJlI14CK0i1 npoBHHUl1aJ]bHOI1 KaHueJlHptll1. T. I. C. 14. bO;>OC- II06CKUU M M 06rJ.tcnmH PI:4x:!PMa nCTpa BenI1KOro. C. 131. upe- 60 J/ M CYlle6HaH ru1xf1Ma nerpa I c. 256. rpJ,{'if'ist \?NQ 96, . 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BLoITlile CHCTeMbl CYPPB 233 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. I-haK. pe31OMHpY51 Bb]WeH3JJO)((eHHoe, CJ1eltYeT KOHCTaTI1- pOBaTb, 4TO Ha npOTS'DKeHi'm 1718-1720 rr. B Hallie" CTpaHe 6bUUI C03lI.3Hbl TPH 3BeHa Cyn.OB o6llleH IOpHclU1Kmm: IOcnm- KOJIJIem5l, HallBOpHble H «HH}I(HHe,} CYllbl (ropOltOBble H npoBHH- Ul1aJ1bHble). npH 3TOM IOcTHU-KOJUJerH5I, HallBOpHble H «HH)/{- HHe» Cy.nb] JlBHJlHCb ewe H nepBblMH OTelfeCTReHHblMH opraH8MH npaBocYllH5I, CTPYKl)'PHO 11 <lJYHKUI10HaJlbHO OTn.eJ1eHHbIMH OT opraHoB ynpaBJIeHHfL !i 3. KoHTppe4JopMaTopcKe MepOnpMRTHJl1722-1727 rr. B o6IlacT CYAOYCTpoa;1cTBa. CYAe6Hbie KOMMccapbl 3aeepwa51 pacCMOTpeHHe CIO)/{eTa 0 npe)({,!le HeBl1llaHHbIX B POCel'm cyn.ax 061l1ei1 IOpHCllHKUHH. Heo6xo.!I.l1MO KOCHyrbC5I TalOKe 06cTO.llTeJ1bCTB HX J1HKBH1JaUl1"- ,[leJ1o B TOM. '-HO OCHOB- H3.5I 4aCTb C0311aHHbIX B 1717-1719 rr. pe1lopMHposaHHb]X opra- HOB npaBOcyllHfl npocywecTBoBMa MeHee lleCHT11JleTHfL BH84aJJe ynpa3DHeHHIO nOllBeprJlHCb «HH}f(}{He" CYDbl l . ComaCHO npOTOKOJlbHOii 38nHCH, Ha npoXOlltfBWeM C yqa- CTHeM ne-rpa I 3acell8HHH npaBHTeJ1bCTBYIOWero CeHam to JlH- sapf! 1722 r. ceH8TOp H npe311.lteHT Au.MHpMTeikKoii KOJUJerHH cD. M. AnpaKcHH. Bb]CKa3aBlliI1Cb 0 TOM. '-jTO rOpOltOBb]M H npo- BI1HUl1aJJbHblM cyn.aM «8 npaBJ/eHUU oco6o 6blmb HenpWlU'J.HO», npe1l,JlO)l(11Jl nOll'-jI1HI1Tb llaHHble cyllbl BOeBOllaM, OT 4ero. «no eeo MHeHUIO. 6ydem nym'le>,. nOCKOJIbK)' non.H5iTblii Bonpoc 6b[J], no Bceii Ol(eBI1.ltHOCTII, }0Ke 3apaHee COrJIaCOBaH C HMncparopoM, BbICO'18iiwHX B03pa)/{eHHii He nOCJ1en.oBaJlo. KaK 6b[J]0 3aHK- Cl1pOnaHO B npoTOKOJTe 3acen.aHH5i, «no mallY npei1w.>KeHUIO, ezo 6eJ/U'leCmeo J'K03a.1 me HWI('HUJI crilu... nO'1UHUmb 2. OllH8KO H3LI8HI1e YKa3a 06. ynp83.QHeHI1I1 He38BI1CI1MbiX OT MeCTHOH MMHHHCTp8U1111 «HI1)((HI1X" cy.nOB HeCKOJ1bKO 3anlHY- JlOCb. CeHaTopbl. BOBpeM.II BCnOMHI1B 0 pOCCI1HCKHX npoc-rpaH- CTBax. 03a60T11JlHCb npo6J1eMoii OmpaBJIeHHH npaBocYDHH B OT1l8.IleHHblX MeCTHOCTSL'L H 12 <lJeBparm 1722 r. pacnOpRllI1J1HCb yrO'IHHTb. «6 KGKOM pa3cmOflHUU Komopoii zopoiJ uYeem /6bJmb] om npo8uHUa.1 HOi?O zopoiJa".3. B HTore. ceH8TCKI111 yK83 0 flHKBH- I B Jll1repaJype 06cTmlTeJlbCTlJa nl1KBW1dU111'! «HIDKHI1X» C\lDOU H,1I/I60- nee nonpo6Ho OCBCTH!! M. M. 6orocnoBCKI1i1 (Do.:ocIOOf'fUJU l M OfumcT- HaH r.;IfJorMa nerpa BenI1Koro C. 235-136). J*::: ::: :iji.06. 
234 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I n.alll1H ropO.nOBbIX 11 npOBHHUllliJIbHb]X CYJJ;OB COcrOHIlCfI JlI'IWb 12 MapTa 1722 r. KaK eMKO 4JopMYJmpoHarlOCb H nepBblx LTpoKax YhdJa, «eo 6cex poiJe.x lydbR.W, onpecJelf'tltlwl om J(JcmU-1<.VJt'1e2UU, He 6blmb». nOJlHOMOqt1 ynpa3.!1HHBWHXCH cy.aOB - B pe3KOe OT- CT)'TIJTeH(1e OT ewe He.llaBHO CTOJTb aKl)'aJ]bHbIX U1Be.llCKI'IX 06pa3- LlOE - B03BpaWa.J]I1Cb MeCTHb]M opraH8M o6wem ynpaR/lem1JL llrUl nOMOW(1 .>Ke BoeB01J.aM B OTnpaBJIemU-I npaBOcymrn B ruTaT npOBl1HUl-1aJ1bHOM KaHUeJl5lpl1l1. COrIl8CHO YKa3y OT 12 MapTa 1722 r., BBO.DI1JUlCb nOJDKHocm DBYX aceccopOB no cy.ne6HblM neJ18M. B ropon.ax, yn.a..neHHbIx OT npOBHHUHaJIbHoro ueHTpa H8 paCcTOfiHl1e 6oJ1ee 200 BepeT, Y'lpe>K1l8JlHCb 8HaJ10rl1'1HO nOll'1H- HeHHble BOeBOll8M «MeHwue HUJlCHUe C}'iJu. B COCTaBe oc060ro aceccopa 11 JUJYX-Tpex KaHLleJl.llpCKI1X CJJy}KalilI1X. B KOMneTeH- luno T3KHX «MeHlUI1X» cynOB BOWJ10 paCCMOTpem-le nen C I1CKOM no 20 py6J1eM]. J1HHI1f1 H3 JII1KBI11J.aUHIO pe<t:Jopr.mpoBaHHb]X cynOB nepBO- ro 3BeHa nOJIY'IHJIa OKOH'laTeJ1bHOe 3aKpeJUleHHe B 3aKOHe OT 4 anpeJI51 1722 r. B TOT neHb neTp I, 6YD.Y'1t1 B CeHaTe. nOllrnep- nl1J1 B03BparueHHe cyne6HblX nOJIHOMO'IHH npOBHHllHW1bHbIMH H J}l6epHcKHM KaHueJ1J1pJ.UlM (3a HCKmO<JeHHeM Tex. KOTopble pacnOJ1ar3JIHCb B ropO.n8X, rne 6bUIH H<UJ;BopHble cynb]). KpoMe TOro, no 38KOHY OT 4 anpeJl51 1722 r., Dim «cyne6Hblx» aceccopa npe.nycMarpHB3JlHcb B 111TaTax TOJlbKO ry6epHCKI1X 11 npOBHHUI1- aJlbHb]X KaHlleJ]}lpt1H, pa3MewaBlUIL'f.CH B «3HamHblX i!O{JlJdax., B OCTW1bHbIX )Ke KaHlleJl5lpH5IX 'lHCJlO TaKHX aceccopoB cOKpawa- JIOCb no onHoro. HapRLIY C 3THM, 3aKOHOllaTeJ1b HaI1MeHOBaJ1 nOn'lHHeH- Horo BoeBOlle aceccopa «MeHlUero» cyna «ct:iJe6Hb/..M Kavucca- pOM», a TalOKe YBeJlI1'l11Jl ofueM ero nOJ1HOMO<JHH: K IOpHCnHK- UI1I1 KOMI1Ccapa 6bU1I1 OTHeCeHb] lle.na C HCKOM no 50 py6Jlefi. B 3aKlllOlJHTeJlbHOH 'lliCTI1 3aKOH3 OT 4 anpeJl51 1722 f. oco60 npennt1CbIBaJlOCb ynpa3nHHTb npOBt1Hllt1aJ1bHble cynbl B 'reX ro- ponax, me llHCJlOUHpOBaJ1HCb roqJrepHxTbl] (<JTO 03Ha<JaJlO 3a- Kpblrne CaHKT-neTep6yprcKoro. MOCKOBCKOro, BOpOHe>KCKoro, Ka3aHcKoro. HI1>KerOponcKoro. CMOJleHcKoro 11 JlpoCJlaBCKoro npOBHHllHaJlbHblX cynoB). Ha 3TOM HCTOpl1J1 CTPYKTYpHO ome- JIeHHblX OT opra HOB ynpaBJIeHI1J1 «HH)((HI1X» cynoB 3aKOH'l11Jl3Cb.  ::[rit.' 385. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 235 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. I1cxoll,H 1-13 C1:>opMYlmpOOaHHoro IIblllie onpe.neneHI-151 cyne6HoM KOHTppe<t:>oPMbl. OxapaKTepl-130llaHHble Mepb] CIle.ayeT npM3HaTb KOI-ITppe<t:>oPM8TopCKHMH (nOCKOJlbKY II OTHOllIeHMM HH301l0rO 3BeH8 cy.ne6HOH CHCTeMbl 6bUla ocyrnecTBJleHa pecrallpaUH5I - C He3Ha'mTeJ1bHbIMI-1 M3MeHeHJ.UlMI-1 - 1l0pe<t:>oPMeHHOrO cy.ne6HO- ro YCTpOMCTHa). npH'lMHbJ. no6y.nMBWl-1e neTpa I K ynHeHMIO ropo.no- BblX 1-1 npOOI-1HUl-1aJIbHblX cynoll, He BnOJlHe S!CHbl H nOHblHe. Ko BCeMY npO'-leMY. BOnpOC 06 3TOM DIDKe He CTaBl-1JlCH B npe.nwe- CTBYlOweH McropMKo-npallOIlOH IUlTeparype. 4TO MMeHHO Morno no.aBeCTI-1 3aKOHO.IJ.aTeJ1S! K MHeHHIO 0 Heo6xOllMMOCTH I1MKBHllI-1- pOllaTb C03.DaHHble C TaKI-1MI-1 TPYlIaMI-1 «HtmHHe» cynbl? npe)({,!le IIcero. He06xonl-1MO OTMeTHTb. <lTO, HaCKOJ1bKO MO>KHO IIJ.W;eTb no apxHBHblM MaTepMaJIaM. II onHCblBaeMoe Bpe- MS! HM B IOcTI1U-KOIIJIefl-1lO. HM B CeHaT, HM B HMneparopCKHM Ka6MHer He nOCTynaJIO HMKaKMX 0606lill1lOlllI1X HecaTI1BHb]X CBe.aeHMH 0 pa60Te ropO.nOBbIX 1-1 npOIlI-1HUI-1MbHb]X CYllOB. He nOJlY'la.rm ueHTpaJIbHble " BblCllIHe opraHbl R118CTH H MaCCOBblX >KaJl06 Ha ne5lTeJIbHOCTb '<HtmHl1X» cynOB. HaKoHeu, K HaCT05I- rneMY BpeMeHH He Y1l31l0Cb BblHBHTb .naHHbIX H 0 KaJ<HX-I1H60 HMeBUJI-1X OC06blH o6rnecTBeHHblH pe30HaHC yrOJloBHblX ne.rrnx, 4JHl}'pm-rraMI-1 KOTOpblX OKa3aJ11-1Cb 6bl ropo.nollble H npOIlI-1HUI-1- aJJbHble cynbH T aK 1.JTO np51MbIX. KOHKpeTHblX n080lIOII K ynpa3,!lHeHI-1IO «HI1>KHI1X» Cy.nOB Y 1aKoHonarenfi B 1722 r. 6bITb He Momo. Hao6op()T: KaK }'>Ke 6bUlO nOKa3aHO IIbllUe. II 1721 r. pe<t:>op- M"pOBaHH85I cyne6H85I CHCTeM3 POCCI-1I-1 3apa6OTana II nOJIHOM ofueMe. ropo.nOllb]e 1-1 npOIlI1HUI-1MbHb]e cy.n.bl 3aHW1" npO'-lHoe MeCTO B pernOHMbHOM 3BeHe rocynapcTBeHHOrO annapaTa. Bbl- XOllI-1T. npelInOCbUlKl-13aKpbITlliI «H">KHI-1XI> cy.noIlJle)({aJI" II HHOM JUlOCKOCTH. Bepo5lTHee IIcero. OCMb]CJ1S1f1 Ha'illJlbHb]e I-1Torl1 npOllelleHI1SI II ry6epHCKOM pe<t:>oPMb]. nerp I MCnblTaJI onaCeHI-1f1. 'lTO npe- 06pa30BaHHHa5I Ha lUBeltCKHM MaHep CI-1CTeMa MeCTHb]X opraHOB o6lllero ynpaBIleHl1}[ OK33a.rJaCb CJ1I-1WKOM OCJJa6J1eHHOH. lJ,n}{ YCl1J1eHHH >Ke 3TOH CI-1CTeMbl HMnepaTOp He \'BIUleJI npyroro nyrH. KpOMe KaK lIepl-l}'TbCSI K TpallHUHOHHblM DJlH HalUeH CTpaHbl Ha- 'IarJaM ellHHOBJ1acfl-1f1 II MeCTHOM ynpaBJ1eHHI-1. I1HblMI-1 CJ10IlaMI-1, neTp I pewl-1J1 IIOCCTIlHOBHTb .nopect!OpMeHHYIO MOneJ1b «eltHHOrO X0351MHa» II pernOHe, npJ.W;all ry6epHaTOPY 1-1 npOIlMHUMaJlbHOMY 
236 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I BoeBone B JJ;OnOJIHeHHe K MMHHHCTpaTI1BHb]M nOJIHOMO'-lHJlM, ewe H BClO nOJlHOTy nOJ1HOMO'-IMH cyne6HblX. B TaKOB}110 KOH- CTpYKUHIO MeCTHOH MaCTH He:mBHCt1MbIH cynMI He BnHChlBarJC5I HI1 B KaKOM BapHaHTe. npHMe<I8TeJlbHO, 'ITO B nOJlb3}' yrBep)f(lleHJ.UI «e.llHHO- ro X0351I1H8» B perl10He (XOT.II 11 np(1MeHI1TeJ1bHO KOHKpeTHO K CI15(1pl1) BblcrymUi B Ha'laJle 1720-x rr. He KaKOj:j-HJII6YJJ;b M- MI1HI1CTpaTOp CTapOMOCKOBCKOi1 3aKaJIKI1. a ypo)({eHeu ropOlI,a 311reH cpellHerepM8HCKora rpa4>cTBa Haccay 6bIBWI-1H roJUlliHJl- CKHIl ct>ei-iepBepKep BHJIHM reHH"H (Georg Wilhelm de Hennin], nocrynHBwHH H8 PYCCK)'IO CJ1y;K6y 22 JIeT OT pOllyl. I1MeHHo reHepan-MaHop 8.11. reHH"H BblCKa3aJI - B m1CbMe Ka6I1HeT- ceKpeTapfO A. B. MaKapoBY OT I ct>eBpaJUI 1724 r. - MblCJlb 0 Heo6xoJI.l'lMOCTH cocpe.noTOlfeHI1JI seeM nOJTHOTb] Rl18CH1 B pe- rI10He B OllHI1X PYKax: « 'Imo6... 6WA 6bf oiJUH z.n06HeuUluii KllMaH- iJup, KomopoU 6bi Bcex CU6UPCKUX KaMGl/dUP08, liaiJoopHoU cyo u Ka.uepupa MOt! 6bi 6eoamb u wmpar/JoBamb, a He maK leaK menepb, "lmo fJCRIiOii OOnUJOU...") B nOJlHoii Mepe CTOJlh eMKO C<t>oPMYJUI- pOBaHHa BI1JIHMOM reHHt1HhIM H1le 0 "fJIaBHeiiweM KaM8HllH- pe» BOnJlOn1Jlach B >KH3Hh}')Ke nOCJle KOH'IHHhl neT})a I. B CB3H C H3118HHeM 3aKOHa OT 24 ct>eBpaJUI 1727 f. 0 peopfaHH3aUHH MeCTHOfO ynpaBJIeHHfl J . B03Bpalll8f1Cb K C06bITHfiM 1722 r., CJle.l(yeT OTMeTI1Tb. 'lTO BCKOpe nOCJIe H3.aaHHfI 3aKOH3 OT 4 anpeJU1 1722 f. H<NaJlOCh KaK c]:>OpMHpOBaHt1e Kopnyca «cyne6Hhlx» aceccopoB H cyne6Hhlx KOMHccapoB. TaK H 06pa30BaHHe DJlfi nOCJlenHt1X cBoero pOlla c..yiJeoob/X )"IOCmKo8. Hanpt1Mep. ceHaTCKHM YKaJOM OT 24 HlOJIfi 1722 f., Ha TeppHTOpHt1 MOCKOBCKOH npOBHHUHt1 6hlJlO C03.1laHO nfiTb cyne6HbiX Y'IaCTKOB: B KOJlOMHe. CepnYXOBe, 6opoBcKe, ] Ha116oJ1eenOCTOBepHbIeCBe.1leHH.IIopaHHer-.lIlepHO.1le>Kl13HI1 B. III. feH- HMHa CM. B craTb<: HCMCUKOJO KpaCBClia A. J1tOJaI 1972 r. (Liick A. Gcorg Wilhelm Hennin. Eln S]egencr als OIEamsator der sibmsc11cn Elsenmdustnc zur Zeit Peter; des Groflen II Siegerland. Sie,gen, 1971. Bd. 49. S. 9-11) 2PfAUA, 4J 9.0Tll 1. KH 66. n. 677 (ny6J1I1K3uI1I0 naHHoro nl1CbMa eM reHHUH B. YpanbCKaH nepelll1CKa C neTpO\f I 11 C EKaTepl1HOH I I ny6J1. M.o. AKHwHHa. EK.lTCpl1lIDypr. 1995. C. 196-198). nOK OiITeJlbHO. <eT0 cnYCTH 'Jyrb 60J1ee nOJ1YBCKa 3aKOHOD.8TeJlb npHMo Bb]paJI1J1C.II - B CT. 85 3aKOHa OT 7 HOH6pH 1775 r.. - 'ITO f]JaBa ry6epHCKOH aJIMtlHI1CTpaUl111 'ecmb lIKOX03J/UIi C60eU i!}'iJepJtuu. (3aKOH011aTt'JIbCTBO EKaTepHHbl II. T I C. 393) }nOJlHCIe c06paHlile 3aKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 5017. C. 746-748 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 237 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. MO.>Kal1CKe M DMMTPOse]. XapaKTepHo. 'lTO, B OTIlI1'lMe OT npe)/(- Hero nopSUlKa. Koma fOpO.D.OBble cynbM H83Ha'l3.JlMCb IOcTI1U- KOJUlemeii, «cyne6Hble» aceccopbl M cyne6Hbie KOMI1CCapbl onpelleJHIJlI1Cb Ha nOJDKHOCTb OpaBl1TeJlbCTBYfOWMM CeHaTOM (KaKOBOM nopsur.OK 6bUl JaKjJenJleH, CTOI1T nOBTOpI1Tb, B CT. 5 3aKOH8 «D.OJl>KHOCTb CeH8Ta» B pellaKUI1M OT 27 8npeJ1Jj 1722 r.). OepBa5I 60J1bWa.H rpynna aceccopoB - 79 'leJ10BeK - n0J1)f'-111118 Ha3H8'leHl1e 20 I1fOJ1.H 1722 r. DBa nHfI cnYCT5I, 22 MIOJI5I. CeH8T H<i3Ha'll1J1 erne 'leTblpex «cYlle6Hblx» aceccopoo M BOCbMepb]X <.--y- ne6Hbix KOMI1CCapoB 1 . nOJal3aTeJlbHO. liTO He OCTaJlCfI 6e3 BHMMaHlliI Bonpoc 0 TpynoYCTpoikTBe BlIepaWHI1X roPOllOBblX cyneii !30JlbWt1HCTBO t13 Ht1X 6blJm onpe1leJleHbl «CYlle6HbIMI1» aceCCOpaMt1 111111 cy- lle6HblMM KOMt1CcapaMI1 B re )l(e MeCTa. me OHt1 pa6OTaJlI1 npe- )l(J]e (reM 6oJ1ce, 'lTO ell.le B ynoMflHyroM ceHaTCKOM YKa3e OT 12 M8pTa 1722 f. Ha 3TH nomKHOCTI1 npe.nmlCblBaJlOCb Ha3Ha- 'laTh JUm, «K mo.MY oe,1Y 3a06b1'iHbIX>,). Koe-KTO 113 fOpO.D.OBblX cYlleii noweJ] t1 H8 nOBblllJeHt1e. TaK, 6bIBWI1ii cynbSl. IOpbeB3- OOJlbCKOro A. .H. J1bBOB 6bVl 20 Ma.H 1722 r. onpe1leJleH acec- COpOM IOcHlU-KOJlJIeft1l1. a 6blBllJt1i1 apXaHfeJ1oropollCKi1i1 CYllb.H 11. A. Xpt1nYHoB nOJ1)f'-1I1J1 17 Ma5I 1723 r. Ha3Ha'leHl1e ce- KjJeTapeM B Pem13HoH-KOHTOPY CeHaTa J . He 3a6blJuJ M npo 06ep-JIaHllpMXTepOR 113 MX 'lMCJ18 Tpoe- 11. O. Tonl11lbCKHi1, 11. n. CBeWHI1KOB M r. A. WaHlJ10B - CTa- J111 aceccopaMI1 HMBOpHblX cynoR A BOT fJIaBY ynpa31lHeHHOfO CaHKT -ncTep6YPfcKOro npOBi1HUl1aJlbHOro cyna 41. C. Mm-iyKO- Ba neTp 1 onpe.neJlI1Jl 29 anpeJl51 1722 r. t1CnOJlHflfOll.ll1M 06.H3aH- HOCTH npe311ileHTa BOT'II1HHOi1 KOJlJlefl1i1 4 . '-ITO KacacrcfI cynoYCTpOMCTBeHHoi1 cHryaUMI1, B03HI1KllJeM B Hawei1 ClpaHe B 1722 r., TO 31leCb He06xollMMO OTMeTHTb, 'lTO BHOBb nOJ1yYHBWl1e cyne6Hb]e tPYHKUMM MeCTHble opfaHbl 06rne- fO ynpaBJleHI151 YHaCJIenOBaJm OT ropO.D.OBbIX M npOBHHUl1aJlbHb]X cynOB He TOJlbKO I1X nOJIHOMO'-lI151, HO 11 nOJlO)«eHl1e B cyne6Hoii [PfALIA, 4J. 148. KH. 1889. n. 458 Cyne6Hbiit )"JaCTOK B LlMI1TpoBe OXBaTI1.IJ. HapilllY c £lIIITpoBCKI1M )'t'JlIOM. T.:UvKe KriHHCKI1i111 BonOKCUk1M- CKHi1 yC3J1b]. }"IDCTOK B MOJKai1t'Ke - TdIOIIe 3OCHI1JTlpoJJ:CJ(I.li1 11 PyJCKHi1 ye3D.b]. )f'laCTOK B 00p0BCKl' - Bepei1t'KHii 11 MaJlOflpocnaBellKl1H ye3D.bl. !prALIA, 4J. 148, KH. 1889. JI. 324-329. 457 06.--458- PfALIA, 4J. 148. KH. 1889. R. 103; KH 1914. JI. 10406. 4 Pf ALIA, 4J. 1451. KH. 13. JI. 362. 
238 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I CMCTeMe, ". -reM CaMbIM, BellOMCTBeHHYJO nOll'lHHeHHOCTb. I1Hbl- MI1 CJlOBaMH. KaK JIBCTByeT 1-13 apXI1EHb]X M8Tepl1aJlOB 11 tPYHna- MeHTaJlbHOH ny6J1HKaWIH ..Ah.TbI Yrm1'lCKOH npOBI1HUHarJbHOH KaHueJUlpHH». c 1722 f. ry6epHcKHe H npOBHHUHaJlbHble KaHue- IDIpHH Ha'I8JIH <1JYHKUt10HHpoBaTb. Bo-nepBbIX, B Ka'iecme cy.aOB o6wdi IOp(1CL{I'IKUI'II'I, BO-BTOPbIX. B Ka'leCTBe cyn:a nepBom 3Re- H8, B cH.Ily 'lero OHM npeBpanUU-ICb B H(1)Ke(.1()SllLlYlO I'IHCTaHUHIO no OTHowemno K H<\AB0PHb]M CYJIaM 11 IOcTI1U-KOJIJIenm. Hanpl1Mep. 3 oKTn6pn 1723 r. flpOCJ18BCKHi1 ro<lJrepHxT, KaK Ht1 B 1jeM HI1 6blBaJIO. npellm1CaJI ApxaHfenoropollcKoii ry- 6epHCKOii KaHueJlSlpHI1 nepe.aaTb HeJlO no 06BHHeHHJO nOllbHlje- ro D.. MaKapoBa B npeC"ryfUlemUix npoum I1HTepecoB CJI)I)K6bI B npoH3BollCTBO EieJToJepcKoii npOBHHUt1aJ1bHOH KaHUeJlSlpJ.U1, a 12 Hoo6p.ll TOro >Ke ro.na - nOTpe5oB<lJI OT noruexoHcKoit npo- BI-1HUHaJlbHOi1 KaHueJlflpJ.U1 YCKOpl1Tb pa36HpaTeJ1bCTBO neJ1a 0 XI1ll.lemm npOBI13.HIa l . npM 3TOM HaIlBOpHble cynbl CHOCI1JJl.1Cb C ry6epHCKMMH H npOBHHUMaJlbHblMM )GmueJ]}lpHJIMH MCKJlIO- 'lHTeJ1bHO <<JlKa3aMU», KaKOBblMl1, CIOHT nOBTOpI1Tb. B 6fOpoKpa- TI1'leCKOM 06Hxolle XVIII B. 0603Ha'laJIHCb nOKYMeHTbl, HanpaB- JUiBWHeC B HI1:iKecToowHe opraHbl BJIaCTH. HeyIlHBHTeJ1bHO, 'lTO, BbICT)'TIaH B Ka'leCTBe opraHOB npaBocynMSJ. ry6epHCKtle H npOBHHUHaJlbHble KaHLleJlpMM CTMH. Ha'lHHaH C I n2 r., He- petl,KO MMeHOBaIbC B 04JHUHaJlbHOM neJ10npmnooncme -«npo- BUI/L(UaJ/l/biMU c"dallfu». B CBSJ3H. C H3JlOiKeHHbIM, nOCJIe 1722 r. cm:pamlJlHCb H oKpyra HaIlBOpHblX cynoB. npan.n.a, B CBH3H C J1HKBH1l8Wtei:i -«HWKHHX» cynOB cyne6Hble oKpyra CTaJlH o6pa30BblBaTb UeJll1KOM Te npOBI1HLlHH, BoeBOllCKHe KaHUeJmpl1H KOTOpblX KaK opraHbl npaBOcynM OKa3aJlHCb HH>KeCTOHWHMM no OTHOWeHMIO K COOT- BeTCTBYlOlUeMY repHUY. Hanpl1Mep, B 1723 r. B OKpyr flpoc- IlaBCKOrO HaIlBOpHOro cyna BXOnl1JlH ApxaHreJlOrOpOnCKa5I, oeJlo- 3epcK.lJJ. BOJ1oroncK.lJJ. ra.n.HuKan. KI1HeWeMCKa5I, KOCTpoMCKa5I, nOwexoHcKaH, YrJ1H'lCKa5I H YCTJOiKCKaH npOBHHUHl1 l . '-ITO xapm<TepHO, oTMe<leHHblH nopHlloK roal1MOOTHOweHHH ry6ePHCKHX H npOBI1HUl1aJ1bHblX KaHUeJ1pHH C ro$repHXTaMI1 H IOcTI1U-KOJ1J1er HeH CJ10iKHJlCH no YMOJl'illHmo 3aKOHo.Ll.aTeJl, He I PfAM, 4J. 982. KH. 19, JI. 64. 91 06 CXOIIHb]e npl'lMepb[ CM.. TaM )1(1:, JI. 1, 5 06.. 1111 np.; AKTb[ Yml14c!o.OU npoBHHUHWlbHOii. K3HUeJUlpl1l1. T. I. C. 3?t. j;n:tO KHl1ry IlC1(Q!lJlweii KOppecnOH!leHUHI1 JlpOCJlaBcKOro n:$rqJl-lUd 1723 r.: PfAM. 4J. 982, KH. 19. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 239 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. 6YlIY'U1 pefJ1aMeHTl1pOBaH HM B ellMHOM HOpM8TI1BHOM npaBO- BOM aKTe 1722-1725 fr. EnMHCTBeHHO nonblTKOH TaKOBO pe- maMeHTaUMH SlBHJlCH ynot.UlHyrblii Bblllle npoeKT I1HCTpYKUHI1 npoBHHUHaJlbHOMY cyny OT HIOHH 1722 r., B CT. 2. 10 M 13 KOTO- poro 6blJ1H BHeceHbl (]>opMYlmpOBKH 0 nO.1l'IHHeHHH npOBMHUM- aJlbHOH KaHueJ1Hpl'll1 B cy.ne6HOM OTHOUleHI'IH IOcrMU-KOJIJ1enm 1'1 HalIBOpHOMY cynyl. CTOMT T3.JOKe OTMeTHTb. 'JTO, KaK y6e.lll'lTeJ1bHO nOKa3aJ1 erne M. M. EOrOCJlOBCKMH, Y"Ipe)({JleHHble B 1722 r. CYlIe6Hb]e KOMHccapbl Bbllll1lH B npaBonpHMeHHTeJ1bHot1 npaKTHKe naneKO :ill npe.neJ1bl MCKOB lIO 50 py6J1ei-i. YCTaHOBJIeHHblX B HMeHHOM YKa3e OT 4 anpeJ1H 1722 r. B lIeHCTBI1TeJ1bHOCTI1 CYlIe6Hbie KO- MHccapbl paCCMaTpHBaJlH KYlIa 6oJ1ee WHPOKl1H J<pYf .neJ1, BIUIOTb lIO YMbllllJleHHb]X y6I'1HCTB 1 . CoumeTCTBeHHO. BblHeceHHble cy- lIe6HblMM KOMI'ICcapaMM npMroBOpbl. B KOTOpblX Ha3Ha'laJIaCb cMepTHa51 K3.JHb I'IlIM CCbUlKa Ha KaTOpry. nocl)'naJIl1 (KaK B He- D.aBHeM npOlllJIOM TaKHe )f(e npMroBopbl rOp0,D.OBb[X 11 npoBJ.1H- UHaJlbHblX cynoB) Ha yrBep>KneHHe B HaaBopHble cynbl. OCTaeTCSI no6aBMTb, '-ITO lIOHblHe B MCTopMKo-npaBoBOH l1M- Tepmype He paccMaTpHBarraCb neCbM8 npHMe<J8Tel1bHaSi nOnblTKa nO.LlBeCTI1 I'ITOf pe():lopMMpOBaHI1J1 neTpOM I HI130BblX 3BeHbeB CHCTeMb] CY.LlOB 06ll.leH IOpMC.LlI1KUI1I1. LlaHHa5I nonblTKa I'IMeJla MeCTO npM COCTaRJleHl111 npoeKTa YJ10)f(eHI'I5I POCCI1HCKOro ro- cY.Llapcna 1723-1726 fT. B rJJ. 2-10 KH. I npoeKT8 6b1JI8 BHece- }ill CTaTb51 51 «KoKUH u.vewm nOO'fU1/eH1/W/ o'()u 6b1mb JOcmu- KO/LleCIJU. zi)e ooHocumb U 6umb 'feJOM 1/adrieJK:uml>. yrBep)l(flCHHaH Yl1Q)KeHHoH KOMHCCHeH 70KTH6p51 1723 r. ComaCHO 3TOH CTaTbe B Ja11.JeCTBe CYlIa nepBoro 3BeHa B POCCMM npellnOJJafaJIl'ICb: pacnOJlO)l(eHHblH B aaMI'IHl'lcTpaTHB- HOM QeHTpe npOBHHQMM «np06U1/ua.n1/oiJ C). a TafOKe pa3- MeweHHbli1 B y.narreHHoi1 'l8CTI1 npOBHHUMM M COCT05lBlllM 113 e.1lI1HOJ1I1'-1HOrO cynbH «1/UJlCHeU 3ewawu UJ/U J'e301Ioii cp. K no.1l- BellOMCTBeHHOCTM ye311Horo cyn.a npellnOJIararrOCb OTHeCTH neJl8 C MCKOM no 50 py6J1ei-i. 8 K nOllBe.1l0MCTBeHHOCTH npOBHHUHaJlb- HOro cyn.a - Bce rpa)({JlaHCKHe H yroJloBHble lleJla (3a I1CKJlIO'Ie- HHeM lleJl cneUl'l81lbHoi1 nOllCYllHOCTH 11 lleJl, I1HI1UI1HpOBaHHblX tPMCKaJTbCKOi1 CJ]}I)K6oi1). B Ka'leCTBe CYlla BTOpOro 3BeHa B CT. 51 [/5oa;c,/06CI<.UU M M. 06naCTHIDI pe4x:!PMa neT)Ja EeJlI1KOro. npl1.l10- )KeHI1H. C. 30, 34. 36. lTaM )Ke. C. 242-243 
240 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I rJI. 2-H KH. I npoeKTa YIlO)((eHl1Sl c]:Il1rypMpOBM HMBOpHblH eYA]. KaK }')Ke rOBOpl-1l1OCb. npoeKT YJlO)l(emUl 1723-1726 rr. TaK H He nOJ1Y'[t1J1 YTBep)KD.emrn. cyne6Hble opraHhl. Hal1MeHOBaHHble «Ye3llHbIMH cynaMH», nmlBl1J1HCb B Hawef1 CTpaHe TOJ1bKO B XOlle cyne6HOH pe$JPMbI 1775 f.. a BOT rowrepHXTbl OCTaJlHCb - .ao nopbl 110 BpeMeHH - HeT]JOHyrbIMM. HmcaK He 6yJI,y'-IM JaTpOHyrb] B xo.ne KOHTppepMaTopCKHX Meponpl151TI1H 1722 r., H<ULBOpHble cynbl npoll0J1>K11JI11 tPYHKUI-10- HHpOOaTb M nOCJie KOH'lHHbl ne-rpa I. B npe)l(HeM pe)l(HMe npo- Xo.m1JlH 38ce.n.aHIHI cyne6HbIX npHcyrcrnHH, KaK HI1 B lJeM He 6bl- BaJlO, npoxollWlH HOBhle Ha3HaljeHHH B HX COCTaB. CKIDKeM, 3a JlHBapb-CeHT5I6pb 1725 f. .Hp0CJl8BCKHH rowrepl1XT BblHec M 113- naJI 629 npl1ronopOB. peweHHH. nOCTaHOBJ1eHHH H npI1Ka30 (3a aHaJlOrl1'lHb]H nepl-1o.n 1723 r. CaHKT-ncrep6yprcKI1i1 HMBOpHblH cyn Bb]HeC H "MaJ], CTO(1T nOBTopHTb, 525 TaKOBblX 8KTOB). '-ITo no cy..oeHCKI-1X H83H<i'leHMi1. TO, H8npMMep, B YKa3e OT 17 MJOWI. 1725 r. EtcaTepMH8 I. oTMeTMB. 'lTO MOCKOBCKMi1 ro- repHxT HaXODJITCH B 4:.H cocmofiHuu». BnepBble onpen.eJUlJI8 1)'IIa npe3H1leHTa - OnblTHoro MMMHMcrpaTOpa reHepaJI-M8iiopa B. H. 30TOBa.lOoKTH6pHTOrO>Ke 1725 r.CeH8THa3Ha'IJ.UlHOBOro BMue-npe3lUleHTa B SlpocJJaBCKI1i1 HaIlBOpHblH cy.n: Bblwen.wero 6 OTCTa6K)' no B03pacry A. M. Wej:(n.HKOBa CMemlJl n0J1K06HI1K <1>.11. BeJlbHMMHOB-3epHoB 3 . A no ceH8TCKOMY YKa3Y OT 21 $=6- paJIH 1727 r. nOJ1yYl1JI HOOOro npe3H1leHTa 11 To6oJ1bCKI1i1 rore- pHXT (3T)' .nOJ1>KHOCTb 3aHSlJI ry6epHaTop M. B. ilOJIroPYKoB)4. OnHaKO BCKope CIfI)8llitH nepeMeHl1JIacb. KaK t13SeCTHO, 6 1726-1727 rr. nOCJle.1l0BaJlapemmrn MHon1xnpe06pa3oBaHt1H ne- T])a I. B paMKaX 3T0i1 peBt13t1116bLTJ. D 'ffiCTHOCTI1. B3HT KYPC Ha CBO- ero pon.a «MMMHt1CTpan1BH.YJO 3KOHOMt1JO». BceMepHoe - CTpYK- "l}'PHoe M 'lI1CJ1e HHoe - COKpaweHt1e rocynapCTBeHHOro annapaTa ' PfADA, cPo 341. KH JJ. 'J. I, n. 1606.-17 Inpn.fJruKeHl1e vI. Ca- maCHO npOTOKO.Y Jace.naHHH YnO)l(eHHoi1 KOMHCCI1I1 OT 7 OKTHGpH 1723 r.. B pa3JXl6OTKe ill]HHOH CTaUH np"HWU1 }"lliCme: ceHaTop n. A. TOJI- CTOM. COBeTHI1K CHHona apXI1MlIH.f1PI1T f.mpl1l1J1 16Y-A<ltHCKHfil, J"CHCpaJI- peKeTMeHCTep B. K. flaBJIOB. COBeTHI1K IOcmU-KOJIJ1erHl1 C. BOJIb<tJ. COBeTHI1K KaMep-KOJIJIerl1l1 (f) B. HaYMoBI1 aceccop IOcmu-KO;merl1l1 3. JWoMn !C\i.: Pf 5. Jpfl1A, KH 19, n. 88; PfAIlA, 4J. 248, KH. 1947,11.34. KpoMe TOro, 5 r. CeHaT onpenenl1Jl B JlpoCJ1aBCKI1i1 ro4Jre- PI1XT HOBOro ce (TaM >Ke. n. 170). 4no nHoe c06paHl1e .laKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 5015. C. 743. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 241 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. (oco6eHHo Ha ypoBHe pemoHMbHoro 3BeHa)l. no Mepe npeTBO- peHH}! B )f(J.13Hb naHHoro ...-ypca HacTIUI 'l€pe.n H HaJlBOpHblX cynoB. B more, $)pMMbHM J1HKBl1llaJ_UHI. OTe'leCTBeHHbJX rc$repl1XTOB npOH30lllila <Jyrb 6oJ1ee BOCbMH neT CnyCT5I nOCJ1e HX OCHOBaHI15I. comaCHO CT. 5 ynoMHHaBweroc 3aKOH8 OT 24 «tJeBPaJUI 1727 r. o peOpraHH3aU(1H MeCTHoro ynpaBJTeH(1S[. Cy.ne6Hb]e nOJlHOM0411J!. H<\1I.BOPHbIX CYJIOB 6bUlH B03BpaweHbi opraH8M 06wero ynpaBJ1e- H(151 - ry6epHCKHM H I1pOBHHUl18J]bHblM KaHUeJ1f1pH5IM 1 . npouecc qmKTH'leCKOrO ynpa311HeHH5I HMOOPHb]X CYJIOB He 3aTHHYJ1C5I. TaK. nOCJIellHee 3ace.naH(1e CaHKT-nerep6yprCKOro ro$repl.DITa COCTOfIJIOCb 12 MaH 1727 r. Erne paHbwe cBepHyn pOOO1Y $lPOCJ18BCKHH HM.BOpHblH cyn. Ha 3acen.aHHH 28 anpe- J1 1727 r. B(1ue-npe3HlleHT <1>. 11. BeJlbHMHHOB-3epHoB. OrJIaCHB CeH8TCKI1H YK33 0 CBoeM Ha.JH8'leHHH BOeBo.noH .HPOCJ18SCKOM npoBHHUHH. 06D5IBHII 0 3aKpbITI1H CYJIa. B KHHry BXOllJUlleH KOppeCnOl-lJIeHUI1(1 ro$repHXTII 6b]J18 BHeceH3 tPHHMbH8H 3a- n(1Cb: «...113a me.tt YKa30M c mom '1UC1a B RfXlCJa8CK.OU HarJBopHoU cyrJ 6Oe3rJy U 3GCerJaHU5/ He U!lteem3. Ha 3TOM 3aKOl-NlUJ8Cb HCTOPJ.UI C0311aHHOH no wBellCKoMY 06pa3UY nepnOH OTe<JeCTBeHHOH CHCTeMbl CYllOB o6wei-i IOpHC- nHKUHI1. CTPYKTYPHO H tPYHKUHOHMbHO OTneJ1eHHbIX OT op- raHOB ynpaRJ1eHHH 4 . EnHHcTBeHHb]M OCKOJ1KQM 3TOH CHCTeMbl nOCJ1e 1727 r. OCT8Jl8Cb IOcTl1u-KOJUJerHfI. npocywecTBOBaB- I no.up06Hee 06 :lTOM CM.: AHum.uoe E. B. focynapcTBeHHb!e npe- 06pa30BaHI1H... C. 231-2]7; flurnpbKO(J(l JI. Q:J. YKa3. co'!. C. 250-254. Kaca51Cb Macurra60B cOKpailleHH.II, .nOCTaT04HO CKaJaTb, 'ITO, no naH- HbIM C. M. TPOHUKOro, Ja 1726-1717 rr. TOJ1bKO B MeCTHblX opraHaX BIIa- em 6bL0 ynpa3D.HeHO 27 DOJlAoJiOCTeH, 3a4JHKCl1posaHHb]X B paJneJ1e ro- cynapCTBCHHoH Jpd)K.!IOIHCKOii. CJIVmbl Ta6CJ1H 0 paHr.LX pc.naKUHI1 1723 r. (TpoUIjKUU C. M PyCCKHi1 a6COJ1iorI13M 11 nBOp.llHCTBO B XVIII Boo $.JPMI1- polklHl1e 6tOpOKpaTI1I1. M.. 1974. C. 121). In()J1Hoe co6paHl1e JaKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 5017. C. 748. Me)!(1lY npo411M, B nOHCHHTCJIbHOii qaCTH Ha:IDaHHOH CTaTbl1 - BIJOJIHe B nyxc BblwepaccMo- 1]JCHHbIX npclI.IJruKCHHH 13.11. fCHHHHa 1724 r. - roBOpl1JlOCb 0 TOM. 'JTO JaKOH01I:ITeJ1b nOCTaBfL'J Jaaa'JY, 'lT06bl «6Mf.CJIICj pa3HbIX ,,:tlfl/4C111PUU U l}rleU JH(Uli mlJ'LVO WHY K(1fII#!-UiPUKJ» (111M )l(e). 8\8.oxapaKTCPI.J30BaHHOe vnpaw-teHMe B 1727 r. HaJIBOpHblX cynoB HHKaK He Jal]XJHyno PmKcKOro ro<f1repl1XTI1. 3TOT pellHKT WBeJlCKOH cyne6HoH CI1CTeMb] 6J1aron0Jl)"1HO npocvIlJXTBOBaJI Ha OTe'JecTBeHHOit n04Be.n0 11189 r...no pacnpocrpaHeHI1S1 Ha npl16alTl1i1cKl1e I)'6epHl111 B nOJ1HOM 06'beMe neHCTBI1.11 Cylle6Hbix YCTaBOB 1864 r. (Uo- p06 10. A. Bonpocb[ I1CTopl.JH rOCY.illipcTBa 11 npana... 8Mn. 4. C. 54). 
242 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I waR 110 MIOJ]Sl 1786 L OCTaeTCJ1 KOHCTaTl1pOOaTb, 'HO npl1 seeM KpaTKOBpeMeHHocTH cYllleCTBOBaHiHI «HIDKHI1X» 11 HallBOpHbLX Cy.nOB nepBoH Tpen1 XVIII B. OHM 3aHSIJII1 oco6oe MecTO B HCTO- PH" poCCHHCKoro cyna. KaK erne B 1915 f. cnpaBe.DJlI1BO 3a- Men1Jl 10. B. fone, «BHI1MaTeJlbHoe OTHOWeHl1e K Bonpocy 06 oCBo60>K.!leHHH PYCCKOro cy.na OT BeKoBoro CJ1HflHIUI era C opra- HaMI1 ynpaRJ1eHiUl M HaCTOM'lHBoe CTapaHl1e OCYJ1-lecrBMTb TaKoe oCBo60)(([leHHe Ha neJJe COCTIlBJUIJOT caMble HHTepecHble 'lepTbl cyne6Hoi1 pe():lopMbl ne-rpa [1],,1. g 4. npaBIllTenbCTBYIOLllI.1M CeHaT KaK opraH npaBOCYAIIIR B 1717-1725 rr. PeKeTMeMCTepcKafi KOHTopa Me>K.llY TeM. xapaKrepl1CTHKa CI1CTeMbJ OTe'leCTBeHHbIX cy- nOB o6llid'i JOpHCJI.l1KUl11-1 1717-1725 IT. 6yneT 3aBe;J;OMO Henon- HOM, eClll1 He KOCHyrbC.II Bonpoca 0 BeH'ffiBWeM 31)' CHCTeMY npamoellbCTBYlOweM CeHaTe. KaK Y)I(e OTMe'laJIOCb BbllUe. B Om1CblBaeMOe BpeM.II nOJIHOMOlJt1H CeHaTa KaK cyna 'jeTBepTOro (Bblcrnero) 3BeHa 6bUlt1 3aKpeJUleHbl B CT. 4 3aKOHa OT 19 ne- Ka6pH 1718 r. 06 YKpeJUleHt1t1 t1HCTaHllt10HHOCTH B cynonp0t13- BO.llCTBe H B CT. 4 3aKOHa -«D.OJDKHOCTb CeHaTa» (B penaKUHSJX OT neK(6»>l1718 L H oT27 anpeJ]fI 1722 r.). CTOHTel.l.le BcnOMHHTb, 'jTO, no CT. 5 33KOHa OT 19 neK(6»>l1718 L, npHHOCHTb JKaJ106b1 Ha npHroBopbl H perneHHfI CeH8T8 Bocnpel.l.lanOCb nOlI yrp030i1 cMepmoi1 Ka3Ht1!. D.onOJlHt1TeJlbHO K 3TOMY. 7 MapTa 1721 r. neTp I H31lan ynoMHHaBllIt1iicH Bblrne 3aKOH. no KOTOPOMY Ha cyne6Hoe pac- CMOTpeHHe CeHaTa nOJDKHbl 6bUlH B 06H3aTeJlbHOM nopHnKe nOCTynaTb neJla 0 Ka3HOKpanCTBe (0 «noxuw,eliuu K031ib/ WIU HOpOOm>lX iJeHei!»), paCCJlCllOBaHHble LleHTpanbHblMH opraHa- MH RJl<iCTH. BblHeCeHHb]e no TaKHM neJl<iM npHroBopbl CeH8- TY HaDJIe)lffiJlO H8npaRJl.l1Tb Ha yTBep)f(1l.eHHe uap.l1 J . H8KoHeu, HMeeT CMblCJI nOBTOpHTb. 'jTO, B COOTBeTCTBt1H co CT. 4 3aKOHa .D.OJDKHOCTb CeHaTa>, B penaKllHH 1718 r.. neJla MomH nocT)'- naTb Ha aneJlJlSJUHOHHoe paccMOT))eHHe CeHaTa TOJlbKO C caHK- w-m MOHapxa. ] Tomb(! 10. B. OrlleJIeHI1e cYlle6Hoh BJlaCTI1 OT R!lMHHI1C1parnBHOH. C. 189-190. 13aKOliOlWTtJ1bHb[t HKTb] ne1pa I. c. 189. 195-196. 378-379. JpfAllA,4J. 1451. KH. B.JI. 49InpHJIO>KCHl1e IV, NQ 2). 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 243 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. KpoMe Taro. B CT. 4 3<1KOHa «,UOJI>KHOCTb CeffiiTa» B pe.aaK- Um-I OT 27 anpeJl.l1 1722 f. 6b1Jlo BHeceHO nOnOJlHeHl-1e. comacHo KOropoM)' npellYCMaTpl-1BanOCb 06H3aTeJlbHoe Y'[8CTl-1e B npoue- n.ype aneJUJHUl-10HHOro nepeHoca neJ1 peKeTMeiiCTepa (reHepaJI- peKeTMeHCTepa)1 - rJJaBbl PeKeTMeHCTepCKOH KOHTOpbl CeHarn. Y'lpe}l(L{eHHa.ll 12 HHBapH 1722 r. B Ka'leCTBe CTpyKl)'pHoro nOll- p8JL\eJleHI-1H npaBI-1TeJlbCTBYlOwero CeHaTa PeKeTMeHCTepclQUI KOHfDpa OTBe>laJI8 3a npHeM >KaJIo6 H8 ueHTparibHb]e opraHbl BlJaCTI1 (KoJUJenm H K<lHueJUlpI-1H). B TOM 'lHCJ1e >KaJJo6 H8 He- npaBocymle 1 . HOpMaTHBHYJO OCHOBY ne}jTeJlbHOCTH KOHTOpbl B nepBoH 'lernepTH XVIII B. COCTaBHJlH *J1l1cmpyKu,uR WlU lIaK03 peKelILueiicmepy» OT 5 (]>eBpanH 1722 r., a TalOKe .uonOJlHeHI1H K I1HCTPYKUHI-1, yrBep.IK.JJ.eHHble I-1MnepaTopOM 17 1-1 19 anpeJiH 1722 r.] 13aKOHonmeJIbHb]e 8KTb[ neTpa I. e. 195. If)lIaf01IapH HJb]CK8HI1SIM HeCKOJ1bKHX nOKOJIeHI1H HCTOpl1KOB H npaBo- BellOB, CTal)'C, KOMneTeHUH.II H lleHTellbHOCTb PeKeTMeWCTepcKoW KOHTO- Pb[ B nepooi1 'JeTBepm XVIII B. OKa3a.lJI1Cb OCBellleHb[ HH cerollHHwHHi1 IleHb Cp8BHI1TeJ1bHO nOllp06Ho. CneUI1aJ1bHOe BHI1MaHl1e DaHHOH KOHTO- pe CeHaTa yneJ1I1J111 C. A. neTpoBCKI1H. A. H en[{!lHnnOB, M. 11. C11311- KOB, E. B AHI1CI1MOB, 11 en. nl1CapbKOlkl KpyI1Hei1wHM >Ke Ilccrrenooa- HI1eM 06 I1CTOpHI1 :mpojf(j}eHIII.II 11 nepBOHa'laJ1bHoro I}JYHKUHOHI1pOB8HIII.II PeKeTMeiicTepcilli KOHTOpbl nOHb]He OCTacrCH HTaJlbHM cm- Tb>I M C. nOMepaHueBa 1916 r. (/7empo6cI<UU C. A. YKa3. C04. C. 185- 201. (]Jociunl106 A. H YKa3. C04 e. 126-149; CUJW\06 M. #. Y4peJK1leHH.II npH CeHiiTe II 3aKoII01JHfl"JlbCTlJO f1e1pa I. C. 80-82; .4lIucUJlOtJ E. B. fo- cy.napCT8eHHble npe06paJOsaHI1H e. 262-165; llumpu.OfJO JI. r]J YKaJ C04. C. 153-157; flm«po M C. feHepa.II-peKeTMei1CTep 11 ero KOHTOpa B uapcTBosaHHe nerp8 BeJll1KOro II PyCCKHH apXHB. 1916. KH. I Bbln. 1-3. e. 278-325; Bb!n. 4. C. 476-495; KH. 2, Bb!n. 5-6. C 198-253). nepBb[M reHepaJI-peKeTMei1CTepoM flcrp I onpclleJIIDI 18 .IIHBapH 1712 f. 3aCJlyJKeHHoro I}JpoHTOIJHKa nOJlKOIJHI'IKH B. K naWlolJa. np06bllJWero Ha 3T0i1 .nOJ1>KHOCTI1 no 94JeJlpall.ll 1725 I ]3aKOH0D.3TeJ1bHb]e 8KTbl nerp8 I. c. 341-347. KpoMe TOro. lUJH OJTO- BellleHI1H HaCelleHI1H CeHaT I1:lIl3JI 2] (jJeBpaJI.ll 1722 r. nO'ITH 1l0CJl0B- HO nOBTOpHBWI1i1 I1HUPYKUl1tO ynoM.IIHyrb]i1 Bblwe YKa3 «0 zeHefXLle- pet>em1leUc. KOTOPb]i1 6b!J1 17 (jJeBpalIH 1722 r ony6mu..ooaH THnorpacJx;KI1 (OnI1C8HHe I13ll8HI1H rpa:.I(1W.HCKmi ne4aTH... e. 373. no- CllCDHlOtO no BpeMeHH nyfuJl1KdWltO}'KdJd CM.: 3aKOHOlld1eJlbCTBO nupa I. e. 86-88). npI1Me4aTeJ1bHO, 'JTO, HaJHa'JI1B rJldBOH PeKeTMeitLlepCKQI.j KOHTOPb! K3.!IIX>BOrO BOeHHOCJ1yJK8wero R K. flaBJ1osa. ne-rp I BHec 6bUlO B CT. 7 npoeKTa I1HcrpYKUl111 OT 5 (jJeBpallH 1722 f n0J10JKeHl1e 06 OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTH peKeTMeWcrepa no AprHK)fJlY BOI1HCKOVV 1714 r., HO 3aTeM Bb]- epKHyn ynoMI1HaHI1C 06 ,jTOM (3'11WH0.a.aTJ1bHb[e aKTb] nerpa I. c. 345). 
244 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I YMeCTHO BCnOMHI1Tb, 4TO I1MeHHO B npeaM6yne HHC1pYK- UJ.11i peKeTMeCTepy OT 5 q.eBpaJHI 1722 r. nerp I C<t>oPMYlIl1- poBaJI y.>Ke npl1Bo.m'IBWeeCH Bblllle CBoe nOHMMaHl1e uelm cy- ne6HoH pe<1:>oPMbl. a 3aOllHO nO.1lBeJi ee npoMe}\o/I'O'lHble IHorM. B npeaM6YJTe 3aKOHo.mrreJlb YD.PY'leHHO KOHCTampOBalT, <lTD. He- CMOT]J.II H3 Bee npennpHH.IITble HM YCIVlI1S1 no npeo6paJOBaHHIO CYJJ;OycTlX)iiCTBa Ii C}'nonpoI13Bo.nCTBa, HMeBllll1e UeJlblO, '-JT06bl «Xll.JICOoMY no ux iJe.n.l1M 60 6IT1I cyd 6bUl nptl6i!iJHoii u 6ecnpoikJ.l- :HCumeJIlwii», «o'dbu '«!wOUm'iUKOM 6 de.nax I;/UHRm 1/e.ttlL1ble 60110- «umbl, II dpJ-?U..W dena eepUlam HenptlfJf!dliO. maKOJIC U 'Ie'wOUfrlliUKU MUMO onpeiJe.JeHI/b/X Uti c)odoe u CeHamy, npooep3ocmwo CaDelO, I1pOllIeHUU C60U npUHOCf/m u no(JalOm e/2oJ 6/e.1U'leCmeyJ CaMOMY. He iJ{JfI HUZOe nOICOI(»>I. Heo6xo.DJIMO nO)l4epKHyrb. 'lTD. B OTJTl1'me OT PacnpaB- HO(1 naJI8Tbi 1712-1719 rr.. PeKeTMei'icTepCKa51 KOHTopa HH B KoeH Mepe He 38HHMaII8Cb OmpaBJIeHl1eM npallocynl1S1, 8 ocy- wecTlu"]}Ula 1II1Wb .nocy.ne6Hoe paCCMOTpeHl1e JKaJlo6. nocTy- naBWI1X II npaBlITeJlhCTllYIOWI1t1 CeH8T. npM 3TOM, comaCHO CT. 1 HHCTpYKUI1I1 peKeTMet1cTepy OT 5 q.ellpaJISi 1722 r., eCJ1H }I(aJIo6a npHHOCHJl8Ch H8 IIOJlOKHTY II paCCMOTpeHHI1 neJl8, TO reHepaJI-peKeTMeHCTep .nOJl)({eH 6blJl - nepell TeM, KaK no- KJTaIJ;blBaTb 0 >KaJlo6e B CeHaTe, - caM .IIRJ]SlTbCSI B COOTBeT- CTBYlOlllYJO KOJlJlen11O 1-1J111 KaHueJlSlp1-11O 11 Tpe60BaTb, 'Ho6bl neJlo pa3peUIIU1I1 «6 YKQ3Hble CpOKU lieotn.ueHHO» (1.J:TO 03H81.J:aJlO nplW.8Hl1e PeKeTMeiicTepcKoi:i KOHTope erne M 311eMeHTOB HM- 30pHOM €]>YHKUHI1). B CBOIO O'lepem., comacHO CT. 3 HHcrPYKUMI1 reHepaJI- peKeTMeikTepy IanpeWaJIOCh npHHHM8Tb }I(aJIo6bl, He pac- CMOTpeHHb]e npe)l(ll;e B ueHTpaJIbHblX opraHax (B TOM 411CJ1e II IOcn1U-KOJlJlerl1l-1). B :;nOM OTHorueHl111 C03JIaHI1e PeKeTMej:j- crepcKoj:j KOHTOPb] CJ1ellyeT npl-13H8Tb Mepoj:j no llaJIbHej:jrueMY YKpeJlJleHl110 I1HCTaHUl10HHOCTI1 II cynonpoI1311011cTBe. CaMY npouellYPY nocrynJleHI1S1 lleJi B aneJIJISlUl10HHoe npoI-13Bo.nCTBO CeHaTa 4epe3 P eKeTMej:jcrepcKYIO KOHTOpy 3aKOHOllaTeJlb pema- ] 3aKoHO.1l<lTeJ1bHble aKTbl neTPa I c. 341 nm:a.JaTeJlbHO, 'JTO B npe- 3M6YJle «BCCH tpWlHO nyfuJl1KosaHHOJ"O'" ceHaTCKoro YKa3a «0 rtHCpaJIe- peKCTMei1cTepe» OT 13 t]JeBpaJIH 1712 r. npl1Be.neHHblH 4JparMeHT 6bUl 113- JlO)l(eH BCOKpallleHI1H: «OdHGKOJIC. 'tIHOi!IJ(' VUVO onper)i!li!fIHblX UM cydoo U CeHamJ' npOOepJOllTlUfO C6oefO eeJOe iJoI;;ymro n, U npomeliUU C60U npuflOC1/m eo 6eJ11lWCrTI6}' ca.WOMy. lie oaJ/ IIU20e nOIo.(Jlo. (3aKOHOD.aTeJ1bCTBO neTPa I. c. 86). 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 245 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. MeHTl1poBaJJ B ynoMSlHyroi1 CT. 4 3aKOHa «llOJl)KHOCTb CeH8Ta» B pe.naKUHH OT 27 anpeJlJI 1722 f. ComaCHO CT. 4 neJlO Momo mx..I)'IIHTb H CeHaT TOJIhKO nu- CJ1e HaJlo.:+::eHHSI MMnepaTopoM YfBepIDrre.JlhHOH pe30J11OUHM Ha noKJJa.!1 peKeTMeHcrepa. npaBna, B TOM >Ke CT. 4 HMeJ18Ch orOBOp- Ka. no KOTOPOH peKeTMei1cTep nOJ1.Y'fHJ1 npaBO nOKITMblBaTb neJIa B CeHaTe 11 6e3 Bblco4alllei1 pe30J1IOLlI1I1 - B CJlY''lae JJ.IIHTeJlbHOro mcyrCTBHSI MOHapXa B CTOJ1Hue. OCTaeTCSI n06aBI1Tb, <JTO HHKa- KI1X orpaHlNeHHi1 no xapaKTepy nocTyn8BwHx Ha paCCMoTpeHHe OpamfreJIbCTBYJOwero CeHaTa cyne6HbIX neJ1 B Jill(OHOnaTeJ1hCTBe neTpOBcKoro BpeMeHM, fee'TCSI, He npenYCMaTpMBarJOCh. KaK >Ke B peaJIbHOCH'1 CKlTMblBaJIaCb cYlle6HaSI npaKTHKa Bblcwero opraHa BJ1aCni PacCMH B 1718-1724 rr.? B HCTOpHKO- npaBoBoH J1HTepal)'pe lle5lTeJ1bHOCTb CeHaTa KaK opraHa npaBO- CYJI.I151 B nepBoi1 <JeTBepTH XVIII B. xonl 11 OCBeWaJIaCb. HO no- IICpXHOCTHO H 4JparMeHTapHo l . nepexolUl K 60Jlee yrJ1y6JJeHHoMY paccMoTpeHHIO nOCTaBJ1eHHoro Bonpoca. He06xoIDfMO OTMeTI1Tb, npe>Kne Bcero, nBa 06wt1X MOMeHTa. Bo-nepBhlX, B 1718-1724 rr. neTp I He C031larJ B npaBH- TeJlbCTBytOllieM CeHaTe HHKaKoro 06oc06J1eHHoro npHcyrcTBI1S1, KOTopoe 3aHHMaJlOCh 6hl mnpaBJIeHl1eM npaBocynMSJ Ha nocTO- SlHHOH OCHOIIC - Hano.noooe cyweCTBOBaBllIeH B C1]JYKl)'pe ro- CYAapCTBeHHOro COBeTa WBeUHH oxapaKTepl130BaHHoi1 Bblllle Justitierevisionen I1JlH roH >Ke PacnpaBHoi1 naJJ8TbL HHblMH CJlO- BaMH. B onMcblBaeMhlM nepHon CeHaT oCYllieCTHJ1JJJ1 cyne6HYlO nemeJ1hHOCTb MCKlTlOlJHTCJ1hHO B COCTaBe 06llicro c06paHM5I. OpaBlla. B 1724 r. neTp I 3anyMaJJ 6hUlO nepenaTb B npaBllTeJTh- CTBYlOllil1H CeHaT pa36HpaTeJlbCTBO neJl no racynapCTBeHHhlM npeCl)'nJleHImM, JJ.llSI <Jero npe,ayCMOTpeJi opraHl13aUHIO npH CeH8Te oco60i1 P03bICKH0i1 KOHTOphL OAHaKO 3TO HaMepeHHe HMnepaTOpa TaK 11 OCTaJlOCb HepeaJIH.JOBaHHb]M (nonpo6Hee 06 3TOM pe<Jb noiirr eT HH.:+::e). [H6GH06 n. H. CeHaT npH nape BeJUlKOM. c. 43-44; nemfJ06- <."'KUU C. A. YKa:J. CO'I. C. 245-260, C/Ju.QUnn06 A. H. YK<13. CO'[. C. 326-331; f.JelU{V(1-6e6ymoo M A. YKa3. C04. C. 692-696; AKUUillH M O. Cyne6- HIDI pe$opMa neTpa I: DHC. no C. 175-177. CTom 3<lMeTIlTb, 'ITO BO- npoc 0 cyne6HoH neHTeJIbHOCTH CeHara B nepnoi1 '1eTlJepTH XVIII n Orn3W1CSl cOBepllleHHo 060fuJeH C. A. OpJlOBOt1 B CneUI1MbHo!1 CT8Tbe 1000 r. (eM.. cplO6Cl C. A. CeHaT KaK BbICWI1i1 HWI30(JH0-KOHTpOnbHb]i1 11 cYlle6HO-WIMI1HI1CJp1I1IBHb[fi opraH POCCI1I1 II npaBOBe.neHl1e. 2000. NQ 2. C. 227-235). 
246 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I BO-BTOpbIX, He Bbl3blBaeT COMHem1M, '1TO B 1718-1724 rr. CeHaT BOCnpHHHMaJ'I cyne6Hbie nOJlHOM0411J1 KaK Hec}'IllecmeH- H)'lO, laBe.nOMO BTOpoCTeneHHYlO JlHHMJO cBOef.J KOMneTeHUM". Hat16cJJJee SlpKO lIaHHaH TeHl\eHUHSI npOHBl1JIaCb B ceHTH6pe 1721 r. B CM3" C nOCl)'JUleHHeM t13 IOcnfU-KOJ1JlenIH lleJIa 0 cnopHOM HaCJlel{CTBe rBapJU1H KaJlHTaH8 C. 6. <De.nopoHa. Oro- CJ1aB, YKa30M OT 20 CeHT.II6p.ll 1721 L, JJ;eJIO o6parHo B KOJ1JIenno no npw-ume npocroTbl era pa3perneHHSI, OpaBlITeJ1bcTsylOll.ll1H Cemn npellnl-1Can IOcTl1u-KoJUlenm snpe.nb nQil06HbiX .fie)] He npMCblJ1aTb, <lT06bl H3-3a HHX «(/0 omnptlfJ1et/UU IiY:JlCHblM i:'OC)1dap- Cm8elitiblM de1aM ocmaH08KU He 6bLlO». CamacHo nOHblHe He 660- DJ1BweMYCH B HayYHbl}i a60pOT CeHaTCKOMY yJ(a3Y OT 20 ceHHI6pSl 1721 r. B CeHaT llOnyCKaJTOCb nepe.!l8Ban 113 IOcTI.fu-KoJ1Jlenm ]]HlUb Te cyn:e6Hb]e JIeJ1a. B pa3perneHHH KOTOpblX B03HHKaJlH npHHl.{I1mmJlbHble 3aTpynHeHI15L o6YCJ10BJIeHHb!e HaJU1'lHeM np06eJloB B 3aKOHOllaTeJlbCTBe l . He>KenaHl1e CeH8TopoB 3aHI1MaTbCfI BonpocaMI1 npaKTI1'1e- CKoro CYllonpol13BOllCTBa npocTym1Jlo 11 B ceHHI6pe 1722 r., Kor- na CTaJla 06C}'>K1l8TbCfI B03MO>KHOCTb nepe.na'1H B CeHaT IleJIa no 06BHHeHI1fO o6ep-qJHCKaJla A..fI. HecrepoBa B npeCTYfUleHI1HX npOTHB I1HTepeCOBCJly..K6bl. YKa30M OT 18ceHT5I6p.ll 1722 r. npa- BI1TeJlbCTBYIOWI1(:1 Cemrr pacnop.ll.lJJ1JICH ocyweCTBI1Tb npellBapl1- TeJlbHOe CJlellCTBl1e no lleJlY reHepan-npoKypal)'pe. np.llMOJlI1He(:1- HO nOHCHI1B, 'ITO B CeHare «3a YMIWJ/celiueM i!oc)'iJapcmfJelilibiX de1 K C1eiJoenliU/o mOi!O fJpeM5IIiU lie UMeema>'. CXO.nHbIM 06pa30M, COBceM He3MOJITOilO KOH'1I1Hbl neTpa I. B HHBape 1725 r. ceHa- TOpbl nOnblTanHCb OTKa3aTbCH npon.OJDKaTb cyne6Hoe CJle.nCTBHe no IleJIY 6bIBweTO BOpOHe>KCKOrO BI1Ue-T}'6epHaTopa C. A. Ko- JIb]'IeBa, MOTI1Bl1poBaB ::ITO reM, 'ITO B CeHare «3a OP}'i!lI.MU MIIO- ZUMU Oe JaMU KO OKOH'IaIiUI() fiJeJml He oocmaem RpeUIIIiU>)l. XapaKTepHbl B 3TOM OTHOllIemm 11 npl'lBelleHHb]e M. C. no- MepaHUeBbJM HeMaJlO'-lI1CJleHHble 3n1-13QD.bJ 1722-1724 rr.. Koma ceH8Topbl no.n paJHblMI1 npelIJlOraMI1 YKJIOHWlHCb 3acJ1yrnl1BaTb llOKJlaD.b1 reHepan-peKeTMeHCTepaJ. Bce 3TO CBlflIe1eJibCTByeT 0 TOM, <ITO neTpO BCKJ1H CeH8T BOcnpHHHMWI ce6fl, B nepBYIO o'le-  : *. ::: .ni28H. 1938. n. 16. nO.npo6Hoe 113IIrnKe-- Hl1e ceHaTCKoro )OOJ3a OT 18 ceHTH6pH 1722 r. B nl1Teparype eM.: /1epenHYf- IIUK06 B. 11 04epKI1 reHepaJI-npOK)'lJaT)'Pbl B POCCI1I1 DOeKaTepHHI1HCKOro BpeMeHI1. XapbKoB, 1915. C. 68--69. }floIH!JX1HUl!6MC.YKaJ.c04.C.201-205. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 247 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. pellb, KaK opraH ynpa8JIeHUfl l . npl1 3TOM COBepWeHHO O'-lem'J1lHO. '-no TaKOBOe BOCnpl1}lTl1e MOrJlO CJ10)l(J1.TbC5I TOJIbKO KaK arpIDKe- Hl1e MHoroJleTHeH npaKTI1'-1eCKOH .neHTeJIbHOCTI1 CeHaTa '-ITO 6bl TaM HM 6bUlO, OTnpaBJIeHMeM npaBOCy.nM5I Tor- .naWHM" CeHaT Bce-TaKM 3aHMMaJICH. ()JIarol18pH 06proUOBO co- XpaHI1BWeMYCH YKa3HoMY H npOTOKOJlbHOMY .neJlonpoI13Bo.nCTBY CeHaTa 33 1719-1725 rr.. ceroJI.H.II I1MeeTCH B03MO>KHOCTb CH- CTeMaTI1'-1eCKH peKOHCTpyHposaTb H MacwTa6. 11 ltHHaMI1K)'. H oco6eHHOCTH (collep>KaTeJIbHble 11 npoueccYaJIbHble) cyne6HoH .nemeJ1bHOCTI1 3TOro Bblcruero opraHa BJlacTM POCCI1I1 3a onHCbl- naeMblH nepHOll. BHa'-IaJle I1MeeT CMblCJ1 CKa3aTb HeCKOJ1bKO CJlOB o MacillTa6ax 11 nl1HaMI1Ke. no naHHblM. co6paHHblM aBTopoM HacTOHll1eH pa60Tbl, 3a 1719 r. npaBlUeJlbCTBYIOll111H CeHaT He BblHec HU eOUHOi?O npH- roBopa 11 CYJl,e6HOrO peWeHI1H!. 3a 1720 r. Cem!.T BblHec i}ea npl1roBopa J . A BOT B 1721 r. CeHaT B3ID1CH 3a OTnpaBJIeHl1e npa- BOCYlll151 60JIee aKTI1BHO. Bb[HeC5I eoceMb npHroBopoB H perne- HI1H4. npaBlla, eCJII1 npl1llilTb 60 BHI1MaHl1e. 'lTO Ha npoTH)I(eHI1M 1721 r. npaBl1TeJ1bCTBYJOll1HH CeHaT M311aJl B o6ll1ei1 CJlO)I(HOCTM 509 yJ(a30n 11 MHblX aKrOB. TO .nOJ1H cyne6HblX npl1roBopoB 11 pe- rneHI1H OKa>KeTCH neCbMa He3Ha'-lHTenbHOH. B CXOllHOM C 1721 r. pe>KHMe npo.nOJl>KHJlUCb YHKUHOHH- poBaHHe Cemua leaK opraHa npaBOCYllHSI 11 B 1722 r., B leaKOBOM CeHaTOpbl BblHeCJII1 wecmb npl1rOBopoB s . ilaJlee yY8cTl1e CeHaTa B cynonpol13BOllCTBe noUlJ1O Ha y6bUlb: 3a 1723 r. COCTOJUlOCb I He Bbl3b]BaeT COMHeHtli1. KCTdTIl, 'JTO MMeHHO :no 06cr0meJIbCTBO HBI1J1OCb 06DeKTHBHOH npe.llnOCbUlKoit ro1.ll KOHqmI1KTa. paJrOpeBlllerocH MeJK1IV feHepa.rJ-peKeTIlleHcrepoM B. K. naBIJOBblM 11 cel-ill1UJXlMl1 11 IlpI1- WIBIllHM oc06eHHo OClJIble 4JoPMbi B 1714 r. (prADA, 41. 148. KH. 18!\8. n. 437. 548 06.; KH. 1912. n. 153 06.-254; KH. 1935, n. 130, 13006.-131. 133. 139. 156. 15706.,201-101 06., no",epClH/,f,e8 M c. YIo.a.l. C04. C 119- 218) lCM.: PfADA, 41. 248, KH 1881, 1883, 1884. CTOIfT OrooopllIb. 'JTO K Cyne6HoH lleHTe;:JbHOCTI1 nerpoBcKoro CeHHTa Hlfrop H8CToHlllei1 p<l60Tb[ He OTHec ceHaTCKl1e }'Ka.3b! 0 3aKj)el1J1eHI1I1 npaB COOCT8eHHOCTI1 Ha HeDBI1)!(I1- Moe I1M}'lllOCTBO 3a 6bIBilII1MH WBel1CIGIMI1 nO.D.illlHHb[MIil B npl-lGaJrmKe. nptlHtI,.!aIlWtleCH no 3aKJIIO'-IeHtlj.JM J\KOH tI PelleJIbCkOU KOMl1CCtli1. 'PrADA,4J.148.,KH.1886.J\.1006.-II,15406.-156 4prADA. 41. 148., KH. 1887. n. 106-108. 11206.-113.127-12706.. 144-14506..18106.-183,18606.-18806..351-35106.. 414-415 06. 'PfADA, 41. 248. KH. 1889. n. 141-14106..351,511.559,581-581 06..770. 
248 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Bb[HeCem1e JIIUllb mpex npl1rGBOpoB I . HaKoHeu, Cpelll1 895 YKa- 3011 11 I1Hb]X 8KTOB (He C'H1Ta5I ceKpeTHbIX). I131l3HHb[X CeH8TOM II 1724 f., YHaJ10Cb Bbl5lBI1Tb On5lTb-T8KH wecmb npHroBOpoB l . ECJU'I o6pa111TbC5I K xapaKTep paccMoTpeHHblX lleJI, TO MO)f(HO ymw.eTb, 'iTO 1'13 25 BblHeceHHblX npaBHTeJIbCTBytOl.l1HM CeHaTOM 38 1720-1724 rr. npHfOBopoB 11 peWeHI1H 23 COCT8RI1- ]]11 npl1roBopbl no yr0J10BHbIM AeJTaM 11 Bcefa 060 - perneHI1S1 no fpIDK.!l;aHCKI1M. I CeHT5I6p51 1721 r. CelU!.T pa3peuIIm JJ;eJIO 0 HHCJlellCTBe 605lpHH8 M..R 4epKaccKoro, a 4 lleKCl6pJI TOro .>Ke ro.rra - .fienD 0 HaCJIe.n.CTBe B.DOBbl T. BOJIKOHCKOiP. B CBOIO o'-le- peD-b, 1-13 23 npl1foBOpoB CeHaTa 1720-1724 rr. 22 SlBHJlI1Cb 06- Bt1mneJlbHblMI1 11 01111H - OnpaBD8TeJIbHbIM 4 . no CO.llep:+:aHI1JO yr0J10BHbIX HeJl, pa:J6I1paTeJ1bCTBO no KO- TOpblM OcyIl.{eCTBI..fJ1 CeHaT 38 xapaKTepl1JyeMbl(:1 nepHO.n, 60)]1,- lllHHCTBO - 11 - COCTaBHJlH AeJla no rocyn.apcTBeHHbIM npe- CTyTUleHHSlM. KpoMe roro, Ceffiu paccMoIpeJ1 6OCl?Vb JIeJi no 06BI1HeHIHIM B npecrynneHlHlx npon1B I1HTepeCOB CJ1Y)K6b] 11 mpu neJIa - 06 )iTaMKe nyrn B XOlle 1 peBJ.131111. HaKOHeu, OnJ.1H npJ.1ro- BOp 6LUI BblHeceH npaBltTeJlbCTBYIOWJ.1M CeH3roM 33 HapyrneHl1e 38KOHa OT 19 neKa6pH 1718 r. 06 YKpeJUleHI11111HCTaHUI10HHOCTM B cynonpol13BOllCTBe (3a nOlla'IY 'IeJ106I1THOH J111'IHO neTpY I)s, nOK833TeJibHO, 'ITO He y1(8JlOCb Bb].IIBMTb HI1 OJJ;HOro npl1rOBOpa, Bb]HeCeHOro BO I1CnOJ1HeHl1e OTMe'IeHHOrO I1MeHHOro }'K8]3 OT 7 M8pTa 1721 r. 0 H8npaBJIeHI111 B CeH8T neJi no Ka3HOKp311CTB). lirmronap.ll apXI1BHb[M MaTepl1armM. co BeeH OTlleTJlI1BOCTblO BblcBenulacb TaKaH OC06eHHOCTb cyne6HoH npaKTI1K11 CCHaTa 1720-1724 n.. KaK paCCMOTpeHl1e 11M nO.D.aBJUIIOllieH 'lacTI111eJ1 no nep60U UHcmaHUU. B aneJ111UI10HHOM nopHllKe, npellYCMO- TpeHHOM 11 B 3aKOHe OT 19 nCKa6pH 1718 r., 11 B 3aKOHC <<]],011)1(- HOCTb CeHaTa». BbICrnl1i1 opraH BJIaCTI1 POCCI1I1 paCCMOTpeJ1 38 Onl1CblsacMoe B peM5I TOJ1bKO llBa ynoMHyrblX Bblrne rpIDKllaH- ] PfAJJ.A, <p. 248, KH. 1',116. J1. 18; KH. 1',123, n 14-15. 1-18 06. I1H- TepecHei1Wl1e naHHb[e 0 TeMarnKe I13/IDHHbIX Ce}[aTOM II 1713 r. YJ«]]OD WI- II MOHOIJJd!tIltl1 E. B. AHI1CI1MOBa 1997 r. 254) ,JI. 91; KH. 1934.]1. 4b;M'b8l1n0.0e::4:;'1722 r. no neJl):nhHKa M. Bo.'1KOBa (prAllA, <p. 248, KH. 1889. JI. 521). npl1roBOp or 3 III)QIJH 1711 r. no lleJ1}' A. Atwpeew 11 11. Ka3aKOB3 (PfAaA, <p. 248, KI-L 1889. JI. 352) 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 249 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. CKI1X JIeJIa. nocTynl1BllIl1X 113 IOCTI1Ll-KOOJ1erl1H. TeM caMblM. CJle.1lyeT KOHCTampOBaTb, '1TO CeHaT 1718-1725 rr. n04T11 He 4JYHKUHOHMpOBaJI B Ka'leCTBe cyna '1ernepToro (Bblcrnero) 3BeH8. KaKOBOH CTaTYC eM)' OnpelleJ1W1 38KOHOllaTeJ1b B H8'1aJ1e npOBe- .aeHI1H cy.ae6HOH peopMbl. Ewe OllHOH Bb].IIRJleHHOH oco6eHHOCTbIO c)'Lle6H0(1 npaK- T(1K(1 CeH8T8 1720-1724 rr. SlBI1Jl8Cb He3H8'1I1TeJ1bHOCTb KOJ1l..J- '1eCTBa LleJl, paccM8Tp"BaBWIXC5I no yKa3aHI1IO MOHapxa. KaK HI1 nopa.JI1TeJlbHO, HO 113 25 ceHaTCKHX npHroBopoB H peweHHH -rex J1eT J1l1llIb O)J,ltH npHroBop CeHaT BblHec no n.eJ1)', HanpaMeHHo- M)' B ero npmrmolICTBO neTpOM I. OC06blM HMeHHblM YKa30M OT II MapTa 1721 r. uapb nopY'IWI ceH8TopaM npo113BeCT(1 pa36t1- paTeJ1bCTBO lIeJ1S 6bIBwero cH6HPCKOro ry6epHaTopa M. n. fa- rapHHa. OOOHHJlBllIerOC5I B npeCl)'nJ1eHIrnX npOTJ.m HHTepecoB CJ1Y)K6bl ("dIe Jl1 nnyrna raapUHa HlldAeJ/CUm 6a.M c.nywomb...»I). He 3aTJlHYB C HCnOJ1HeHl1eM BbICO<.JaHllIeH BOOI1 (XOT5I HH 0 Ka- Koii ct>opcHpoBaHHocTH cyn.e6Horo pa36HpaTeJlbCTBa B HMeHHOM YKa3e OT II MapTa He roBOpWlOCb). npaBt1TeJ1bCTBYIOIl.U1M CeH8T }l)Ke 14 MapTa 1721 r. npl1roBOpWl M. n. farapHH8 K cMepTHoH Ka3HI1 2 . A BOT Ha KaKOM OCHOBaHI1I1 B cy.ae6Hoe np0l13BO.1lCTBO Ce- HaTa nOnaJll1 OCTaJlbHhle 24 yroJ10BHb]X 11 rpIDK1laHCKl1x .aena, no KOTOPb]M B 1720-1724 rr. 6bU1I1 BblHeCeHb] npHroBopb] 11 pe- llIeHI1}!. yCTaHOBHTb K H8.CTO}!WeMY BpeMeHI1 He YJlliJlOCb. ECJlI1 }"-IeCTh, OllHaKO, '1TO ct>aKT HanpaBJ1eHI1}1 n.ena MOHapXOM HeH3- MeHHO 4Jt1KCl1poBaJlC5I B CeH8TCKOH lIOK)'MeHraUlm. TO OC-raeTC5I npellnOJlO)({t1Th, '1TO B 1719-1720 n. 6bUl mIlaH KaKoii-TO He COXpaHI1BllII1HC5I (Jl1160 nOHhlHe He 06Hap)l)KeHHh!H) I1MeHHOH YKa3. B KOTOpOM onpelleJ1.11J1C5I Kpyl .3:eJ1. KOTOpb]e npmUrreJ1h- CTBYJOllil1H CeHaT Mor npl1HI1MaTb B CYLle6Hoe npol13BOllCTBO 11 6e3 CaHKW1I1 MOHapxa. OrroJ10CKOM TaKoro yKa3a, B03MO>KHO. }lBMC5I oxapaKTepl130BaHHblH BblllIe ceHaTCKHH YKa3 OT 20 Map-ra 1721 r. 0 nop5lllKe nepeHoca n.e)] H3 IOCTI1u-KoJ1ller(1t1, 8 n.onOJl- HeHt1eM K TaKOM)' )'Ka3Y - 3aKOH OT 7 MapTa 1721 r. 0 paccMo- TpeHI1I1 B Cemrr e n.eJl 0 KaJHOK)Ja.LI.CTBe. I PfAIlA, $ 1451. KH. 13. JI. 52 (ny6J11fKaIl1ll1 3TOro '\PfC"IOMaTHHHO mBeCTHoro DOKYMeHTd eM.: nUCbMa. }'Kd3bI tI :IDMeTKH ne-rpa I. c. 410; 3HK0HlJJJOJfCJ1bHb]C tlKTb[ neTpH I. c. 141). !PfHA. 4J 1329, on I, KH. 17, n. 95-96 06. (nolllU1HHI1K); prAIlA, $.148. KI-L 1887, n. 106-108 (KOnI1H B 3HnucHoH KHl1rC CCHaTCKHX tlKTOB 172lr.). 
250 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I ,[(,1U1 nOJ1HOTbl K3pnIHbi Heo6x01U1MO n;06am1Tb, 'lTD. no- MHMO n.e.rrn M. n. raraptlH8, B MaTepl-1aJ18X )Ka3HOro 11 npOTO- KOJIhHOrO neJlOnpOM3BOllCTBa CeHaTa 33 1720-1724 rr. llOBeJ10Ch BCTpeTHTb ynoMHHaHI151 erne 0 mpex cyne6HbIX npoueccax. npo- H3Bo.llHBWt1XCH B TO BpeMfI no nOPY'leHIDIM neTpa I, HO TaK 11 He JaBepweHHblX npH em >KI13HI1. 3m 6bUlH: lleJ10 no 06BHHeHHIO 6bIBwem BOpOHe)l(CKoro BJIIlle-ry6epHaTopa C. A KOJlb]'leBa B npecrynJlemJSlx npOTJ.m HHTepecoB CJ1Y)((()b] (nocrymulo B CeH3T 18 M8}[ 1722 r.).lleJIO no 'leJi06l1THOH MOCKOBCKOro npe.nnpHHH- MaTeJUi 11. BoHHOBa (nocrynl1.l1o 22 SIHBap}[ 1723 r.) Ii ...uawpoc- CUUCKoe de.lo. (nocT)'mUio 18 ceHTH6pH 1724 r.)]. Bnpo'1eM, no I1MeHHoMY yJ(a3Y OT 8 ceHHl6p51 1724 r., nOCJ1ellHee neJIo CeH8ry llOBeJlOCb pa:J6l1paTb COBMeCTHO c BbllllHHM CYllOM 2 . Me)l(AyTeM, KaK JIBCTByeT H3 JIOK}lMeHTaL{l1H CeHaTa 11 Bb]W- Hero cyna, H8 npOT5DKeHI111 1722-1724 rr. neTp I H3npam1J1 B cyne5Hoe np0l13BOlICTBO npaBl1TenbCTBYJOlllero CeHil-ra, HapHllY C BbIWeHil3BaHHb]MI1, ellie, no MeHbwei1 Mepe. 12 yroJ10BHb1X 11 rpi.VK1l3HCIJIX lIen. TaK. 27 anpe.n51 1722 r.. crporo B COOTBeTC'IBHI1 co CT. 4 3aKOHa (,D.OJ1)KHOCTb CeHaTa» B TOJ1bKO <no YTBep)({lleHHOii pe.!l.aKUI1H OT 27 anpeJ1fl 1722 r.. I1MnepaTOp HarJO>KHJI ymepllH- TeJ1bHble Pe30J1IOUI1I1 Ha LlOK./larI reHepaJI-peKeTMeHcrepa, OTOCJ1aB Ha aneJlJlflUHOHHoe paCCMOTpeHl1e CeHaTa weCTb yroJ10BHb1X 11 rpIDK.JJ;aHCKI1XneJ1 J . 24oKT5I6p5l1723 L neTp I paCnOp5l1U1J1C5I ne- penarb 113 Bb]WHero cy.na B np0l13BOllCTBO CeHilm LleJ10 no 06BI1- HeHl110 6blBwero o6ep-npoKypopa r. r. CKOpH5IKOBa-nI1CapeBa B 3J1oynorpefuleHI151X LlOJDKHOCTHbIMI1 nOJIHOMOlJl1SlMH B nepl1011 pa60Tbl B TaHHOM KaHueJ151pI1H. a 15 SlHBap51 1724 r. - LleJ10 no 06Bi1HeHI1IO 6bIBwero MOCKODCKOro BHue-[)'6epH8TOpa B. C. Ep- WOBa BO B3S1T04Hl1'leCTBe 11 aHaJlorl1'-IHO B 3Jloyn01pe6J1eHI1J1X nOJ1)KHOCTHbIMI1 n0J1HOM041151MI1(. ] PfNlA, 41. 148., KH. 1888. n. 311 06.; KH. 1912. 11. 25, KH. 1935. JI.14006. lPfNlA, 41. 9, OTH. I. KH. 51i, n. 466. 06paJOrnlHHoe nyreM 06'bellH- HCHI1H CCHJfd 11 BblWHcro CYlia DJI.II paCCMOTpeHI1H «Md.lJopoccllli1CKOro neJ1<l» cnemlallbHOe cy.ne6Hoe npHcyrCTBl1e (npoc)'ll.IeCTIIOBaBllIee, Bnpo- 'JeM, BeCbMa Henpo.nO]])KI1TeJlbHoe BpeMH) nO,Y'1I1J[O Hal1MeHOBaHl1e «co- 6paJlue FeHeJXLlbH(k!() cyda» (TaM .>Ke. JI. 474). J3aKoHo.naTeJ1bHb[e aKTb] nerpa I. c. 347-349. 4PfHA, 41. 1329. on. I, KH. 18, n. 1406., 51. I-1Hble OTHOCHlllHeCH K 1723-1714 rr. ynoMI1HaHI151 0 HanpaBJ1eHI1I1 nerpoM I B CeHaT yfOJlOBHblX 11 rpa.>K1laHCKI1X ne, CM.. TaM }((e. n. 39-39 06; PfNlA,4J. 248, KH. 1914, JI. 31. 42-42 06. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 251 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. OllH8KO, KaK HI1 YIU1BI.ueJIbHO, HI1K8KI1X CJlellOB cyne6Horo npol13BOllCTBa no oceM JTI1M 12 neJI8M B ceHaTCKOM neJlonpo- I1JoonC'T'Be 1722-1725 rr. Bbl.lIBI1Tb K H8CT05lweMY BpeMeHI1 He ynaJIocb (eCJlI1 He C l ll1TaTb YJana CeHaTa OT 20 SlHBapSJ 1724 r. o npl1eMe 113 BblwHero cyna M8Tepl1aJlOB neJI8 B. C. EpWOBa l ). np05lBI1JlaCbJll1 31leCb 06bIKHOHeHHIDI6JOpOKpanl'leCKa51 HOJlOKI1- "fa. CK83aJ1aCb J111 neperp}')KeHHocTb cemlTopOB aD;MI1Hl1cT)J8nlB- HblMI1 neJI8MI1 - npl1 O'-leBJ1..[{HOM HellOrJlSJ1le «OKa rocynapeBa.., reHep<U1-npok)'lXJp3, HO c]mKT ocraeTcH t:!JaKToM: 12 KaCaBWI-IXCH cy.nonp0l13BOllCTBa BbICO'-l8iiWI-IX pacnop5l)((eHl1ii 1722-1724 rr. OKa3aJlI1Cb npaBllTeJlbCTBYJOlllI1M CeH8TOM npOl-irHOpl-lpoB8Hbl. CTOHT, HaKOHeu. ynOMHH)lTb, 'ITO B 1723-1724 rr. neTp 1 npe.u.yCMOTpeJ1 HanpaBJIeHl-le B CeHaT 'Iacn1 lIeJl. paCCJ1ellOBaB- 1lII-IXC5I «Mai10PCKI1MI1» CJlel1CTBeHHb]MI1 KaHueJ1.11pl-l.llMI1. Comac- HO I1MeHHOMY YK83}' OT 911e1al6p51 1723 r. 0 JlI1KBJ.UlaUl1I-1 «Maj:jop- CKI1X» KaHUeJl5IPI-lj:j nepe.na'le B CeH8T nO.wIe)I((UJ1-I H8X01ll1BWl-leC5I B I-IX npol13B01lCTBe oco60 BM<Hble .neJI8 (<<e:JK:eJ/u ecmb eQ:JK:Hble», KaK C06cTBeHHOp)"-lHO Ha'lepTarJ neT)J I). B nOBTOpHb!H >Ke I1MeHHOH Ylal3 Ha 3TOT Cller, 1-131laHHblH 22 SlHBapSJ 1724 r., I1M- nepaTOp BHec elUe 60Jlee paCnJlbIBlJal}'JO $JPMYJlI1POBKY 0 TOM, 'lTO neJla ynpa31lHHBWI1XC5I KaHUeJlHpl1H CJlellOBaJlO «0ffl0C1amb e Cel/am u 6 KO'leuu. eiJe Komopo.'dY 6blmb npucmOUHo». npl-l- HI1Ma51 BO BHHMaHl-le Bb]Wel-l3J10.>KeHHoe, He npl1XOlllITC5I YllI-IB- JlS!TbC5I TOMY, 'lTO B ceH8TCKOM neJIOnpol-l3BOllCTBe 1724-1725 rr. He YllarJOCb BWlBl1Tb HI-IK8KIIX CJle.nOB OCYlUecrBJIeHIDJ CeHaTOM KaKOrO-J1M60 p83611paTCJlbCrBa no nepe1l8HHbiM 113 «MaHOPCKI1X» KaHUeJlSlpl1H .ne.naM. BeCbMa He3Ha'lI1TeJlbHOe KOJlI1<{eCTBO neJl Cemn paCCMa- TpI-lBaJI B 1722-1724 rr. 11 nOllOKJlMaM reHep<U1-peKeTMdicTepa 3 . nOK83areJIbHO. <{TO, KaK JIBCTsyeT 1-13 apXI-IBHblX MaTepl1arJOB. no lleJJaM. nocTynl1BWI1M 1-13 PeKeTMej:jCTepCKOH KOHTOPb], CeHaT He Bb]HeC 3a OnI1Cb]B8eMb[H nepl1o.n HU 001/020 npl1roBOpa 11 pe- llIeHI151. 3aBepwa51 0603peHI1e ceHaTcKoH cy.ne6HOH np8KTHKH 1719-1724 IT., Heo6xo.nI1MO OTMenrrb, <ITa B p5lJle CJJy"JaeB Ce-   11i: : :. Jl28' 49. 54 (ny6JII1KHUI1I1 naHHblX I1MeH- HbIX YKaJOB CM.: «POJb[CKHTb tillK()enKO. npHDllOJO...» C. 205. «11 no nCJ1HM BceoCTc;' ;oIe<leHHOH CT8Tbe M. C. nOMepaHuena (flollepOllU1!6 M C. YKa3. C04. C. 205-219). 
252 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Har np0l13BOl1l1Jl B Te rollb[ BnOJlHe p<UBepHyroe cyne6Hoe CJiell- CTBHe. CeH8Topbl 11 .n.onpaWI1BaJll1 nOllcynHMblX 1-1: CBHlleTeJIeH (B TOM 1.U1CJ1e H B 3aCTeHKe), H Ha3HaI.Jarm OI.JHble CTaBKM, Ii npH- H"MaII" perneHt1S1 06 H36pamu1 Mephl npece'leHHSI, Ii HarraraJIH apeCTbl Ha HMYweCTBO B o6eCne"leHt1e I1CKa. Cy.rUI no CeHay- CKOMY lleJTonpOH30011crny. B om1Cb1BaeMOe BpeM5I CeHaT y.ueJlJ.iJ1 Hal16oJ\bwee BHHMaHHe CYJJ;eGHoMY CJ1eJJ;CTBHIO no DeJlY 6bIBwero BOpOHe)l(CKoro BJ.'lUe-ry6epHaTopa C. A KOJlbl'-leBa. Hanpl1Mep, H8 3aCe.IJ.aHHI1 13 I1IOWI 1722 r. CeH8T nOCT8- HOBlUl I1CTpe60BaTb OT opraHa npellBapt1TeJlbHoro paCCJlellO- BaHHH - CJ1ellCTBeHHoH KaHUeJlSlpHI1 C. A CanTblKoB8 - pM BeweCTBeHHblX nOKa33.TeJ1bCTB no neJlY. a TalOKe n.onpOCHTb no.11- CYLlI1MOro no 3nH3011Y XrUl1eHt1S1I1M 200 py6J1ei1 Ka3eHHbIX lleHer. 10 aBJ}'CTa 1722 r. CeH<lT nOCTaHOBWI H3MeHHTb C. A KOJlbl4esy Mepy npeCe'-leHHJI C cO;:J;ep)KaJUul no.n CTpaJKei1 npM CJlellcTBeHHoi1 K3HUenJlpl111 H8 llOM811IHHi1 apeCT. 22 8Brycra Toro.>Ke 1722 r. ce- H<ITOPb[ nOCTaHOBl1JlH pa3pellIHTb nO.1lcynl1MoMY 03H8KOMl1TbCJI C BblJlHCKOH no ero nenyl. nOMHMO cyne6Horo C1Ie.nCTBlliI, B 1719-1724 IT. CeHaT ocyLUeCfBJULII B HeCKOJlbKHX Cn}l'laJlX 11 CBoero IXHJ.8 lIOCJIe.n- CTBeHHble npoBepKI1 3aJlBJIeHHi1, COllep)I((lBllIHX 06BHHeHHJI npo- THB BblCllIHX llOJ1.>KHOCTHb]X J1HU (npeHMYllIecTBeHHo B rocynap- CTBeHHblX npecryJlJ1eHI151x). CKIDKeM. B 1722 r. CeH8T npoM3Ben npoBepKY H3BeT<I H3803'-111K3. P5I3aHCKOro np8ryHCKOro nOnK3. r. nOll.JlYUKoro, KOTOpblH 06'b}IBI1.I1, '-ITO 3H8eT «60p06cm60 U U3- MeHY 30 Heli:OItlO{JbUfU nepcDHalfu U3 leHepC1JlUmema U wmon- U o6op-tK/Jllu,epaMU». B p3MK3X npoBepKH rpHropHi1 nOll.JlYUKHii llBa)f{Jlb] llonpallIHBaJlCJI ceH3TopaMH (H3 33Ce.Ll3HHJlX 20 HfOHJI H 9 HfOnJi 1722 r.). B HTore. BblJI.Bl1Hyrble H3BeT'-lHKOM 06BI1HeHM.II He Hallum nO.LlTBep)f(!l,eHHJI. Ha ::tTOM OCHOBaHHH - HeCMOTp51 H8 TO. "lTO B XOlle 1l0npoCOB CT<:uIO O'-leBHllHbIM CYMaCllIeCTBl1e r. nOll.JlYUKOro ('ITO OH 6 YMe no.MeUJalTle..leH») - 26 H05l6p51 1722 r. CeH8T npHroBOpl1.l1 H3B03'-1HKa K HaKaJaHHJO KHyrOM H ] PfAllA, 41. 248, KH. 1888, n. 348-348 06.. 459. 467. nOnp06HOCTH ocywecrnJJeHHoro CeHaToM cylle6Horo CneJl(.TIJHH no lleJ1}' C. A. KOIIbI'Je- sa CM.: Cepoe J],. O. 8opoHe)KcKHe ry6epHcKHe WlMl1HUC1p!ITOpb] B Kj)HMI1- HaJlbHOH tlCTopHI1 POCCI1I1 nepooH Qemcprl1 XVIII B. II 113 I1CTOpl1t1 80- poHe)KCKoro Kj)aH. CG. cnneit EopoHe)l(, 2001 Bbln. 10 C. 51-53. 60-61. Bcew.Ja Mai1I721--JJHrntpb 1715 r. CeHaT nptlHM noneny C. A. KOJib]'JeB3 IBcy.nc6HO-CJle.D.CTBeHH(,IX nOCTaHOBlICHI]i1. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 253 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. nO.>KI13HeHHOH CCblJlKe H8 K8TOpryl. T 8KOBbiM - B OCHOBHb]X '1epTaX - 6blJlO }f'-IaCTl1e npaBI1TeJlbCTB}'lOlUero CeHaTa B yro- JIOBHOM 11 f)XlA<1I.3HCKOM cynonpol13BQfiC'T'Be B 1719-1724 rr. HTaK, MO)l(HO KOHCTIlTHpoBaTb, '1TO H8 np8KTI1Ke B KOHue 171O-x - nepBof1 nOJlOBHHe 1720-x rr. CeH8T BeCbM8 3nl1301U'l- '1eCKI1 Bb]CT)'TIaJI B Ka'leCTRe opraH8 npaBOCYLlI1J1. KO BceMY npo- '1eMY nO'lTI1 He BblJlOJlH.IIJI de jure B03JlO)((eHHb]e H8 Hero HK- UI1I1 CYJIa '1eTBepToro (Bblcwero) 3BeHa. CB.II3aHO 3TO 6bUI0 C TeM, '1TO B OTMe'leHHb[H nepl1011 npaBI1TeJlbCTBYJOlUI1f1 CeHaT OKa3aJ1C5I npl10pl1TeTHO cocpen.OTOl(eH H8 pacCMOTpeHl111 BO- npacOB ailMI1Hl1crpaTIlBHoro xapaKTepa. nOn.06H851 TeH/leHUIDl CJ10)l(HJ[8Cb, pa3)'MeeTCfI. He 113-3a cy6'beKfI1BHblX npl1crpaCTHH TOrnaWHI1X ceH8TOpoB. KaK npellCTaBJlfleTC5I. caMO n0J10)((eHl1e CeHaTIl B rocynap- CTBeHHOM MeXaHI13Me POCCI1I1 nepBof1 '1eTBepTl1 XVIII B. npe.no- npe,lJ;eJll1JlO ero YHKLlI10Hl1pOBaHl1e npe)((J]e Bcero KaK OpraH8 ynpaBJleHI1f1. Bellb I1MeHHO H8 CeH8T nerp 1 3aMKHyJI TeteylUee PYKOBOllCTBO OrpOMHOH (8 nOH81.Ja.rJY erne 11 nJlOXO OTJIa)f(eH- HOH) CI1CTeMOH pe<t>opMl1pOBaHHblX ueH1paJIbHblX 11 MeCTHblX opraHOB BJl8CTH B 3THX YCJ10BI1J1X, 6YllY'111 xpOHH<reCKH nepe- rp)')KeH ailMI1Hl1crpaTHBHblMI1 neJ18MI1, npaBJ.1Te1lbCTBYlOrnJ.1H CeH8T OKa3aJICfI B 1719-1724 rr. 06'beKfI1BHO He B COCTOflHl111 CKOJIbKO-HI16Yllb 8KfHBHO 11 BHI1M8TeJIbHO 3aHI1M8TbCfI elUe 11 OmpaBJleHl1eM npaBOCYlll1J1.  5. 3apo>K,AeHMe cYAeVicKoro Kopnyca POCCMM (1718-1727 rr.) Tenepb He06xODJ.t.Mo OCTaHOBI1TbC5I erne H8 OllHOM acneKTe cyne6HoH pe$JpMbl neTpa I, nOHbIHe He paccM8Tpl1BaBWeMCH B I1CTopI1KO-npaBOBOH J1I1Tepa1)'pe. D.eJlO B TOM, '1TO B CM3H C B03HI1KHOBeHI1eM B 1)' nopy B POCCI1I1 CI1CTeMbl cynOB o6rnef1 IOpI1C)lI1KUI1I1, crpYKT)'p"0 OTneJleHHb]X OT opraHOB ynpaRlleHI1J1, nO.llRilfleTCH OCHOBaHl1e BeeTJII pe'lb 0 3apO)((J]eHI1I1 B POCCI1I1 cy- LleHcKoro Kopnyca. nOCKOJ1bKY B npellllIeCTBYlOllieH npaBOBOH JII1Teparype onpeneJleHH5I 3Toro nOHHTIlH BCTpeTHTb He ynaJIOCb, MO)l(HO npe1lJ[O)l(J.1Tb nOHHMaTb nOlI cynef1cKJ.1M KopnYCOM «pyz iJOJlJiC- HocmlfbIX .qU, OCH06llQlI npotpecCUOHa%HDn 061110HHocmb Iwmo- [PrADA, $. 248, KH. 1888. JI. 363 06., 38906.; KH. 1889. JI. 770. 
254 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I pbiX cocmoum 6 Omnpa6.1eliUU npaffOcyiJufI. CO(nrerCfBeHHO. K "I.HCJly JU1U OTe"l.eCTBeHHOrO cynei1:cKoro Kopnyca nepBoii 'leT- Bepm XVIII B. Heo6xo.1lHMO OTHeCTH: npe3HlleHTOB, Bl1Ue- npe3WleHToB, COBeTHHKOB Ii aceccopoB IOcnm-KoJlJlerHH. npe3HlleHTOB. ln1ue-npe3Ml1.eHTOB Ii aceccopOB HarlnOpHblX ey- DaB. 06ep-JlaH.LlpUXTepOB M aceccopOB npOBHHUMaJlbHblX eynon, a TaJOKe ropo.nOBblX eyne" l{nfl H8'JaJIa 3D;ecb HeJlb3H He OTMenfTb, '-no MMeHHO B xQJJ;e nelJX!BCKMX cyn.e6Hb]X npeOOpaJOB8HI1l1 TepMI-1H «lJUbRb CTdJI HC- nOJlb30BaTbCfI B COBpeMeHHOM 3Ha"JeHIU1. B XVI - H8<ffiJ1e XVIII B. H83BaHHhlt1 TepMHH npHMeHHJlCfI B 6lOpOKp3.TWleCKOM 06t1XOlle HCKJUO'lHTeJ1bHO lIJl5I o603Ha'leHI1H PYKOBO.1lIUeJ1eH npI1Ka30B. Ha- CKOJ1bKO MO)l(HO nOHfiTb, B 3aKOHO.1laTeJTbCTBe nepBOH 1.JeTBepTl.f XVIII B. TepM(1H «cyJI.b5l» 6bUi nnepBb]e J.fcnOJ1bJOBaH B HOBOM 3H8'1eHI1M B CT. 6 nJ. 1-" «KpaTKoro J.f.}()(ipIDKeHIHI "pOueCQB...» 1712 r. M B CT. 2 3aKOH8 OT 19neKa6p51 1718 r. 06 YKpeJUIeHJ.1H J.lHCTaHUHOHHOCTM B cynonpm13S0.1lCme[. npI1Me'l8TeJlbHO, 'lTO H caM neT}) I, H CeHaT H nOCJle 1718 r., C1I)"laJ:IOCb, HCn01lb30BaJIH TepMHH «CYIlbH'} B apXalt<JecKoM CMblCJle -LUlH o6oJHa'1eHHH JUO- 6blX DblCWHX nOJDKHOCTHblX J1HU 2 . nepexo.IDI I< XapaKTepHCTIll<e cyneHCl<oro I<opnyca neTpOB- Cl<oro BpeMeHH, HMeeT CMb]CJl, npe>K.Qe IJcero, OCT3HOBHTbCfl H3 TOM, <ITO. COrJ13CHO «Ta6eJU 0 paHhlV: Bcex IJUH08 BOUHCKUX. cmamCKUX u npudoopHblX» OT 24 JlHlJapJl 1722 r., llOJl)l(HOCTHble JIHU8 pe$:>pMHposaHHblx cyne6Hb]X opraHoB nOJ1}"JHJlI1 OTHOCH- TeJlbHO BblCOl<l1H (lL!lSl rproK1I.3HCKOH CJl)I)K6b1) '1I1HOBHbIH cmryc. TaK, IlomKHOCTb npe:ullleHTa fOCnm-KOJlJlerI1H GblJIa (B '1HCJle npO'lHX KOJlJle)f(CI<HX npeJl1l1eHTOD) nOMeweH3 B IV KJIacc TaGe- RH ° paHrax - 'lTO COOTBeTCTBOBaJIO reHepaJI-Maiiopy IJ apMI1H. 13aKOHQillITeJlbCTBO ne1]J8 I. c. 825; 3aKOHOJJ.HJeJIbHble 3KTb] nerpa I. C.378. lCM.. HanptlMep. I1MnepaTCJ))(-KYtO pe3OJltOUHIO OT 9 neK!l6pH 1713 r. Ha ptl:crpe neJ\ Bb]WHero cyna: «Bee Oew MeJlKUe, Komopbie He KtlCWOIT1I¥1 00 CjTJeU "(Mejf(j}Y reM. H3 'JI1CJJa .nomKHOCTHbIX nl1U pe<PoPMHpoBaHHbIX cyne6Hb]X opraHOB non Cy.nOM Bb]WHero cyna COCTOHJ1 Torna enHHCTBeH- HO M. B. )KeJrnfiy)!(CKHii) (Pfl1A, cPo 1329. on. I. KH. 18. n. 3606). Cxon- HblM 06p830M, B ceHaTCKOM )'K33e OT MIDI 1714 r. H83H8'J8BWI1HCH m8Ba MMI1HItCl]JID1tBHOro opraHa - COJlSlHOH KOHTOPb! - 6b[JI no CTap"HKe HalllMCHOrntH "cJmeu.. (PfAll.A, cP 24/;, KH. 1927, JI. 85). C .upyroii: CTOpo- Hb[, llOCTOHHO BHI1MaHlII.II, 'ITO repMIIIH 8CV.nb.ll" B HOBOM 3Ha'ICHI1H WHpoKO I1cn0J1b30RaJl npe.nnp"HmtaTelJb 11 npo)l(eKTep J.1. T. nOCOWKOF1 B TpaKTa- re 1724 r. «KHu.?G 0 CK}vJocmu U fxR1 (flOCOUJKO(J H. T. YKa3. CO']. C. 136. )]/;, 140-144 11 np.). 
fIlaBa 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYlIPB 255 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. j],OJi>KHOCTb npe,UWeHTa HNlBOpHOro cyna OKaJaJIaCb IJ VI KJl8C- ce Ta6e..n:u (LITO 6blJIO TO)t(D.eCTBeHHO apMeucKoMY nOJIKOBHI1KY), nOJi>KHOCTb BHue-npe3lW.eHTa HMBopHoro cyn.a - B VII KJlacce. 06ep-JlaHllPUXTep CTOJIHLlHOro npommUHW1bHoro cyn.a nonan no n.OJI>KHOCTH (BMecre C o6ep-ceJ<peTapeM IOcTHu-KoJIJIerHu) B VIII KJlacc Ta6eJIu 0 paHrax. a aceccop rorepuXTa - B IX-w]. '-ITO KaCaeTC5I nop.llJJ;Ka Ha3HaLleHU5I cyJJ;ew B peopMupO- BaHHble opraHbl npaBocynH5I, TO 3l1eCb. npe)(([le BCero. CJIe.!I.YeT OTMeTHTb. LITO TaKOBOW nop5WOK npH >K113HU ne-rp3 I J1UllIb OT- LlacTH per.naMeHTHpOBaJICH B 3aKOHe. B yrBep)(([leHHOM 8 5IHBap5I 1719 f.. n.OHbIHe HC paccMaTpHBaBllIeMC5I B HCTOpHKo-npaBoBoH JI"Tepal)'pe, D.onOJ1HeHHH K 3aKOHY «B,OJ])KHOCTb CeHaTa» pe- .aaKUI1H 1718 r. 3a npaBHRl1bCTBYJOWHM CeHaToM 3aKpenJ151- JlI1Cb nOJlHOMOLlH5I no onpeJJ;eJ1eHI1IO Ha n;OJI>KHOCTb LlJleHOB npH- CyrCTBI15I KOJUJefl1W (KpoMe npe3lW.eHTa), ceJ<peTapew KQJ1JIefl1W, npe3H1leHTOB HMBOPHb]X CYllOB U o6eP-J18HllpUXTepoB. B CBOIO 04epenb, comaCHO fJl. II feHepaJIbHoro per.naMeHT8 OT 13 <tJeBpa- JlS! 1720 r., K BeneHHIO CeH8Ta 6blJlO OTHeceHO npaBo Ha3HaLlaTb COBeTHHKOB, aceccopoB, CeKpeTapeH H HOTapHYCOB KOJUJerHH, 8 TatoKe npaBO npellCTaBJUlTb BepXOBHOH BJlacTH KaHllHllaTOB H8 nOCThI BHue-npe3I1.!1eHTOB KQJ1JTefl1H. HaKOHeu. B CT. 6 3aKOHa «lJ,OJI>KHOCTb CeHaTa» B peJJ;aKUHH OT 27 anpeJUI 1722 r. K LlUC- JIY JJ;OJDKHOCTHb]X J1UU, H83HaLlaeMbiX CeHaToM, 6bUlU llOnOJlHH- TeJibHO OTHeCeHb] cyne6Hb]e KOMUCCapb] U «cyne6Hble". 8ceccopbl npOBHHUHaJIbH blX KaHUeJlS!pHiF. [POCCI1HCKOe ]aK()H()JI.ffre1]bCTBO x-xx BB. T. 4. C. 57, 59, 61. XapaK- TepHO, 'JTO B CT. 17 Ta6eJ111 CneUl1aJ1bHO orosapl1BaJ1OCb, 'JTO npeJl11IeHT 11 Bl1ue-npeJl1lleHT HMBopHoro cy.na, 06ep-naH.1lplf\Tep, acecrop HMBOpHOro 11 npoDHHUI1W1bHOfO cynoB «He {)'II'Ib '1UHb/». a «paHlU». TO CCTb llOJDKHO- CTH. no ::IToi1 npl1'JIIIHe I1MeHOD3HI1e COOTI!eTCTI!ytOlllHM «p3HroM» He co- "qJaHJLIJOCb 3a 06J1aJ1aBllII1M 11M nl1UOM npl1 01C"I3JII<e HJlI1 nepeMerneHl1111 no c.ny:>K6e (TaM )!(e. C. 65) HeKoTopble nODp06Hocm 06 yr04HeHI111 CTa1)IC8 cy.ne6Hblx nOJ1)!(HOCTeM B XO.1le popa6OTKl1 npoeKTIl Ta6e.n11 0 paHrax eM.. TpoulQUJU C. M. PyCCKI1i1 aOCOJUOTI13M IIIllBOp.llHCTBO... C. 85. 89. 13aKOHQllZR'l]bHb[e aKTbl neTjJa I. c. 291. 2%. 490. CroHT .nof:wnm., 'JTO B CT. 5 116 3aKOHa «OilOJ1AJ-kx.:m CeHaTd" BPenaKUltl1 OT 7 Mapra 1726 r 3a CeHaTOM 6bLrl11 coxpaHeHbl nOJ1HOM0411.11 HaJHa'JaTb Ha DOJ1>KHOCTH JlI1Wb dCCCCOpOEI. cei<p.::TIIpcii 11 HOTIIpityCOll KOJUlCll'lii, npcJI-lD.CH1OB HMBOpHblX CYllOB 11 Cy.ne6HblX KOMHCCajX)B (POCCI1i1CKoe 3aKOHQJJ..ITe./lbCTB X-XX BB. T. 5. C. 151). M 0. AKI1WHH ollll1604HO OTMeTHJI B IIHccepraUl-JOHHOM I1C- CJ1eDOBaHI1I1. 'ITO e3lw.eHTOB, acecCOpoB 11 cel<peTapef.i HallOOpHblX CYDOB, a TalOKe cy.ne6Hblx KOMI1CcapoB B neTpoBCKoe BpeMH Ha3Ha'JaJ1a IOc1lJu- KOJUlCrHH (AxUIIIUH M. 0. CYllc6HIDI pc$JpwI ne1JXll. DHc no C. 187). 
256 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I KaK JlBCrsyel 1-13 apXI-1BHblX M<Uepl1aJ10B, B neIJXlBCKOe ElpeM51. OxapaKTepu30B3HHblH nOpMOK H83H84eHI1H PeaJl1130Bbl- BaJlCJi H8 npaKTHKe He Bcerna B nOJIHOM COOTBeTCTBHH C JaKO- HOM. npaBlla, 'lID KacaerC5I npHcyrCTBI1J1 IOcnJU-KOJ1J1enUI. TO era KOMnJJeKTOBaHHe ocyruecTBJlSIJIOCb B 1719-1725 fr. crporo no oxapaKTeplHORaHHOMY D.onOJlHeHMIO K JaKOHY «lloJDKHOCTb CeHara». 33KOHY «lloJDKHOCTb Cemrra» B pe.naKUI-1I1 OT 27 anpe- IUI 1722 f. H reHepaJIbHoMY penJaMeHry. npe3l1lteHfa JOcnu.l- KOJ1Jlerl1l..j OnpelleJI5IJl H3 ltOJJ)KHOCTb MOHapx (Bl-1Ue-npe3l11leHT B 3TH rollhl He H83H8ljaJICJi). a COBeTHt1KOB H aceccopoB KOJI- Ileum - npaBHTeJ1bCTB)IJOlllHH CeHaT. KaHllHllarypbl H8 HOJ1}J(- HOCTH COBeTHHKOB H aceccopon npellCTaBJ1S1J1HCb B CeHaT npe- 311.l1.eHTOM IOcTi1U-KOJIJ1enli1. A BOT B HMBOpHble CYltbl CeHaT Ha3HaLlaJT He TOJlbKO npe- JJ.UJ;eHTOB. HO H BHue-npe3HlleHTOB H)la)Ke aceCCOpoB. no CBelle- HInIM. co6paHHblM 8BTOpOM. B 1719-1725 n. npaBI1TeJIbCTB}'IO- WI1U CeHaT H83HaLlHJI B coc]:>repI1XTb] ceMb npe:)J1aeHTOB, .neCflTb Bt1ue-npe3I1neHTOB t1 66 aceCCOpoB. npH 3TOM, B np5lMOe OTCTY- WleHt1e OT 3aKOHa, KOMnJleKTOBaHt1eM cyne6Hblx npt1CyrCTBt1H HallBOpHblX CYllOB 3aHt1MaJlaCb t1 BepXOBHaH BJlaCTb - npaB.D.a. KOCHYJlOCb 3TO Jlt1Wb cy.nOB MOCKBbl t1 CaHKT-neTep6ypra. K HacrOHllleMY BpeMeHt1 ynanOCb YCTaHOBt1Tb 'JeTbl- pe 3nt130.D.a, Koma B Ont1CblBaeMb]H nept1o)J; cynbJ.1 CaHKT- neTep6yprcKoro 11 MOCKOBCKOCO roc]:>rept1XTOB onpe.neJlHJlt1Cb MOH8pXOM. I1MeHHbIMt1 YKa3aMt1 6b1Jlt1 H83HaLleHbl: nepBblj::j co- CTaB cyne6Horo npt1cyrcTBI1f1 MOCKOBCKOCO Ha.rJ;BopHoro cy)J;a (8 anpeJifi 1719 r.). BHUe-npe3l1neHT OIHKT-neTep6yprcKoco HallBOpHOro cy.na (25 M;l}1 1725 r.). npe3111leHT MOCKOBCKO- ro roc]:>rept1XTa (17 t1IOH5I 1725 r.) t1 Ollt1H t13 aceccopoB (!) On5lTb- TaKt1 MOCKOBCKOro roc]:>rept1xTa (3 I t1IOJlSI 1725 r.)I. npt1 3TOM CeHa.. OOa>KJIbl onpe.QeJlflJl Bt1Ue-npe3l11leHTa B OIHKT-neTep6yprcKI1H HallBOpHblM cyn (I ceHTH6p11 1720 r. Ii 20 t1IOJlSI 1722 r.) t1 O.nt1H pa3 Bt1ue-npe3I11leHTa - B MOCKOB- CKHM (20 t1IOJISI 1722 cp. KpoMe TOro, t1MeHHO npaBHTeJlbCTBYJOlllHH CeH8T Ha3Ha- "i8JI He TOJIbKO 06eP-JIaHllPJ.1XTepOB, HO t1 aceccopoo npoBt1H- liH8JlbHb]X CYllOB. Hap5lLlY c 3Tt1M. B COOTBeTCTBI1t1 C 3aKOHOM, ]PfAlIA, 4J.148. KH.521, JI 69-6906. InpKlIo:lkeHt1ell, NQJ]; KH. 1941. n. Ill; KH. 1945. n. 8: Pfl1A,4J. 1319. on. I. KH. 19.11.88. lpfAUA, 4J.148. KH. 1886,11. 19606.; KH. 1889, n. 454 06. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYlIPB 257 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. CeH8T onpe.neJUUI B JOCfl.1U-KOJUJernlO. HMBOpHb]e U npOBI1H- UH8J]bHble ey.nbl CTapllll-1X KaHUeJUlpCKI1X eJ1Y)l(3ll1J11x - .fibJ'I- KOB[, eeKpeTapett, HOTapMYCOB U aKTyapMYCOB. B CB010 O'-lepellb, JOcTI-1U-KOJlJ1efl151 HaJHaa, Bo-nepBblX, ropOllOBblX cy.neW. a BO-BTOPbIX, MJlMllIl-1X CJI)l)Kallll-1X B co6cTBeHHYJO KaHUeJl5Ipl-11O. HI-1KaKUX Bb160PHbiX 3ace.naTeJleit - HH OT KpeCTb5lH (KaK B WBeuuu). HU OT nBOp5lH (KaK B npU6aJ1T1-1Ke) - B POCCUitCKI-1X cynax nepBoit LleTBepTI1 XVIII B. TaK U He n05lBI1JJOCb. HaKOHeu, Heo6xonlilMO OTMeTHTb. LITO Hili KaKHX-Jm60 epOKOB npe6bIBaHI1JI B nomKHOCTH, HM KaI<J1X-JUl60 KBaJlI1<!JHKaUHOHHblX Tpe60BaHI1ii ll!l51 cy.neH p$pMHpOBaHHblX opraHOB npaBOcynH5I TOrnall1HI1H 3aKOHOnmeJ1b He YCTaHOBI1JI. llocToitHO ynOMI1HaHI151, npaB.LI.a, LITO KBaJlMI1KaUl10HHble Tpe60BaHU5I K cy.nb5lM - Bnp04eM. He BnOJIHe LleTKue - no- nblTaJlUCb C4>oPMYJll1pOBaTb COCTaBI-1TeJlI1 npoeKTa YJlO)l(eHI1JI 1723-1726 rL B 3TOM OTHOWeHUI-1 He06xonuMo OTMeTUTb 33- KOHOnaTeJ1bHb]e npe.rrnOJlO)l(eHI-1f1, BHeCeHHb]e B CT. 1 1-1 3 r1l. 4-it KH. 1 npOeKTa. ComaCHO CT. I (np5lMOJ1I1HeiiHO 03arJIaMeH- HOf.:i <,KaK08bl OO.1J1CHbi 6blmb (.)0w.), Ha cy.nef.:icKHe nOJl)l(}{OCTH npe.LlJ1araJIOCb onpeneJ151Tb 1IHU «60i!060R.JHeHblX, {hJlROfXJ3YMHb/X U IICICJ'Cl/bIX». B CT. 3 - «CyrJb.fl 6 MJOJK'eHbe oo.1J1CeH 6blmb UC- h}v:eH& - C006P83HO 3arJIaBulO. OT cynbl-1 npe.u.nOJIaraJIOCb "I]Je- 60BaTb .nOCKOHaJlbHOrO 3J-lliHI-1f1 neitcTBYJOll.lerO CBona 3aKOHOB ("eJICUm cyObe Y.1OJlCeHbe. 110 KomopoMy cydumb UMeem. mBep- do 3HOmb» F [no .naHHbIM 3BTOpa HacTOHwei1 pa6oTbl, nOCJJe.nHee HaJHa'JeHI1t: nbHKa B pe4x:!PMI1POsaHHb]H opraH npaBOC}'IlH.II I1MenO MecTO B :.1BryCTe 1720 r.. KOrDa KaHuemlpl1CT IOcmU-KOJUlerl1l1 $. C nm1aWHeB 6bLl npol13BeneH B nbJIKH B CaHKT-ncrcp6yprcKHH mULBOpHb]U CYIl (PfNlA. 41 241::. KH. 649. n.41::2). lOc06b]H nOpH.fiOK onpeneJ1eHH.II roponOBbIX cyneH 6b[]] npe.nycMo- T)JeH JIl1IlIb WI.II C11611pl1. ComacHo paCnOpH>KeHl1tO IOcmU-KOJUlerl1l1 OT 274>eBPaJI.ll 1721 r.. B CI16I1PCKOf.i ry6epHI1i1 npaBo Ha3Ha'JeHI1H ropono- Bb]X cy.nei1 nepe.n3Ba110Cb ry&pHaTOpy (PrNlA. 41. 21::2. on. I. KH. 21596. n. 107-107 06.; KOnl1.11 nOK)'MeHra npe.nOCTaBlleHa E. R 6opo.nHHOH) 3prNlA. 41. 342, KH. 33, 'J. I. J1. 51-51 06 Inpl1..O>KeHl1e V]. Co- maCHO npoTOKOJ1bHOi.J JanI1CI1. CTaTbl1 m. 4 6b[]]11 yrBep)l(D,eHbl YnO>KeHHOH KOMl1ccl1ei119 OKTH6p.ll - 27 H0.II6pH 1723 r. COr./RICHOH TOH )I{e 3.1n11CI1, B COCTalllJeHl111 m. 4 npl1HHJ\11 )"JacTHe. COBeTHI1K CI1HOllil apXHMdtillpl.ff faB- pl1l[]] IEi)'>KHHCKI1HI, reHepan-peKeTMeHCTep B K. naBlloB, Bl1ue-npe3lUJeHT KaMep-KOJIJ1efHl1 M. HI1POT. COBeTlil1KH IOcTI1U-KOJUlerl1l1 C. T. KnoKa'JeB  C. Bonblt>. a Tal0Ke acecoop IOcTUU-Ko.J1erHI1 3. KpoMnei.JH (TaM >Ke. n.76). 
258 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I He 6bVU1 nponucaHbl B 3aKOHOllaTeJIbCTBe ne-rpa I (oj OCHO- BaHH}1 HM DJlSI yn.aJleHuSi CYD.bl1 B oTCTaBKY. HM DJUJ npeJq)alUeHWI. era nOJIHOMO'-lHH. ComaCHO apXHBHblM I1CTO'-lHHKaM. OCHOBaHH- eM DJlSI OTCTaBKH Cyn.bl1 B nepBOH lIeTBepTH XVIII B. SlBJHLJ10Cb era COOCTBeHHOe }l(eJ]aHHe, 06ycJloBJ1eHHoe Jm60 llOCUI>KeHUeM HM npeKJIOHHoro B03paCTa. JluGa Hen03MO)l(HOCTbfO McnOJ1HSlTb CJ]}0Ke6Hble o6513aHHocTIil no COCTO.llHMIO :W;opOBbSJ ('lTO AOJDKHO 6bU10 nOllTBep)KJ]3TbCSI «OOxmYPCKUM OCMOmfJOVO - Me.tI.MUHH- CKI1M 33KJ1K)lJeHueM). B MHblX CJ1Y<JIDIx mCT'dBKa no co6cTBeH- HOMY >KeJIaHHIO B neTpoBcKoe BpeMSI He npaKTHKOBaJIaCb: no naBHeH OTel[eCTBeHHof.:i Tpam1mm H3 rocynapcTBeHHoii cJ1}')K6e 'leJ10BeK Ha'i.OIDUJCSI nmKH3HeHHO. YBOJlbHeHHe (Y.u.aJTeHHe B OTCTaBKY) cYlleif HalIBOpHblX 11 npOBMHU(1aJ]bHbIX CYJJ;OB npo113Bo.nHJI CeHaT. no npe1lCTaBJ1eHMIO IOcnm-KOJlJlerl1(1. ropo.nOBblX CYJlew - C3Ma IQcnm-KOJ1J1enl.ll. K npuMepy. ceHarCKI1M YKa30M OT 23 CeHT5I6p51 1723 L 6bUl «30 nOpallU'IHOfO 6o.ile3HbfO>' yBOJleH B OTCTaBKY 011.11H H3 aceccopOB CMOJIeHCKOfO roq,feplXTa, CeHaTCKJ1M >Ke VKa30M OT 23 aBryCTa 1725 L, «30 cmapocmbfO» - Bme-npe:nlJleHT .HpOCJIaBCKoro HM- BOpHOro cyna l . OcHOBaHHSJMI1 llJUi npeJ<p3weHHSJ nOJ1HOMO'-lI1i1 CYDbH B onHCblBaeMbli1 nepHO.Q JlBJUIJ1HCb ]]1160 ero HeCCJOTIJeTCTBHe 33- HI1f\.laeMoi1 n.OJl>KHOCTI1. JlI160 BblHeCeHl1e eMY 06BHHHTeJ1bHO- ro npHroBopa. TaK, no npl1'mHe HeH8JlJ1e>Kalllero HCnOJ1HeHHSJ CJ1}')Ke6HbIX 06513aHHocTeH, I1MeHHblMI1 YK333MI1 OT 24 anpeJI51 1722 f. Ii OT 17 I1IDHJI 1725 L 6hUII1 OTcTpaHeHhl OT n.OJ1)!(HOCTCH Bliue-npe3l11leHThI MocKOBCKOro roq,replixTa, a pacnOp5l>KeHl1eM IOcTHU-KOJ1J1enfH OT 8 fIHBapfi 1722 r. - MYPOMCKliH ropolloBOH cyD,b.ll2. BCJie.QCTB(1e OC}0KileHHSJ Cyn.OM B 1724 I. JI(1WWlCSJ n.OJl>K- Hocnl aceccop MOCKOBCKOro H<\1lBOpHOro cyn.3 M. B. )f(eJ1516)')K- CKI1H. HaKoHeu. .QOCTOHHO BHHM3HH5I, 'ITO B nelJXlBcKoe BpeW! OCTaJIC5I 3aKOHOll.aTeJ1hHO HeyperyJllipoBaHHhlM Bonpoc 0 nOllcYll- HOCTl1 )](1U CYlleHcKoro Kopnyca. Ha npaKTHKe >Ke naHHhIH BO- npac pa3pewaJ!c5I napHaTHBHO. Ha npoTJI>KeHI1I1 1719-1725 n. cyD,b(1 H<\1lnopHblX 11 «HH>KHHX» CYD06 OJ<a3bIBaJ!(1Cb no.Q cyn.OM TO rof!JrepHxTOB , TO IOcnm-KOJ1J1efHH, TO npaJfrenbCTBYIDllI.erO ] PfNlA. 4J. 248. KH. 1918,11. 63; KH. 1945. JI. 148. 2PfNlA, 4J. 248. KH 1888. JI.177 06: 4J.182, on. I, KH.11595.1L 14 06.. PrI1A, 4J. 1319, on. I. KH. 29. n. 88. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYlIPB 259 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. CeH8T3 (l'lJlH era MOCKOBCKOH KOHTOPb]), TO BblllIHera cyna (3a HCKJlJO'-lemleM neJ1 no rocynapCTBeHHb]M npecrynJ1eHmIM, cyn. no KaKOBblM npOl13BOnHJlH MCK./IlOlJMTeJlbHO Ope06pa)l(eHCKHH npHKa311 TaHHaH KaHUeJUlpI1S1 I ) CKa)l(eM, I1HI1UHl1lXmaHHoe <tJI1CKaJlbCKOH CJ1)')K6oit neJ10 no 06HHHeHHlO B 3JloynOTpe6J1eHHH llOJ1>KHOCTHb]MH nOJ1HOMO- LlI1S1MH TaM60BCKoro cynbH 11 C. KOJlo60Ba IOcTHU-KOJlJlenm 25 HJOJI5I 1721 r. npemmCaJl8 paCCMOTpeTb MOCKOBCKOMY H<\,!I;- BOPHOMY cyn.y!. OO-HHOMY OeTp I nocrymm C 06BI1HeHHb]M B npeBblllJeHl1l1nOJDKHOCTHblX nOJIHOMOLll1ti cynbeii BH3HI1KOBCKOti CJl06011bl OnpHHI1HbIM. ComaCHO I1MeHHOMY VK83Y OT 19 H05l6pH 1721 f.. nocYlle6Hoe paCCMOTPeHl1e neJla Onp5lHt1Ha HaIlJIe.:Ka- JlO ocyweCTBt1Tb IOcmU-KOJlJ1erHI1. a cyne6Hoe p336l1paTeJlb- CTBO - CeHary. A BOT neJla no 06BHHeHl1lO BO B3.11TOlfHHLleCTBe KypMb]WCKOro H aJl8TopCKoro ropO.nOBbIX cyneH <D. CeKepHHa 11 MelUepcKoro 6bUlH, ceH8TCKHM YK830M OT 6 HIOHJI 1722 f.. H3- npaBJIeHb] B cyn.e6Hoe npOl13BOllCTBO JOcrHu-KOJlJIeft.m}. B CBOIO Ol(epellb, 06m1HeHHbIH npOK)'parypoH B HeJaKOH- HOM oCB060>K1leHI1I1 t13-nOll CTp3JKIi rpynnbl nOllcynHMblx acec- cop MOCKOBCKoro ro<!Jrepl1XTa T. B. Tap6eeB 6bUl, ceH8TCKI1M YKa30M OT 18 OKTH6p51 1723 r., OTnaH noD. cyn MOCKOBCKOH KOH- TOPb] CeH8T8. OOJlYlfHBwee OCo6blH 06li\eCTBeHHbIH pe30HaHC BblweOTMeLleHHoe lteJlO no 06BHHeHHIO 8ceccopa MOCKOBCKO- ra HMBopHoro cyna M. B. )KeJIJI6Y>KCKOro II nO.1lJlore 38Bema- Hml BllOllbl A OOJlI1BaH080f.:i paCCMaTpHBaJIOCb nepBOHal(aJlbHO IOcTt1U-KOJlJlerl1eH, a II 1723 f. 6b1J1o nepcllaHo B BblllIHI1f.:i cyn (KOTOpbIH 15 JlHBap51 1724 r. npl1rOBOpllil M. B. )KeJISl6)')KCKOrO K TeJ1eCHOMY HaK838Ht11O 11 KOH<!JI1CKaUHI1 t1MywecTBa)4. CXOlt- HblM 06P330M noD. CYlt IOcTHu-KoJlJlerI1H, 8 3aTeM Bb]WHero cYlta nonaJl 06e p-J18Hl1pll....-rep HOliroPO.nCKOro npOBHHUHaJlbHO- I MelKlI,Y npO'JI1M. OKaJaBIlJI1i1CH B 1723 f. B npeo6proKeHcKoM npl1- Ka:Je B IGNeCTBe I1JBCT'lI1Ka. a JaTeM 06sHHHeMoro ropo.nOBOi1 CYllbH Tapbl 11. Bcpell.IDrHH CYMCJI HC TOJIbKO COSCPW(1Tb no6cr I1J-no.n CIp.1AUt. HO 3aTeM 11 UeccIJeJlHO CJqJbITI>C.II (l/oiq1otIcI<.1.IU H. H. AHTl1l)JeoilaJIbHb]H npo- TeCT YPaJIO-C(16I1jJCKI1X K)JeCTb5IH-crapoo6pH.llUeB B XVIII B. HOBOCl16l1pcK, 1974. C. 35-36). !PrNlA. 41. 282. on. I. NQ 2596. n. 14-1406. YnoMIIIHaH(1e 0 neJle  eK eM.: &JZOc.1(}(J(7o."UU M M 06JJaCTHIDI pe(jxJp- :%.124J8..I:..3iI08;18.;KH.Io JI4i; 41. 2!j2. on. I. KH. 21643. JI. 27506.-27706. 
260 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I ro eynaM.H. M5IKJ1HUH. o6IJHH5IBWUMC.II B npecryJUJemmx npo- Tf.1B MHTepecOIl CJI}')K6bl l . nonblTKa YCTaHOBt.JTb Clll1HblH nopHllUK nOllcynHrn.."TU JU1U, JaHt.JMaBWHX cyne6Hble IlOJDKHOCTII, 6h1J18 npe.nnpUHHTa On5ITb- TaKI1 II XO.lle pa3pa6oTKU npoeKra YJ10)f(eHt.JH POCCJ.1ikKOro rocy- napcma 1723-1726 rr. ByrBep)f(ileHHYIO YnO)!(eHHOH KOMHCCHdi 40KT5I6p51 1723 L CT. 45 rJ1. 2-(:1 KH. I npoeKTa KOllJ1@l1IcaTOpbl BHeCJIM cJlellylOwee 3aKOHOltaTeJ1bHOe npeD.nOJlo.)((eHMe: «...flpe- 3udeHmoB :JICe, 6ue-npe3UaeHm08 narJ60pHblX cydOB U mo.V)' 110006- HblX cy<Jumb 6 mex qm. KomopoAfY OHU nOd'lUHeHbli>l. DpyrHMH CJ10RaMI-!, IlpCDJJafaJIOCb 3aKpenl1Tb no.nCYllHOCTb Cy.nbH BblllIe- CTmlUleMY cyny. BnpO'[eM, 113-38 HeYTBep)f(ileHUS! npoeKTIl TaKO- BOMY nOpHllKY He Cy"AUleHO 6blJlO npeTBOpHTbCH II .>KH3Hb. OCTaerc5I llo6amub, 'ITQ B Te >Ke rolU>! npeilllpMH(1MaTeJ1b H npo)((eKTep 11. T. flOCQWKOB npe1I.Jlo:>K11JI }'JKOCJO'U1Tb OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb cyneH .Ja npecrynneHI-1f1 npo"J1.m I1HTepecoB CJ1y)K()bl 1-1 npoTIilB npaBOcy.D.I151. B ynoM}lHyTOM Bblllle XpeCTOM8"f1.1ifHO H3- BeCTHOM TpaKTIne 1724 r. ..}vmra 0 CKY.D.OCUI H 60raTCTBel> I1BaH nOCOlllKOB pacC)')KlIaII, B 'laCTHOCTH, 0 TOM, 'lTO «oU{e [eCAuJ cyilell JI1a1bIX u 6e..1UKUX He K03Humb U 6eJ1UKUMU lUJllJXK/;bt UX He Ulmpa1x;6amb, mo U... npa6iJbI U npa6aeo cyiJa ycm116Umb {j,'i)em lfl>603uo:HC. nonyrHo I1BaH THXOHOBH'-I Bb]CIQl3aJ1CfI H 38 npo- Be.D.eHHe pelllHTeJ1bHof1: LjHCTKI1 cynef1:cKoro Kopnyca: «A llU{e paiJu J'Cml1I/06Jlel/U5l npl160bl npl16ume./leil cyde6HbIX U MI/020 nodem [6ydem K03HeHoJ, 6blmb Y:HCe maK. A 6e3 J'fJOIfJ'. 51 He 'iOIO, ycmOHoeumUCR npoede... U npl18fHfY cyoy ycmOfJUtnUCR, lle cmo, Opy2oe cydeii He naiJem, nOHeJICR y Hac I/O Pycu l/enpaeiJa Betwu 30CmapeJIa,,3. IPfAllA. 4J.148. KH. 1939. n 5, 4J. 285. on. I. KH 5951. N2 104. JI 406. 3m 6b1f1, KCTIUH, TOT CaMblfi I1saH MHKI1HI1H. 0 KoropoM He pm COnpHKa- CaBl1ll1ficH C HI1M 11. T. nOCOWKOB mlC.l.fl, 'fTO «00, MRKUHUH,.uofJu,j rJeH.?U, a OafXJ:.'dOH IfWJIv.VHUlfezoHe t£Hl.,.. (llocrJwKoo H. T. YKa3. C04. C. 191). jJ4f' a' 'J'. 17 Wt=] 'JroMlollMeHHH 11. T. nOCOWKOBa OCTaJll1Cb BHe nOlJH BHI1MaH11.11 A. E. 3aH4eHKo, cne- ;Hfjber:?En":: ci= !/Mn.0198{rC.nf45)ell; C)?K!leHWI 11. T. nocorrn..ow 0 He06xOllI1MOCTH 'JI1CTKH cYllei1tKoro 1\DpIlyCd. TO H8 Hero 06panulI1 BHHMaHHe RA. TOMCI1HOB 11 P. K. fai1H)'T.nI1HOB (To'll- <liHCJ(I B. A. YKa3. C04. C. 205; FaltHy nduHo6 P. K C)7l11 cyllonpolf3OOJlC1BO B IlpelLIlOJI<t:HWlX 11. T. nOCOWKOOa II IkcrHHK POCCl1rlCKOii npdBOooii 8IGUle- MIIII1. 2006. NQ I. C. 4). 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYlIPB 261 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. '-ITO .>KC 3a 11101111 BOIIUUI B nepBbli1 coeT3B cynci1cKoro Kopnyea Poeeuu? ,ilOJl.>KHOCTb npC3UllCHTa JOcr(olU-KOJlJlerm1 B nepBOH '1ernepnl XVII 1 B. laHHMa..rm Tp(ol ljCJlOBCKa. OnHH t13 apX(oITCKTOpOO cync6Hoi1 pCOpMhl nepBb]i1 npe311L1eHl KOJl- 11CrI1(o1 A A MaTBeeB 6b]JI 29 anpeJlfl 1722 r. CMCHeH 6hIBWI1M Ka3aHCKHM ry6epHaTopoM 63-J1eTH(oIM rpa$:>M n. M. AnPaKCt1- HbIM. B CBOIO OljepC11b, COHrnCHO HMeHHOMY YKa3Y OT 10 MaR 1725 r. npe:U1.11cHTOM JOcrHU-KOJV1emH CTaJI npe)KH(oIH COBeTHHK KOJiJIernu 50-11eTHui1 11. n. TOJ1CTOi1, CT3plllUi1 ChlH 3H8MeH(oI- TOro cnOllBU.>KHUKa neTpa 1 n. A T OJlCTOro[. ,ilOJl.>KHOCTb Buue- npe3HlleHTa IOcnm-KOJiJIenm OCTaBaJIaCl> BaKaHTHOH, KaK }')Ke ynoMUHaJ1OCh, C 1721 no 1726 .-011. Ha nOmKHOCTHX COBeTHt1KOB H aceccopoB B lOcrt1u- KOJlJlerlilU B 1718-1724 n., no naHHblM aBTopa, nepe6blBaJlo 22 "IeJ10BCKa, "IeTBepo (013 KOTOpblX (l1Ba COBeTH(oIKa H DBa acecco- pa) SlBJlSIJIHCb I1HOCTpaHuaMH. CJJelIYeT OTMeTHTh, '1TO A A MaT- BeeB ueJ1eHanpaBJIeHHO CTper.uUlcH YKoMJUleKTOBaTb CYDCi1CKI1i1 llJTaT KOJ1J1enm J1(o1UaMH, HMeBwuMu, C 011H0i1 CTOPOHb].DOCTOi1- HYIO pcnyrau(oIlO. a C JJ;pyroi1 - XOTb KaKOi1-TO onblT pa60Tbi B c<1Jepc fOCUIUt1(o1. Bblllep.>KaTb nOll06HYlO J1HHHIO KanpoBOH no- J1HTHKH 61>1.110 BeCbM8 t1 BeCbMa 3aTpynHHTcJlbHO. KaK CnpaBeltJlUBO 3aMeTI1J1 el.l.le M. M. EioroCJIOBCKI1i1, H8 I1CXOlle I71O-x rr. cnpoc Ha CJ1}')K}mhIX J11011ei1 npCBblCHJI npc11- J10.>KeHHC, B pe3YJ1bTaTe ljem (,npIfXOnunocb nyCKaTb B lleJIO CJlY- >KWIblH nepCOHaJI JJ;aneKO He nepBOH H3H'1eCKoi1 CBe:»(CC11t H COMHHTeJlbHoi1 HpaBCTBeHHoi1ljUCTOTbl... B ljl1CJle 3Toro nepco- Halla. OTnyweHHom U3 P83PH.nHOro CTOJ1a B IOCHIl.l-KOJU1erl1lO, 6bl.l1H llpHXJ1ble H 60J1bHhle CTapmrn, J1l1ua. Haxollt1BWl1eC5I nOll CJlellCTBHeM B npccryn1leHt151X no 1lOJl.>KHOCTt1 11. HaKOHeu, KaH- llHllaTbl. KOTDpble OKa3aJ1UCb .xarn (oIllo6pblM(oI 111011bMW>, HO C OllHUM He.IT.OCT8TKOM - He YMelOlllHMH rpaMOTe». HanpuMep, 21 MapTa 1719 r. CCHaT Ha3HaljHJ1 COBeTH(oIKOM IOcTI1U-KOJU1enm 6bIBwem TBepCKom J1aJ-UlpaTIl R 11. KOJIbUOBa-MacaJlbCKOm, KOTOpbll1, KaK BCKope BbIHCHI11IOCb, C 1717 r. COCTO.lUl nOll cy- llOM no BbUI.BHHyrb[M (oICK3J]bCKOi1 CJly)(({)oj:j 06BUHeHHJlM BO IprNlA. cPo 248. KH. 1942. JI. 68; cPo 1451. KH. 13. n. 362. Hosei1rnytO CBo.llJ<y 6110rpa4JHI.JOCI.JfX cseneHl1ii 0 n. M. AnpaKCi1He 11 11 n. TOJICTOM eM.: Cep06.R. O. AnMI1HI1ClJ'UWUI nerpu I. C.1J-14, 74-75. ! Eoi>ocI06CKUU M M O6JJOCTHIDI pc$Jp\Ia nC1])a BeJlHKOro. C. 177. 
262 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I B351TOlJHHLleCTBe, XI1111eHlU1 COCYllapCTBeHHoro I-1MyweCTBa H B YKPblBaTeJlbCTBe nO,D.03peBaeMb]X B y6HHCTBe[. BnpOljeM, CJlyqa.rIOCb, KMpOeaH cJ\}')K6a CeHaTa (YHK- UHH KaKOBOH n.o 1722 r. BbInOJ1HIDI Pa3p5l11HbIH CTO]] CCHaTCKOH KaHueJlHpHI1, a c 1722 r. - repoJlb.LlMdiCTepcKa5I KOHTOpa) cnOXB<\TblBaJ\aCb M OCTaHaBJnmaJI8 Ha3Ha'leHHe COMHrnenbHoro mma. TaK. H8 38cellaHH(1 CeHaTa 15 I1IOHfI 1722 r. repoJII\!J;Mew- crep 11. H. nJleweeB npe,lJ;CT8BI1J] naHHble. 4TO TOJ1bKO LITO onpe- neJleHHblH 8ceccopOM B CMOJIeHCKI1i1 wiPrepl'lXT fl. B. nOJlOH- CKJ1H "MeeT Cy.nHMOCTb (<<6bI.iJ 611)'tJ.IU"IHO/I1 HGKQ3aHUW». B "TOre, CeHaT OTMeHI1JI H83H8ljeHI1e n. B. n0J10HCKOro, onpeneJIl1B H3 em MeCTO B CMOJ1eHCKJ1H HWlBOPHblH CYll r. A WanUioBa l . no npH'-IHHe OCT)JOti HeXBaTKI1 KBaJ1t1I1UHpOBaHHb[X KaLl- paB ueJloe 6lOpOKpanl'-lecKoe cpa)l(eHJ.re pa3BepHYJIOCb B 1718- 1719 rr. BOKpyl onpeneJleHI1f1 B JOcrI1l.l-KOJ1JIenUO OJ1bITHOro CJlenCTBeHHoro pa60THI-1Ka crOJ1bHHKa n. E. BeJ1b51MHHoBa. llrl5l HaLlana, CeH8TCKHM }'K33OM OT 19 Ma51 1718 r. n. E. BeJ1b}IMHHOB 6hlJI, no npeD.CTaBJIeHi-IlO A. A. M8TBeeBa, H83HaLleH B nepBhlH COCTaB COBeTHI.JKOB JOCfI1U-KOJlJlemH. OllH8KO. no HacT05IHHIO 6hIBwero Ha'l8J1hHI.JKa neT])a BeJ1h5lMI.JHOna rII8Bhl CJ1ellCTBeHHoH KaHUeJI.IIpHH nOJ1KOBHHKa 11. H. rlJIeweeBa (8 TalOKe rII8Bhl T 8H- HOH KaHueJ1f1pHH n.A. TOJ1CToro). crOJ1bHHK BMeCTO TOro, LlTO- 6b] H8npaBlfJbCJI B CaHKT-neTep6ypr K HOBOMY MecT)' CJ1y.>K6hl, OCTaJlcn B MOCKBe, npo.nomK35! HCnOJ1H51Tb npe)((HHe 06H3aHHOCTI1 H CneUHaJlhHhle nopy<-ieH"51. nOnblTKM A. A. MaTBeeHa Bh[T])e6o- BaTh n. E. BeJ1MIMHHOBa B CTOJ1HUY ycnexoM He YBeHLlanHCh. D.anee C06hlTHH npl.JWL!11.J HOBhlH 060POT. II SlHBap51 1719 r. reHepan-M8Hop M. H. llMHTpHen- MaMOHOB llo6HJ1CSI OT neT])a I H3.lI.3HHSI YKa3a 06 onpeDeJ1eHHH n. 6. BeJ1hHMHHOBa B CJ1e.D;- CTBeHHYIO KaHueJ1f1pHIO cBOero Be.D;eHI1.11 J . Ho A. A. MaTBeeB H TOrna He OTCTynl1J1c5I OT HaMepeHl1JJ 3an0J1)"-1HTh neTpa BeJ1h5l- MHHona B IOCTI1U-KOJlJlenJIO. B nHchMel1. 11. llMI.JTpl.JeBy-MClMuHOB)' OT 25 Bparl51 1719 r. AI-w.pei:i MaTBeeB nOllLlepKHyn, LITO «Hbllle 6 Kaue2uu IOCmUL(UU 8 C08emHuKax caMWI HOClllOUm Heo6xo()uwafl Hy3KiJO, u... 30 OCKYdeHueM 3tJo6bI<iOUHbIX {KOMnemeHmHblX} J/KJi)eu <iUHUmCfI 8CelJlepl/OIl /fCev iJeJ1QM ocmOH06KQ» Om1CaHHJJ KallpoBblX 6e.n;- Ma f';o/'ti?ln' 1882, JI. 88; EalioKupeeo n. M. CYlle6HIDI pe4x:!p- r: %: i..In2t3. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYlIPB 263 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. CTBJ.1M IOCTl1U-KOJIJlerl1J.1 HIilKaK He T]JOHYJ1H, Bnp04eM. I1saHa D,MHTpl1eBa-MaMOHOBa. H OH OTKa3a.rtC OTnyCTI1Tb n. o. BeJ1b- MHHOBa. He nOMomo J.1 nOCJ1ellOBaBwee 14 MapTa 1719 r. o6pa- rneHJ.1e npe:utlleHTa IOcmU-KOJIJ1enm K caMoMY uapJO. B J.1TOre, A. A. MaTl3eeB OKa3aJ1C BblH)')KlleH CMJ.1pHTbC C norepe" n.JUI KOJ1J1erHJ.1 «3ao6bl'oIaHHoro» K lleJIaM JOCTHUJ.1J.1 CTO.J1bHI1Ka I . KaK 6bl TO HH GbUIO, YCH.JlJ.1J1 A. A. MaTBeesa J.1 ero npe- eMHHKa n. M. AnpaKCHHa ytroMJU1eKTOBaTb lllTaT npJ.1cyrcTBI1JI KOJIJ1erl1(1 CBellYlUHMJ.1 B «cyllHbIX (1 p03blCKHbIX nenax.. LI(1H08- H(1KaMH He OCTaJlHCb 6eCfUJOllHblMI1. no CBelleHJ.1M, c06paHHblM aBTOpOM HaCTOrneH pa60Tb!, H3 22 COBeTHJ.1KOB (1 aceccopoB IOCnfU-KOJ1J1erJ.1(1 neIJXlBCKoro BpeMeH(1, no MeHbweH Mepe, llleCTepo J.1MeJJH Onb!T npeDwecmYJOweM cyne6HoH llemeJlbHO- cm. TaK. nO.J1KOBHJ.1K r. T. EprQllbCK(1H nOJl)"-lH.Jl 16 Ma.ll 1721 r. J-\a3HaLleHJ.re COBeTHJ.1KOM KOJIJIerl1(1 nocJle llBYXJleTHero npe6blBa- H(1.11 B nOmKHOCTI1 aceccopa MOCKOBCKOro H<UlBOpHOro cylla. Onpe,[ICJleHHbIH 8 neKa6p1 1724 r. COBeTHHKOM IOcnm- KOJIJIerJ.1(1 KanJ.1TaH M. K KpeHMublH ycneJ1 HeCKQllbKO }JeT ne- pen 3UIM nopa60TaTb aceccopoM B HIDKHeM BOJ.1HCKOM cyne (1 B CaHKT-neTep6yprcKoM n$rep(1xre. CraBWJ.1H 5 <!>eBPa.JJJI 1719 r. COBeTHHKOM KOJIJIenU1 ypmKeHeu HapBbl CI1rH3MYHD BQII14> ISi- gi..mund Wo1f] COCTO.llJl npe)l(ll;e aceccopOM B J].epmcKoM .1I8Hll- repHue!. HaKoHeu. HeJJb351 He ynoMJlHyrb. LITO A. A. MaTBeeBY YllaJIOCb ll06J.1TbC5I nOCJlellOBaBwero 26 CeHT5I6p51 1720 r. Ha3Ha- LleHID! aceccopoM }Ocnm-KOJIJ1enm COCTaBJ.1TeJm «Kp3ncoro (130- 6pmKeHJ.1SJ npoueCOB...& llHfUJOM(1pOOaHHoro JOpJ.1cra, BblnyCK- Hmo l1eHcKoro YHHBepCHTeTa 3pHCTa Kpct.meHHa, KOTOpOMY' B CKopoM BpeMeHJ.1 C}I)KlleHO 6blJ10 CblrpaTb 3Ha'I(1TeJlbHYIO pOJib B nonroToBKe yroJTOBHo-npoueccyaJIbHoro pa3.1leJJa npoeKTa YJIO- )l(eHH5I POCCJ.1HCKOro roCYllapCTBa 1723-1726 rr. J (no;:qJOGHee 06 :nOM pe'Jb noiUIeT HI1)1{e). '-Iro KaCae'JCfI cYlle6Hb]X npl-1cyrcTBI1H roctJrepJ.1XTOB, TO npH HX 4JopMHpoBaHHH OT'-leTJIHBO npocTynH.JlH nBe TeH/leHU(1J.1. ncpBlliI H3 HHX 3aK.l1JO'ianaCb B TOM. LITO npe3HlleHTaMJ.1 HWlBOp- ::::[I;;HiJ:2..t;KH.18g6,n.173-17306..19606.; KH. 1889.11. 203; KH. 1934.11. 101; btL1l1lWpe6G R. M C)fie6HIDI pe4x:!pMa ne1fp li: KH 1886, n. 229 nepBOe II OTe4eCTBeHH0l1 JlI1TepaT)1Je !1JJ10)l{CHI1C o6cro.llTeJlbCTB 6HorpmlJl1l1 3. KpoMncfiHa CM.: Cep06.o. O. AI1.- MI1Hl1crpaUH5I nC1JX] I. c. 51. 
264 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I HblX cyn.OB B pH.Qe CJiY'-laeB OnpelleJUU1I1Cb maBb] ry6epHCKJ.1X atI- MI1HI1CTpaUI-1H. Ba)f(HeHUU1M 3.lI.eCb CJlellyeT npl13H8Tb CeHaTCKI1H YKa] OT 7 8Br)'CTa 1722 r., COrJl8CHO KOTOpoMY npe3J.WcHT8MH cooTBeTCTBYJOWt1X ro<tJrepHXTOB H83Ha'1aJ1HCb BOpOHe>KCKI.di. Ka- JaHCKHH H Ct16I1PCKI1H (}'6epHaTopbl. a TalOKe HltJKeropollcKHH (oj CMOJ1eHCKUM mme-ry6epHaTOpb[l. nOllo6HaSJ KallpOBaSi CI1lY- aUI1J1 a5C0J1KHHO He COQTBeTCTBOBaJla. paJyr.leeTCSI. l1lBellCKHM 06Pa3U8M, 03Ha'lafl CMblKaHHe - B cl>oPMe cBoero po,lJ;8 JU1'lHOM ymm - opraHOB npaBOCymul C opr8HaMI1 ynpaBJIeHHH. BMeCTe C TeM, KaK OlJeBMHO 113 apXI1BHblX HCTO'-IHHKOB, naHHaJI KanpOBafi Tel-W.CHUlHI OTHfQllb He CTILII8 rocnollCTBYlOwei:l (KaK nOJJara.rJt1 <1>. M. D,MHTPt1eB. M. M. DOroCJ10BCKI1H 11 K ne- TepCOH 2 ). B caMOM .lleJIe. He 3aHHMaJU1 HHKaKHX napa.rrJ1eJ1bHbIX JIOJDKHOCTeH PYKOBO.nI1TeJU1 MOCKOBCKOro (c 1722 r.). CaHKT- neTep6yprcKoro. EHI1CeHcKoro. KYPCKOro M JlPOCJIaBCKOro Ha;:rBOpHbIX cynoB. KpoMe TOro, npl-1 npe3J111;eHI-ax - reHepaJi- ry6epH<ITopaJ.", ry6epH8TOpax 1-1 Blme-ry6epHaTopIDo. HeM3MeHHO 3ace.nan1-1 BCeueJ10 cocpellOTOlJeHHble H8 cyne6HoH pa60re BHue- npe3l1LleHTbl. B 06rneH CJ10)l(}{OCTH. no CBelleHIDIM 8BTopa HaCTOH- weH pa6oTbl. 1-13 23 npe3111leHTOB 1-1 Bl1ue-npe3l1LleHTOB n$repl1X- TOB 1719-1727 rr. 3 COBMernaJTl-1 aLlMI-1HI-1C"JpaTI1BHhle nO)J}KHOCTI1 C cyne6HblMI-1 TOJ1bKO ceMb lJeJ10BeK (30% OT lJMCJ1eHHOCTI-1). BTOpa.ll KaLlpOBa.ll TeHlleHUI-1H. KaCaBWa.llC.II HallBOpHblX Cy.nOB, COCTOIDI8 B WI-1POKOM8cwTa6HoM KOMruJeKTOBaHl-11-1 I'IX cyne6Hbix npMcyTCTBltH 6bIBWl-1MM BOeHHOCJIY)l(arnl-1MK 113 96 YCTIlHOBJIeHHblX K HaCTOHWCMY BpeMeHI-1 JJHU, 38Hl'lMaBWI'IX B 1719-1727 n. cyne6Hble nOmKHOCTI-1 B n$repI-1XTaX 4 , BOHHCKHe 1 PfALJA., $. 248. KH. 1889. n. 52.5-526. CTOHT JaMCTI1Tb, 'JTO cCHaTCKHi1 YKa3 OT 7 lBryCTa 1712 r. OKaJaJlCH HeT04HO I1CTOJIKOBHH L/)K. J1e D.OHHOM. I1CTpaKTOBaB 03Ha'JeHHbIH YK33 BeCbMa paCWHpl1TeJ1bHO (a 3aO.nHO. BepoHT- HO. COBMeCTHB ero C paCCMOTpeHHblM Bblwe I1MeHHblM }fKaJOM OT 4 anpeJlH 1722 r.), L/)K. J1e LlOHH YKa3aJl, 'JTO B onpe.,le 1722 r. ry6epHaTopaM «6bU10 npclln(1CaHO npl1W1Tb till cc6.11 pyKO 6CeMU HWlOOPHb[MI1 cynaMI1 (leDonne J. Op Clt P. 189). 21blUmpue6 (]J M. YK<13. CO'L C. 447; EococlO6Cl(JJU M M. 06J1ilCTHIDI pe4J9pMa neT)Ja BeJ1I1Koro. C 188; Pe/mon C. Op. ell. P.331 3XpoHOJX)JlItO Ha3Ha'JCHIIIH npc31tl1t'HTOB 11 BHllc-npc3l1!lt:HTOB HMBOp- HblX cynoB 3a 1719 - .IIHBapb 1725 rr. CM.: Cep06.lI.. O. Aa.MHHHCTpdIlIUI neTfB 1HbIX nonc'JeTaX He }'4TeHbl DaHHble no PI1>KCKO\1Y ro$re- pI{'\l)'. CBeneHI1H 0 nepcOHaJlbHOM COCTaBe aceccopoB t-::oroporo 3a Onl1Cbl- BlICMb[H ncpHO.n BbHlBI1Tb HC ynlllJOCb. 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 265 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. 3saHJ.UI J.lMeJIJ.I, no MeHbweM Mepe, 45 '1eJ10IJeK (47 %). OCTaJlb- Hble CyllbJ.l peKpyTJ.lpOBaJlJ.lCb, rJlaSHb[M 06Pa30M, J.l3 He3HaT- HblX llIJOp5IH, pa60TIlIJUJHx npe)l(lle IJ rpa:>K1l.8HCKOM ynpaBJIeHHH. HaH6oJ1ee «Mt1J1HTapt130IJaHHbIMH» no cocTalJY npHcyrcTBt1f1. IJ HTore. 5IBIDIt1Cb EHt1Cef1cKHH, HH>KeropollCKt1f1, CMOJleHCKHH H TOGOJ1bCKJ.lf1 HauHopHble CYD.bI, 8 H8J.1MeHee - Ka3aHCKt1f1 J.I CaHKT-neTep6yprcKJ.li1. HeJ1b351 He KOHCTanlpOB8Tb. '1TO aKTI1BHOe npI1BJ1e'-leHt1e OTCTaBHb[X BOeHHOCJIY)l(alUl1X 3,lBellOMO He 06ecne'lt1Ba110 nOllO- 6alOlUHH KBaJlt1(]>HKaUHOHHbIH ypOBeHb CYlleHcKoro nepCOHaJIa. no BepHOM)" laMe<18HHIO M. M. DOrOCJ10BCKOro, «pOJIb nOllro- TOBJIeHHblX IOpHCTOB, H3 KOTOpblX (]>OpMHpOBaJlCH COCTaB lllBell- CKJ.lX CYllOB, B Poccm1 npellHa3Ha<JeHbl 6blJ1t1 t1rpaTb Bce Te >Ke K8nJ.lT8Hbl. M8i10pbl J.I nOD.llOJ1KOBH(1KI1. KOTopble. nOJl)'YJ.lBllIJ.I H8'laJ1bHoe oGpa30BaHJ.le nOll pyKOBOllCTBOM CeJ1bCKOro nOHOM8- pH J.I 3aBepl1.la5l ero B neXOTHblX J.I .nparyHCKJ.lX nOJIKaX, C"lI1TaJUlCb CneUHaJlJ.lCT8MJ.I peWJ.lTeJlbHO no BceM cpaM rocy.napCTBeH- HOro ynpaBJIeHHH»I. LJ,a H caM 3aKOHo.naTeJlb nepBOH "leTBepTH XVIII B. o60cHOBaJI - B CT. 7 rJl. I-H «)(paTKoro H306piDKeHJ.UI npoueCOB...» 1712 r. - Heo6xollHMOCTb Y'laCTHH B BoeHHOM cy- llonpoH3BO.llCTBe aYllHTopoB TeM OOCT05lTeJ1bCTBoM. '1TO CYllbHMH B KpHrcpeXT8X HBJlSlIOTC.II O()muepbl. «om KOI'fIO/JblX OC06/1U60Z0 uc- "-}'CC1ff6a 6 npa6ax mpe606amb He -'MOl/IW, u60 OHU 6peMfi C60e 06Y'le- HueM BOUHCK020 UCf...J'CCm6a, a He IOfJUdulleCKOZO nfJOlJO:JlCiJawmi>!. lIn51 nOJIHOTbl KapTHHbl CTOHT 3aMeTHTb, "lTO OTlleJIbHble cyllbH r<$rcpHXTOB H3 "lt1CJ18 B<JepalllHHX c4muepoB Bce >tee HMeJlH onblT COnpt1KOCHOBeHIDI C npaKTH<JecKoH IOpt1cnpy- lleHUt1ef1. B nepBYIO O'lepeDb, 311eCb CJ1e.ll.YeT Ha3B8Tb 8ceccopa MOCKOBCKoro Han;BopHoro cy.na nOJ1KOBHI1Ka H. H. nJlell.leeBa. B03rJUl.BJlSlBwero c 1715 L no 1719 L ocoGylO CJlellCTBeHHYIO KaHueJlSJpJ.llO, a TaJOKe npe3111leHTa CMOJIeHCKOro r<$repJ.lxTII nOJIKOBHI1Ka A. H. naHHHa, B 1717-1719 rr. - aceccopa CJJell- CTBeHHOH KaHUeJl.\!pHH Be.lleHIDI C. A. CaJJTbIKoBa. Ha3Ha<JeHHbIH >Ke 20 HIOJ1H 1722 r. BHue-npe3HlleHTOM KypCKOfO H8.llBOpHOro cy.na BerepaH ewe KpbIMCKt1X noxo.nOB 64-JleTHt1H OTCTIlBHOH nOllnOJ1KOHHHK H. C. Dal)'pHH ycnen B 1718-1721 rr. nopa6o- TaTb ropo.llOBbl M cYl1bei1 B Mell.lOBcKe'. I Woc/OOCKUU M M. C>6JJOCTH8.11 pepMa napa BeJlI1KOru. C. 191. !3aKOHonaTelJbCTBO neT)J8 I. c. 82.5. JpfAllA, 4>. 248. KH. 1889. n. 454 06.; KH. 8104, JI. 97-97 06 
266 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I OnHaKO H81160Jlee I-1cKyrneHHble 3HaTOKI-1 TOrnaWHera Ja- KOHQD.3'Je1IbCTBa - npe.nC13BHTeJ\H npmill3Horo annapara - OKa- 3aJmCh nOlJTH He BOCTpe6oBaHbl "PH KOMrtJleKTOBaHtU1 cyne6HblX npHcyrcTBltH ro<lJrepHXTOB. ABTOpy llOBeJlOCb YCTaHOBi-1Tb BCero .IlBa CJI}"IM. KOrDa BblXOllUbl 113 npHKa3Hof1 cpeDbl nOOM" B PH.1lbI CYllei1 HMBOPHb]X CYlIOB (cocTaBHB 2% HX 'lHCJTeHHocm). Eb]B- WHI1 06ep-JlaJ-r;ijn..Jxrep MOCKOBCKOro npOBHHllI1aJIbHoro CYM (a AO Taro Ab.llK) 11. n. TonHJIbcKI1i16bUJ 20 mOHfI 1722 r. onpe- neneH aceccopoM MOCKOBCKOro ro<lJrepHXTa, a 6bIBWHH o6ep- JIaHnpHXTep BOpOHe)({CKoro npOBHHUHaJlbHoro cym «(1 8Ha1l0- nl'lHO 6bIBWHH IIbHK) 11. D.. CBeWHt1KOB nOJ1)"UUl 21 ceHTH6pH 1722 r HaJHa<leHHe aceccopoM B BopOHelKCKi1f1 HMBOPHb[jj CYll l . lho KacaeTCH cyneHcKoro COCTaBa «HM>KHHX» CYJIOB. TO B nOJIHOI1 Mepe CHCTeM8TI1'-1eCKHX naHHb]X H8 3TOT C'leT Ha cerQ!J;HSI co6paTb He YJI,aJlOCb. B CB5UI1 C KOMJUleKTOBaHHeM npoBHHUJ.1- aJIbHblX H ropO.nOBbIX cynoB CJle.o.yeT OTMenITb CeHaTCKI-1i1 YKaJ OT 19 MapTa 1719 r., no KOTOPOMY B nO.o.lJt1HeHi-1e IOcnJU-KOJV1erHi-1 nepe.naBarJt1Cb COCTOHBWi-1e no TOro B 111TaTaX ry6ePHCKHX KaH- UeJlflpi-1i1 JlaHLlpl1XTepbl HaJBaHHblf1 ceH3TCKI1i:i YKa3 6bUl no.o.- TBep)((,!leH t1MeHHbIM YKaJOM OT 17 anpeJISJ 1719 r. (no KOTopO- MY fibUiO TaK)I(e npe.anl-1CaHO nepeBeCTI-1 mu-w.paTOB B BelleHl-1e KaMep-KOJlJ1enm)l. COrJlliCHO apXI-1BHblM MCT04HI-1KaM, n04TI-1 oce Jl8HLlpL'\-repbl nOJ1YlJ11Jl1-1 Ha3HalJeHM5I B «HH)f(HMe» CYllb] PHll Jl8J-J.!qJi-1XTepOB, npeBpaTHBWI-1Cb B 06ep-Jl8J-J.!qJI1XTepOB, B03fJl8BHJ1t1 npOBt1HUt1a.rJbHbIC cynbl (<I>. C. MaHYKOB - CaHKT- nerep6yprcKHfP. c. HeCTepOB - CHM6t1pCKHf1, 11. r. fpmo- pben - SlpoCJl8nCKHH) 1..I8CTb J18HllpHXrepoo IOcTHU-KOJlJlefH5I onpe.aeJ1W18 rop OllOBblMM CYllb.llMM (H8npl-1Mep, 11. A Xpl-1nYHo- ' I-1HaBn.t. 3j,O354. C. 684, 693 3CneUI1ltfIbHO 3:ITpOH)'BWI-1i1 BOnpoc 0 fJ1aBe CaHKT-nerep6}lpJCKoro npoBHHW:!arJbHOro CYlla M. M. OOfOCJlOBCKI1i1 nOC'JIIITaJI, 'JTO npcllno- JlaraBWeeC.II B 1711 r. Ha3Ha'JeHl1e Ha :!TOT nOCT (]J. C. MaHYKosa TaK 11 He COCTOilllOCb (Eo.?oc/OOl.KUU M M. 06nOCTIJ'tl] pe4>oPMa neTjJ::I BeJ1I1KO- roo C. 104) B nei1CTBlITellbHOCTH. QJe.nocei1 MaHYKoB 6bUl onpe.ne_eH Ha 1l0JUKHOCTb 06cp-naJillpll>'TCpa CaHKT-nerep6ypJCKoro npOBHHUl1aJlbHO[O cyna CeH!lJCKIIM }'Kd.30M OT 18 3npeJlH 1721 r. (PfALlA 41. 148. KH. 1887. JI. 140). 0 nocrreJIylOweH pa60Te C1Je.uoceH CeMeHOBI14a B CTOJlI1'lHOM npo- BI1HUl1aJ1bHOM cy.ne CBl{1IeJJbCTBYIOT MHOrl1e apXI1BHbie I-1CT04HI1KI1. KaK, Ha- npl1Mep, 3anl1CHaH KHl1ra npl1roBopoB 11 peweHI1H cyna 3a Mali-lleKa6pb 1721 r. (CM.: PfAllA, 41.185. on. I. KH. 1565). 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 267 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. sa B ApxaHfeJ1bcK. r. E. <l>HpcolJa IJ Ycnor, P. H. MeJ1bryHolJa B Bbl60pr). B I1TOre, BO maBe 60J1bWI1HCTBa npOBI1HUl18JIbHbJX cynoB OKa3a.rmCb lJ'IepallIHl1e Jl8HllplUITepbl, nO'-lTH lJCe 113 KOTO- pblX HIJJUIJ1I1Cb IJbIXO.n.uaMI1 113 npl1K83HOii 6fOpOJCpaTHI1. B CIJOfO O'lepe.Ilb, 8ceCCOpCKI1H COCTaB np0tn1HUt1aJ1bHbIX CyooB KOM- nJleKTOBaJlC5I fJl8BHbiM 06paJOM lIBOpSlHaMt1 113 'lI1CJ18 MeCTHb]X nOMellIt1KOB. B OTHOllIeHl111 Kopnyca roPO.IlOBb]X cynel1 HeJ1b351 He OTMe- TI1Tb. 'lTO 3H8'lI1TeJ1bHYIO npoCJ10I1KY IJ HeM (KaK t1 B cyne6HbJX npl1cyrcTBHHX f<$repHXTOB) COCT8M.IIJIH BlJeparnHl1e ol}muepbl. TaK. no n8HHblM (npaB.na. He BnOJ1He penpe3eHT8Tt1BHbIM) fe- HepaJlbHoro CMOTp8 nBOp5lH 1722 r.. H3 26 HBI1BWI1XCH H8 Hero ropO.IlOBbIX cYlieH 17 6bUlH B Hel18BHeM npOllIJ10M BOeHHOCJ1}')K8- lU(1MI1 I . nO)l06HID/ KaapOB85I cHryauHH CJ10:>KHJlaCb HecJlY'-I8I1HO. KaK SlIJCTB}leT 113 H8Ka33 RJ18JlHMt1pCKOMY cynbe <D. B. T smKI1HY OT 28 SlHlJap51 1721 f.. npl1 H83H8'lCHI1I1 H8 nOJ1.>KHOCTb ropo.no- BOro cyllbl1 Jmua, HaXOllHlJllIl1eCfI npe>K1le B .oo"eeoU U i!8apHU- 30HHOU CJJJ':JH:6e,.. t1MeJ111 npel1MYlUeCTBO nepell BblXOD.UaMI1 H3 rpa:>Kll8HCKoii aIlMI1HI1CTp8UHt1 1 . npHMe'-l8TeJ1bHO. 'ITO, no M8TepHarT8M OTMe'leHHoro reHe- paJIbHOro CMOTpa 1722 r., CpellHHI1 B03pacT fopollOBb]X cyneH co- CTaBt1J1 51 ro)l. CaMb]M M0J10)lbIM 113 'lHCJ18 YlJTeHHblX H8 CMOTpe OKa3aJlC5I 32-I1eTHI1I1 6eJ1ropollcKHI1 cynb.ll M8110p C. A KeJlt1H, caMblM nO)[(l1J]blM - 69-J1eTHt111 KapronOJ1bCKI1I1 cylll>51 CTOJ1b- Ht1K B. 6. 3aceUKJ.1ii TaKoB 6b/JI cYlldicKt1i1 Kopnyc PaecHH, C<tJopMHpooaHHblii B xOlle npOBClleHt1H cync6Hoii pe<tJOPMbl nc- Tpa I. OCmeTC5Ill06aBt1Tb. 'ITO. aKTl1'leCKt1 paCnaBWt1Cb B 1727 r. IJ CB.II311 C JlHKBJ..WauHel1 H8.il.BOpHb]X cynOB. OTe'leCTBeHHbll1 cy- nel1CKHI1 Kopnyc OKaJaJlC5I B03pO>K1leH IJ pe3YIIbTaTe cyne6Hol1 pecpopMbJ 1775 r. lfTO.>Ke KaCaeTCSI KBaJIHc1mKaul1oHHbJX Tpe6o- B8HI111 K cyllb51.M, TaK H He Bblpa60TaHHbiX 3aKOHOlillTeJ1eM B KOH- lie I7IO-x - nepBoi1 n0J10BHHe 1720-x fr., TO I1XOTCyrCTBt1e npt1- BeJ10 K TOM)'. '-ITO I1MeHHO B rollbl cYlle6Hoii pecpopMbl neTp8 I 3aPOlll1Jl8Cb TPaIlHliH5I, no KOTopaH HaH6oJlbWHMt1 3HaTOKaMI1 3aKOHo.naTeJlbCTB8 CTaJlH He CYllbt1. a ClJ}'}KalUHe 8nnapaTa cyna. 03Ha'leHHa.ll Tp aLlHUI1S1, nOJ1YlJI1B oco6eHHoe paJBHTl1e IJ nOCJ1eI\- [CM.: PfAJJ.A, $. 286, KH. 32; CnlllCOK BoeHHb[M '111HaM nepBOM nOJlo- IJHHbl XVIII CTOJIeTl1.11 II CeHaTcKHH 8pXHIJ. Cn6. 1895. T. 7. C. 636-811. 1PfADA, $. 248, KH. 8104. 'J. 2.n. 464. 
268 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I Hei1 'leTBepTH XVIII - nepooi1 nOJiOB1He XIX B., nopo1lJ1lla TY cmyaUl1l0, Koma peW310wee BJlI151Hl1e H8 OTnpaHJlem1e npaBO- Cyn.I.JH HallanH OKa3bIBaTb cetq:eT8p" H KaHueJlHpHCTbI. TaKOBaJl CH1)'auml, 06pa30BaBwa51 O.DHY B xynuIHx fl3B OTe'leCTBeHHO- ro npanOCYLlHfl nOCJ1eneTpOBCKOro BpeMeHH, 6bUJa npeollOJ1eHa nUWb 6JTaro.n;ap51 cYlle6HOH pecpopMe 1864 r. 1  6. BblBOAbl OOllBO.IDll1TOr BblllieCKa3aHHoMY. CJ1e.nyeT KOHCTaTl1pOBaTb, 'ITO H8 npOT5I}I(eHHI1 1719-1720 rr. B H8weti crpaHe OKa3aJlach BblCTpoeHa H"KOma He cyweCTBOBaBWM npelKLlC 'leThlpeX3BeH- HIDI CHCTeMa CYllOB 06wei1IOpHc.1UfKUI1I1. KOHCTPYKUHH KOTOpOH 6b]JTa HCXonHO onpelleJ1eHa B 3aKOHe OT 19 AeKa6p51 1718 r. 06 YKpenneHHI1 HHCTaHUHOHHOCTI1 B cyJJ;onpm13BQACTBe. nepBble -.pH 3BeH8 3TOI1 CMCTeMbl 06pa30BaJJl.1 CTPYKTypHO OTn;eJleHHble OT opraHOB ynpaBJIeHlHl «HH)KHHe» cynbJ (ropOllOBb]e 11 npOBl1H- WlaJlbHhle). HallBOpHble eyn.hl 11 I{)cTl1U-K0JIJ1erl151. Ha:maHHble cyne6HbIe opraHbI 8KKYMYJII1POBWU1 B CBoeH KOMnereHUl111 KO- JIOCCaJTbHblH 06"beM IOPI1C1U1KUHOHHbIX nOJ1HOMO<U1H. KOTOpblMI1 npe)l(Ile 06J1(UlaJ1I1 ceMb npHKa30B, 8 T8IOKe MeCTHble opraHbI ro- cynapCTBeHHOH R1IaCfM. OnH8KO neJ10 He mpaHH'II1JlOCb CTpyKT)'pHbIM OTneJleHHeM opraHOB npaBOcyIllHI OT Opr8HOB ynpaBJIeHHSL B CBfl3H C C03- IIaHHeM HOBOH cyne6HoH CHCTeMbI, PYKOBO.DCTBY5lCb npHHUHna- MH KaMepaJTH3M8 H HCXOll51 113 CTparerH'-lecKoH YCTaHOBIG1 Ha nocTlx>eHl1e B POCCl-1H «noJII1ueikKoro» rocynapcTBa no WBell- CKOMY 06pa3uy, 3aKOH01l8TeJIb pellIl1JICfI H8 panHKaJTbHYIO Mepy: nOJIHOCTblO JIHllII1Tb MeCTHbIe opraHbI 06111ero ynpaBJIeHJ.UI Bcex ypoBHeH cyne6HbIX <1JYHKllHH. Ope.nnpI1HHTa51 B paMKaX npooe- .neHHH II ry6ePHCKOH pe$opMbl naHH8H Mepa OeTpa I (llIellllIaH Bp83pe3 C MHorOBeKOBOH npaKTHKOH OTe'lecrBeHHoro rocynap- ] Ha «]acl1Jlbe KaHueJ1.11P"(1)> B POCC(1HCKI1X cYlle6Hb]X opraHax nOCJJeJ1- Hei1 'JeTBepTl1 XVIII - nepBoit n0J10BI1Hbi XIX B. o6pdlr.rMl1 BHI1MaHl1e MHOrl1e ny6J1I1UI1CTbll1 )"JeHble aBTopbl. H3 'Jepe.nbl cyJK1leHI1H Ha 3TY TeMY CTOI1T npl1Becrn !ill1U(JIf'ItTIoc MHCH(1C H. B. MypaBbCBa, OTMCTHBWCro B pa60Te 1886 r., 'JTO «CCKPfTapb-neJ1eu... nep.IK.IJI B COOHX pyKaX npe.:KHtOJO Inope<\JOpMeHH)'IO)IOCTI1UHIO (1, npH'Jacb Ja Cnl1HOJO cy.neH, 6b[]] ItJmITH- 'JeCKHM pacnop1!1UfTelJeM cyne6Ho BJ1&:TH (MypoobOO H. B. 0 cyne6- HOH CJJ)l)K6e: 6ece.nbl C KaH1ll11l3Ti1MI1 Ha cYlle6HbIe 1l0Jl>KHOCTI1 II Mypa- BbeB H. B. 113 npolWIo llCJI"ICllbHOcrn. Cn6., 1900. T. I. C. 3]4). 
fIl8Ba 4. Oa-JOBaHLoIe III pa3BI1Tllle CHCTeMbl CYPPB 269 o6I..4ePoca.1Lo1B1718-1727rr. cfBeHHoro CTpOl1TeJIbCTBa) npMleJl8 ewe 1-1 K 4JyHKUMOHallbHOMY mD,eJIeHMIO cyn.e6Hblx opraHoB OT aIlMMHMcTpaTVlBHbJX. 03H8'leHHoe (]>YHKUl-1oHaJlbHoe mn.eJleHl-1e 6bUlO co Bee« onpelleJIeHHOCTbIO 3aKperuJeHo B HHcrpyKUIiM MJII-1 H8Ka3e BO- eBO.D.aM 1-1 B HHCTpYKWII-1 IDII-1 H8Ka3e leMCKHM KOMI-1CCapaM. ymep>KLleHHb]X B .IIHBape 1719 r. COOTBeTCTBYIOWMe nOJIO>KeHMJI HHC1pYKUMi1 BoeBo.n;aM 1-1 3eMCKMM KOMI-1CCapaM 1719 r. (Ka- KOBbJe 6bUlM pa3pa60TaHbJ H8 OCHOBe WBeltCKHX HHCTpYKUHM J18HllCXOIillI-1HraM 1687 r. 1-1 HHCTpyKUI-1I-111HCTpI-1KTHbIM ynpmm- TeJI}/M 1688 r.) 06'beKTHBHO Belm K YKpenJIeHl-11O He3aBI-1CI-1MOCTH pOCCl-1i:icKOro cylta. TeM C8MbIM, 1-13.D.aHl-1e 3aKOHa OT 19 neKa6pH 1718 r. 1-1 HHCTpYKUI-1H 1719 r., B KOTOpblXOKa3aJ10Cb 3aJ<peWle- HO CTPYKTYPHOe 101 <pyHKUHOHaJlbHOe 060co6J1eHl-1e cynOB nep- Bb]X TpeX 3BeHbeB OT opraHOB ynpaBJIeHI-1.11. CJ1e.nycr npM3HaTb nepBb]MI-1 waraMM 3aKOHOltaTeJ1J1 Ha nYfl1 (]>OpMMpOBaHMJI B Ha- rnei1 CTpaHe BeTBI-1 cyne6H0i1 BJl8CTM I . nOKa3aTeJIbHO. 'lTO, HeCM01pH Ha 3a(]>I-1KCl-1pOBaHHoe B 3<\- KOHe OT 19 neKa6pH 1718 r. HaMepeHl-1e 3aKOHOllaTeJIH nolt[O- TOBI-1Tb oc06ble PerJl8MeHTbl, peryJll-1pYlOlllHe nOp5lll0K pa60TbI pe$:>pMl-1pOnaHHblx opraHOB npanOCYllM5I, TaKHe aKTbI He 6bUll-1 I-1Jl1.aHbl. B MTore, HopM8TMBHYlO OCHOny (]>YHKllI-1OHl-1pOBaHI-1J1 HOB05lRJ1eHHbIX cynOB 06ll.lei1 IOpI-1C.n;I-1Kl.lI-1M COCTaBI-1JTI-1 Tl-1nOBof1: HaKaJ ropO.nOBbJM CYllb51M. He nowe.n;waJ1110 Hac HHCTpyKUI-1J1 06ep-Jl8Hllpl1uepy na pa3p03HeHHbJe JaKOHbl 1-1 pacnOp5l)({eHI-1J1 1718-1724 rr., B KOTOpblX JaTparHBaIlMCb Bonpocbl cynoycTpoH- CTBa 1-1 cynonpOJ.13BOncTBa. Ba)l(}{blM nOCJlellCTBHeM 06pa30BaHI-1H B 1717-1719 rr. CI-1CTeMbl cynOB. OTDeJTeHHblX OT allMI-1HI-1CT])aTI-1BHbIX opraHOB, SlBHJTOCb JapoeHl-1e B POCCI-1I-1 CYAef1:cKoro Kopnyca. B COCTaB 3TOro Kopnyca BOllUlM JlMua, 3aHMMaBWI-1e CYAe6HbJe nOJl)({HOCTM B rO)XJltOBbJX, npOBI1HUMaJlbHbJX 1-1 HallBOpHblX cynax 101 B KkTI-1U- KOJlJIemM. npM :nOM neT]) 1 HI-1KaK CneUMaJlbHO He pem8MeH- n:lpoBaJI CTaTYC cyneiJ, B 'l8CTHOCTM, He BBeJi no OTHOllieHl-11O K HI-1M KaKi-1x-JlI160 KBaIll-1c1)HKaul-1oHHbIX Tpe60BaHI-1H. HeCMOTpH H8 Bee 3aTpynHeHMH, B03HI-1KaBWI-1e B 1718- 1721 rr. npl-1 CmD.aHI-1I-1 pe(]>opMl-1pOBaHHblx cyne6Hblx opraHoB I B naHHOM cnyoJae }'MeCTHO BCnOMHlITb Te3HC H. H. E<tPeMlJBOi.i 0 TOM. 'ITO cylle6HIDI petf:loPM8 nerpa I .IIBl11IaCb «H8'JaJIbHbIM 3TanOM» 4x:!PMHposa- HIUI CYlle6Hoi1 CIilCTeMb] KaK «06oco6JJeHHOfo 3neMeHTII B rocYllapcrBeHHOM IIIC'WHHJMC POCCI1H» (EijJpellOea H. H. fCHC311C cYllc6HOH BJH\CT1'I... C. 89). 
270 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I (oco6eHHO B pemoHax), HOIJ<Ull:Ylle6H3f1 CI1CTeMa Ha'laJIa YHK- UHOHl1pOOaTb B nOJlHOM 06"beMe. O.n.HaKO. COlJT}1 Heo6xo.1lI1MblM, no BeeH BepOfiTHOCTH. YKpemlTb CHCTeMY MeCTHblX opraHOB 06rnero ynpaBJ1eHIUI, Oe1p I npellnO'leJl, B KOHue KOHUOB. Bep- HyrbCfi K TpaLII-1UHOHHoti D./UI HaWe" CTpaHbl MOlleJIH «ellJ1Horo X03.11HHa» R pemOHe. ynpaJllHMH H CH5I3H C 3THM B 1722 r. ropo.llO- Bble H npOBHHllI1aJIbHble CYAbL COOTBeTCTBeHHo. CYJJ;OM nepBOro (OCHOBHOro) 3BeH3 BHOBb CTlliU1 J)'6epHcKHe H npOBI1HUMallbHble KaHUeJUlpHH (coxpaHHBWHe. npaBJJ.8, B cyne6HoM OTHOWeHHH nO.D'lHHeHHOCTb HallHOpHblM cynaM 11 IOcn:IU-KOJUlerHt1). HaH6oJlbWt1M oTcl}'JlIIeHHeM Ha npaKTHKe OT Ha'laJI pe- $JpMbl B o6JTacrn cynoycrpoikrna, 3aJIO)({eHHblX B 3aKOHe OT 19.aeKa6p51 1718 r., CJTe.LlyeT npH3HaTh cYlle6HYlO .llefiTeJTbHOCTb HMBOPHb]X CYAOB (oj npaBl1TeJlbcTBYIOll.lerO CeHaTa. BonpeKH 6YKBe 3aKOH8 01 19 neKa6ps1 1718 L, nxjJrepl1XTb] nOYTI1 He cmrHKUI10Hl1pOBaJ111 B Ka'leCTBe CYlIa BropOro 3BeH8, 8 CeH8T - B Ka'leCTBe cy.na 'leTBepToro (Bblclllero) 3BeHa. B lIeMCTBI1TeJlbHO- cnI, KaK YlIaJ10Cb YCTaHOBHTb, 11 Ha)lBOpHble CYlIbl, H CeHaT pac- CMaTpI1BaJ1t1lIeJla rJ1aBHbIM 06pa30M no nepOOM I1HCTaHUI1I1. KaK HBCTB}leT 113 apXHI3HblX MaTepHarlOB, B 1719-1724 IT. CeHaT Boo6we YlIeJlH.II OTnpaMeHMIO npaBOCYlIt1H MHHHMaJlbHOe BHHMaHHe. 6YllYYH neperP}')KeH pellleHHeM lIeJl MMHHHCTpaTI1B- HOro xapaKTepa. Ha nOllo6HYIO TeHlleHUI1IO nOYTH He nOMHSI- 11011 YlJpe)f(.[eHl1e B CTpyKrype npaBHTeJlbCTBYlOlllero CeHaTa B 1722 L PeKeTMeHCTepcKo KOHTOpbl. npt13BaHHOH ocyweCTM}[Tb 1l0cYlle6HYlO npoBepKY noc1)'naBWHX B CeHaT aneJUHIUHOHHblX _06. TaKoBblM 06Pa30M npeTflopIDIOCb fl >KH3Hb TO HanpaMeHHe CYlle6Hoi1 peOpMb] neTpa I. KOTopoe 38KJ1IOYaJlOCb B nOCTpoe- HI1I-1 CI1CTeMbJ CYOOB o6ll.lei1 IOpl1CJJ;I1KUHI1. T enepb Heo6xOllHMO 06paTMTbC5I K pacCMOTpeHHIO Bonpoca 0 npeo6pa30BaHHH B XOlle pe$JpMbl OTe'leCTBeHHblX CnemlaJIH311pOBaHHblX cynOB. 
rnaBa 5. PecfJopMa CIilCTeMbl CneLtlllanlll3111poBaHHbix CY,QOB POCCIIIIII B 1717-1723 IT. npH BceM OO1,eKTHBHO npHopHTeTI-IOM 3HalJemm, KaKoe HMeJlO C03.!laHHe B 1718-1720 rr. CTPYKTYPHO H (]>YHKUHOHaJlbHO OTlleJIeHHblX OT opraHOB ynpaBJIeHHH cynOB 06WeHIOpHCllJ.1KUHH, B KOHue 171O-x - Ha'laJle 1720-x rr. neT]) I yneJlHJI 3H8'UneJlb- Hoe BHHM8HI1e 11 p33BI1TI1IO CI1CTeMb] CneUl1aJ111311pOBaHHbiX cy- nOB Pa3BHTHe 3TOH CI-1CTeMbl OCYl.l.leCTBJlID!OCb 3aKOHO.l¥lTeJleM B llB}'X HanpaBJIeHl1JIX: BO-nepabJx, nyreM peOpraHI13aUHH cneUHa- J1H3l-1pOBaHHbJX cyne6HbiX opraHOB, }l)Ke cyweCTBOBaBWI-1X B no- pecpMeHHblH nepHon, a BO-BTOPblX. nyreM Y'!pe)({fleHI1H HOBblX cynOB nOll06HOH KOMncreHUHH. TaKaH JtHHHH npe06pa30BaHHH B 06JTaCnf cynoyCTpl)i1cTBa B npHHUl1ne He npoTI1BOpe'lWla cTpaTe- rl1'leCKOH YCTaHOBKe H8 sceMepHoe HCnQJ1b30BaHl1e 3apy6e.>KHOro OnbJTI[ KaK }l)Ke roOOpHJIOCb, B WBeUI-1H B H8'lliJ1e XVI II B. cyJJJ;e- CTBOBa.JlO 'leTb]pe pa3HOBI11lHOCTI1 CneW13Jl1-13HpOB3HHbJX cynoB (roponcKHe. BoeHHble, KaMep-KOJIJIefHH H KOMMepU-KOJU1erJ1}I). 4aCTb CeWfaJlH3l1pOBaHHbIX cynoB, C03.118HHbIX HJlH COXP3- HeHHblX B xone cyne6Hoii pe$JpMbl neTpa I, nOJl)"111JI11 B no.ncyn- HOCTb (HCKJlJO'IHTeJlbHYJO HJlH npeHMyweCTBeHHYJO) onpeneJleH- Hble KaTeropHH oe,1: OT JJ;eJl no 06BHHeHI1HM B rocyJJ;apCTBeHHbIX npecl)'JUleHI1HX JJ;O lIeJl no 3eMeJlbHbJM cnopaM nBopSiH. HHaH 'lacTb D.aHHbIX cynoB n0J1YlJHJl3 B noncYJJ;HOCTb (onHTb-T3KH I1C- KJlJOlJl-1TeJlbHYJO HJ]1-1 npeHMywecTBeHHYJO) OnpelleJleHHbJe K3Te- 
272 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I rapMM nUl{: ar CTpoelJblX BoeHHOCJIY>Kallll1X .no KpecTb.llH uep- KOBHblX BOT4WH. COOTEleTCTBeHHO, Te 111m IiHblC KarerOpl1H n.en 11 KaTeropMI1 Jum, 3aKpenJUIBWHeCH 3aKOHom.rreJIeM B nOllCY.n- HOCTH cyIlOB CneUHaJlhHOH IOpHCllHKUHH. HCKJlJOl[aJlHCb 1-13 nOll- CYllHocrn CYOOB 06We51lOpI1C1U1KUHH I . KaKOBhlX}I(e rpaHHU llocmnU1nOJTHOMO'lMSI npeo6paJOBaH- HblX B xo.ne CYJJ;e6H0I1 pepMbl nerpa I cnem1WU13HpOBaHHbIX cy.nOB? HaCKOJ1bKO cOKpanumcb - nacne Bcex 1131»1TMH Karera- pl1i1 IU1U H K3-reropHi1lleJi - KOMneTeHUHSI cyllOB 06wei1 JOp(1C- DJ1KUMH? 0603peHt1e nepeMeH B CHCTeMe cneUI1a.rm311pOBaHHb1X CYIlOl, ocyrnecTBJleHHblX Ha npOTffiKeHl.u1 1717-1723 rr., I1MeeT CMblCJ! Ha'laTb C pacCMOTpeHHJI H3MeHeHHH B opraHI13amm H KOMneTeHUI1H CYllOB no roCYllapcTBeHHblM npeCTyrlJleHMHM. S 1. CYAbl no rocy,qapCTBeHHblM npeCTynIleHMJlM B 1717-1729 IT. HecocTOflBWaJlCfI peopraHM3aLlMA 1724 f. OKOH<ffiTe./lbHO YCTaHoBHBllmiic5I. I< 1696 r. Kpyr Be.neHlliI. npeo6pa:+..-eHCl<oro npt1l<aJa nO'lnt He MeHSIJ!C5I. 3aTeM H8 npoT5I.- >KeHHt1 nOCJJellYIOWeii 'ieTBepm Bel<a. Kal< 51.BCTB}leT t13 1I0HblHe He BBOD;HBwerocSI B HaYlJHb]i1 06opOT 1l0HOWeHI1J1 npe06paJKeH- CKOro npl-1l<a3a CeHary OT 18 CeHT5I6p51 1717 L, B ro.n; Ha'laJla cy.n;e6Hoi1 pe4JoPMbl B KOMneTeHUl11O npl1lCfl3a KaK opraHa npa- Bocynl1J1 BXOJI.l1J11-1 «eeIlUKUf/ OeJiO, I...:vmopble KOCOlOmlJ,O 0 ao IJ,Op- CKOeo eeJIU'leCmeo 3iJpoeuu u 0 ebl.COKo'llOHopuleU lJecmu U 0 6YHme U 0 U3MeHe, cJa 6C51KUM npoeOM cJeo nOJlKO om fleu6-28opiJuu...»2. I1HblMI-1 CJlOnaMH. npe06pa>K.eHCKHH npHKa3 no-npe>KHeMY ocy- weCTBJ1S1J! p336I1paTeJJbCTBo. Bo-nepBbIX. .neJJ no rocy.napCTBeH- HblM npecrynJleHI-1f1M, a BO-BTOPbIX. yroJJOBHbLX 11 rpa;:+;JlaHcKHx lIeJJ, KaCaBWI1XC5I BOeHHOCJJY.>KaWI1X rnaplldicKI1X nOJIKOB. npHMe'l8TeJlbHO, LITO, npl-1cryna51 K npOBelIeHl11O CYlIeOOb[X npeo6pa30B3HHH. neTp I t1CnblTarJ O<J.eBJ.J1I.Hble KOJle6aHlliI. OTHO- Ct1TeJlbHO lIAI1bH d:iweii nOllCYllHOCTH CTpoeBblX rsaplleiiueB. 06 ] BJlI1Tep<l1}pe Kpyf neJ1, ,l13bHTbiX B KOHue 1710-x - H3'1aJ1e 1720-x rr. 113 no.ncyllHOCTI1 cy.ilOR 06111ei1 tOpI1C.nI1KUI1I1. Ue.nOCTHO (xonll1 6e3 Oco6eH- HOi1 D.eTaJlIIIJaUI1I11) OCBeTI1JI eJ1I1HCTBeHHO M. M. Eioroc.oBCKI1H (E&ocI08- cKuMtbA$.i9S.Nr;alr.e:g..lyi6(IDKCH_ CKI1M npl1KaJOM CO.'paHfl.IJaCb 4JYHKUH.II Yl1paBlieHIUI HeKUIUpbIMlIIllBOpUO- IJblMI1 3er.L'mMI1 (13 'JaCTHOCTI1. nOliMocKoBHoi1 Tai1HI1HCMIII IJOJIOCTblO). a TdJOKe HOBOlleBH'JbHM MOHOCTb]peM 11 em BOT'JI1HaMI1. 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 273 Poca.1Ii1 B 1717-1723 IT. .1TOM CBl11leTeJibCTB)'eT TOT tPaKT, 'lTO II n. 2 nOllaHHoro uaplO II Ha"laJIe neK86pfl 1717 L nOKJJ<\.!I,a 0 lleJl8X npeo6JIDKeHcKoro M CeMeHoBCKoro nOJiKOB 6bUl nOCTaRJleH BOnpoc, nOlI "lbeit IOpMC- 11I1KUMe 6Yllyr Bnpellb H8XOllMTbC5I conmrrw M 04muepbl fHapllMM (npM"leM OTMe'lRJiOCb, "lTO npe6bJBaHMeM nOlllOpl1CllMKUl1eit npe- c6pIDKeHcKoro npMKa3a fHaplleUbJ «6bWU OoeoJ/Hbi»). B KOHue KOHUOB. ne1p I peWI1JI OCTaBl1Tb BOeHHOCJl)I)KatllI1X-nmplleitueB B nOllcYllHOCTM npe06pa)({eHcKoro npMKa3a, 0 "leM YKa3aJ1 B pe- 3OJ1IOUI1M, HanO)({eHHoit H3 lloKJI3Jl5 neKa6p51 1717 r. 1 llOLJOi1HO ynoMMHaHmJ. 'lIO B yCJlOBMSlX 171O-x n. npe- c6pIDKeHCKI1i1 nPl1Ka3 COXpaHI1JI He TOJ1bKO npe)({HIOIO KOMne- TeHliHIO. HO 11 OCo6bli1 HepapXH<JeCKHi1 cral)'c. JaKJIIO'laBWI1i1cfI B OTMe'leHHOM Bblwe nOll'IHHeHHH HenocpellcmeHHo MOHapxy. BeCbMa nOKa3aTeJ1bHo. 'lTo. KaK YCTaHOBi1J1a H. 6. rOJ1I1Kona. ne- llOMCTBO 113 CeJia npeo6pa;.KeHcKoro ynOpHO OTKa3blBaJlOCb npe- llOCTaBJlflTb K8KYfO-JlH60 I1H<!>opMaUHIO 11 BblllanaTblleJlallIDKe nO 3anpocaM npaBI1TeJlbCTByJOwero CeHaTa. HeyllHBi1TeJ1bHO. ':ITO npeo6pa)({eHCKH npl1Ka3 JJ.8JIeKO He cpa]}' CYMeJI OTJl8lli1Tb 83al1- MOllecrBl1e 11 C peCPopMHpoBaHHblMH OpraHaMI1 npaBOCYllHfI. I1ccTapl1 npl1BblKWI1i:i K OC060MY cral)'CY npHKaJ I1rHOpl1- pOBaJI nOHa<JaJIyCaM)' lOcTHU-KOJ1JTerHIO. 16111011511719 r. KOJUJe- n1fl OKa3a.rraCb BblH)')KlJ.eHa HanpaBHTb uapfO llOKJiaLl C >KaJIo60i1 Ha npMHJIBWl-1e MaGCOBb] xapaKTep caMoynpaBHbJe neileTBMSI npe- o6pIDKeHcKoro npl1lana. 5 CeHT5I6p51 1719 L AA MaTBeeB (y}l(e CllI1HOJII1"lHO) 06paTl1JIcfI K ne1pY I C nOBTOpHbJM nOKJi81l0M Ha 3l)' reMY, BbUlBHHYB npe.n1JO>KeHl1e 1131laTb cneUManbHbl YKa3, B KOTOpOM panpllHI1"lMBaJlaGb 6bl KOMneTeHliJ1}] npe06pCl)({eHCKOro npm<£ua M IOcTI1U-KOJl.l1eml-1 B neJIax., He KaCdBllJI1XC5I COCTaBOB rocynapCTBeHHb lX npeCTyflfleHI-1i1 3 . fEa. 2J.8PHI' oro CbICKa... C. 154-155 3 06.; :hJ<oHQlUITellbHblC 3KTb] n H H ...u) I::'; 'JTGI'KTgbl7= KQJJJlerHH co cooe" CTopoHbl 11131laJIa pacnopH)I(eHl1e, cornaCHO KOTopoMY Ha.JBOpHbIM 11 «HI1)({HI1M" cynaM 3anpeU13JlOCb npl1HI1MaTb K npoI13F!o.lICTF!Y lIeJla no rocYIkljJCTBeHHblM npeCTyJUleHIII.IIM. a nl1U. o61,HBIUlBWIIIX o.CIJOBO H lIeflO"'. npe.unI1CblBaJlOCb, He onpallll1BaH, HanpaBII.llTb B npeo6pIDKeH- CKHi1 nplllKa3 (Eoroc.lO(JCKuil M. M O6nacTI-1lli1 PC4x:!PM3 nCTpa IkI1HKOro. npl1JlO)l(eHIII.II. c. 16). KOHKjJeTHb]e npHMepb[ I1rHOpl1poBaHIII.II npe06pa- )({eHCKI1M npl1NUOM nOJlHOMO'lI1i1 1CIl-,I1U-KOJIJIerI1l1 B 1719-1720 rr. CM.: Da;laKupeeG Jl M. Cync6HaH pe4x:!pMa ncrpa I. c. 273-174. 
274 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I OnHaKO HI-1 B 1719 L. HI1 B 1720 L. HM B 1721 L npe1lJ1a- raBWI-1I1CJ'I A A MaTBeeBblM y...-n He nOJ'lBHIlCJ'I (xonl. B03MmK- HO, 'lTO KalVle-TO YKaJaHIUI Ha :nOT Cl(eT 6hUlH naHbl MOHapXOM pyKOBOllCTBY Opeo6proKeHCKOro npt1Ka3a B YCTHOH <fJopMe). Ho B Ha'lW1e 1722 r. neTP I c06CTBeHHopyqHo JaItHaLII D.IIJ'I naMJ'lTH: «OIlpei)e1umb. IWKUM i1elOJt 6wl1b 6 npe06fX1Jk.£HCKOM npUK03e»I. PeaJUaam1.11 03Ha'leHHoro BblCO'lai1wero 3aMb]CJla He JaT5IHY- JIaCb. Y.>Ke 29 anpeJlS!. 1722 r. neTP I nOnnl1CM 33KOH. B KOTOpOM BnepBble .neTaJlbHO pernaMeHTHpOBaJlC}I Kpyr Be.1leHI1S1 npHKa3a B cyne6HoH cpe. B CT. I " 2 H83BaHHoro 3aKOHa (He pacCM8TpH- BaBillerOCJ'l no CHX nop B I1CTOpHKO-npaBOBOH J1HTepal)'pe) no.11- TBep)l(,.!laJU1Cb KaK Tpaul1UHOHHble nOJIHOMO'lHSI npe06pa>KeH- CKOro npHKaJa no pa36HpaTeJlbCTBY JJ;eJl no rOCYJIa)XTBeHHbIM npecrynJlem1.11M. TaK Ii 8HaJIon1'lHO TP8.!1HllI10HHble nOJIHOMO'lHSI no paCCMOTpeHHIO cYlle6HblXllen. KaC81U1lHXC5I BOeHHOCJlY)l(3111UX fBaplUU'1. Opl-1 3TOM B CT. 2 YKa3a oroBapl-1BaJlOCb, '1TO .ne.na no t'lCKaM CaMt'lX reapneHueB .nOJUKHhl 6hlJ'It'I paCCMaTpt'lBaThCSl TeMH cy.ne6HhlMH OpraHaMI1, no.n IOpl1c.nI1KUl1eH KOTOphlX HaXO.nlU1t'1Ch OTBeT'IHKI1. CamacHo CT. 3 3aKOHa OT 29 anpeJm 1722 r.. K BelleHHIO OpeoGpa)l{eHcKoro npHKa3a 6bUlH .nonOJlHHTeJlbHO OTHeceHbl neJl<t 0 «6e./IUKUX y6ui1cmea H «i!OpoiJCKUX pa3IXm..""., COBepllleH- HblX B MocKBe H CaHKT-Oerep6ypre BO BpeMfi npe6blBaHHfI TaM t'lMnep;rrqm.l. 3aBeplllaJIO CT. 3 KareropH'IecKoe npellnl1CaHl1e Ht'lKaIVL\. neJI I1HOrO xapaKTepa B cyne6Hoe npOH3BO.nCTBO npH- Ka3a 60JIee He npl1HI1M8Tb, '1To6bl «mcw KOHrjJy3UU He 30e.10mb 110,J()JKf!HHOMY pec.i1GMellmy» (TO eCTb He HapywaTb <!JYHKW10HH- pOBaHHe petf:>op"mpOBaHHOI1 cyne6Hol1 CHcTeMbl)3. I-bllliHl-1e 3aKOH8 OT 29 anpeJ1Sl 1722 r., Ka3aJlOCb. He3b]6JIe- MO ynpo"ll1JJo nOJlO)l{eHHe Ope06pa)l{eHcKoro npl1Ka3a B rocy- napCTBeHHoM MexaHH3Me POCCHI1CKOI1 HMnepHH. O.nH8KO BCKope rpfiHYJlI1 C06hITHfi. e.nBa He OKa3aBWl1eCfi DJ]Sl npHKaJa POKOBh[- MH. B H8<ffiJIe 1 723 r.. BnepBhle 3a HCTOpHIO MoryllleCTBeHHoro ] 3aIWHO.1l3TeJJbHbie aKTbl nerpa I. c. 100 1 DaHHIDI JlI1HI1H KOMnCTCHUl111 npeo6p!vt;eHCKOJO npl1KaJa TalOKe .IIB- .Il5IJlOCb DnOJlHC1]XID.I1UI10HHOH. C 1695 no 1711 r. BClpYKJype npl1K33a Y)I(e 4JYHKUI10HI1)JOBaJI oc06b!H nOTeWHb]H HOOp. OTBe'laBWHW ]a nOll,ll.ep)lmHl1e I1):m'!OflOI»WKa Ha Tepplfn:>pUI1 MOCKBbl (fOJJUK06G H 5. nOJllffif'tecKl1e npolleCCbl npl1 ne'ijJe I. c. 17-18). J3aKoHOlIDTCJ1bHb[C 8KTb] nClpa I. c. 154. 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 275 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. BellOMCTB8 J113 ceJl8 Ope06pIDlceHcKOro. 06a MHOroJUTHJIIX pyKO- BOllJllTeJUJ ero annapaT8 - DbHKJ1 51. B. Db]J[l.1HCKI1H JII B. H. He- crepoB - nonarm nOlI cy.n no 06Bt1HeH"1O B npecrvn.neHI15lx nponlB "HTCpeCoB CJ1y.:K6bJ " nponlB npaBocynHH. Ewe He np"BJIeKaBWee BHHMaH"fl I1CCJ1ellOBaTeJ1eH .ne.no npeo6pIDKeHCKHX llbflKOB 3aBH3aJ10Cb B nepBblX 'lHCJlax <l:>eBPaJIfl 1723 r. Y>Ke 12 ()JeBpaJIfl 1723 r. neTp I YKa33Jl, 'lTo6bl KaHl{e- JI.IIpCKl1e JII TeXHJII'leCKHe cJlY)l(all.ll1e Opeo6pa>KeHCKOro npmGna 06"bHBHJI" 6b], 'lTO JIIM J113BeCTHO 0 KP"MJIIHaJlbHbJX neJJHt1JJX CBO- JIIX H8lJaJIbHI1KOB (<<KoKue BedalOm (:Ja IilLIJUj... npomU8libie YK030M deAa, o6uiJbI U liapOOHOei!po61eHue u 63HmKU'})], 15 <l:>eBpaJIfl 1723 r. I1MnepaTOp nopY'111JI pm611paTeJIbCTBO neJ1a (,iJbRK08 npeo6pa- 3ICeIiCKUX» BbJWHeMY CYllY (HenocpellCTBeHHO pacCJIellOBaHl1eM Ha3BaHHoro neJ1a 3aHflJ1aCb P03b]CKH85I KOHTopa cy.na)2. B cepe- .nHHe ()JeBpa.rul 51. B. DW1I1HcKoro" B. H. HecrepoBa B3.1U1J11 non crplDKy. B XOlle CJlellCTBH5I 6bUlO BCKpblTO MHO)l(eCTBO 3n"30110B npeCTynHOH neHTeJIbHOCTI1 nbflKOB (oc06eHHo no ()JanbCH()JI1Ka- liHH yrOJIOBHbLX ne.n)J. Bnpo'JeM, 1723 ron oco6eHHbiX nepeMeH B n01l0>KeH"e Be- .nOMCTBa H3 CeJI8 npe06pa>KeHcKoro He npl1Hec. B 3TOM OTHO- WeHl111 nOKaJaTeJ1bHa peaKUHSJ neTpa I Ha .nOKJ1a!! r JTaBHOrO Ma- rHClpaTa, B KOTOpOM co.nep>KaJlOCb. B 'laCTHOCTH. npeD.J10)l(eHHe 113"b5lTb Itl n011cynHocTH Opeo6pIDKeHcKoro npJIIKaJa rop01lCKoe HaCeJ1em1e. KaK Y.>Ke ynOMI-1HaJlOCb Bb]We, 27 ceHfH6pH 1723 r. B KaI.JeCTBe BblCOlJaiiweH pe3OJl1OUHI1 Ha 3TOT nyHKT .nOKJIa.D.a 6bUla npl1Be11eHa KonIDI3aKOHa or 29 anpeJifl 1722 r. 4 npl1Me1.JaTeJlbHO, 'no B TOM >Ke 1723 r. HaX01lI1BW"H- OJ C OC06blMI-1 nOPY'leHl1flMI1 fleTpa I Ha Ypane reHepan- Mai10p B. 11. reHHI1H npe1l.flO)l(HJ] Y'-'pelll1Tb npe1lCTamneJIbCTBO Opeo6paA<:eHcK oro npl-1KaJa B CI-1611pCKOH I)'6ePHI-1H. B nl1CbMe  ciJ.I:T'I.I5t.8 3Jf3% Jl1.ocT.rro<IHO CKdJaTb, 'lTO, comaCHO 1l0HOlllCHI1JO BbllllHcro cvna fIe- TpY I OT 81«lpt11ll1723 r., K TOM)' BpeMeHI1 nocrynWla 11"laIlIi.ll )0Ke 0 47 yroJ10BHblX .neJ1ax, npl1 pa]6I1paTeJ1bCTBe KOTopblX $/ B. WJII1HCKI1H iii R H. Het:repoollOn)CTH.III1 HapyweHI1.11 3aKOHHOCTI1 (PfNlA, 41. 9.0Tll 1. KH. 62. JI. 546). ny6nI1KallHtO COCTaBJ1eHHOM B I72S r. KJXtflHe 41parMeH- TrlpHOi1 BblIll1CKlJ no nCJlY «llbJIKOB npeo6p!DKCHCI>.IIX" (conep>Kdllieii 113- no;+;eH(1e nl1Wb HeCKOJ1bKI1X 3nlll]01l0B 06BI1HeHI1H, BbI1lBHH)'Tb]X npOTI1B R H. Het:repooa) eM : npoTOKO.nbl, ;.K)pHa.bI 11 YKa3bl BePXOBHOro Tai1Horo COBrrJ: a:£oc;/Q2: :!9t21::1i. c. 377-378. 
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f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 277 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. JI.apCTIa 1723-1726 rr.. He BBQ.[I1BWetiCH llO HaC1OHwero BpeMeHI1 B HaY'-IHbIH 060pOT. B 3TOH BCeUe1l0 nOCml.lUeHHOH cylloyCTpol1- CTBY, 06Wl1pHOj..j rnaBe (COCTOflBwei1 B I1TOroBOH penaKUl111 1-1.1 52 CTaTeH-«GpmUK)!I) 0 npe06pa:>KeHCKOM npl1Ka3e ynOMI1- HMOCb ellI1HCTBeHHblJ1 pa3 - B CT. 48, B KOTOPOi1 3a np11H130M npeDJIarMOCb 3aKpenl1Tb 1II1Wb pacCMOTpeHHe I1CKOB Ha BOeH- HOCJ1}')K3WJIIX rsaplleiJcKHx nOJ1KOB (11 TO 3a HCKJlIO'-IeHl1eM BOT- '1HHHblX neJl)]. Oco6eHHO nOianaTeJ1bHO, '1TO 0 npeoOpIDKeHCKOM npl1Ka3e Hl1'1ero He 6b[J]O CK83aHO B YTBep}f(lleHHOj..j Y1I0:>KeHHOH KOMI1C- cl1ef1 40KTH6pH 1723 r. npoCTpaHHot1 CT. 42 (,B KGK06blX ()eAax i!ocyiJape60 Cloeo u iJe 10 30 co6olO CKG3b16amb u Me 0 mOJ'f iJoHO- cumb». B naHHoH maBe - BnOJ1He B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3arOJlOB- KOM - onl1CblBaJlaCb npOl.tellYpa 06'b.llBJIeHI1.11 ('CJ!OBa H neJ1a», paccMOTpeHl1eM AeJl no KOTOpblM BellOMCTBO 113 ceJ1a npe06pa- .>KeHcKoro 3aHHMarJOCb, CTOHT nOBTOpl1Tb, C 1696 r. Ho BO BTO- PO" nOJlOBJIIHe 1723 r. neTp I B3H11CH pa3MbillUlflTb He TOJIbKO 0 UeJleCoo6pa3HOCTH COXpaHeHI1H npeo6pa;KeHCKOro nPI1K..Ua. Ha nOBeCTKe Dlrn Torna BCTa.n BOnpOC 0 CI1CTeMHblX nepeMeHax B YCTpof1cme CYlla nO rocynapCTBeHHblM npeC1)'lUJeHHHM. KaK}')Ke ynOMI1HaJlOCb. no TOi1 caMoH CT. 42 rJ1. 2-H KH. I npKTa Y1I0>KeHI1H. 3a51R11eHl1e no «CJ10BY H neJlY" (KaKOBOe Te- nepb nonyCKaJlOCb HCKJlJOlJI1TeJ1bHO no nepBb]M nB}'M «nyHKTaM» 3aKOHa OT 25 HHBapH 1715 r.) H3l111e.>KaJIO nOliliBaTbJlH60 MOHap- Xi, J1H60 B KaHUeJlSlpl1JO CeHara 1 . HHblMI1 CJlOBaMI1. comacHo BHeceHHOMY B CT. 42 JaKoHOllaTeJ1bHoMY npelln0J10.>KeHI11O. ocy- rneCTBJleHl1e CYllonpoH3BollcTBa no lleJIaM 0 roCYllapcTBeHHblX npOC1)'JUleHl1flX nepen.anaJIOCb B nelleHHe npaBI1TeJlbCT\3YJOwero CeHaTa. BMecTo cneUH<I.IU13J11pOBaHHblx CYAOB, nOIl'lHHeHHb]X He- nocpellCTBeHHO MOHapxy. neJ13. no «ClIOB}' H llellY» npeDJI3.ra.nOCb Bnpellb pa36HpaTb Bb]CllIeMY opraHY rocynapcTBeHHOJ1 BJl3.CTI1. TeM caMblM. 3aBellOMO cl1Tya111BHoe lIH'IHOe y'-IBcTl1e I1MnepaTO- pa B I1HI1Ul1l1pOBaHl1l111 pacCMOTpeHI1H nen no rocynapCTBeHHblM npec1)'ItlleHHHM nOnOllHH!lOCb OpraHI130BaHHbiM Ha nocToHHHOH OCHOBe Y'-lacn1eM B 3TOM npouecce CeHaTOpOB. Y'II1TblBa5I. '1TOOIlHI1M H3cocTaBHTelleiJ maSb] 2-iJ (11. B'IaCT- HOCTJII. CT. 42) KH. I npoeKTa YJlO>KeHHH flBJ.U]C.II '1l1eH YJ10.>KeH- HOiJ KOMI1CCI1I1 neHCTBJIITeJlbHblH TaiJHblJ1 COBeTHHK n. A. TOll- W: *: j:: :: ::: g :-l3lnpl1J1o)KeHI1e VI. 
278 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I croW, B1{QillIBWI-1M B Ty nopy B 6JnDlcahlIee OI<:p}')Kem-le OeTpa I, MO)I(HO C YBepeHHOCTblO npennOJIOiKHTh, '..no nOllo6Hbll1 eapJll3.HT peopraHll3amJH cyna no rocvnapCTBeHHhl}.1 npeCI)'TlIIeHHHM npo- eKTl1pOlillJlCH C )"leTOM romalllHHx YMOHacrpoeHt1f1 33KOH01Iare- 1U1 WTI1 .>ICe Booce no comacosaHl11O C HHM. B 3TOH CBH311 HeJTh3f1 He ynOM.IIHyrb H 0 P03blCKHOH KOHTOpe npH CeHaTe. BeChMa J18KOHM'lHbli1 J.'IMeHHOH YKa3 06 )"lpe)((1lemU1 KOTopait COCTOHJICSI 13 SlHBapJl 1724 r. 1 KaK npe.ncTdRJlJlercR. HMeHHO P03bICKHOH KOHTOpe npellCTomlo B 11MbHeHrneM npl1H}lTb B npOOJB01lCTBO n.ella no rocynapCTBeHHhlM npec1)'l1.IleHHHM, Koropble nOCTYnaJIH 6hl B CeHaT B COOTBeTCTBHH co CT. 42 fn. 2-H KH. I YnO;KeHIUI Poccl1fkKOrO roCYHapcma (nonrorOBKa KOTOpOro B 1724 r. Ha- Xo.LUtllaCb B 3anepWaJOweH CTaLI.I1l1). ECJlI1 >Ke 3ao.nHO BcnOMH(1Tb, 'lIQ 15 .IIHBapsl1724 f. nOCJle- DOBMO M31J.aHHe 3aKOH8 06 ynpa31lHemU-I T aHHoi1 KaHlleJ1S1pHI1 (cUle OllHom cyna no rocynapCTBeHHblM npeclyJUleHI1S1M. pe'lb o KOTOpOM nm11leT 'lyrb HI1)1(e), nel1H 11 KaHueJUlpCKI1M nepco- HaJJ KOTOpoH npellnl1CblBaJlOCb nepellHTb I1MeHHO B CeHHT3, TO KHpTl1Ha HH'laIla npOBelleHI1H HOBOft peoprHHI13awm cyne6Hom ycrpoHCTBa npOflCHI1TCH OKOH'IHTeJTbHcf. YMeCTHO 3aMernTb. 'ITO nOllo6HaH peOpraHI13aUI1H He npOTHBope'JI1JTa B ueJTOM H HaUMO- HaJJbHOMY onbl1)' rocYllapcTBeHHoro CTpmneJTbCTBa. KaK nOKa- 3aJla H. 6. rOJTMKOBa. HH npOT.II)I(eHl11-1 XVI-XVII BB. DcmpCKa5I n)'MH HepellKO p a3611panH ne.na no rocynapcTBeHHblM npeCl)'fUle- 1 0 Henocpe.ncmeHHoM V'I3C1lII1 n.A TOIICTOJO B COCTaB!leHl111 rJ1. 2-" KH. I CBl{l].eTeJlbCTB)'IOT npOroKOJlbHh]e 3anI1CH YJlO)l(eHHoi1 KOMMCCMM 06 ymep)l(J1eHl111 npoeKTOB CTaTeli HaJBaHHOi1 rJ1aBb] (BKlltO'IIDI CT. 42). Co- rJ1acHo nporoKOJlbHoi1 Jam1CI1 OT 4 01ffil6pH 1723 r.. B pa3)ID:>TKe npoeKTa CT. 42. nOMIilMO n.A TOJlCToro. }'4acJDOl3..l.lJI1 COBeTHI1K CI1Ho.aa apXHMaH- npHT nmpl1HJ1 16Y)I(J.IHCKI1MI. feHepari-pcKeTMeHcrep B. K naB!lOB 11 COIJeT- HMK2=Iabrt;: i. 41.342. KH. 33, 'J. I. JI. 12). 3lkpemeffllUK08 B.I1. ).1CTOPH.II TaMHoH KaHUeJ1.11pI1M... C. 121. 48 nmq;myJJe Bonpoc 0 pa3BepHYBilIei1c.II B In4 r. «peopraHIII3aUHI1 nOJ1I1TH'JeCKoro Cb]CKa& JaTpOHYJlI1 E. B. AHIICI1MOBI1 K. f nepeJ1a1l0B (AHUCWW6 E. B. D,b]6a 11 KHyr. C. III; OH JlCe. fIoJ1I1THl.JeCKI1H P03h]CK 11 raHHaH nOJlI1UI1.11. ClIO-III; llepemiJoo K r. YKaJ. CO'J. C 101-103). KaK HI1 YIIHBHTeJlbHO. Bonpoc 0 .naHHOM npeo6paJOBaHI111 COBcprneH- HO o60weJl BHI1MaHl1eM M. O. AKHWIIIH. CneUl1aJ1bHO OCTaHOBI1BW(1HCH B .nHccepTaUHOHHOM IICCJleJ10BaHI1I1 Ha XapaKTepllCTI1Ke OpraHl13aUHIII 11 KOMneTeHUl111 npeo6proKeHcKoro npl1KiUa 11 TaHHoH KaHUeJ1S1pHI1 B nep- 80H 'JeTBepT(1 XVIII B. (CM.; AICUIUUH M 0 Cyne6HaH pertxJp}.!a nerpa I: D,Hc....CIUS-122). 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 279 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. Hi1S1M I . npaRM, B Te BpeMeHa npi1 nYMe He C03lJ.aBllIlOCb Hi1- K8Koro CTpyKT)'pHoro nOllpa3.lleJIeHi1}I. 3aHi1MaBweroC}! .neJ18Mi1 nOll06Horo pon.a. OllH8KO CJ10)({J1BWi1MCSI BO BTOpoH n0J10Bt1He 1723 r. 3a- Mb[CJ18M neTj)a I 0 npoo6paJoBaHt1i1 cy.ua no rocynapCTBeHHblM n(XCTYJlneHJ.1SIM He C)0K.IleHO 6b]J10. B i1Tore. npeTROpHTbcSJ B )((H3Hb. KaK JlBCTBYeT i13 06P33110BO coxpaHHBWemCJI YKa.JHO- ro i1 npOTOKOJ1bHOm neJ10np0i13BOllCTBa npaBHTeJlbCTBYJOwero CeHaTa 3a 1724-1725 rr., P03bICKH<iJl KOHTopa B em CTpYKType TaK i1 He 6Ulla C01!laHa de facto J . He COCTOilllOCb B'IY nopy t1 3a- KPbITHS! (Wli1 peopraHi13allH(1) npe06pa)l(cHcKoro npi1Ka3a 3 . 60J1ee TOro: 21 anpeJ1S! 1724 r. CeH81 nOllTBepllHJ1 - B o<Jepen.HoH pa3 - nO.llcynHOCTb nen no .-cJ10BY i1 lleny» i1MeHHO BelroMCTny i13 ceJIa npeo6pIDKeHcKoro. B nononHeHHe K 3TO- MY. 7 MaS! 1724 L neTp I YKa.J3JI HanpaBI1Tb nena m J1HKBI{IU1- pOBaBwei1cSI Tai1Hoi1 K8HUenS!pi1i1 He B CeHaT (KaK 3TO npe.ay- CMmpI1Ba.nOCb B 3aKOHe OT 15 5mBap}! 1724 r.). a onSlTb-TaKI1 B npeo6pa:>KeHcKHH npi1Ka3 4 . OCTaeTCSI .a06aBt1Tb. "ITO He llOUUlO no npi1mBOpa i1 nO'[TH 3aBepweHHoe CJ1e.acrneHHbIM np0i13- BO.acmOM .aeno npeo6pIDKeHCKHX nbSlKOB. SI. B. 6bUli1HCKOm i1 B. H. HeCTepo Ba 6blJ10 npellnl1CaHO OCBo601li1Tb i13-nOli CT])IDKH I [O<lU"06O H. D. OpraHI13aUH.II no.nI1TI1'JecKoro CblCKa B POCCI1I1... C. 10-24, 29-30. lp03b!CKHYIO KOHTOPY Ilptl CeHaTe OUlI1604HO C'Je.n peaJIbHO cywecrno- BaB!lleH K. f nepenaaoB (fkpe.1lltJo8 K. r. YKa3. C04 C 105-107). K Ta- KOMY BblOO.ny K.f. nepenallOB npl1weJ1. C O1lHOH CTopoHb]. 113-3a HeT04- HOH I1HTepnperaU1111 KOCBeHHb]X yK:JJaHI1H I1CTO'IHI1KOB, a c 1IPYro - no npH'II1He nOJlHoro He3HaKO"'C1Ba C MiiTepl1aJU1MI1 TOfllH!llHero ceHaTCKoro lleJIOnpoltJB()J]ClBa. AHaJlorW]HYIO ollll16KYcosepWIIIJI 11 ilHaJlOrH'!HO He 06- paJJJ.aBWI1HCH K apXI1BHblM MaTepHaJ1aM 11. R BoJ1KOB. KOTOpUi1 nOCBHTWI MI1!j:JI1'JecKoH KOHTope oc06yIO CTIlTblO B CJ1oBape-cnpaB04HI1Ke «focYllap- CTBeHHOCTb POCCI1I1» (BoJKOR Jl B. KOI-fI"Opa po3b[CKHbIX lleJI II focYllap- CTBeHHOCTb POCCI1I1 M. 1999. KH 1. C. 413). J no pe30HHOMY (XOTH 11 He nOllTBep)l(!lHf'1It01I1V HanpHlII)'1O I1CTOlJHI1- KaMI1) npe.nI1OJlO)l(eHl1tO E R AHI1CIIIMOlkl, B 1724 r. neTjJ I HaMepeB.1OC.II peoprdHH.JOBm"b npeo6paA<.eHcKHi1 npHK8:J B P03b[CKHYIO MlHJOpy npl1 MOCKOOCKOi1 KOHTope CeH8Ta (AHUUI.IffJt! E. R DbJ6a H KH}'T. C. I i I; OH J//:€. nOJJI1TI1'JeCKI1i1 po3blCK H Tai1HIDI nOJJI1UI1.11... C. 110). BMecre C TeM. ecnH OCnOMHI1Tb pacclllOTpeHHoe IIb]We JaKOHO.1JaTeJ1bHoe npeLln0J10)l(eHl1e. IIHeceHHoe II CT. 48 rn.l-H KH. I npoeKTa YnO)l(eHI1H. Henb3H I1CK.lJt04IITb iii TOro Bapl1aHTa. '1TO BO BTopoit n0J10BHHe 1713 r. y I1MnepaTOpa B03HIiIKa- nl1 Mb!CJ111 0 TpaHCMaUHI1 npHKaJa B nOCTOHHHO i):JYHKUHOHI1pYlOlllHH lJoeHHO-CYlle6Hb[i1 opraH no p!lJ6l1parenbCTB}f lleJ1 fB!lpilei1uelJ. 4 nOJlHOC C06paHI1e JaKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 4494. C. 279. 
280 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I no HMHJIICTI1I1 Y.>Ke cnYCT5I ABa 1IH5I naClle KOH'U1Hb] nepBoro poc- CI1MCKOro I-1Mneparopa - no CT. 2 HMeHHoro YK333 OT 30 Sl.HBap51 1725 r} Oocne 1125 r. npe06pm+::eHcKHH npHK33 erne yenen 11 nepet1MeHOBaTbCSI. B «KaHueJTflpl1fO», 11 nonaCTb B Henocpe.Ll- CTBeHHoe nOll'JMHeH(1e BepXORHOMY TaHHOM)' COl1Y. H nepe- JU1CJ10LlJ.'lpOilaTbC.II H3 HeKOTOpoe BpeM5I 113 nOD.MOCKOBHoro npe- 06pIDKeHcKoro B CaHKT-ne-rep6ypr. On;H3KO, cyMeB YUeJleTb npH COKpalllemU1 rOCYllapcTBeHHoro .mnapaT3 B 1726-1727 fr., Be- nOMCTBO Bee 601lee Tep5l.l10 6blJIoe 3HalleHHe l . B HTOre. 3TOT pe- JIHKT npt1Ka3HOH JOCTI1UHH 6b[Jl ynpa311HeH no t1MeHH0M)' YK33)' OT 4 anpeJifl 1729 r. CornacHo n.aHHOMY YK3Jy Bnpellb neJ13, <l.CO- cmOfl6WUfI 6 lie pew: ()eyx nYHK!lI{J)C9, HaLLITe)({aJ]O HanpaBJISl.Tb H3 paCCMOlpeHHe JlH60 B CeHaT (D.eJl3 MeHbwdi BalKHOCTH). ]]1.0160 B BepxoBHblit TaitHbli1 COBeT 3 . YMeCTHO llo6aBJ.1Tb, '-HO l-1)J;ee neTpa I cocpeD.OTO'IIHb pa3- 6HpaTeJlbCTBO neJl no roCYllapcTBeHHb[M npecTyllJIem1flM B OCO- 60M CTpyKTypHOM nOllpaJlleJleHHI1 npH BblCllleM opraHe rocy- napCTBeHHOH BJlaCTI1 He Cy.:+:1leHO 6bUlO yracHyrb. 31)' l{lJ.eJO BOnJTOTHJl Ha npaKTIlKe neT)) III BMecTO TaK H He Ha<18BllleH q.yHKUHOHHpOBaTb B 1724 r. P03blCKHOH KOHTopbl B CTpyJ<Ty)1e npaBJ.1TeJTbCTBYJOWero CeH8T8 B clJeBpane 1762 r. B03HHKJl8 npo- C}'llleCTBOBaB1ll851 3aTeM nO'lTl1 COpOK JTeT TaHHa5I 3KCnelU'lLlI.15!4. Tenepb CTOI'IT nepeKfI1 K paccMmpeHI1JO Bonpoca 0 Taii- Hoii KaHueJl}lpHH neTpoBcKoro BpeMeHH. Hal160Jlee 113)"-1eHHa51 K HaCT05IlllcM)' BpeMeHH 113 cnemlaJU.J3HpOBaHHblX CYIIOB, OCHO- BaHHblX B 1717-1723 rr., TaHHa51 KaHueJUlpH5I B03HI1KJIa - 6e3 t'l311aHt'lfl oco6oro Y'lpelit'lTeJlbHoro 8KTa - B ():>eBpane 1718 r. KaK 'lpe3Bbl'laitHblii opraH. npH3BaHHbiit ocywecTBI1Tb npellBa- pl1TeJlbHoe cne.D,CTBt'le no JIeJlY uapeBI1'la AneKCe51 ne-rpOBH'la S . B nO.D,06HOM Ka'leCTBe TaiiHa51 KaHUeJl.llpl151 MarIO 'leM OTJTI1- I nO;lHoc C06paHlilC 3aKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 4645. C. 411. ! fa'/UKOOU H. 6. OpraHb] nOJll1T114eCKOro Cb[CKa... C. 162-264. JnmliOe c06paHl1e 3aKOHOIJ. T 8. NQ 5397 C. 354 nOJ1)J06HOCTH 06 }'4jJejf(j}eHI1I1 TaHHoH 3KcnellHUHI1 eM.: CUIIOIi- 1/08 B. 11. B03HI1KHOBeHl1e TaHHoH 3KCnelll1UHI1 npH OHare /I Borrpoch] 1te'tON:o':;y 71ablX 0 CT, KOMneTeHUl111 11 BH)'J1JeHHei1 OpraHH.ld.l1lf11 Tai1HoH KaHUC;J5IpHI1 CM. B \lnOMI1HaBilIl:iiCH: nHcceprdUH- OHHOH MOHorpa$m M. R E>a611'1 1003 r. (ba6uY M B focynapcrneHHbIe }'4pejf(j}eHI1H XVIII BeKa. C. 240-143). 0630P npclUlJOCTI!ytOlllew mnepaT)'- pbl, nocBHwcHHOH TaHHoH KaHueJ1.11pl1l1. npl1BI:IICH Bb[WC. 
fnasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 281 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. '1MaCb - H3 '1TO 06panw BHI-1M8HI-1e ewe B. H. BepeTeHHI-1- KOB - OT «MaHOpCKI1X» CJlell.CTBeHHb[X KaHUeJlflpMi1: 1 (0 CI-1CTeMe KOTOpblX, OKOH'laTeJlbHO CJlo)({HBwdk51 Ha HCXOlle 1717 r., pe% nof.W.eT n.anee). OllHaKo B TOM }l(e 1718 r., nocJle 3aBepWeHI-151 nJXIueCca ArIeKceH neTj)OBI-1<m TaHHaH KaHueJl5lpl-1H He TOJlb- KO He 6bUJa ynpa3llHeHa. a, Ha06opOT. 1-13 BpeMeHHoro opraHa npeJI.B8pl-1TeJlbHOro paCCJle1l.0BaHI-1J1 npeBpanlmCb (on.llTb-TaKH B 6e3yKa3HOM nOp5l.nKe) B nOCT05IHHon.eHCTBYIOWHH opraH npaBO- Cyn.M5I nO n.enHM nO «CJlOB}' H neny» (11)11-1 nO «nepBblM nHYM nYH- KTaM» 3aKOHa OT 25 SlHBapH 1715 r.). Y'II-1TblBaH. <jTO HI-1 B 1718 r., HI-1 BnOCJIenCTBHI-1 3aKOHO- llaTeJ1b He npenYCMOTpeJl HI-1KaKOH - HI-1 I-1HCTaHUHOHHOH. HI1 opraHI-13aUHOHHOH CHH31-1 - Me>K.UY TaHHOH KaHUeJISlpl-1eH H npeo6pa..KeHCKJ.1M npI-1Ka30M. CJlenyer KOHCTaTHpOBaTb. 'lTO B 1718 r. B OTe'leCTBeHHOH cYlle6HoH CI-1CTeMe CJlO)f(l-1nC5I pell'laH- llmH J18palU1enI-13M: paccMOTpeHl-1eM nen nO rocynapCTBeHHblM npeCl)'JU1eHl-1nM CTanl-1 3aHI-1MaTbCH 1-1 npe06pa)f(eHCKI1H npmca3, 1-1 TaiiHaH KaHUeJlSlpHSl 1 . ECJm BCnOMHI-1Tb, 'lTO B WBeW1l-1 Ha- '1Ma XVIII B. Bo06rne OTCyrCTBOBaJl OC06blH opraH npaBOcyn.l-1S1 no pa36I-1pa-reJlbCTBY n.eJl no crimina laesae majestatis, TO B03- HI-1KHOBeHl-1e B pocrnHCKOM rocynapCfBeHHOM annapaTe Cpa3Y llB)IX cynOB no rocynapCTBeHHblM npecryJU1eHI-151M SlBJ.1J10Cb BeCb- M8 cyrneCfBeHHblM OTXOltOM OT CTpaTern'leCKOH 11I-1HI-1I-1 Ha Bce- MepHoe 3aI-1MCTBOBaHl-1e WBeltCKOro OnblTa. Ho B 1718 r. B cf!>epe n01lHTM'IeCKOii IOCTMUHH neTPY I 6b1J1o COBceM He llO WBellCKHX 06pa3UOB. KaK H3BeCTHO, 6ynYl1.lHH HMnepaTOp KpaHHe 6oJle3HeHHo BOCnpHHSlJI n.enO ArIeKceSl neTpOBH'la. pacueHHB ero (OT'IaCTH He6e30cHOBaTenbHO) KaK npl-13HaK 060cTpeHHJI BHyrpl-1nOJlI-1TI-1- '1eCKOH CJllryau ml. B no.no6HoH 06cTaHOBKe neTp I. C Oll.HOH [BepemeHHuKo6 B. H HCTOPI'IH TalioH KaHuenj.JpHI1... C. 84-85. B pa3BI1me MHeHI1H R 11. BepeTeHHI1KOlkl, E. R AHI1CIIIMOB BOBCe OTHec Tai1HYtO KaHueJlSlpHtO K 'JI1CJ1Y «MIDiopcKI1X» KaHUeJ1.11pWH - 'JTO npe.nCTaB- 1IHeTCH He06ocHOBaHHbiM (AHUCUJOO E. B. nOJllfiwrecKI1H P03b[CK 11 TaH- HaH P&::'H[OomM nonofil-lOli cmyauHH B HCTOpl111 POCCI1H- CKOH TOCy.napCTBeHHOCTH MO)l(HO C4eCTb pa3Be 'JTO l1MeBWee MeCTO BO BTO- poH '>eTBePTH XX B. napaJlJleJIbHOe paccMOJpeHHe lleJ1 no rocYllapcmeHHb[M nCTyJlJ\eHIII.IIM. KOTopoe ocyllleCTI!JlHJOCb, C OllHOH CTOPOHbl. cy.ne6HblMI1 opraHaMH CCCP 11 rODcr. a c npyroli CTopOHb]. C)'lllOCfBOBaBWI1M C Map- Td 1914 r. no ceHTH6pb 1953 r BHecYlle6Hb[M opraHOM - C)(:o6biM coscma- HI1eM npH OfnY-HKBLl-MfE>-MHLl 
282 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I CTOPOHbl. He MOr nOJIararbC5I HH KapareJ1bHblH nOreHUIlliJI 011HO- ro JlI1111b Ope06pa)KeHcKoro npl-1KaJa. a c n.pyroit - HY)l(flal]C5I B cyne6HoM apraHe no pa36HpareJlbCTBY oca60 Ba:>KHbIX .nen no rocyn.apCTBeHHbIM npeCl)'ruJeHIDIM, KOTOpblf1 HaXOllHJlC5I 6bl B HOBOH CTOJUlue, n06J11130CTI1 or uap5l. TaKOBblM opraHOM. no BceH erX:I5ITHocm. 11 npellCTO.llJlO CTaTb TaHHOH KaHueJUlpMH. OnH8KO. B I1TOre. H8 npaKTI1Ke p<orpaHI1'JeH(1e C}lJIe5HOH KOMnereHUlu1 Me)(([\y Opeo6pIDlceHCKI1M np11Ka30M 11 TaHHoi1 K8Hue.rmpl1eH CJiO.JIUIJIOCb OTHlOllb He no 3H8<j(1MOCnl nell. no- Cl)'naBWI1X B I1X npOH3B0.nCTBO. no D.aHHbIM H. o. r01ll1KOBOH " E. B. AHt1CI1MOBa, pa3rpaHI1'leHHe IOpliC1UlKUI1H Me>K.UY npe- 06pa:>KeHCKI1M npl1Ka30M 11 TaHHoi1 KaHUeJUlpHeH I1MeJlO I1C- KlTJO'lHTeJThHO meppumopuCLibHblU xapaKTep: llt1CJ10W1IXmaBlllasl- CSI C MapTa 1718 r. B CaHKT-neTep6ypre TaHHaSl KaHueJTSlpH.II paCCM8rp(1Ban8 AeJIa no «CJlosy 11 AeJlY", BOJ6}')K1I.3BW(oIeC.II B HOBOj:j CTOJmlle (01 Ha CeBepo-3anaAe, npe06pa)l(eHcKI1j:j np(ol- Ka3 - neJla, B036Y)f([(aBWMeCn B OCTIV!bHbIX <jacT}lX POCC(oI(oII. Me)f([(y TeM. HapJ'lD.Y C COBnaneH(oIeM <!JYHKU(oIi1 no OTnpaB- neHmo npaBOcymrn no rocynapcTBeHHblM npeC1)'TUJeH(oISlM, B OpraH(oI3aU(oI(oI (01 KOMneTeHwm npe06pIDlceHcKoro np(olKa3a (01 Taj:jHoj:j KaHueJTJ'lp(1(1I1MeJI(oICb 11 HeKOTopble p<OJT(oI<j(1.11. nOHblHe LleJTOCTHO He OCBelUaBW(1eC5I B (oICTOp(olKO-npaBOBoj:j JlRrepary- pe. liTO KaCaeTC.II opraHM3aUMOHHoj:j CTOPOHb], TO 3J1eCb cneJryeT (oIMeTb B BJ.1llY. 'ITO Y Taj:jHOj:j KaHlleJl5lpl1(1 (oIMeJlOCb npellcraBI1- TeJTbCTBO B MOCKBe (no MaH 1723 r.), B TO BpeM}! KaK npeo6pa- )l(eHcKHtJ np(olKaJ He pacnOJ1ara.n HI1I\aK(oIMI1 TcppI1TOp(olaJ]bHbIM(oI nOnp33neJIeHI1J'1MI1. Co CTOpOHbl KOMneTeHlll111 pa3JlW'1I1S1 Me)l(l1y Taj:jHoj:j KaHUeJTJ'lpHej:j (01 npeo6pIDlceHCK(oIM np11K330M KaCaJ](oICb (oIX nonOJ1H(oITeJ1bHbIX q.yHKU(oIj:j. npMOp(1TeTHO 3aH(oIMaHCb p336(o1paTeJ1bCTBOM neJ1 no rocy- napcmeHHblM npeCl)'TU1eH(oI.IIM, npe06pIDlceHCKMj:j npmca3 6bJJ1, CTO(oIT nOBTOp(1Tb, erne o6peMeHeH ynpaBJ1eH(oIeM HeKOTOpblM(oI n.BOpLlOBbIMI1 3eMJISlMI1, a TalCKe OTnpaMeHl1eM npaBOCYD.lHI no neJTaM BOeHHOCJT)')KaIl.ll1X-rBapnd:iLleB. B CBOIO Oy.epenb, Taf1HaSl KaHueJTJ'lpl1J'1 (01 nOCJ1e OKOH'laHI1J'1 n.eJTa uapeB(oI<la ArIeKceSl ne- T]Jonw,]a nponomKa.na B OTn.eJ1bHb]X cJlYY.aSlx Bb]CT)'naTb - no YKa3aH(oIJlM nerpa I - B Ka<jeCTBe opraHa npeliBapl1TeJlbHO- fO paCCJ1enOBaH I151, npWcleM He TOJlbKO no n.enaM no «cnosy 11 ] ra'1UF;06a H. D. OpraHbl nOJ1I1TI1'JeCKoro CblCKa . C. 157-258; AHUCU- MOO £ B.lhlOO 11 KHyr. C. 110-111. 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 283 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. JJ;eJ1Y». Hanpl1Mep, I1MeHHO TaHHaH KaHUeJ1Hpl151 paCCJle1l0BanB B 1718-1719 rr. MHOr03nI13011HOe «peBeJIbCKOe allMl1paJITei1:cKoe JJ;eJIo» (06 OC}lliecTBJleHHbIX rpynnoM JJ;CI1DMIOCTHbIX JII1U PeBeJIb- CKOM allMl1paJITeikKOH KaHueJ1S1pHI1 npecrynHblx MaXI1HaUI151X C njXIBl18HTOM, npe.llH83Ha<IeHHbIM llJISi cHa6)f{eHI151 EaJlTI1f1cKoro WJTOTa)I. nOCJTe J<\RepWeHI1.11 paCCJle1l0RaHI1JI 06RI1HSleMbie (13 <II-!CJla BQeHHOCJT}')K3lli(1X 6b1Jl(1 npe.naHb] BOeHHOMY cyny, 8011l1H 113 06B(1H5ICMb]X. KOM(1CCap R JIonYXHH - cyny np3BI1TeJTbCTsy- IOwero CeHaTa 1 . HaKoHeu, HeJlb351 He OTMCTHTb 3pl1MO p33JU1<IHYIO I1HTeH- CHBHOCTb pa60Tbi npC06pa)f{eHcKoro npHKa3a 11 TaHHOH KaH- ueJTSlpl1l1. ECJlH B TaHHOH KaHUeJlSlpI1H C 1719 no I1JOJ1b 1726 r. 6bUlO ocyweCTBJleHO pa36HpaTeJTbCTBO 280 neJT. TO B npeo6pa- )f(eHCKOM np(1KaJe 33 1718-1725 rr. - 1988 11eJl}. T8KHM 06- pa30M. cOBeprueHHO O'-lCBJ.UlHO, 'lTO OCHOBHb]M opr3HOM npaBo- CYJJ;H5I nO neJlaM 0 rocynapCTBeHHblX npeCl)'JUICH(151X B HBrueH crpaHe 11 B 1718-1724 rr. OCTaBMcn npw6pIDKeHCKMH npl1KaJ. KaK 6bl TO HI1 6bUlO. ny6JTl1pOBaHl1e COOTBeTCTBYlOllil1X WYHKWIH npe06p3)l(eHcKoro npl1KaJa 11 TaHHoH KaHueJl5lpl111 <IeM naJIbrue, TeM 60J1bWC He COOTBeTCmOI3MO npl1HUl1naM no- CTjXleHI1S1 rocynapCTBeHHoro annapaTa POCCI-!I1. 06W8S1 peopra- HI13aUl1JJ KOToporo Ha OCHOBe npl1HUl1nOB K3MepaJI(13M8 3aBep- UU1JI8Cb B H8<JaJIC 1720-x rr. nOKaJaTeJJbHO. <JTO Ha npOT5I)({eHI1I1 1718-1725 rr. He 6bUlO 11311aHO HI-! Clll1Horo HOpMBTI1BHOrO npaBOBoro m-Ta, B KOropOM 6bl perJIaMeHT(1pOBMI1Cb CTa1)'C 11 nOJlHOMO<II151 TaHHOH KaHUCJT5Ipl1l1. He MeHee nOKaJaTeJlbHO, 'lTO 0 TaHHoH KaHUeJl5Ipl1H OKa3aJlOCb HI1 CJlOBOM He ynOM5IHY- TO B nOCB5Ill1eHHof1 cynOYCTpof1CTBY 06WI1PHOH rJIaBe 2-H KH. I npoeKTa YJ10)f(CHHJJ POCCI1HCKoro rocynapcTBa 1723-1726 rr., yrBep)l(,!J;eHHOH YJ10)({eHHOH KOM(1CCl1eH B CeHT5I6pe-oKf5I6pe 1723 r. 4 - HCCMOTp51 Ha TO, 'lTO BCOCTaB KOM(1CCI1I1 BXO.llHJ16ec- CMeHHb]H rJlaBa KaHueJUlpl111 ccmrrop n. A T OJICTOH. [fIonpo6HOCTI1 «peseJlbCKOro llil\fI1pameHcKoro neJ1a» CM.. npe)!(1le see- m, B Of\fe<JeHHoi1 Bblwe CTaTbe R 11. CaMOH.riOBa 1956 r. (Cll.IftJU.I06 B.1I. o nepBbIx Y3HI1KaX nerponaBJIoBCKoii KpenoCTI1. C. 120-111). Ha3BaHHoe yrOJloBHoc .neJIO nOC1YnWlo B npoHJBOIICTBO TaiiHOH KaHUeJIHpl1111 no yKa- 3aHHlO nC1JJa I OT 8 8nryCT'd 1718 r. (AHUCll.V06 £. B.lhlOO 11 KHyr. C. 110). lPfADA,41. 198, NQ 110,11. 1I0-1II;.I\fQ 119, JI. 264; 41. 248, KH. 1886. JI.154. } f01UI«JtfO H. D. OpraHbl nOJlI1T1i1'JeCKoro CbICKa... C. 258. 4CM.: PfADA,41. 341. KH. 33. 'l. I. n. 8 06.-18, 21 06.-33. 
284 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I no BceMY .1TOMY He npl-1XOlll1TCfI COMHeBaTbC5I, 4TO He TOJlb- KO B 1718 r., Ho. 11 BnOCJ1e.D.CTBI-UI neTp I pacCM8TpHBaJI Tai'IHYIO KaHueJUlplHO KaK 'lpe3Bbl'laiiHbli1 cYlle6HblH opraH. C031J.aHHbIH Ha nepHOll 060CTpeHJ.UI BHyrpHnOJlI1TH'IeCKOii cHryaUHH. TeM caMblM. J1HKBHlUUlJ.UI TaHHoiJ KaHueJUlpHH 6blJ18 JlHWb Bonpo- COM RpeMeHH. H RpeM.II TIO Hacrynl1J10 B 1724 f.. Korlla. J<aK }')Ke roBOpMJIQCb Bb]We. nepBblH POCrui1CKI1I1 J1MnepaTOp B35IJI- C5I npeo6pa30BblBaTb opraHiOamJlO cyna no rocynapcTBeHHblM npecrynJlemmM. CTO(1T nOBTOpHTb, 'ITa 15 JIHEmpH 1724 r. 6bll1 yrBep)((lleH JaKOH 0 3aKpbITI.Jt1 TaiiHoH KaHueJHlplUl c nepe.na'lefi ee Hen B npi.\BKreI1bCTBYJOWt1i1 CeH8T I . npaDlla, Ha npaKTHKe ynpa311HeHHe TaiiHOH KaHueJUlpHH JaUIHYJlOCb, Bee npOH3BOllCTBO. no YKa3aHIDIM MOHapxa H CeHa- Ta, np01l0Jl>KaJlH nocryJlaTb - KOHl Ii B COBceM He3Ha'l(1TeJ\bHOM KOJ1lf'leCTBe - HOBbie AeJIa (K np(1Mepy. B <l.npene 1725 r. 113BeCT- Hoe neJ10 C. BbIMOpKOsa). B MTOre. 28 MIDI 1726 J. EK8.Tepl1He I npl1lllJIOCb I1.1l13H3.Tb nOBTOpHb[i1 3aKOH 06 ynpa:lD.HeHHI1 Tai1Hoi1 KaHuemlpl111 C nepena'lei1 ee nen 11 KaHuen5lpCKoro nepCOHaJla B npeoGpa.:+::eHcKMH npHK<n 2 . TaK 3aKOHlJHJIacb I1CropIDI cocYllle- CTBonaHMfI nnyx opraH08 BJ1aCTI1 C l1JJ.eHTHlJHOii KOMneTeHUHeH B c<f:!epe nOnUTHlJeCKOH: JOCTHUHH.  2. nQACIo1CTeMa BoeHHblX Cy,qOB B 1717-1725 IT. BoeHHo-rpmK,AaHCKlo1e cy,qe6Hble npMcYTcTBIo1J1 \.jTO KaCaeTCJI 3apollHBllIeiicJI erne B 1700-e rr. nOllCHCTeMbl BoeHHblX cynoB (BoeHHo-cyxonyrnblx H BoeHHO-MopCKHX). TO K caMblM 3H8'IHTeJ1bHbIM H3MeHeHHflM B HX OpraHI13aUHH 3a 1717- 1724 rr. CJ]eeT OTHeCHC Bo-nepBb]X. }"-Ipe>K.LleHMe BOeHHOH: U AiwupanTef1:cKoH KOJ1J1erHH; BO-BTOpbIX. C03D.3HUe nepBOro B POCCUM nOCTO.IIHHOra BoeHHo-cyne6Horo OpraH<I. - HmKHero 80- I1HCKoro cyn.a; B- TpeTbHX, OCHOBaHUe B Mecrax nocronHHoi1 nMC- JlOK8.UHI1 BOI1HCKlLX 'laCTeit CMelllaHHblX BoeHHo-rpa.:+::naHCKHX CYlle6HbiX npl1cyTCTBuii. OCHOBaHHble 15 neK8.6p51 1717 r. no 06pa:JUY llIBellCKHX Krigskollegium H AdmiraJitetskoDegium J Bo- eHHa5I H AaMHpanTef1:CKafl KOJlJIefHl1 flBHJII1Cb He TOJlbKO opra- Ham BoeHHor o ynpaBJIeH('I.II. HO U peBH3UOHHo-pewaJOWHMU ] BepemeHJlllf..-OO B. H. I1cTOpH.II T.aitHOit KaHueJI.IIpl1l1... C. 221. 2n0J1Hoe c06paHl1e 3aKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 4891. C. 654. }DCTUlbHee 06 .nOM CM.: Peterson C. Gp. cit. P. 394-405. 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 285 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. HHcraHUlHIMH no OTHoweHHIO K KpHrCpeXTaM - TO eCTb cyn.aMH BTOpoW 3BeHa l . BnepBhle nun.06Hhlf! nOpH.nUK 6hUJ ctJOpMWlbHO 3aKpeWIeH B ynoMHHaBWeMC5I BblWe 3aKOHe OT 3 MapTa 1719 r. 2 ComacHo Ha3BaHHOMY 3aKOHY Ha YfBep./KlleHHe BoeHHOH KOJ1J1erHH B 0651- 3aTeJ1hHOM nopR!lKe HanpaBJUUlHCh ymep>K!leHHble KOMaHlG'IO- llU1MH KopnycaMH npHrOBopbl nOJ1KOHbIX H rapHH30HHb]X KpHrc- pexroH, B KOTOpblX Ha3Ha<J:aJIaCb cMepTHa51 Ka3Hb. npH 3TOM, eCJiH cMepllible npHwBopbl B OTHOllleHHH HH)I(HHX <iHHOB H He- crpoeBblx YTBep)l{)laJ1HCh caMOH BoeHHOH KOJlIlemeH, TO CMepT- Hhle npHrOBophl, BhlHeeeHHble c$HucpaM, nOCJIe YTBCp>K!leHH5I KOJIJ1erneH HanpaBJ151J1HCh Ha OKOH<iaTeJ1hHOe ymep.lK1leHHe ua- pH). B CBOIO O<iepe.!1h. no pacnop5DKeHHIO BoeHHOH KOJ1J1erHH OT 24 HIOJ151 1721 r.. HanpaBJJeHHIO Ha yrBep./KlleHHe KOJIJ1erHH craJIH nOlVle>KaTb Bee npHrOBOpbl. Bb]HeCeHHble BoeHHblMH cy- JI.3MH nepHOW 3BeH8 H yrBep./KlleHHb]e BblWeCT05llllHM CTpoeBblM KOM8I-lD.OBaHHeM 4 . COOTBeTCTBeHHO, OTnpaBlleHHeM npaBOcyn.H5I 3aHI1MaJIOCb npt-IC)fTCTBHe KOJ1Jlen",", a non.roToBKOM neJl K CJIYIlI8HHIO - AynH- ropCKoe nOBblTbe KOJIJle)f{CKOH KaHueJl5lpHH. B BoeHHOH KOJl- J1erHH AYllHTopCKoe nOBblTbe 6h]JlO C03.LI.aHO comaCHO IlITa:ry, yrBep.lK1leHHOMY 3 HIOH5I 1719 r. no 3TOMY IlITal}' B COCTaB AYllH- TOpcKOro nOBblTbfl BXOllHIlH reHepan-aynHTOp. reHepan4"CKaJI, n.B8. KaHUeJIflpHCTa H n.Ea KonHHcm 5 . HapfillY C nonwToBKoi1 no- crynaBwHx H3 KpHrcpeXTOB npHroBopOB K paccMOTpeHHIO Bo- eHHOH KOMerHeM, AymrropcKoe nOBblTbe oeyrneeTBJl5IJIO PYKO- Bo.llCTBO aynHTopcKOH c.rIYJK60ft apMHH, a TaJOKe BeJlO cyne6HyJO craTHCTHK)I. o6pa6aTblBa51 H aHaJlH3HpYfl e)f{ero.!lHO nOCl}'nanWHe H3 BOHHCKHX 'l8 CTei1 OT'-leTbl 0 COCT05lBWHXC5I KpHrepexrax. I B I1CTOpl1Ko-npaBCJBOii nl1Tepal)'pe Ha BOnpoce 0 cyne6HoH Kor,me- TeHlll111 E!oeHHoH KOJlJ1erHH neT)JOBCKoro BjJeMeHI1 Hal160J1ee nonp06Ho OCTaHOBI1J1CH M. O. AKI1WI1H (AKUUlUIi M. O. CYlle6HaH pe4x:!pMa ne-rpa I. LlHC. no C. 70-73). 26er.'Ib]e ynOMHHaHI1H 0 JaKOHe OT 3 Mapm 1719 r. B HCTOpIIKO-npasoBOO a::JjJf!ec: n;:ro Ya' caT. 2C. 500: /{ymaooH O. £. lle6e- JnOJlHoe C06paHI1C JaKOHOB. T. 5. NQ 3316. C. 670. 4TaM >Ke. T. 6. NQ 3806. C. 410. 5TaM >Ke. T. S. NQ 3383. C. 712. nepBblM reHepaJI-ay.nI1TOpOM BoeHHOH KOJIJlerHH CTal H33Ha'JeHHbli1II 111OJl.ll 1719 r. f1Je1LOP UeHTapOB (UeHTapo- 811). npOCJIyJKl1BllJI1H B :noi1 1l0Jl>KHOCTH no 1752 r. (Pc)Jeliletl.., M. n. Y"a3. C04. 206-207. 369). 
286 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I CTOMT 33MeT(1Tb, npamra. 'lTO B nepBoi-i 'IeTBepTl1 XVIII B. npaBa, 06H3aHHOCTH w npOUeCCYaJlbHblH CTIITyC f'eHepan-ay.n.I1TOpa BoeHHOH KOJUJenm TaK H He HalllilH HOpMaTl1BHOro 3aKpertJle- 1-11151 - HH B KaKOM-JlH60 3aKOHe. ceH8TCKOM YKa3e WI" BellOM- CTBeHHOM pacnOpH>KeHHH, HH B PemaMeHTe BoeHHOH KOJUJerHH (KaKOROH. 'lTQ xapaKTepHO, 13006we He 6bUJI13llaH). 3aTo 5 anpeJl.ll 1722 r. BCryJUW B CMJlY nOJJ;rOTOBIJeHHb]H npH aKHJBHOM y'm.en'll'! neTpa I Ii olTh5lBJIeHHblH 06pa3UOBbIM J],JISI OCTaJlbHblX KOJUJen.'IH Perl1<1MeHT AaMHparrJeiicKOi1 KOJUJenU1 (<<Pe2.IlL'del/m 0 ynpa6Je- 1/UU AtJMUp(1JlmeUCm6o U 6epcjJu»). OnH8Ko B 3TOM 06Wl-1pHOM, co- CTOHBllleM 113 LIBYX lJ8CTeii, 68 mas H 717 cTaTeii 3aKOHOlWTeJIh- HOM aKTe OKa3aJ1HCb HH CJ10BOM He ynoM5IHyrbl HH aYlUuopCKasI CJI}')K6a t!mOTa, HH BoeHHO-MopcKHe cy.ue6Hble opraHbl l . 3a6eraH: Bnepe,!J; - B HCTOP(1fO npeo6paJonaH(1H 1717- 1724 IT. B o6nacn'l CYAonpOJ.13Bo.nCTB3 - Heo6xoJI.l1MO Ao6a- BI..JTb, 'ITO BBe)(eHHbIH B 1719 L nopm:rOK YTBep>K1leHH.II BoeHHOH KOJUlCrl1ci1: CMepTHblX npl-1roBopOB. BblHcceHHblX nOJlKOBb]MH H rapHH30HHblMH Kpl-1rCpeXTaMl-1, COXpaH.llJlCSI HenOJIm. ComaCHO BbICOlJaHWe" pe30JUOUI1H OT II HO.li6p.li 1724 r. Ha n. 7 DOKJIMa BoeHHoH KOJlJICrl1i1 OnpelleJI.liJlOCb. 'ITO CMCpTHblC npHmBopbl MJ1al1WHM OHUepaM nO.LIJIC>KaJlH OKOH'-JaTCJlbHOMY ymcp>K1lC- Hmo B BOCHHOH KOJUlCrHH. a Ha ymcp)l(1leHHC MOHapXa CJlCllOBa- 110 HanpaBJUITb CllHHCTBeHHO npHroBopbl. B KOTOPb]X CMCpTHa5I Ka3Hb H83Ha1JanaCb CTapWHM O<])J1UepaM!. B03BparnaHCb K nepeMeHaM B BoeHHOM cynoycrpOI1CTBe, ocyrneCTBJlCHHblX B 1717-1724 rr., CJlc.nycr OTMernTb, 'ITO ncp- BblH $YHKUI10HI-1jX>BaBWI1H Ha nOCTo.sJHHOH OCHOBe PC4>oPMH- POBaHHblH BoeHHO-CYllC6HbIH opraH - HI-1>KJ-IHH BOI-1HCKHH CYll (C031laHHC KOTOpOro B 06weM BHlle npetlYCMaTpHBaJlOCb B CT. I m. 50-H YCTaBa BOHHCKom OT 30 MapTa 1716 r.3) - nO.llBI1JIC.II B HaweH CTpaHC B 1723 r. Y'lpellHTeJ1bHbIM aKTOM 0 em OCHOBaHHH B I-1CTOpHKO-npaBOBoH J1IITepaType npI-1H.!I:TO C'lHTaTb Bb]CO'-l.."lii- ruylO pe30JUOUHlO OT 15 ct>eBpa.ruI 1723 r. Ha n. 2 nOK./Jana BoeH- HO" KOJIJIerHw. HIDKHI-1H BOI-1HCKI1H cyn pacnOJlaraJIc.!I: B MocKBe i1 6blJI CTpYKTYPHO CB.li3aH C MOCKOBCKOH KOHTOjX)i1 BOCHHOi1 KOJIJ1CrHH. maB a KOTOPOO BblCl)'naJI B pOOH npe.llCC.LI.aTeJ1J( cy.aa. ]CM.: nOJIHoe co6Jmtl1e JaKOHOB. T. 6. NQ 3937. C. 525-637. 2TaM.>Ke. T. 7. NQ 4589. C. 361. 33aKoHollaTtJ1bCTOO nerpa I. c. 195. 4n0J1Hoe c06paHHe 3aKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 4166. C.14. 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 287 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. KaK JlBCTB}'eT H3 apXHBHb]X M<UepHaJlOB, no COCTORHHIO Ha OKTH6pb 1723 r. B annapaTe HIDKHero BOHHCKOro cyna TpynHIIHcb 06ep-aynHTop. nbRK, npOTOKOJlHCT. 'leTblpe nOllKaHueJlJlpHCTa H 28 nHcapej.jl. Cyn paCCMaTpHBaJI neJIa 0 npecryrureHI1.IIX BOeH- HOCJl}')KaWHX, COBepWCHHblX Ha TeppHTopHH MOCKBbl. a TIlJOKe neJIa 0 ne3epTHpax, 3a.aep>KaHHbIX B ropO..!le H OKpeCTHOCT.IIX. no 8BTopHTeTHOMY 3aMC'I8HHIO H. A neryxoBa. HMCHHO HH>KHHH BOHHCKI1H CY..!l SlBMCR npRMb]M npelllueCTBeHHHKOM HblHCWHcro MOCKOBCKOrO rapHH30HHOrO BoeHHoro CYllCl 1 . l.J:TOKacacTC.Ii CaHKT -nerep6ypra, TOTaM. nopacnopIDlceHHIO BoeHHoH KOJUlCrHH OT 4 HO.li6p.li 1724 r., 6bUJa C0311aHa BpeMCH- HaR BOeHHo-cynHa.ll KOMHCCHJI BO maBe C CaHKT -ncTep6yprcKHM KOMCHllaHTOM. B Ka1.JCCTBe aceccopoo B KOMHCCHIO npe..!lnHCbIBa- JlOCb KOMaH1U1pOBaTb rpynny o{lmucpoo H311HCJlOUHpOOaHHbIX B CTOJlHUC BOHHCKI1X 'I8CreH. nOCTO.llHHblH >Ke BoeHHblH CYll 6b]JI OCHOBaH B CaHKT-nerep6ypre l1HWb B 1771 r. J HaKOHCU, HCJlb35'J oooml1 Jq)aTKI1M paccMOTpeHHCM CMe- lll8HHbIC BoeHHO-rpa;K!l3HCKHC cyne6HbIe npHC}'TCTBIDI. KOTO- pblC B03HHKJlH B HaWCH CTpaHC B CBJl3H C npOBelleHHCM B KOHue 171O-x - ncpBOH nOJlOBHHC 1720-x n. MaClllTa6HOH nO..!l8THOH PC4>oPMbI 4 . 3aBepwalOWHM 3TIlnOM Ha3B8HHOH peopMbl JlBH- JlOCb. KaK H3BeCTHO. p33McweHHC BOHHCKI1X 'I8CTeH H8 nocTO- JlHHOH OCHORe (<<HO fle'lHble KBOpmUpbl») B CeJlbCKOH MCCTHOCTH. npH'IeM He B 06oco6JleHHbiX BOeHHb]X ropOllKaX, a Henocpell- CTBeHHO no nepeBHSlM. He HMeBwee 8HaJIOroB B OTe'leCTBeHHoM HCTOpHH TaKOBOe pa3MeweHHc BOHCK, nOBceMeCTHO Ha<ffiBllleeCJI B 1722 r., nOTpe6oBaJlo peJyl1HpOBaHI1.II B3aHMOOTHOllleHHH KaK MC)I(lly MeCTHblMH opraH8MH BoeHHoro H rpa.lKIJ.8HCKoro ynpaB- JlCHIm:. TaK H Me)l(lly H8npaBJICHHblMH Ha «Be'lHb]e KBapTHPb]" BOeHHocny.A<aWHMH H HaCeJlCHHCM. BOT nOlJCMY l1eTOM 1723 r. nClJ> I npHcrynlUJ K Bblpa60T- Ke naKeTa 3aKOHOB H YKa30B. npH3BaHHbiX KOMfJJ]eKCHO pef118- MeHTHpoBaTb B 3aHMOlleMcTBHe pacKBapTHpyeMoH no nepeBHJiM I PfADA, 4J 186. KH 1, JI 347-34706. 1 llermxoo H A. YKa3. C04. C. 79. 3 PoK M n. YKa3. CO'J. C. 202; KvmajJuH 0. E., JIe6ede« B. M, CeMlIi!UH t:. 10. YKa3. C04. T. 1. C. 562. 4 HaH6011ee n0JI)J06HO 06cTO.IITeJlbCTB8 nOllroTOBKHI1 npoBe.neHI1.11 naH- HOi1: p.$opMbl OCBeIUeHbl B DJtccepraUI10HHO MOHOrpaI]:Jl111 E. B AHI1CI1- MOsa 1982 r. (eM.. .A#/UC/l.,.,fOO E. B. nO.1l8THIDI pe4x:!pMa nerp8 I' BBe.neHl1e nOllYllJHoi1 nOD.3TH 8 POCCHI1. 1719-1728 fr. fl.. 191;2) 
288 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I apM"" C MeCTHblM H<l.CeJIem1eM - B MMHHHCTpan1BHOM. 4>11- H<l.HCOBOM. nOJUmei1:cKoM 1-1: cyn.e6HOM ffiHOWeHI-UIX. B "TOre, n0J10}f(eHIDI. KaCaBWHeCH BoeHHoiJ IOCTl1llJ1H, OK33a..rUICh 38- Kpel1JleHhl B no.anHC8HHblX I1MnepaTOpOM 6 HOH6pH 1724 f. 38- KOHax «flJlOKDnr 0 3fope llodJ'lUHOM U npom'leu» Ii «0 iJOAJ/CHO- emu no,1K08HUKQ»I. B CT. 8 pa311eJIa «0 no.1K06HUKe c o(/)Uepbl» ...r1naKaTa» 6bUlO BHeceHO YCTaHORIJeHHe 0 TOM. "lTO 3a5lBJleHHSI o npoTl1BOnpaBHbiX Aef1:CTBI-UIX BoeHHOCJIY".ArnWHX B OTHoweHHH rpa)l(1laHCKI1X lUlU CJlellOBaJlO no.mlBaTb HCKJllO'-IIUeJIbHO K01o.13H- n.OBaHHIO nOJ1Ka. KOropoe, B CBOJO O'lepellh. 06H3bIBaJIOCb «Hud- lIeJ/CGU{Y1O J""pGey 'lUHumM. TeM caMhlM, nOllTBCp}l(lla.naCb 06rnaH no,UcynHocTb HaXOIUllliHXCSI H8 «ne'lHbIX KBapTl1pax» COJJJJ.aT Ii o(}>Huepoo nOJlKOBblM KpHrcpeXTaM. OxapaKrepH30BaHHOe YCl-aHOBJIeHHe 6bUIO napaJIJleJlbHO npOnl1C3HO 11 B CT. II 3aKOHa «0 JJ;OJDKHOCTI1 nOJIKOBHHKa». B TOH }({e CT. II 38.KOHa 3aKOHOllaTeJ1b 1l0n0J1HIfJ"eJ1bHO n05lCHI1J1, "I.TO 3a npeCTyfLIIeHI1}1, COBeprneHHbie B OTHOrneHl111 rp<UK1l.8HCKI1X JII1U, BoeHHOCJ1)1)1<aWl1e HeCJ111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B COOTBeTCTBItI1 C HOpMaMI1 ApTI1K)'JIa BOI1HCKOro 1714 r. 11 YJ10}f(eHI1S1 1649 r. npl1 3TOM, B OTJIl1'me OT «nJIaKara», B 3aKOHe «O.aOJ1}f(HOCTI1 nOJ1KOBHI1Ka» 3H8"1.I1TeJ1bHoe BHI1MaHl1e 6bUlO y.aeJTeHO Ka3}lCaM. Kor.aa BoeHHocJT}')Kal1l.l1l1 OKa3blBaJlCSI norepneBWI1M. B TaKOBOM CJ1Y 1 me. eCJ111 06BJ.'lHeHl1e BblllBl1raJIOCb npo- TI1B KPeCTb5lHI1H8. TO, COrJI8CHO CT. 12 «1l0J])KHOCTI1». KaK pm 11 06pa3oBblBaJIOCb CMern8HHoe BoeHHO-rp<UK1l.8HCKOe cyne6Hoe npl1cyrcTBl1e: B COCTaB nOJ1KOBOro Kpl1rcpeXTa BKJlJOlJaJ1C5I 3eM- CKI1I1 KOMI1CCap cOOTBeTClByJOll.lero nOJ1KOBoro llI1cTpI1KTa. ECJ111 B cOBeprneHHoM npOTI1B BOeHHOCJlY)I(alUero npecTyl1JleHl111 06- BI1HWlCH nOMeIl.lI1K. TO B COCTaB Kpl1rcpeXTa, HapMY C 3eMCKi1M KOMI1CCapOM, nOnOJ1HI1TeJlbHO BXomU1I1 Ol1l1H lUJl1 HBoe MeCTI-lblX HBOp5lH. B TOM }f(e CJ1Y'ofae. Kor.aa pe'lb lWI8 06 oc060 HI}f(KOM NQ 4  5cjlf7i:DorpJ':1aa1:: KaTIl» 11 ..DCI1D!J-iOI..IH», KaCaBWIr«:R (]:JI1HaHCOlJbIX 11 nOJ1l1ueicKJtx oonpo- COB, CM. B OTMe'[eHHOM MOI-IOJ])a411111 E R AHitCIIIIIOBa 191;2 r. B IICTOpHKO- npaooBOM mrrep:rrype HaJBaHHb]e «flr[ 11 ..lJ.on;trnOCTh HaIII6a1Jee nO.1lpOOHo oxapa,,-Tept130fIaJI M. n. POJeHreHM (AHUCu..U06 £. B. nOliaTHIDI pe4x:!pMa nerpa I. c. 240-243, 248-249. 151-253; PoJ€Jf..eiIM M. n YKa3. CO'I. C. 194-191;). DOCJUHHO Y1llIBIICHI1H. 'ITO D3HHb!C 3aKOH()J};Jfe'lbHb]e aKTb! OKa3aJll1Cb HI1 CJlOOO1 He ynOM.IIH)'Tb[ II 06wl1pHOH rnaBe DI1CcepraUHI1 M. O. AKI1Wl1Ha «PetMa BOeHHOro cY1lO)CTpOIicrna 11 cynonpoll3FKU1CllJa" (CM.: AKuuuuI M 0. CYllc6HIDI peq,opMa ncrpa I: Dl1c. no C. 13-8]). 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 289 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. npecryJUleHI1I1, TO neJ10 no 06BHHeHI1IO nOMeI.l.lHK8. CJ1e.IlOBaJlO HanpallJHlTb II HMHOpHbli1 cyn. B CJ1Y4ae. eCJ111 B npecrynJ1eHI1I1 npoTHB BOeHHOCJT)')K3wero 06I1HHSIJICH ropQ)l(3HHH, TO, no CT. 13 IaKOHa «0 nQrut.HOCTH nOJIKOBHI1K8.». COCT8B CMernaHHOfO lIoeHHo-rpa)l(.ll8HCKOfO cy- ne6Horo npHcyrCTIIHH $:>pMHPOBaJlCH 113 HeCKOJIbKHX o<]>HUepOII nOJIKa 11 nsyx npellCTaBHTeJlei1 «,cJenymam06») OT ropmKaH. Ha- KmreU. CTOIIT OTMeTI1Tb, '1TO, no CT. 17 x3paKrepl13yeMofo 33- KOH3. IOpHCn:HKUH.II KpHfcpeXTa nOJlK3. LlHCJlOUl1pOOaHHOfO H3 «Be'lHblX KB3PTHP3X», 6bUla pacnpocTp3HeHa Ha 3anepiKaHHbIX H3 TepplffOpHI1 nOJ1KOBOfO D.I1Clpl1KTa BOpoB H pa36oHHHKOB H3 '1HCJIa neJepTHpoB. np3Bn.a, comaCHO TOf1 >Ke CT. 17 33KOHa «0 nOJ1>KHOCTH n0J1KOIIHHK3», npHfOnopbl no TaKHM LleJlaM CJle- nOBaJlo OTCbUIaTb Ha ymep.lK1leHl1e B BoeHHYIO KOJlJIefl1lO. A BOT «06bl'lHbIX» BOpoB H pa360i-iHI1KOII, 3anepiKaHHbIX CI1J18MI1 BoeHHOCJ1y)({3WHX nOJlKa, HawTe>KaJIO. no CT. 18 JaKOH3. nepen:3113Tb II «YKQ3Hble .lfOCma. (TO eCTb II cynbl 06wef1 IOpHC- LlI1Kl.ll1H). Bnpo4eM. BBeneHHb]e 3aKOHOM OT 6 HO.ll6pH 1724 r. CMelllaHHble BoeHHO-fp3.1KIJ.8HCKHe CYLle6Hbie npl1cyrCTBHfl npo- cyweCTBOBaJll1 He.llOJ1fO. OnblT C p33Mel.l.leHl1eM nOJ1KOB no ne- peBwIM OK33aJ1Cfl npOllaJIbHblM, H }'}Ke II 1727 r. pOCCHi1CKlliI ap- MH.II BHOBb pa3MeCHIJI3Cb f3pHI130HaMI1 no fOpO,!J;3M. HeJ1b3fl He YOOMHl-I)'Tb, 'ITO II 1723 r. npOH30llUIO HeKOTopoe COKpallleHHe IOpHC,!J;I1KUHI1 lloeHHb]X cynoB. ComaCHO p<lcnop.ll- >KeHHH BoeHHof1 KOJUlen'IH OT 30 HOH6pH 1723 f., l1]-no,!J; nOll- cy.aHOCTH KpHrcpexrOB 6bUTH H31>HTbl lleJIa no 06I1HHeHHflM 110- eHHOCJIYA<aUUIX, YIIOJleHHblX II OTCTIlIIK)'I. OcraeTCfl n06aBHTb, '1TO BOeHHblM cy.aaM 6bUlO YLleJ1eHO CpaBHHTeJ1bHO HeMHOfO BHHM3HIm: B npoeKTe YJ10)({eHl1fl PocCHiicKOfO fOcynapcTBa 1723-1726 fr. HaH60Jlee 06wee 3aKOHOJT,aTeJlbHOe npen:n0J10)({eHl1e, K8.- callweeCH ooeHHblX cynoB, 6bUlO nHeceHO II yrBep./KlleHHytO YJ10- >KeHHOH KOMI1CCl1ei1 30 ceHTH6pH 1723 r. CT. 13 fJ1. 2-i1 KH. I npoeKTa YJ10)({eHIDL CamacHo CT. 13. 03ar.rumneHHOH <,0 6OeH/HJblX, ziJe OHblfI cyiJu",bl6blmb Wte, CTpoeBble BoeHHoCJIy)({3WHe ap- MHI1 H 4mOTa HaXODJ.UII1Cb B HCKJlIOl(I1TeJ1bHOH nOllcy.aHOCH1 BO- eHHblX cynoll. KpOMe TOfO. B 3aKOHOD.aTeJlbHOM npellnOJlO)({eHI1I1, IIHeceHHOM II CT. 20 fJ1. 2-f1 npoeKTa, oc060 OfOBapHBaJlOCb, 'ITO nOli IOpHCD.HKUHIO BoeHHblX Cy.aOB non8.IJaJ111 6efJ1ble COJJllaTbl 11 MaTpOCb], a Ta JOKe 6erJ1ble peKpyTbl!. I no.moe c06paHl1e JaKOHOB. T. 7. NQ 4375. C. 166-167. !PfADA, 41. 342, KH. 33. 'J. I.n. 26 06.. 29lnptlJlrut<eHl1e VI. 
290 CY.QEE.HAA PEOOPMA nETPA I  3. nD.QCCTeMa I.IePKOBHblX CY,QOB B 1721-1723 rr. LlepKoBHafllOpMC.QMKLlHR no lWXOBHOMY pemaMeHty 1721 r. rlepexo)J.H K paccMoTpeHtIlO BOnpoca 0 CYJJJ;eCTBoBaBWI1X B muuei1 crpaHe ewe c XI B. uepKoBHblX cyn.ax.. cpa3y }Ke Heo6- XO.D.HMO oTMeTHTb, 'ITO Hal16oJ1ee 3Ha'lHTeJIbHble nepeMeHhl B I1X YCTpoiicTBe Ja 1717-1723 fr. OKa3aJlHCb CB5I3aHbl C OCHOBam:leM CBHTeHlllerO npamneJlbCTBYlOwero CHHOlla, CTaBUJHM DblClllHM opraHOM uepKOBHOH BJTaCTH POCCH" .no 1918 r. CBrreHwHH CHHO.n 6bUi Y4pe)I(AeH 14 <l:>eIJPaJI.II 1721 r. BMeCTO C03)J;aHHOH 25 JlHBapJl 1721 r.l{}"'I:OBHOH KOJ1J1enll1. KaK IHBeCTHO, Y4pe)l(- neHHe CHHolla - 03H8'laBWee l1HKBltIDlUl-II0 B HaWe" cTpaHe J..IHCTHT)'Ta naTpl1apwecTBa (1-1, TeM CaMb]M, de jure nOll'lHHeHl1e uepKBH caMo.n.epiKaBHoMY rocynapcTBY) - HBI1JIOCb KJlJOtlCBblM 3J1eMemOM uep KoBHoH pe$:JpMbI neTpa (I. ] I1L"TOpHj.J UepMIIJHOH pe4JopMb] nepBoi1 'Jf:"J'BejJI'K XVIII B. - K I1C- CJ1e.nOlJaHHIO KOTopoH BnepBb[e 06paTI1J1CH B 184O-e rr. fO. <1'1. CaMa- pHH - OKa3"UIDCb 113Y']eHa K HaCTO.IIllleMY BpeMeHI1 eJlBa nl1 He Hal160J1ee no.apo6HO 113 Bcex ncrpOBCKI1X npe06paJOBaHI1i1. 1a.ecb, HapHllY c nOHb[- HC coxpuHI1BlllCi1 Ha)"IHYJO UCHHOCTb D.ltCCC)JfaUHOHHOH MOHOJJjUl!mci1 to.<1'I. UMapl1Ha 1844 r., CTOI1T Hd.IBJJb.. B nepll}ftO 04epe.nb. 4J}'H.!lJMCH- TaJlbHb[e Tpyllbl C. f. PyHKeBH'Ia. J])K. KJDkJ"I4mi 11 OCo6eHHO n. R Bep- XOBCKOro (CflMapUH 10. (j). CTe<j:JaH $JBopcKI1H 11 cDeo<j:JaH npoKOnOBI1'1 II CaM'l(JIIH to. <1'1. Co'II1HeHI1H. M., 1880. T. 5; PyHKe8U'I C. F. Y'lpejf(j}eHl1e 11 nepBOH3'JaJlbHoe YC'J1>OHCTBO Cmrreiiwero npaBHTeJJbCTlI}flOwero CHHO- na (1721-1725 rr). cn6.. 1900; BeP'«)(I(KoU n B. Y4pejf(j}eHl1e RHOH KOJ1J1erl1l1 11 1Iyu!BHbli1 penaMeHT K Bonpocy 06 OTHOWeHl111 UepKBI1 11 rocynapCTlkl B PacCl111 I1cCJJe.nosaHl1e B 06JJacTI1 )JVCCKoro uepKoBHoro npaBa. POCTOB H/D... 1916. T. 1-2; Cracraft J. The Church Reform of Peter the Greal. London. 1971) 113 paw nOCJlenHI1X .neCmltJlemH JaCJ1}'"JKI1BaIOT ynoMI1HaHI1.11: J#1tram R. Op. ell. Bd. 1. P. 170-118; AI-IUCU,II06 E. B. Bpe- M.II neTpoBCKHx pe4x:!pM c. 330-351; KIOOHiJpoflo B. M, HtJ8tit.{KOfl T. E., Tum06 H. 10 3aKOHo.naTeJlbCTBO 0 npaROROM n0J10)l(eHI1I1 uepKBH II 3a- KOHQD.aT'eJlbCTIJO ne-rpa I. c. 516-534. HUf{/Ies L Op. C]t. P. 331-356; J]po- 6UHa M. r npaBOBO n0J10JKeHI1e rnccKoi1 npaBOCJ1aBHOH uepKlJ11 B nepl1011 npoBe.neHI1.11 lJept<OBHOH pe$op\!bl nerpa I hfl.IOpI1KO-l1)JaBOOOIi acneKT) ABTOpe4>. nHC. ... KaHD.. tOpl1n. HaYK. I(pacHo.nap. 1005; >KtiHofl B. M. 113 lJepKOBHOH I1CTOpl111 BpeMeH ncrpa BeJ\I1KOro: IIccnenoBdHI1H 11 MaTCpIill- Jib]. M.. 100.t 0 pa3BI1TI1I1 OJ4eCTBeHHOJO ue(»'OOHoro cy1J()yCTpOt'x;ma 11 cy.nonp0I13BQD.CTIJa IJ neplJoi1 'Jereepnt XYlIIIJ eM.: llllumpuee QJ. M YKa3. C04. C 465-474. 8epJ..00a<.oii n. B. YKa3. C04. T. I. C. 537-543; £4;pe- .MOOG H. H. Cynoyc1JJOHcrBO POCCIIII1... C. 68-74, KymwpuH O. E., J/e6e- tJee B. M., Ce.HUlUH F. 10. YKaJ. CO'I. T. 2. C. 464-472. J/aHCKGfI C. B. YKa3. CO'1. C. 16-18. 
f nasa 5. PeqJopMa clilcreMbl Cne41i1aJllil31i1poOOHHbiX CYAOB 291 POCCIiIIiI B 1717-1723 IT. IOPI1CllI1KUl1o.HHb]e nOJlHo.Mo.'-Il151 CI1HOllli 11 ero CTaT)'c KaK o.praHa npaBOcyD.l1S1 6blJII1 nepBOH8'1aJlbHo. 3aJq)efUleHbl B ymep}f(!leHHo.M 25 51HBap51 1721 r. DyxoBHo.M perJlaMeHTe. co.- CTaBJIeHHo.M (KaK y6emneJ1bHo. nOianarJ erne n. B. BepXo.BCKo.H) <1>ea<paHaM npOKano.Bl1'1eM - npl1 aKI11BHo.M Y'-lacTI1I1 uap5l. llo.CTaHHo.yno.MI1HaH(1S1.. 'ITa BCT. 5 116 'I. I-H PerJlaMeHTa 6b]JTI1 BHeceHbl Teo.peT(1'1eCK(1e pacC}')I(.QeHI1S1.. B KaTapb]X JJ;aKa3bIBa- l10Cb npe(1MYll.{eCTBa KaJIJlernaJIbHo.ro o.TnpaBJIeHH5I npaBOcymrn nepell ellMHo.JII1'1HbIM. B CT. 5 pa3BepHyrO 0.6OCHOBbIBaJlC5I o.nT(1- MI1CTH'IeCKHH Te3HC 0. TaM. 'ITa B «KOil.ile2UYMf?» <me o6pemaem- CR Mecmo npucmpocmwo, KOeOpCI1l6y, JlU.TOUMIIOJl!y C'" B CBalO o.'lepellb, B CT. 6 no.ll'lepK(1BarJo.Cb, 'ITa «KO/1J/e2uYM c..oo6oiJlieUWUU oyx e ce6e 'Lweem K npaeocyOUIO», no.CKaJTbK)' «eiJuHOAU'IlIbIU npa- eumelb 2Heeo CU;1I1b/X 6oumcfl». a BOT o.Ka3bIBaTb JJ;aBJIeHHe H8 rpynny cyJJ;eH «lie maKO Jy\J6HO ecmb, RKO lIa eiJuHoco lie 106eKa»l. C06CTBeHHo. Ho.PMb]. B KOTOpblX o.npe.neJISIIIHCbC<Pepa IOpI1C- 11I1KUI1H, a Tal0Ke no.IIo.)f(eHl1e D.yxo.BHo.(1 KOJIJler(111 B C(1CTeMe o.p- faHo.B uepKOBHo.ro npaoocym.JSI. 3aKOHo.llaTeJIb no.MeCTHJI, npe)f(1le BCero, B CT. 5 118-11 'I. 3-(1 DyxaBHo.ro perJl8MCHT8. B CT. 5 pelJb lWI80. no.llCYJJ;Ho.CTM KaJ1I1emH CTap006pmlUeB ("'f1l1CKOJ/UK06'» H epemKaB «<Hoeo.?o HeKoe20 Y'leHUll u306pemamewi'p). B CT. 8 'I. 3-i1 3a DyxaBHo.H KOl1JTerl1ei1 B 0.6weM Bl.J1le 3aKpefUlSlJ1o.Cb no.- Jlo.)f(eHl1e cYJJ;a BTaporo 3BeHa 11 aneJU1.11I.{Ho.HHOH HHCT8HI.{H11 no. OTHo.WeHHIO K o.praHY enapX(1aJlbHo.rO ynpaBJIeHI151 (K «cyay enu- CKona»). B TOif >Ke CT. 8 o.roBapm:JaJ1o.cb. 'ITa ll)'Xo.BHo.if K0JU1erJ.J11 HallJIe)f(8J[o. pacCMaTpHBaTb no. nepBO(1 I1HCTaHUJ.JH, Ba-nepBbIX, JJ;eJT8 no. «o6ui)a,,& (MaTepJ.JarIbHo.MY 11 Mo.PaJIbHo.MY yrnep6y), Ha- HeceHHblM enHCKOno.M JlI.J6a BCeMY KJlHPy UepKI3I.J. 1IH6a BceMY Mo.H8CTbIPIO. a BO-BTapbIX, lleJIa a KaH<tJJ1(1Ja8X Me>K.UY C8M(1MH enapX(1aJ]bHbIMI1 apXMepe5lM(1 «<06uw. ciJeJ/aHHble enuCKony om apyClM'J enucKonai». KpoMe Taro, nOJ1o.)f(eHl1e llyXOBHOH KOJU1erI1H KaK eyna BTOporo 3BeH8 11 aneJU151UJ.Jo.HHo.ifI1HCT8HW1i1 no. o.THo.WeHI1JO K eyn.y o.praHa enapXMMbHo.ro YnpaBJIeHH5I - 6oJ1ee pa3BepHyrO, He':+::eJlH B CT. 8 'I. 3-i1 - 3aKpefUlSIJIOCb B CT. 14 pa311eJI8 «KOKO 3ICe il)"m'Ie JIO,)/(em 6b1mb cue {enucKoncKoe/ noceeHue {enapxuuJ» 'I. 2-i111yXOBHo.fO pemaMeHTa. B Ha3BaHHo.H CTaTbe o.fOBapl1Ba- JlOCb npaBa JlI06blX npellcT8BHTeJleH n.yxaBeHCTBa, He ynORJlerBa- peHHblX BblHec eHHblM enl1CKOno.M npHroBOpoM HJlI1 peWeHl1eM. 13aKOHQD;JJeJIbCTBO ncrpa I. c. 544-545. 
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