Текст
                    Е.Б. Наречная
Г.В. Шевцова
Л.Е. Москалец
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ НАПРАВЛЕНИЙ
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ФГБОУ ВПО "Государственный университет управления» в качестве учебника для студентов высших учебных заведений, обучающихся по укрупненной группе направлений «Экономика и управление» (квалификация (степень) "бакалавр»)
Регистрационный номер рецензий Ns 100 от 11 03 2013 ФГАУ «ФИРО»

Е.Б. Наречная Г.В. Шевцова Л.Е. Москалец АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ НАПРАВЛЕНИЙ Рекомендовано ФГБОУ ВПО "Государственный университет управления» в качестве учебника для студентов высших учебных заведений, обучающихся по укрупненной группе направлений «Экономика и управление» (квалификация (степень) "бакалавр») Регистрационный номер рецензий Ns 100 от 11 03 2013 ФГАУ «ФИРО»
УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81_2.Англ.я73 нзо Рецензенты: В.Е. Сумина, лиц , канд. псд наук, И.А. Черкасс, доц , канд филол наук Нарочная Е.Б. НЗО Английский язык для технических направлений : учебник / Е Б. Нарочная, Г. В Шевцова, Л.Е. Москалец — М. КНОРУС.2015 — 400 с.— (Бакалавриат). ISBN 978-5-406-02448-5 На базе текстов социально-культурного, научно-популярного и обшспрофсс-сионального характера, современных по языку изложения и по содержащейся в них информации, а также разнообразных по стилю, создана основа для формирования коммуникативной компетенции студентов (навыков говорения, чтения, перевода и письма) Позволяет подготовить студентов к чтению страноведческой и профориентированной научно-технической литературы и публицистики для извлечения информации, реферирования, дальнейшего обсуждения Отдельное внимание уделяется отработке фонетических навыков, усвоению и расширению лексического минимума, повторению грамматики на новом языковом материале и с учетом особенностей научно-технического стиля речи. Соответствует действующему Федеральному государственному образовательному стандарту высшего образования нового поколения. Для студентов бакалавриата технических университетов и институтов всех специальностей, изу чавших английский язык в средней сико ie УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.2Англ.я73 Нарочная Елена Борисовна Шевцова Галина Васильевна Москалец Лариса Евгеньевна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ НАПРАВЛЕНИЙ Сертификат соответствия Ns РОСС RL) AE5I Н 16509 от 18 06 2013 Изд Ns 3230 Формат60x90/16 Подписано в печать 17 06 2014 Гарнитура "NewtonC" Печать офсетная. Уел печ л 25.0 Уч-изд л 16.93 Тираж |000экз Заказ Ns ООО «Издательство «К но Рус» 117218. г Москва, ул Кедрова, д 14. корп 2 Тел 8^495-741-46-28. E-mail ofiice@knorus ni http //www.knorus ni Отпечатано в ОАО «ИПК "Чувашия”*. 428019. г Чебоксары, проеп И Яковлева, д 13- 1SBN 978-5-406-02448-5 © Нарочная Е Б., Шевцова Г. В , Москалец Л.Е ,2015 © ООО «Издательство «КноРус» 2015
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ Предисловие 11 PARTI Unit 1 15 А................................................................ 15 Pre-text exercises . . .15 Word building....... . 16 Active vocabulary. ... .17 Text 1 A. Engbsh Worldwide. 18 Text and vocabulary exercises 20 В . . . . .... . . 21 Pre-text exercises............................................. 21 Text 1B. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 22 Text and vocabulary exercises .... 24 C................................................................ 26 Pre-text exercises............................................. 26 Text IC The United States of America . 27 Text and vocabulary exercises..... 28 Grammar review........ 30 Tobe. . 30 Speaking practice . 39 Writing practice . . 40 Project box. . 40 Unit 2 ... . 41 A ............................................................... 41 Pre-text exercises . . 41 Word building....... 42 Active vocabulary..... .43 Text 2A. Britain and the British . . 44 Text and vocabulary exercises ... 46 В........................................................... . 47 Pre-text exercises. . 47 Text 2B America and the Americans 49 Text and vocabulary exercises . . 50 C 51 Pre-text exercises............................................. 51
Text 2С Travel and Business Etiquette (Do's and Don’ts) . . 52 Text and vocabulary exercises .... . 54 Grammar review................................................... 57 Прилагательное и наречие. . . 57 Наречие (The Adverb). ... 59 Speaking practice ... 64 Writing practice .... 65 Project box. . 67 Unit 3 68 A................................................................ 68 Pre-text exercises . . 68 Word building....... 69 Active vocabulary.............................................. 71 Text ЗА. Engineering Education in the UK ... 72 Text and vocabulary exercises.................................. 73 В................................................................ 75 Pre-text exercises... 75 Text 3B Engineering Education in the USA 77 Text and vocabulary exercises 78 C................................................................ 79 Pre-text exercises............................................. 79 Text 3C. Technical and Engineering Education m the Russian Federation.................. . . ... 80 Text and vocabulary exercises .... 81 US-style Entrance Exam Takes Hold in Russia. 83 Grammar review . . 84 Speaking practice ... 91 Writing practice 92 Татьянин день ... 92 Project box. 92 Unit 4 . . 93 A 93 Pre-text exercises . . 93 Word building . ... 94 Active vocabulary .... 95 Text 4A. What Is an Engineer? . 96 Text and vocabulary exercises 98 В ................................................................ 100 Pre-text exercises.... ... 100 Text 4B Why Become an Engineer 100 Text and vocabulary exercises................................... 102
С................................................................. 103 Pre-text exercises. . . 103 Text 4C Qualities of a Competent Engineer 104 Text and vocabulary exercises . . ...................... IOS Grammar review.............................................. 108 Образование и употребление Present, Past и Future Perfect в действительном залоге (Active Voice) .... .... 108 Модальные глаголы. . . 114 Speaking practice........ 118 Writing practice . . 119 Project box. 119 Unit 5 121 A 121 Pre-text exercises . . 121 Word building . ... 122 Active vocabulaiy. . . ..... 123 Text SA. Engineering in Ancient Era. 125 Text and vocabulary exercises 126 В 128 Pre-text exercises........ 128 Text5B Advent of Electricity 129 Text and vocabulary exercises 130 C................................................................. 132 Pre-text exercises........ 132 Text 5C. Modern Engineering ... 132 Text and vocabulary exercises . . 134 Grammar review........................ 137 Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) . 137 Metre and the Metric System ... 142 Парные союзы................... 143 Парные прилагательные . 144 Speaking practice........ 146 Writing practice . . 147 Project box. . . 148 Unit 6 149 A 149 Pre-text exercises . . 149 Word building . ... 150 Active vocabulaiy.............................. 151 Text 6A. Alfred Nobel and the Invention of Dynamite 153 Text and vocabulary exercises................................... 154
В ............................................................... 156 Pre-text exercises. . 156 Text 6B. Steam Engine and James Watt . 157 Text and vocabulary exercises .... 158 C................................................................ 160 Pre-text exercises. . . .................... 160 Text 6 C Lise Meitner and the Discovety of Nuclear Fission. . 161 Text and vocabulary exercises ... 162 A Market for Ideas....... 164 Asia Innovation Awards. . 164 Grammar review................................................. 165 Страдательный залог с модальными глаголами 165 Speaking practice ... .... 170 Writing practice . 172 Project box. . ... 173 PART II Unit? ... 177 A . . . . .... 177 Pre-text exercises . . 177 Word building............... 178 Active vocabulaty........... 178 Text 7A. Our Planet — the Earth. . 181 Text and vocabulary exercises . . 182 В ............................................................... 184 Text 7B Environmental Problems of the Earth . . 184 Text and vocabulaty exercises . . .... 186 C ............................................................... 187 Text 7C. Industry and the Environment 188 Text and vocabulaty exercises....... 189 Litter bins for modern living - - . 191 A new approach ................................................ 191 Grammar review............. 192 Согласование времен. . 192 Speaking practice . . . 198 Writing practice .... 200 Project box. . 200 Unit 8 . 201 A................................................................ 201 Pre-text exercises . . . 201 Word building . . - 203 Active vocabulaty.............................................. 203
Text 8A. What is Energy? .... 204 Text and vocabulaiy exercises . . . 206 В................................. 207 Text 8B Energy Generation Technologies. 207 Text and vocabulaiy exercises..... 209 C................................................................. 210 TextSC Green Energy............ 210 Text and vocabulaiy exercises . . 211 Types of Energy.................................. .... 212 Tidal Power1—the Energy from the Sea.......... 212 Energy demand in developed and non-developed nations. . 214 World’s Largest Wind Farm....................................... 215 Grammar review.................................................... 215 The Infinitive....... 215 The Complex Object . . 219 The Complex Subject. . 222 Speaking practice . . . 224 Writing practice 224 Project box. . 225 Unit 9 226 A................................................................. 226 Pre-text exercises . . 226 Word building.... 229 Active vocabulaiy . . . 230 Text 9A. What Is Electricity9 . 231 Text and vocabulaiy exercises 232 В 234 Text 9B How Is Electricity Generated? . 234 Text and vocabulaiy exercises....... 236 Transformers 237 C................................................................. 238 Text 9C. Electric Motors . . 238 Text and vocabulaiy exercises . . 240 Electricity in American Household . 24] Grammar review 243 The Participle 243 The Nominative Absolute Participle Construction (Самостоятельным причастный оборот) . . 248 Speaking practice .... . . 250 Writing practice . . .251 Project box....................................................... 252
Unit 10 . . 253 A............................................................... 253 Pre-text exercises . . . 253 Word building . . . . 256 Active vocabulary . . 257 Text 10A. Transport............................................. 258 Text and vocabulary exercises . . 259 The Urban Transit Challenge . . 261 В . . . . .... 262 Text 10B. Construction . . . 262 Text and vocabulary exercises 264 Construction Jobs...... 266 C ......... ... 267 Text 10C. Machinery and Equipment . 268 Text and vocabulary exercises . . . 269 The Bearings.............. 270 Grammar review 272 The Gerund........ 272 Speaking practice . . . 276 Writing practice .... 276 Project box. . 277 Leaning / Tottering Buildings 277 Unit 1J 278 A............................................................... 278 Pre-text exercises . . 278 Word building.... 280 Active vocabulary . . 280 Text 11A. Computers .... 281 Text and vocabulary exercises 283 What Is Inside a Computer9 285 В .............................................................. 287 Text 1 IB. Ergonomics. . . . 287 Text and vocabulary exercises . 289 C........................... 292 Text 11C. Nanotechnology . . . . 292 Text and vocabulary exercises . . 294 Nanotechnology and Life Sciences . 295 Nanotech Application.......................................... 297 Grammar review ................................................. 300 Attributive Constructions. . 300 Speaking practice . . . 302 Writing practice .... 304 Project box..................................................... 304
Unit 12 305 A................................................................. 305 Pre-text exercises . . 305 Word building......... 306 Active vocabulary............................................... 306 Text 12A. Challenges for Engineering . 308 Text and vocabulary exercises .... 309 В ...................................... ... Ill Pre-text exercises.............................................. 311 Text I2B. Human Civilization in the Next Decade . 112 Text and vocabulary exercises................................... 313 C ................................................................ 114 Text 12C. Technologies of the 21 st Century 315 Text and vocabulary exercises . . 316 Grammar review.................................................... 318 лаголы should и would . .... .... 318 Сослагательное наклонение (Subjunctive Mood) . 319 Условные предложения.......................................... 320 Бессоюзное присоединение условных придаточных предложений ... ... 321 People of Tomorrow . 322 Speaking practice . . . 323 Writing practice . 324 Project box. . 327 Texts for supplementary reading . 328 Text 1. Canada . . 328 Text 2 Australia................................................ 329 Text 3 Holidays in Great Britain and the USA. 330 Text 4. A. The University of Cambridge ......................... 332 B. The University of California, Berkeley................. 333 C. The Bauman Moscow State Technical University. . 333 Text 5 Nature of the Engineers' Work............................ 335 Text 6 What Do Different Engineers Do? 335 Text 7. A. Engineering and Science . . 338 B. Engineering and Medicine 339 C. Engineering and Art.................................... 339 Text 8 The History of Mechanical Engineering . 340 Text 9 Ernest Rutherford 341 Text 10. Nikola Tesla . . 342 Text 11. Modern Inventions......... 344 Text 12. Environmental Engineering . 347 Text 13. Ecological Crisis. . . 348 Text 14. Ecological Problems of Russia.......................... 349
Text 15. Electric Power Generation 350 Text 16. Gas and Power Generation. . 351 Text 17. History of Electricity Use... ... 352 Text 18. More Facts about Electricity...................... 353 Text 19- Geographical Challenges Facing Urban Transportation 355 Text 20. Unique Construction Techniques.................... 356 Text 21. Mechanisms........................................ 357 Text 22. Early History of Computing . ... 358 Text 23. The Personal Nature of Ergonomics. . 360 Text 24. Nanotechnology...... 361 Text 25. Engineering Solutions.... 362 Text 26. Engineering Career Opportunities . 363 Gaines and other activities for fun . . 365 Приложение 1..................................................... 387 Справочник по английскому словообразованию (Word building)............................................ 387 Приложение 2................................................... 390 Реферирование иностранного текста. . 390 Аннотирование иностранного текста. . 391 Алгоритм аннотирования............ 391 Приложение 3 392 Таблица неправильных глаголов . 392 Библиография .................................................... 397
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Данный учебник предназначен для студентов технических университетов и институтов всех специальностей (уровень бакалавриата) 1—2 курса, изучавших английский язык в средней школе. По своим учебным целям и содержанию учебник соо1ветствует требованиям ФГОС третьего поколения в образовательной области «Иностранный язык». Примерной программы для технических вузов и факультетов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» (от 18.06.2009). Учебник рассчитан на 300 часов аудиторных занятий и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы студентов. Согласно требованиям Программы основной целью современного вузовского курса иностранного языка является повышение исходного уровня владения иностранным языком, достигнутого на предыдущей ступени образования, и овладение студентами необходимым и достаточным уровнем коммуникативной компетенции для решения социально-коммуникативных задач в бытовой, культурной, профессиональной и научной деятельности. Цель учебника — дальнейшее формирование коммуникативной компетенции студентов (навыков говорения, чтения, перевода и письма) не только в области профессиональной коммуникации, но и для бытовой и культурной деятельности. Для реализации этой цели в учебник включены тексты социальнокультурного, научно-популярного и обшепрофессионального характера. Все тексты современны по языку изложения и по содержащейся в них информации, а также разнообразны по стилю. Работа с текстовым материалом нацелена на подготовку студентов к чтению страноведческой, профориентированной научно-технической литературы и публицистики для извлечения информации, реферирования, дальнейшего обсуждения. Для развития полноценной языковой компетенции в учебник включены упражнения, ориентированные на отработку фонетических навыков. Лексический минимум, состоящий из бытовой, общенаучной и общетехнической лексики, имеющийся в каждом уроке, ориентирован на повышение эффективности общения в рамках заданной компетенции, профессионально ориентированной или бытовой. Учебник предусматривает повторение некоторых разделов грамматики на новом языковом материале и с учетом особенностей научно-тех
нического стиля речи. Значительная часть грамматического материала представлена в таблицах. Учебник состоит из двух частей (12 уроков), текстов для дополнительного чтения и трех приложений (справочника по английскому словообразованию, рекомендаций по составлению аннотации и реферата научного текста и таблицы неправильных глаголов). Первая часть учебника, состоящая из шести уроков, предназначена для изучения студентами на первом курсе. Тематика общеобразовательных и страноведческих текстов этой части пособия носит обучающий, развивающий и познавательный характер. Каждый урок представлен тремя разделами (А, В, С) и рассчитан на 10—12 учебных часов работы в аудитории и приблизительно 10—16 часов самостоятельной работы. Все разделы включают тексты схожей тематики, которые снабжены пояснениями сложных оборотов и реалий. Перед текстом дается активный словарь (Active Vocabulary). Предтекстовые и послетекстовые упражнения служат для расширения потенциального словаря (упражнения на узнавание и верную интерпретацию интернациональных слов, на развитие навыков работы с производными словами), усвоения лексического минимума урока, развития навыков монологической и диалогической речи. Предтекстовые упражнения также дают возможность ввести тему текста в общей дискуссии (Brainstorming), что стимулирует интерес студентов и подготавливает их для последующего восприятия информации. Послетекстовые упражнения представлены широко и разнообразно: вопросно-ответные упражнения, обобщение прочитанного текста по ключевым словам, речевым клише, плану; упражнения на извлечение информации из текста и др. Подобные упражнения направлены как на усвоение лексики, данной в текстах, так и на развитие навыков устной и письменной речи в пределах изученной тематики, что постепенно готовит студентов к написанию аннотаций и рефератов. В каждом уроке имеется грамматический раздел (Grammar Review), в котором предусмотрено повторение отдельных разделов грамматики с последующим закреплением грамматического материала. Работа с этим разделом может чередоваться или предварять работу с текстами. После этого раздела даются задания для развития навыков устной речи (Speaking Practice) по тематике урока. Упражнения здесь варьируются от вопросно-ответных (Information Gap Activities), составления диалогов по образцу до обсуждений и дискуссий, в которых основной акцент переносится на развитие неподготовленной речи, свободной беседы. Завершают уроки задания для самостоятель
ной аудиторной / внеаудиторной работы студентов (Supplementary Reading, Writing Practice), которые подразумевают последующий контроль / обсуждение. Весь цикл упражнений может варьироваться в зависимости от исходного уровня иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентов, так как задания даются с опорой на разнообразные образцы устной и письменной речи. В конце каждого урока имеется завершающий работу над тематикой и материалом урока этап (Project Box), предполагающий самостоятельный поиск информации, ее отбор и структурирование, а также презентацию в аудитории. Данный вид работы призван сформировать у студентов не только навыки самостоятельной работы, но и потребность ее обсуждения. Вторая часть учебника, состоящая также из шести уроков, рекомендуется для изучения студентами на втором курсе. Тематика текстов носит общенаучный и общепрофессиональный характер и охватывает основные направления развития современной технической науки (Industry and Ecology, Power and Electricity, Transport and Transportation, Mechanisms, Ergonomics, Computers and Nanotechnology, Challenges for Modern Engineering). Структура уроков повторяет структуру первой части с соответствующими уровню компетенции вариациями предтекстовых и послетекстовых заданий. Каждый урок представлен тремя разделами и рассчитан на 10 учебных часов работы в аудитории и приблизительно 10—16 часов самостоятельной работы. Информативный раздел для дополнительного чтения (Texts for Supplementary Reading) предназначен для самостоятельной работы студентов и содержит дополнительные тексты для каждого урока учебника. Эти тексты служат для закрепления навыков перевода общенаучной и технической литературы и расширения общего и профессионального кругозора студентов. Данный раздел также помогает индивидуализировать процесс обучения за счет включения текстов различной степени сложности и наличия выбора того или иного информативного материала (многие тексты сопровождаются вопросно-ответными упражнениями). Задания творческого характера (Games and Other Activities for Fun), представленные в конце учебника, помогают закрепить учебно-информационный материал в занимательной, игровой форме. Необходимо подчеркнуть, что данный учебник разработан таким образом, что преподаватели могут варьировать и модифицировать границы этапов обучения в зависимости от уровня языковой подготов
ленности студентов, уточнять требования к уровню сформированно-сти у них умений устного и письменного общения, конкретизировать тематику устных и письменных высказываний и сообщений, а также самостоятельно отбирать материал в соответствии со спецификой конкретной специальности. Авторы выражают надежду, что предложенный в учебнике алгоритм учебно-познавательной деятельности будет не только организовывать работу студентов, но и формировать интеллектуальные потребности студентов в процессе обучения. Авторы
PARTI UNIT 1 A Pre-text exercises 1. Look at the following international words, guess their meaning and check the pronunciation: empire, history, globe, colony, economic, political, cultural, industry, diplomacy, revolution, official, organization, status, business, aviation, population, climate, territory, million, energy, monarch, geography, nation, republic, tourism, ecology. 2. Pronunciation. There are many letters in English words that we do not read, for example know (паи], talk [to:k|, would [wvd]. Cress out such letters in these words, practise saying them: island often two Ireland foreign whole which high unique eight what although write listen work 3. Match the countries and nationalities, check their pronunciation and memorize them. Country England Germany France Spam Australia the USA Nationality Australian Spanish British European German Russian
Scotland Ireland Russia Britain Canada Europe Asia French American Canadian Scottish Irish Asian English 4. Here are some expressions with the verb to be. Read and learn them: to be afraid (of) to be rich (in) to be short (of) to be interested (in) to be proud (of) to be late (for) to be in need (of) to be famous (for) to be over to be different (from) to be similar (to) бояться (кого-л., чего-л.) быть богатым (чем-л.) испытывать нехватку (чего-л.) интересоваться (чем-л.) гордиться (чем-л.) опаздывать (куда-л.) нуждаться (в чем-л.) быть знаменитым (чем-л.) оканчиваться отличаться (от) быть похожим (на) 5. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. I. The English language is rich____borrowings from Latin, German, French and Scandinavian. 2. Many people in the world are interested__learning English. 3. There are a number of dialects in Great Britain that are different_ English. 4. Everybody knows that Bill is always short_money. 5. Practically all children are afraid_doctors. 6. Our teacher is never late_the lessons. 7. Every nation is proud___its country, language and culture. 8. He is___need_______money. Can you borrow him some? 9. Moscow is famous____its historical monuments 10. Holidays were___but they did not want to return to the town. 11. The results of his experiment are similai mine. Word building 6. Translate the following derivative adjectives: noun + -ic adjective
academy — academic, economy — economic, science — scientific, energy — energetic, hero — heroic, poet — poetic, drama — dramatic; noun + -al -* adjective culture — cultural, politics — political, continent — continental, finance — financial, nature — natural, education — educational, technology — technological. 7. A. Form adjectives using suffixes -ic, -of from these nouns. History, sympathy, climate, democracy, globe, nation, practice, environment, emotion. B. Complete the sentences with the adjectives formed from the nouns in Italics using suffixes -ic, -al. I. The climate ofthe USA is verydiverse. The____conditions vary greatly from place to place. 2. Shipbuilding is an important industry for the British economy. The crisis can cause significant___changes. 3. Constitution is the document about the fundamental political principles of the state. Britain is a_monarchy. 4. The UK is a parliamentary democracy and it has strong____traditions. 5. Engineering industry is an important sector of economy of any______ nation. 8. Brainstorming. A. What other words come to your mind when you think about the English language? International language Pop music B. Choose five words from the list that best describe the English language. Compare your list with a partner’s one. Discuss it. Active vocabulary 9. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: abroad — за рубежом island — остров agriculture — сельское хозяйство leading - главный, передовой
almost - почти to appear - появляться around - вокруг, кругом at least по крайней мере at present — в настоящее время belong to - принадлежать к century — век, столетие coal — уголь to consist of — состоять из to develop — развивать: development развитие during — во время, в течение education — образование to elect — избирать; elections - выборы executive исполнительный foreign — иностранный, зарубежный government правительство to include - включать independent независимый to influence влиять на: influence (up)on - влияние на... legislative — законодательный to make (a great) contribution to — вносить (большой) вклад в member — член native — родной, местный natural gas — природный газ nowadays — в настоящее время a number of — несколько, ряд oil — нефть opportunity возможность owing to — благодаря own — собственный power — власть, могущество; powerful — могущественный to provide — обеспечивать rapid — быстрый to reqnire — требовать; requirement — требование state — государство, штат; государственный to use — использовать; useful — полезный whole — весь, целый 10. Read the text and complete the following statements. This text is about... The main idea is (that)... The text also describes... TEXT 1A ENGLISH WORLDWIDE English is a West Germanic language, a part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages English appeared in England and south-eastern Scotland in the time of the Anglo-Saxons. Owing to the economic, political, military, scientific, cultural, and colonial influence of Great Britain and of the United States of America it is now the leading international language. British colonialism in the 19th century was one of the main causes for the spread of English throughout the world. From around 1750 to 1950 the British
Empire covered about a quarter of the globe. It was one of the most powerful empires in the world history. The colonies gradually became independent but about 50 countries chose to keep a connection with Britain and belong now to the British Commonwealth. English is a native or an official language in all the countries of the Commonwealth. The USA has also made great contribution to the English popularity. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century, America welcomed millions of European immigrants. This labour force strengthened American industries and development. The Hollywood film industry also attracted many foreign actors, and a lot of American films soon flooded the market. Before the Treaty of Versailles1 (1919), which ended the First World War between Germany and the Allies, the official language for diplomacy was French However, for President Wilson the Treaty was made in English as well. Since then, English is used in diplomacy and in economic relations and the media. During World War 11 and later on, the United States have consolidated their cultural, economical and technological power: inventions, rock and roll, the first man on the Moon, the revolution of the Internet have made English very important in the world today. English is an official language of the European Union, as well as many world organizations, including the United Nations Organization and the International Olympic Committee. English has official or special status in at least 75 countries with a total population of over two billion people. English is a native language for around 375 million people and is the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin Chineese2 and Spanish. The countries where people speak English as a native language are the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, Nigeria, Ireland. South Africa, and New Zealand. However, people who speak English as a second language (about 470 million) now outnumber those who speak it as a first language. Around 750 million people speak English as a foreign language. In addition, one third of the people in the world understand and speak English to some degree. Because so many people speak English, we can call it a “world language”, the lingua franca3 of the modern era. Books, magazines and newspapers in English are available in many countries around the world. English has become the most useful language to learn for international travel. It is also the dominant language in electronic communication (especially on the Internet), science, business, aviation, entertainment and radio. A working knowledge of English is a requirement in a number of fields, occupations and professions such as medicine, computing and engineering. Most European and Russian schoolchildren choose to learn English at school because they will need it for their further education and work.
Notes on the text 1 Treaty of Versailles— Версальский договор Мирный договор, завершивший Первую мировую войну Подписан 2S июня 1919 г державами-победительницами - Великобританией, США, Францией, Италией с одной стороны и Германией — с другой ' Mandarin Chinese — мандаринский диалект китайского языка. 1 The lingua franca — лингва-франка, язык межаународного общения Text and vocabulary exercises 11. Match the English words or equivalents on the right. 1. the leading international language 2. the main cause 3. throughout the world 4. world history 5. to flood the market 6. as well as 7. in addition 8. to some degree 9. a lot of phrases on the left with their Russian а) по всему миру b) также, как с) наводнить рынок d) главный международный язык е) к тому же О в некоторой степени g) главная причина h) множество i) мировая история 12. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: могущественная держава родной язык официальный язык доступный превосходить численно иностранный язык носитель языка современная эра практическое знание английского языка электронное общение 13. Choose the right answer. I. English lias become the leading international language owning to ... a) British colonialism b) its simple grammar c) great influence of GB and the USA 2. At the beginning of the 20th century the British Empire covered ... a) a quarter of the b) ha If of the globe c) the whole globe globe 3. The British Commonwealth consists of the UK and about.. a) 40 other countries b) 50 other count ties c) 60 other countries
4. English became the official language for diplomacy in .... a) 1819 b) 1918 c) 1919 5. Because so many people speak English, we can call it a ... a) popular language b) favourite language c) world language 14. Find the right English equivalents for the following Russian words. 1. мир а) would b) word c) world 2. с тех пор как а) since b) science C) still 3. никогда а) ever b) never C) whenever 4. жизнь а) life b) live C) alive 5. лучше а) bitter b) butter c) better 6. большинство а) most b) must c) mist 7. учить(ся) а) learnt b) learn C) lean 8. хотеть а) went b) won C) want 15. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. English is an East Germanic language 2. British Empire was one of the most powerful empires in the world history 3. Before the Treaty of Versailles the official language for diplomacy was Latin. 4. English is an official language of many world organizations, including the United Nations Organization and the International Olympic Committee. 5. English is the fourth largest language by number of native speakers. 6. People who speak English as a second language now outnumber those who speak it as a first language. 7. Half of the people in the world understand and speak English to some degree. В Pre-text exercises 16. Read the following in English: 1) numbers: 7, 12, 15, 20, 40, 80, 100, 123, 175, 1000, 1098, 1076, 1237, 2569, 5678, 7000, 10 000, 200 000, 345 456. 480 321, 2 570 000, 3 450 149; 2) dates: 1922,1954,1868,1456,1900,1905,2000,2010,1066,1600; 3) fractions: '/2, */„ >/4, ’/g, 5/7,7<„ 7A. 7io, 7.5, 3.8,0.2.
17. Study the following information. Then read and translate the sentences: in the North northern North South southern in the South I. Traditional American cuisine is very similar to several Western countries. 2. The eastern and northern regions are extremely cold in winter but are pleasant in summer. 3. British rule was established in West Africa, East Africa and South Africa. 4. It is cheaper to live in the south than in the north. 5. Canada occupies the northern part of North America from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west: to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. 18. Read the following text. What information is new for you? Exchange your opinions with a partner. TEXT 1B THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (sometimes just the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain) is an island country and it includes Great Britain, the northeastern part of the island of Ireland, and many small islands close to continental Europe. Great Britain is the name of the island which is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. The UK is surrounded by the Atlantic I Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea. As Britain is an island country, it has a | varied climate because of the seas around it. The I British never know what the weather will be like
from one day to the other. It can be sunny one day and rainy the next. It is difficult to predict the weather, but in general the LJK has warm summers and cool winters. The summers are cooler than those on the continent, but the winters are milder. Overall, the climate is temperate. The United Kingdom consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK also has 15 overseas territories that once were the part of the British Empire and now are the members of the Commonwealth. You can still observe British influence in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. Britain is one of the world’s smaller countries with an area of some 244 square kilometres, with some 60 million people it ranks 18th in the world in terms of1 population size. Almost one third of the population lives in England’s prosperous and fertile southeast with about 7.5 million in the capital of London, which re mains the largest city in Europe. The United Kingdom has the sixth largest economy in the world, is the second largest economy in the European Union and is a major international trading state. A highly developed, market-based economy provides most Brit -ish with a high standard of living. London is a leading international financial centre. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized and efficient by European standards: it produces about 60‘S of food needs with less than 2°t of the labour force. The UK has large coal, natural gas and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining nowadays and the UK became a net importer of energy2 in 2005 The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The UK does not have a President. Constitutionally the head of state is the monarch who is a hereditary member of the Royal Family. However, the monarch, at present Queen Elisabeth II, is the nominal head of the UK and of other Commonwealth countries. The monarch has very few formal powersand stays above party politics. So, in practice, the most important person in the British political system is the Prime Minister. The UK has a parliamentary government. Parliament of the United Kingdom that meets in the Palace of Westminster has two houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The UK’s head of government is Prime Minister, who is usually the current leader of the largest political party in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister chooses the members of the Cabinet in both legislative houses, mostly from the House of Commons. Executive power belongs to the Prime Minister and Cabinet, so the Prime Minister is the real head of the state. The UK’s three major
political parties are the Labour Party, the Conservative Party and the Liberal Democratic Party. Scotland, Walesand Northern Ireland now each have their own legislative and executive bodies that legislate and administer many matters, though they do not have wide ranging powers3. The UK is a Member State of the European Union, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the Commonwealth. G8, and the World Trade Organization. There is a wide mix of cultures in the UK. In London there are foreign communities from most parts of the world. British people are usually tolerant to foreigners, and respect the freedom to have different opinions and beliefs. People usually feel free to express their own opinions and wear what they want. British people have a strong sense of humour, but foreigners sometimes cannot understand their jokes. People often do not talk to strangers because the British are quite modest and reserved. Notes on the text 1 in terms of— исходя из, на основе. 1 net importer of energy— импортер энергии 3 wide ranging powers — широкие полномочия Text and vocabulary exercises 19. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. island country 2. overseas territories 3. former colonies 4. population size 5. highly developed f>. a high standard of living 7. overall 8. sense of humour 9. tolerant а) высокоразвитый b) численность населения с) чувство юмора d) зарубежные территории е) толерантный, терпимый f) высокий уровень жизни g) островное государство h) в общем i) бывшие колонии 20. Work in pairs and match the English abbreviations with their definitions and Russian equivalents. Try to memorize them. UK WTO World Trade Organization United Nations Organization Организация Объединенных Наций, ООН Великобритания
G8 North Atlantic Treaty Organization UNO United States NATO United Kingdom US United Nations Security Council UNSC European Union El Great Britain G8 Group of Eight Североатлантический союз. НАТО 'Большая восьмерка» (США, Великобритания, Канада, Франция, Германия, Италия, Япония, Россия) Соединенные Штаты Америки, США Европейский союз. ЕС Соединенное Королевство (Великобритании и Северной Ирландии) Всемирная торговая организация, ВТО Совет Безопасности ООН 21. Find in the text the right word to complete the sentences. 1. Great Britain consists of England,_and Wales. 2. The UK and its former colonies are the members of the__ 3. Britain is one of the world’s smaller countries and it_the 18th in terms of the population size. 4. London, the___of the UK, is the largest city in Europe. 5. __is highly mechanized and efficient by European standards. 6. Parliament of the UK has two__. 7. The Prime Minister is the head of the State. 8. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland now have their____legislative and executive bodies. 22. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. I. As Britain is an island country, it has a varied climate. 2. The British always know what the weather will be like. 3. Almost a half of the population lives in England’s prosperous southeast. 4. The monarch is the real head of the U K. 5. The Prime Minister chooses the members of the Cabinet mostly in the House of Lords. 6. There are three major political parties in the U K. 7. British people often talk to strangers.
с Pre-text exercises 23. “False friends’". There are many words in English that can mislead you when you translate them into Russian. For every wrong translation of a “false friend” find the correct English word and complete the following table. Consult the dictionary if necessary . “False friend” Correct translation Wrong translation English word family семья фамилия 9 palace дворец палас 9 magazine журнал магазин 9 original изначальный оригинальный 9 list список лист 9 box коробка, ящик бокс 9 24. Work in pairs and test your knowledge about the USA. Then read the text and check your answers. I. What are the two major political parties in the USA? a. The Republicans and the Democrats b. The Republicansand the Socialists. c. The Democrats and the Labour Party. d. The Conservatives and the Democrats 2. How many states are there in the US? a. 49. b. 50. c. 51. d. 52. 3. What American holiday is on the 4th of July? a. Thanksgiving Day. b. The Revolution. c. The Discovery of America. d. Independence Day. 4. In which year did the USA become independent from England? a. 1776. b. 1876. c. 1679. d. 1779
TEXT 1С THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA The United States of America occupies a large part of the North American continent, borders on Canada in the North and on Mexico in the South and has coasts on the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The State of Alaska, in the northwest corner of the con- tinent, is separated from the rest of the USA by Canada, and the Hawaiian Islands lie in the central Pacific Ocean. The USA is the third largest country in the world (after the Russian Federation and Canada) with an area of over 9 million square kilometres As the USA is so big, it has greatly diverse geography and climate which range from subtropical to arctic. The history of the USA began on the 4th of July 1776, when thirteen Eng- lish colonies decided to separate from the British Crown and have their own state. In 1783 the War of Independence ended in favour of the colonists. Nowadays in the USA there are 50 states and a federal district. This district is a special federal area. District of Columbia, where the capital of the country, Washington, is. The population of the country is about 250 million people. After World War II America became the most powerful nation of the world. There was steady growth in the US economy with low unemployment rate and inflation and rapid development of technol- ogy. Nowadays the USA has the most powerful econ- omy in the world both in terms of economy and technology. Many companies in the USA are ahead in technological development, especially in computers, aerospace, medicine, and in military equipments. Agriculture of the USA is wide spread and highly mechanized. Shipbuilding is developed along the Atlantic coast and in San Francisco on the Pacific coast. The USA is a federal republic. The President, elected for 4 years, is the head of the State and government. The legislative power belongs to the Congress which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Elections to the Congress are held every two years, when the whole House of Representatives and one third of the total number of senators are replaced. There are two major political parties in the US, the Democratic and the Republican. The United States has always welcomed more immigrants than any other country — more than 50 million in all — and still admits almost 700,000 peo-
pie a year. In the past many American writers described America as a big “melting pot”1, where immigrants from all over the world “melt” into Americans. But at present the idea of multiculturalism isvery popular in the United States. Multiculturalism means that people from different cultures, ethics and races are equal and they can keep their identities and language. It gives a sense of safety and confidence for immigrants and they can be more open to accept diverse cultures. There is a good job market for new graduates in the United States. Many companies in the United States are competing to hire new graduates. As a result, there are more opportunities for graduates from abroad. There is a large tourism industry in the US that provides millions of international and domestic tourists. The country is the homeland for natural wonders, historical landmarks, cities, and gambling spots Note on the text 1 melting pot — плавильный котел. Text and vocabulary exercises 25. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. the rest of 2. federal district 3. steady growth 4. unemployment rate 5. rapid development 6. be ahead in 7. equal 8. job market 9. a sense of safety and confidence а) быстрое развитие b) постоянный рост с) опережать, быть впереди других d) федеральный округ е) равный f) рынок труда g) уровень безработицы h) чувство безопасности и уверенности i) остальной 26. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: граничить отделиться от в год со всего мира конкурировать нанимать на работу сфера туризма чудеса природы исторические достопримечательности казино
27. Choose the right answer. 1. The United States of America occupies a large part of.... a) the North American continent b) the South American continent c) the whole American continent 2. As the USA is so big, it has greatly diverse... a) population b) geography and climate c) climate 3. The capital of the country, Washington, is situated in .... a) California b) Oregon c) District of Columbia 4. The head of the State and government is the President who is elected for.... a) 5 years b) 3 years c) 4 years 5. Multiculturalism means that people from different cultures and races are.... a) unequal b) equal e) too different 6. In the USA there are many opportunities for... a) workers b) students c) new graduates 28. Pie chart: US Immigration 2009. The pie chart shows countries of origin of legal migrants to the USA. Take it in turns with a partner to describe the chart. NOTE. There were a total of296.697 immigrants ad nutted to the US in fiscal year 1965 and 1,130,818 admitted in fiscal year 2009. “South America" includes Central America and the Carribean Source. “Yearbook of Immigration Statistics 2009", August 2010, U.S Department of Homeland Security and “Statistical Abstract of the United Stales 1966", July 1966. US Census Bureau
29. Retell the text according to the plan given below. 1. Geographical position of the USA. 2. Historical background of the USA. 3. Government. 4. Immigrants in the USA. GRAMMAR REVIEW To be Спряжение глагола to be (быть, находиться, существовать) в Present, Past и Future Simple Tense Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple I am he, she, it is we, you, they are 1, he, she, it was we, you, they were 1, he, she, it, we, you, they will be Сокращенные формы I + am — I’m we + are = we’re you + are = you’re you + are = you’re he + is = he’s she + is = she’s it + is = it’s they + are = they’re I + am + not = I’m not was + not = wasn’t w ill + not be = won’t be are + not = aren’t were + not = weren’t is + not = isn’t 30. Составьте утвердительные или отрицательные предложения. Используйт е ат / am not / is I isn't f are / aren’t. I. (Washington/the capital of France) Washington isn’t the capital of France. 2. (I / interested in computers) I’m interested tn computers. 3. (England / rich in mineral resources) 4. (Canada / one of the biggest countries in the worid) 5. (London / financial centre of Wales) 6. (I / fond of foreign languages) 7. (the USA / small country)
8. (English / popular all over the world) 9. (climate of the USA / temperate) 10. (Japanese / an easy language) 11. (New York / capita! of England) 12. (The Thames / in England) 31. Вставьте was / were или wasn't / weren't. I. English ... a language of the Anglo-Saxons. 2. In the past England ... rich in mineral resources. 3. Where ... you at 10 o’clock last Saturday morning? 4. This time last month I... at home 5. The Roman Empire ... a very powerful state of the past. 6. They... very tired yesterday. 7. ... they in England or Scotland two years ago? 8. Mr Smith ... not in his office yesterday. 9. The world’s first skyscraper... in Chicago. 10. Wales and Scotland ... independent until the 13th century. 32. Закончите предложения, вставив глагол to be в Present или Past Simple Tense. I. English ... an international language now, but many centuries ago it.. unpopular. 2. Last year I... 17, this year I ... 18 years old. 3. Now my friend ... a student, but last year he ... a pupil. 4. I... away on business now, but ten days ago I... in my native town. 5. Last time you ... right, but this time I... afraid you ... wrong 6. He ... in France last year, but this year he ... in his native village. 7. Yesterday the day... fine, now it... windy. 8. When I... a child, 1... fond of dogs. 9. We ... tired after the journey and we ... very hungry 10. You ... not at home yesterday. Where ... you? 33. Закончите предложения, используя to be в Future Simple. I. In 2050, robots... like people. 2. Winter Olympic Games... in Sochi in 2014 3. The train....in Madrid at 5 o’clock tomorrow afternoon. 4. Jack... probably... in Berlin in two days. 5. The exam tomorrow....difficult. 6. I hope the weather...nice tomorrow. 7. ... you ... at home this evening? 8. Tomorrow at 10 o’clock 1... probably... at work. 9. I think they.happy all their life 10. My speciality..electric engineering.
Конструкция There + Be (is, are, was, were, will be) There is only one political party in the country. В стране (есть, имеется) только одна политическая партия. There are a lot of languages in the world. В мире (есть, имеется) много языков. Обратите внимание на различие в значениях следующих двух типов предложений: There is a book on the table. — На столе лежит (какая-то) книга. The book Ison the table. — (Эта) книга лежит на столе. Отрицательные и вопросительные предложения формируются следующим образом; There isn't a swimming poo! in our school. В нашей школе нет бассейна There weren't students at the conference. На конференции не было студентов. Are there museums in your town? В твоем городе есть музеи? Will there be a new stadium in our town? В нашем городе будет новый стадион? 34. Вставьте глагол ta be в Present, Past или Future Simple и переведите на русский язык. 1. There... 500,000 words in the modern English language 2. There ... a good film on TV yesterday. 3. Linguists say that there ... 5—6 thousand languages in the world. 4. There ... numerous dialects of English. 5. How many states... there in the USA? 6. ... there any letters for me today? 7. There... over 3 million lakes in Alaska. 8. Excuse me,... there a hotel near here? 9. Do you think there ... a lot of people at the рапу next Saturday? 10. 1 was hungry but there... nothing to eat. 35. Прочитайте текст. Заполните пропуски нужной формой глагола to be. There .. more and more expatriates in the modern world. An expatriate... a person who ... a citizen of one country and works in another. For example, a Russian lives and works in America. For people who ... good at English it... not a problem. But people whose first language... not English can have many problems. It... important to learn English if you want to be successful in such spheres as computers and engineering. If there ... courses of Business English at your University, it...a good idea to attend the classes. Reading, writing and speaking English can help you start a career.
Спряжение глагола to have в Present, Past и Future Simple Tense Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple I, we, you, they have He, she, it has e разговорной речи: I, we, you, they have got He, she, it has got I, he, she, it, we, you, they had I, he, she, it, we, you, they will have 36. Закончите предложения, вставив глагол to have в нужной форме. 1. English ... about 615,000 non-technical words. 2. English speakers ... many different accents. 3. In 1930, Malta... three official languages: Italian, Maltese and English. 4. The UK... a temperate climate with much rain all year round 5. The UK (not) ... a written constitution. 6. Many areas, towns, cities and rivers in Canada... indigenous names. 7. The history of the USA... two distressing periods: Civil War and Great Depression. 8. All languages... a system of sounds, words and sentences. 9. Does the U К ... a lot of mineral resources? 10. Last year we ... close contacts with this university. Местоимения личные (кто, что?) притяжательные (чей?) в объектном падеже (кому, кого?) I — я ту — мой mine me — мне, меня you — ты your — твой yours you — тебе, тебя he — он his — его his him — ему, его she — она her — ее hers her — ее, ей it — он, она, оно its — его, ее its it — ему, его, ее, ей we — мы our — наш ours us— нам, нас you — вы your — ваш yours you — вам, вас they — они their — их theirs them — им, их Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений используется в тех случаях, когда после местоимения мы не употребляем существи- тельное. Сравните: Whose pen is it? It is my pen. It is mine. This is my book and that is yours.
37. Закончите предложения, вставив необходимые местоимения. 1. Who is that woman? Why are you looking at...? 2. I know this man,... work with .... 3. These photos are nice, look at.... 4. I like ...job. 5. Does your father like ... job? 6. Sally is married.... husband works in a bank. 7. This is not my umbrella.... is yellow. S. They know our address but we do not know . 9. We invited Ann to stay with ... at... house. 10. Do you know that man?—Yes,... know... but... don’t remember... name. Образование и употребление Present, Past и Future Simple в действительном залоге (Active Voice) Времена группы Simple обозначают действие обычное, закономерное, периодически повторяющееся, которое регулярно происходит, происходило или будет происходить в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем. Например: I get up at б o’clock every day. Я встаю в 6 каждый день. John played football yesterday. Джон играл в футбол вчера. We shall take an exam tomorrow. Завтра мы сдаем экзамен. Формы Simple употребляются также для выражения состояния, постоянного свойства объекта и констатации факта. Например: The Earth moves around the Sun. Земля вращается вокруг Солнца. Не likes tea with milk. Он любит чай с молоком. Mozart lived from 1756 to 1791. Моцарт жил с 1756 до 1791. Спряжение глагола to work в Present Simple Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма 1 work 1 do not / don’t work Do 1 work? Не works He does not / doesn’t work Does he work? She works She does not / doesn’t work Does she work? It works It does not / doesn’t work Does it work? We work We do not / don’t work Do we work? You work You do not / don’t work Do you work? They work They do not / don’t work Do they work?
Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые в Present Simple Everyday - ежедневно (every month, every year) Usually — обычно As a rule — как правило Always — всегда Seldom — редко Sometimes — иногда Often — часто Правописание: -es после -s / -ch / -sh: pass —► passes watch -> watches finish -> finishes; также: do * does go —> goes; carry —> carries study -> studies. 38. Закончите предложения, употребив глаголы в скобках в правильной форме. 1. English words__in many languages all over the world (appear). 2. English__to the western sub-branch of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages (belong). 3. My parents____in Rostov (live). 4. It__a lot in summer (not rain). 5. Traditional American cuisine___such ingredients as potatoes, meat (use). 6. Professional baseball_from 1869 (date). 7. People___various indoor and outdoor activities in Britain (enjoy). 8. In Britain the banks_at 9.30 tn the morning (open,. 9. The City Museum_____on Sundays (not wotk). 10. My car___much petrol (not use). 39. Ответьте на вопросы, используя структуры из таблицы ниже. I sometimes / often / usually go dancing on Saturdays. I play tennis once / twice / three times a week. I go to the library every ten days / every week. I. How often do you get up at 7 o’clock? 2. What do you usually have for breakfast? 3. How often do you talk to yourself? 4. Do you ever sing in the bathroom or shower9 5. How often do you cook? 6. Do you ever eat in bed? 7. How often do you go to the dentist? 8. How often do you go shopping? 9. How often do you meet your friends? 10. How often do you watch television in the evening?
Спряжение правильного глагола to work и неправильного to write в Past Simple Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма I worked / wrote I did not / didn’t work / write Did I work / write? He worked / wrote He did not / didn’t work / write Did he work / w rite? She worked / wrote She did not / didn’t work / write Did she work / write? It worked / wrote It did not / didn’t work / write Did it work / write? We worked / wrote We did not / didn’t work / write Did we work / write? You worked / wrote You did not / didn’t work / write Did you work / write? They worked /wrote They did not / didn’t work / write Did they work / write? Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые в Past Simple Yesterday — вчера Last week — на прошлой неделе Last year — в прошлом году The day before yesterday — позавчера Last month — в прошлом месяце Ago — тому назад Правописание: study -» studied stop -> stopped marry -» married plan —> planned 40. Напишите предложения в Past Simple, используя подходящие наречия (yesterday, last week, etc.). Model: Tom always goes to work on foot. Yesterday he went to work on foot. 1. At present English consists of500,000 words. In the past.... 2. Ann meets her friends every evening. She .... 3. I usually buy three newspapers every day. I.... 4. We usually go to the cinema on Saturday. 5. I often eat oranges. 6. Nick always has a shower in the morning.
7. Our friends come to see us every Sunday. 8. We usually go shopping on Monday. 9- The lessons begin at 8 o’clock every morning. 10. Students have exams every winter and summer. 41. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Simple. patron saint — святой покровитель persecution — преследование reward — награждать confess — признаваться convert — обратиться (в новую веру) execute — казнить Saint George (be) the patron saint ot England. Samt George’s Day (23 April) (be) a National Day in England. Saint George (live) in the third century. He (serve) as a soldier in the Roman Empire. He even (become) a member of the personal guard of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. In 303 the emperor (order) the persecution of Chr istians. George (criticize) Diocletian and (confess) that he (be) a Christian, too. Diocletian (get) angry and (execute) George on 23 April 303. Saint George (be) best known for killing a dragon. The legend (tell) that a fierce dragon (live) near a town Silene. Every day the people of Silene (give) the dragon a beautiful girl. One day there (be) no more young girls except for the princess. The people (decide) to give the princess to the dragon. But George (hurry) to help her. George (kill) the dragon and (save) the princess. The king and the people of the town (be) so happy that they (want) to reward George. George (ask) them to convert to Christianity and so they (do). Спряжение глагола to work в Future Simple Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма 1 shall work/ I’ll work 1 shall not / shan’t / work/ I’ll not work Shall 1 work? Will 1 work? He will work / he’ll work He will not work / won’t / he’ll not work Will he work? She will work / she’ll work She will not work / won’t / she’ll not work Will she work? It will work / it’ll work It will not work / won’t / it’ll not work Will it work? We shall work / we’ll work We shall not work / shan’t / work/we’ll not work Shall/will we work?
You will work / you’ll work You will not work / won’t / you’ll not work Will you work9 They will work / they’ll work They will not work / won’t / they’ll not work Will they work? В современном английском разговорном языке вспомогательный глагол will может употребляться с местоимениями 7 и we. Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые с Future Simple Tomorrow - завтра In 2 (3—4) days — через 2 (3—4) дня Next week — на следующей Next month — в следующем неделе месяце Next year — в следующем году 42. Вставьте will (’й) млн won't. Model: Don’t drink strong tea before you go to bed. You won’t sleep. 1. You do not work hard. You ... pass your exam. 2. If you do not go to bed now, you ... feel better in the morning. 3. Leave some bread under the tree. The birds... eat it. 4. That bag is too heavy. 1... help you with pleasure 5. The tea is too hot. Don’t drink it, you ... bum yourself. 6. I’m afraid, my friends ... come soon. 7. They... become engineers in a year. 8. We ... invite them to the theatre tomorrow. 9. She ... enjoy reading this book 10. 1... take part in sports events. 43. Вы согласны или не согласны со следующими утверждениями? Напишите предложения (они могут быть отрицательными пли утвердительными). In ten years’ time... 1. I will speak English very well. 2. I will live in the same city as I do now. 3. I will earn a lot of money. 4. People will use e-mail more than now. 5. Chinese will become the most important language 6. ... people will study with computers at home more than now. 7. ... people will have holidays in space. 8. ... robots will do all the housework. 9. I will be a President of our country. 44. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple.
London 2012and Sochi 2014: Some Factsand Figures When London officially (become) the Olympic city on August 24,2012, it (mark) the start of the Summer Olympiad. London (be) the first city to host Olympic Games three times. It (host) Olympics in 1908 and 1948 and (play) a great role in the development of the modern Olympic movement. In 2012, five million visitors (arrive) in London. London’s Olympic Park (be) in the East End. There (be) a lot of new facilities in East London. For example, there (be) a new 80,000-seat Olympic Stadium in the Olympic Park. It (host) opening and closing ceremonies. Experts (say) that 5,000 new homes (be) available there after the Olympics. When Sochi (become) the Olympic Games city in February 2014 it (be) the first time Russia (host) the Winter Olympics. The first Winter Olympic Games (start) in 1901 in Sweden Olympic sport facilities (be) in two places: the Olympic Park of Sochi and Krasnaya Polyana. A lot of volunteers (come) to Sochi and (work) during the Games. There (be) new hotels, business centres, concert halls and many other facilities 45. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about English-speaking countries (Texts 1,2). SPEAKING PRACTICE 46. A. These tables are based on Texts IB and 1C from this unit. With a partner ask and answer questions to fill in the missing information. Model: — What is the geographical position of the USA? — The USA occupies the largest part of the North American continent Student 1 The UK The USA 1. geographical position the largest part of the North American continent 2. climate temperate •> 3. capital city London •> 4. economy market-based, highly developed agriculture > 5. head of the State •> President 6. Parliament — what chambers? the House of Lords and the House of Commons •t
7. major political parties the Republican and the Democratic parties 8. immigration policy tolerant to foreigners •> Student 2 The UK The USA 1. geographical position an island close to continental Europe 9 2. climate 1 from subtropical to arctie 3. capital city о Washington 4. economy 0 technology-based, highly developed agriculture, shipbuilding 5. head of the State Monarch (formal). Prime Minister (real) > 6. Parliament — what chambers? ? the House of Representatives, the Senate 7. major political parties the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties •> 8. immigration policy multiculturalism is popular В. Use the questions in the tables above to prepare a short report about your country. Tell the class. WRITING PRACTICE 47. Write a paragraph about your country (use the short report from Ex. 46 as the basis). Describe its geographical position, population, climate, government, capital city, everyday life. PROJECT BOX 48. Consult the Internet and find information about any other English-speaking country (geographical position, climate, natural resources, government structure, economy, languages, and people). Tell the class about the country.
UNIT 2 A Pre-text exercises 1. Look at the following international words, guess their meaning and check the pronunciation. Culture, tradition, character, emotion, privacy, humour, punctuality, conservatism, university, nation, popular, colonization, immigration, social, potential, etiquette, phrase, effective, discipline, ethnic, music, religion, personal, situation. 2. Pronunciation: the letter a. A. Read these words. I act, travel, hand, land, family [re] 2. hardly, afternoon, rather, ask, garden [<i:] 3. stranger, famous, wait, day, name, shake [ei] 4. wall, talk, all |o:J B. Put these words in group 1. 2. 3 or 4. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Practise reading them. Start, after, take, say, always, nation, national, also, last, face, car, almost, market, back, way, party, native, behaviour, than- с. Special pronunciation. Practise the words. What, want, watch, was [n]; many, any, again, says [e|; about, America. England, another, across, among fa]. 3. Here are some examples with time prepositions. Read and learn them. at 10 o’clock 6.30 night, (the) moment, (the) weekend, (the) end Christmas, Easter, New Year 1 start work at 8 o’clock The shops close at 5.30 p.m. We visited them at Christmas.
on in Sunday(s), Monday(s), etc. 25 April, 6 June New Year’s Day April, June, etc. 1998, 2010. etc (the) summer, spring, etc. the morning, afternoon, evening Good-bye! See you on Friday. I do not work on Sundays. The concert is on 25 November I'm going on holiday in October. He left school in 2003. 1 like skiing in winter. We watch TV in the evening but: on Monday morning, on Tuesday afternoon, on Saturday night, etc. this (morning, week, year, etc.) last (August, week, etc.) every (day, Monday, etc.) next (week, Tuesday, etc.) 4. Fill in the gaps w ith the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. 1. The English usually get together_weekends. 2. Our examination is__24 February. 3. The Johnsons lived here_1998 4. I got up early_this morning,____7 o’clock. 5. _last summer we went to England. 6. Mary’s wedding was__May. 7. Are you busy____the moment? 8. The excursion will be_the end of the week. 10. 1 will start work _ Monday morning. 11. Do уou watch TV____the evening? 12. Sally comes to me__every Sunday. Word building 5. Translate the following derivative nouns: adjective + -ness —» noun polite — politeness, conscious — consciousness, rude — rudeness, kind — kindness, firm — firmness, calm — calmness, good — goodness; adjective + -ily / -ty—> noun punctual — punctuality, informal — informality, necessary — necessity, safe — safety, national — nationality, possible — possibility, mobile — mobility; verb + -er / or —» noun to invent — inventor, to teach — teacher, to employ — employer, to visit — visitor, to work — worker, to jump — jumper, to write — writer
6. Form nouns using suffixes -ness, -ity / -ty, -er / -or from these words, translate them. Hard, effective, soft, thick, sharp, special, difficult, similar, regular, brutal, to cook, to sell, to buy, to create, to manage. 7. Translate the following derivative adverbs: adjective + -ly adverb usual — usually, quick — quickly, serious — seriously, easy — easily, main — mainly, complete — completely, high — highly. 8. Complete the sentences, using the adjectives and adverbs formed from the words in italics with the help of suffixes -Hess. -ity / -ty, -or / -er. -ly. I. People who travel a lot are called__. 2. Robin Hood is very popular all over the world You can explain his_ by the fact that people love heroes who help the poor. 3. The population in the area is very dense. The of the population in the area is high. 4. His reaction is rather slow. He thinks and acts _. 5. I like to design something new. I want to become a__. 6. I do not think your idea is effective. Can you prove its_? 7. Tigers are quick animals. They run very__ 8. It is dark outside. Are you afraid of_? 9. Brainstorming. A. What is culture? What does the following scheme show? | CULTURE | | Music&Art|| Knowledge || Beliefs,^norms, | pEnvironment~[ | Civilization | B. Thinkofyourowndefinitionofculture. Compare your idea with a partner’s. C. What do you associate with the English and American cultures? For example, Statue of Liberty. Write a list. Compare with a partner’s. Active vocabulary 10. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: to act — действовать, поступать, работать behaviour — поведение civil rights — гражданские права patience терпение; patient терпеливый polite — вежливый; politeness -вежливость
common - общепринятый, распространенный co-operative — отзывчивый, готовый помочь custom — обычай, традиция; syn tradition to depend on - зависеть от each other — друг друга to enjoy — наслаждаться, получать удовольствие especially — особенно except — за исключением formal - официальный; informal - неофициальный for the first time в первый раз to greet — приветствовать: greeting - приветствие helpful — любезный. услужливый however — однако in order to — для того, чтобы in spite of — несмотря на instead of — вместо mostly - главным образом to move — двигать (ся), передвигать (ся) necessary — необходимый; necessity — необходимость often - часто to praise — хвалить, прославлять privacy — уединение; частная жизнь; private — частный probably — возможно, вероятно to protect — защищать pub (сокр. от public place) — паб, пивная, закусочная rarely — редко reserve — сдержанность; reserved — сдержанный to respect — уважать, почитать; respectful почтительный rude - грубый, невежливый to say goodbye — прощаться self-confident — уверенный в себе sense of humour - чувство юмора to shake hands — пожимать руку; handshake - рукопожатие stranger — незнакомец that is why — вот почему through через, посредством usual - обычный; usually обычно to value ценить, дорожить to visit — посещать to wait for — ждать кого-л., чего-л. well-mannered воспитанный without без 11. Read the text and complete the following statements. The text is about.. It describes... The text also mentions... TEXT2A BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH Britain is the birthplace of Newton, Darwin, Shakespeare and the Beatles. It is a home of the world’s largest foreign exchange market, the world’s richest football club — Manchester United, the inventor of the hovercraft and the au
thor of the Harry Potter books. Britain is full of culture and traditions which are hundreds years old and famous all over the world. When people think of Britain they often think of people who drink tea, eat fish and chips and wear bowler hats1, but there is more about Britain titan just those things. The British character is well known. The British people are famous for their reserve in manners, dress and speech. A reserved person is one who does not talk very much to strangers, does not show much emotion. He never tells you anything about himself. When the British meet people for the first time they do not easily ask personal questions like “How old are you’’’ or even “What is your name?’’ Questions like “Where did you buy this watch?” or “What is your salary?” are impossible. British people rarely shake hands except when they meet someone for the first time. They hardly ever shake hands with their friends except when they see them after a long time or say goodbye before a long journey. The usual formal greeting is “How do you do’” and a handshake. “How do you do?” is not a question, it is a greeting and the correct response is to repeat “How do you do?”. “How are you?” is a question and the most common and polite response is “I am fine, thank you. And you?’’ The British sense and feeling for privacy is well known. England is the land of brick fences and stone walls, of hedges2 and thick draperies3 at all the windows. The British people are also famous for their politeness, self-discipline and especially for their sense of humour. Another national characteristic is conservatism, the British love familiar things. You can see it, for example, in their respectful attitude to the monarchy. British people value punctuality very much. If you agree to meet friends at three o’clock, they will be there just after three. In Britain, people make great effort to arrive on time. They think it is impolite to arrive even a few minutes later. Most people in Britain wortc a five-day week, from Monday to Friday; schools, colleges and universities are also closed on Saturdays and Sundays. As Friday comes along and people leave work they say to each other, “Have a nice weekend.” Then on Monday morning they ask, “Did you have a nice weekend?” The weekends are a time for families in Britain. On Sundays most British people do gardening, wash the car, go to the pub or take the dog for a walk. However, gardening is the most popular hobby. The British are known as a nation of gardeners. Most British people love gardens, and that is why so many people prefer to live in houses rather than4 flats. Most people have a garden of their own. Many people in Britain are proud of their houses and gardens. Going to the pub is almost as popular as gardening. A common misconception among visitors to Britain is that pubs are bars. But pubs are also gathering places, conversation zones, even restaurants. Pubs are, generally speaking, places where people go to meet their friends. In small towns pubs act almost as town halls5.
British people are the world’s greatest tea drinkers. Many of them drink tea at least eight times during the day. Notes on the text 1 bowler hat — шляпа-котелок. 2 fence живая изгородь. 3 draperies — портьеры ’ rather than — а не, более чем s town hall — ратуша. Text and vocabulary exercises 12. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. birthplace a) практически никогда 2. hovercraft b) кирпичный забор 3. hardly ever c) судно на воздушной подушке 4. brick fence d) стараться 5. to make efforts e) неправильное представление 6. misconception 0 место встреч 7. gathering place g) место для общения 8. tea drinker h) родина 9. conversation zone i) любитель чая 13. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: рынок иностранной валюты самый известный официальное приветствие каменные стены заниматься садоводством выгуливать собаку личный вопрос правильный ответ хорошо известный вообще говоря 14. Find the right English equivalent for the following Russian words. 1. вокруг a) round b) around с) road 2. год a) year b) yard с) your 3. показывать a) snow b) shoe с) show 4. чувство a) feel b) feeling с) felt 5. соглашаться a) argue b) degree с) agree 6. даже a) ever b) every с) even 7. оставлять, покидать a) live b) leave с) alive 8. полный a) fool b) feel с) full
15. Choose the right answer. 1. Britain is full of culture and traditions which have been around for... a) millions of years b) thousands of years c) hundreds of years 2. The best-known thing about Britain is... a) British weather b) British character c) British Queen 3. British people shake hands .. a) every time they b) every time they c) when they meet meet somebody meet friends someone for the first time 4. The British people are especially famous for... a) their sense of b) their politeness c) self-discipline humour 5. In Britain it is impolite to arrive .... a) an hour late b) a few minutes later c) too late 16. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. I. Most people in Britain work a six-day week, from Monday to Saturday. 2. Taking a dog for a walk is the most popular activity on Sunday. 3. The weekends are a time for families in Britain 4. Most British people love gardens, and that is why so many people prefer to live in houses. 5. Going io the pub and meet friends is very popular. 6. Many British drink tea at least ten times during the day. 7. Among British national characteristics there is also conservatism. В Pre-text exercises 17. Opposites. For every word on the left find its antonym on the right. Consult the dictionary if necessary: rude formal the same employer
common polite always rare inferior informal often never different rarely employee superior 18. Look at the phonetic spelling of some of the words from ex. 17. Practise saying them. Write them. [‘ozlwetz] [геэ| [ru:d] [ reaii] [m'ftaria] [tm’ploti:] [su:'piaria| [im'pbta] 19. A. Find the adverbs always. never, often, rarely, usually in the text 2B and analyze their place in the sentence. B. Study the following information. Наречия always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, ever. also. just, still, already, both, «//всегда стоят: I) перед смысловым глаголом: E.g.: I always go to work by bus. The students often have tests. They usually have breakfast at 8 o’clock. They always come to us on Friday; 2) после глагола “to be” (am, is, are, was, were): E.g.: Our teacher is never late for the lesson. Last autumn it was often rainy. England and Scotland are both part of Great Britain; 3) между двумя глаголами (does... go, can ... have, etc.) E.g.: I will always remember this day. Do you ever play football? He did not often visit us. C. Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. 1. usually I weekends / the British / do / work / not / at 2. are I time / holidays / always / families / for 3. in / shake / hands / rarely / Britain / people 4. never / the / British / are / late 5. children I always / presents / get / New Year / at. 20. Read the following text. What information is new for you? Exchange your opinions with a partner.
ТЕХТ2В AMERICA AND THE AMERICANS American culture is a mixture of domestic ideals and beliefs with traditions and customs imported via1 colonization and immigration front the British Isles. American culture also includes elements front Native Americans and other ethnic subcultures, especially the culture of African American slave descendantsand different cultures front Latin Anterica. Many American cultural elements, mostly popular culture, have spread across the globe through modern mass media. Who in the world has not heard of Coca Cola, McDonald’s, IBM, General Motors, Microsoft and Boeing? People all around the world watch American films, listen to American music and use borrowings from the American English. The Americans are famous fortheir independence; they are always proud of their nationality and they always protect their civil rights and freedoms. The American character is impossible without freedom: freedom of speech, freedom of somebody’s own interests, freedom of religion, freedom of movement, etc. American society is more informal than the British and, in some ways, there is less social distinction in it. Students do not stand up when a teacher enters the room. You do not always address a person by his title, such as “Major”, or “General”, or “Doctor”. It is better to do it when you meet him or her for the first time, and then allow the person to tell you how to call him or her. The Americans use first names with each other, slap on the back, joke, and use more slang than the British people. You will often hear the word “Hi” (a form of greeting among friends) instead of the usual “Hello” and “Howdy” instead of “How do you do?” They call people who do not easily show these signs of friendship “snooty”2, or “snobbish”. They praise people who show such simple signs of friendship, especially to their own economic and social inferiors, as “regular guys”1 or as “truly democratic”. As a description of character, democratic generally means that a person of high social or economic status acts in such a way that his or her inferiors forget about their inferiority. But, in spite of all the informality, Americans, even in the way they address each other, show some social distinction. For example, they use more formal language when they talk to superiors. While the informal “Hello” is an acceptable greeting from an employee to an employer, the employee should say “Hello, Mr Ferguson,” while the employer may reply “Hello, Jim.” Other forms of politeness are necessary in public places Women may wear hats in church, in restaurants and other public places at any time of the day except for the evening. Men who wear hats usually take them off in elevators, churches.
restaurants, private homes and business offices — in most situations when they wish to show respect. In American families children do not live with their parents tor a long time. College and university students try to move out of their parents’ home in order to be independent and self-confident. Americans are rather mobile and move from place to place depending on4 where they want to study or work. Adult children very rarely live with their parents. Family members often live in different parts of the country, but families usually get together for family holidays. Americans spend a lot of time driving their cars. In a large city you can get around5 with the help of public transport, but in small towns a car is not a luxury but a necessity. A car is necessary to get to work, to take children to school, to go shopping, etc. When teenagers are sixteen, they get a driving license as quickly as possible, because driving means freedom of movement. Notes on the text ' via — посредством, с помощью. 2 snooty — высокомерный, заносчивый. 3 regular guy — отточный парень, славный малый ’ depending on — в зависимости от 5 gel around — зд • передвигаться Text and vocabulary exercises 21. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. mass media a) член семьи 2. slave descendants b) домашний, отечественный 3. family member c) потомки рабов 4. domestic d) заимствование 5. belief e) социальные различия 6. borrowing 0 мнение, вера, убеждение 7. social distinction g) средства массовой информации 8. in some ways h) хлопать по спине 9. slap on the back i) в некоторой степени 22. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: обычно, как правило как можно скорее приемлемый, допустимый делать покупки общественное место общество общественный транспорт слегка, довольно, весьма главным образом роскошь
23. Find in the text the right word to complete the sentences. 1. American culture includes elements from Native Americans and other ethnic_____. 2. The Americans are famous for their_. 3. American society is more informal than_____, and there is less social distinction tn it. 4. The Americans use first names with_, slap on the back and joke. 5. Women may wear hats in church, in restaurants and other public places at any time of the day except for _ 6. College and university students move out of their parents’ home in order to be__and_____. 7. Family members often live in different parts of the country, but families usually__for family holidays. 8. In small towns a car is not a luxury but a_ 24. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. I. American culture is a mixture of domestic ideals and beliefs with traditions from the British Isles. 2. Many American cultural elements, mostly popular culture, have spread all over the world through modern mass media. 3. The Americans do not use slang in their speech. 4. Americans never use formal language even when they talk to superiors. 5. In American families children live with their parents for a long time. 6. Americans spend a lot of time driving their cars. 7. Driving means freedom of movement in small towns in America. c Pre-text exercises 25. Imperatives. A. Study the following information. Повелительное наклонение используется для того, чтобы сказать кому-либо, что надо делать и чего не надо делать. Come here Don’t talk. Help me. Don’t touch me. B. Match the opposites. Don’t write your name. Look out of the window. Listen to me. Don’t listen to me. Look at the board. Write your name.
Don’t look out of the window. Close the door. Don’t close the door Don’t look at the board. C. Work with a partner. Take turns to tell each other what to do and do it. Here are some ideas for you: stand up, put your hands on your head, open your mouth, close your eyes, stand on one leg, put a book on your head, laugh, close one eye. 26. Read the following text to answer these questions. 1. What opportunity does travelling offet'l 2. Why is travel etiquette important? 3. What is the most important part of travelling? 4. Are British and American rules of etiquette the same or different? 5. Why is patience important in Britain? 6. What phtuses do you say to show good manners? 7. When is it necessary to shake hands in Britain? 8. Do the British like to answer personal questions? 9. In America, do you kiss people when you meet them for the first time? 10. What is very important at the first meeting in America? 11. What is business etiquette? TEXT2C TRAVEL AND BUSINESS ETIQUETTE (DO’S AND DON’TS) Travelling offers the opportunity to explore different cultures and customs and to enjoy it. But there also can be some potential problems, so it is very important to follow travel etiquette because it will make your travelling nice and more comfortable. The most important part of travelling is your behaviour. Helpful, co-operative and well-mannered behaviour will make the trip enjoyable for you and people around. It is also always good to know some social rulesand traditions of the country which you want to visit. Ingeneral, British and American rules of etiquette are much the same, differences are slight. In Britain... Stand in line. British people like to form queues (standing in line) and wait patiently for their turn, for example, boarding a bus. They take waiting in line incredibly seriously. The British value patience very much and will show disapproval of “queue jumpers”, people who try to cut in line. No matter how long the line is always go to the back and wait.
Say "Excuse me", ‘'Please" and "Thankyou”. It is very good manners to say “excuse me”, "please” and "thank you”. British people take politeness very seriously. They will think you are rude ifyou do not follow these rules. You can never say “please”, "thank you” or “sorry” too often; you will notice that the British themselves say “thank you” a lot. Pay as you go. Pay for drinks when you order them in pubs and other types of bars Shake hands. It is necessary to shake hands when you meet someone for the first time, both men and women. A common response to an introduction is "Pleased to meet you”. Say “Sorry”. If you accidentally bump into1 someone, say “Sorry”. They will probably say “Sorry” too, even if it was your fault! Smite. A smiling face is a welcoming face. Open doors for other people. Men and women both hold open the door for each other. It depends on who goes through the door first. Do not greet people with a kiss. We only kiss people who are close friends and relatives. Do not ask personal or intimate questions. The British like their privacy, so never ask questions such as “How much money do you earn?”, or “How much do you weigh?”, or “Why aren’t you married?” They consider even the common question “What do you do?” rude and too personal One of the favourite topics which never fail is the weather. In America... Shake hands and do not greet people with a kiss. Americans shake hands with each other when they meet for the first time, but rarely when they say goodbye, it is a European custom. Kissing, as a greeting, is possible only between people who know each other well. Keep distance and eye contact. When Americans talk to each other they stay at least half a metre away from each other, farther away2 than in many other countries. An American may feel threat if you come too close, even if such a distance is usual in your own country. Eye contact is very important at the first meeting. Americans like people who smile, especially when the smile is accompanied by eye contact. Get to the point3. When you ask an American for something, do not use a lot of preliminary phrases which are usual in some other countries. “Excuse me” is usually enough to get the person’s attention, for example, when you ask for directions. Americans may become suspicious if a stranger begins with
a general "Hello, how are you?” phrase and does not get to the point of the encounter directly. Foreign languages. If you are with a group of mainly English-speaking people and the conversation is in English, it is not polite to speak in your own or another foreign language for more than a few sentences. Taboo topics. Neveruse swearwords, obscenities4, or ethnic vulgarisms in conversation, even if you hear that someone else uses this kind of language This kind of language may be effective with some Americans, but can be very offensive to others. The use of obscenities is never a good idea You may indeed hear it, but do not repeat it. Business etiquette is a code of behaviour that makes your business communication successful. The business etiquette rules are quite similar to the basic do’s and don’ts in the UK and America. International marketing consultants advise to be punctual, respect personal space and keep a distance, remember to shake hands at the first meeting and not to forget to exchange business cards. It is also necessary to show respect for rank and remember that instructions are polite requests. Notes on the text 1 bump into — столкнуться 2 farther away — дальше. 5 get to the point — говорить по существу. ’ obscenities — непристойности Text and vocabulary exercises 27. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. explore 2. enjoyable 3. social rules 4. incredibly 5. show disapproval 6. eye contact 7. preliminary phrase 8. encounter 9. directly а) встреча b) выказывать неодобрение с) невероятно d) социальные нормы е) приятный О исследовать, изучать g) прямо h) зрительный контакт i) вводная фраза 28. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: потенциальные проблемы подозрительный очередь придерживать дверь
этикет для путешествий случайно доброжелательный обидный, оскорбительный что можно и чего нельзя тот, кто хочет пройти без очереди 29. Choose the right answer. 1. If you do not follow travel etiquette, you will have ..., a) no problems b) real problems c) potential problems 2. When you travel it is always good to know some ... a) social rules of your b) social rules of the c) social rules of native country country where travelling you go 3. British people take waiting in line incredibly ... a) seriously b) easily c) funny 4. A common response to an introduction is.... a) “How do you b) “How are you?” c) “Pleased to meet do?” you” 5. If you accidentally bump into someone, say... a) “Sorry” b) “Excuse me” c) nothing 6. One of the favourite topics which never fail is .... a) the economy b) the weather c) the sport 30. British and American Culture Quiz. Read the following statements and decide whether they are true or false. 1. In accordance with British business etiquette, when you meet people for the first time you shake hands. 2. It is polite to ask about an individual’s profession and salary during the first meeting in the UK. 3. In America people don’t keep distance. 4. It is common to arrive 10—20 minutes betore the arranged time. 5. If you hear that someone uses swear words and vulgarisms in conversation, you can repeat them too. 6. If you are with a group of mainly English-speaking people, it is not polite to speak in your own or another foreign language at all.
31. Travel and Business Etiquette in Russia. With a partner discuss which of the etiquette rules from Text 2C can be applied in Russia, use the following plan. 1. Do’s and don’ts tn personal conversation (introduction phrases, handshakes, distance, eye contact, safe topics). 2. Do’s and don’ts in public places (cafes, restaurants, theatres, cinemas). 3. Business etiquette. 32. A. Here are pairs of sentences. They mean the same, but one is formal and the other is informal. Divide them into formal and informal sentences. Hello. Hi How are you? How’s it going? Thank you very much. Thanks a lot. Have some coffee. Would you like some coffee? I’m Kate. Could you tell me what time it is? How do you do? Howdy? Not too bad. Very well, thank you Yeah? Oh, yes? I’d love to. Let me introduce myself, my name is Peter Brunch. OK. B. Make these conversations more formal. The expressions in the box will help you. Shall I..? I’d prefer... Would you like..? That would be very nice. Could you (1) possibly..? Of course. I’d love to. Let me introduce myself... Here you are. Pleased to meet you. Informal- “Give me your coat.” — “Here.” Formal: “ Shall I take your coat? ” “Oh, thank you. Here you are.” I. “Have some coffee ” — “Yeah, thanks.” 2. “Can 1 use your phone?” — “Sure.” 3. “Do you want to dance?” — “OK ” 4. “I’ll open it for you.” — “Thanks.” 5. “Want a drink?” — “Yes. OK.” 6. “Orangejuice?” — “No, water.” 7. “Hi! I’m Helen!” — “Hi, Helen, I’m Nick.”
GRAMMAR REVIEW Прилагательное и наречие Степени сравнения прилагательных В английском языке имеются положительная, сравнительная и превосходная степени сравнения: large большой larger больше (the) largest самый большой interesting интересный more interesting интереснее (the) most interesting самый интересный Односложные и некоторые двусложные прилагательные образуют степени сравнения при помощи суффиксов -ег (сравнительная степень), -est (превосходная). Например: cheap —> cheaper -> the cheapest; long -> longer -> the longest. Правописание: big - > bigger hot -> hotter thin -> thinner easy -> easier heavy -> heavier early -> earlier Многосложные прилагательные образуют степени сравнения при помощи дополнительных слов more (сравнительная степень), most (превосходная). Например: modern —> more modern —> the most modern expensive —> more expensive -> the most expensive Прилагательные в превосходной степени употребляются с определенным артиклем the. Исключения: good better (the) best bad worse (the) worst many much more (the) most little less (the) least far farther further (the) farthest (the) furthest old older elder (the) oldest (the) eldest
Типы сравнительных предложении • сравнительная степень + than I’m older than you. Я старше тебя. English is more interesting than Japanese. Английский интереснее, чем японский. • as... (положительная степень) as... not so I as... (положительная степень) as... Rome is not as old as Athens Рим не такой древний, как Афины. This book is as expensive as that one Эта книга такая же дорогая, как и та. • the + сравнительная степень, the + сравнительная степень The more he eats, the fatter he gets. Чем больше он ест, тем толще становится. The more money you have, the better the life is. Чем больше у тебя денег, тем лучше жизнь. • less than + положительная степень Skiing is less dangerous than motor-racing. Лыжный спорт менее опасный, чем автогонки • much + сравнительная степень (than) We travel by car, it’s much cheaper. Airplane is much more expensive. Мы путешествуем машиной, это гораздо дешевле. Самолет значительно дороже. 33. Закончите предложения, употребив прилагательные в скобках в необходимой степени сравнения. 1. Her situation is___than we think (serious). 2. The___the weather gets, the_I feel (warm, good). 3. This car is old. 1 prefer_ones (modern). 4. Ann likes much _hotels than this one (comfortable). 5. They have two sons, their_son is 13 and_is only 4 (old, young). 6. What is_film you have ever seen (good)? 7. Jack isn’t as_as he looks (young). 8. The test was less_than we expected (difficult). 9. The___the hotel, the______the service (expensive, good). 10. Skiing is as_as skating in our country (popular). 34. Закончите предложения, используя (пог)<м... as..., than или the... the.... 1. She is much smarter__lam. 2. She is_intelligent___he is.
3. more electricity you use,_higher your bill will be. 4. Oranges are more expensive__apples. 5. Children wear more casual clothes_their parents. 6. I haven’t got_much money____they ask. 7. __harder you work,____more money you earn. 8. She’s less optimistic_he is. 35. Переведите на английский язык. 1. В Вашингтоне нет зданий выше памятника Джорджу Вашингтону. 2. Нил и Амазонка — самые длинные реки в мире (the Nile, the Amazon). 3. Эверест — самая высокая гора в мире (Everest). 4. Мозг человека генерирует больше электрических импульсов, чем все телефоны мира 5. Азия является самым большим континентом в мире, а Австралия — самым маленьким. 6. Тихий океан больше других океанов на земле. 7. Следующий эксперимент такой же сложный, как и тот, что мы только что провели. 8. Чем лучше ты занимаешься, тем больше ты узнаешь. 9. Этот вопрос не такой простой, как ты думаешь. 10. Чем больше я думаю об экзамене, тем хуже себя чувствую. Наречие (The Adverb) Наречия в английском языке образуются от прилагательных при помощи суффикса -1у: recent + -ly = recently free + -ly = freely Исключения: Прилагательные late, early, hard, fast, long, low, straight, good образуют соотносимые по смыслу наречия без суффикса -1у, а соответствующие формы на -1у имеют иное значение: fair (честно) — fairly (довольно). hard (усердно) — hardly (едва ли), late (поздно) — lately (недавно) и др. Например'. She came late. — Она пришла поздно. I read his book lately. — Недавно я прочитал его книгу. Наречия образуют степени сравнения при помощи дополнительных слов more (сравнительная степень), most (превосходная). Например'. You should visit her more often.
Исключения: early earlier the earliest late later the latest hard harder the hardest fast faster the fastest well better the best badlv worse the worst little less the least much more the most Например'. If I work harder Г11 have finished the work by Friday. He runs the fastest. Место наречий в предложении • Когда в предложении более двух наречий, то порядок слов следующий: как? каким образом? куда? где? когда? She sat quietly in the corner ail day. • Если в предложении есть глагол движения, то порядок слов такой: куда? где? как? каким образом? когда? Не went home quickly that day. 36. Выбери re правильный вариант. 1. Jane is very (quiet/quietly). She speaks very (quiet/quietly). 2. Ann dresses (smart/smartly). She is very (smart/sniartly). 3. Our team played (bad/badly). It was a (bad/badly) game. 4. My mother is a (good/well) cook. She cooks (good/well). 5. Tom is very (serious/seriously). He works (serious/seriously). 6. Mike is a (quick/quickly) runner. He runs very (quick/quickly). 7. She looked at me (angry/angrily). She was very (angry/angrily). 8. Mary is a (slow/slowly) reader. She reads (slow/slowly). 9. The bus was (late/lately). 1 came to school very (late/lately). 10. My sister is a (wonderful/wonderfully) singer. She sings (wonderful/ wonderfully). 37. Поставьте прилагательные в скобках на правильное место в предложении. Измените прилагательное на наречие, где необходимо. 1. We did not have a test yesterday, but unfortunately we had a laboratory work (difficult).
2. Maria studies (hard). 3. When I saw the accident, I phoned the police (immediate). 4. Don’t worry. He is a driver (careful). 5. My brother is a student. He attends all lectures and seminars (typical). 6. Please speak. I can’t understand you (slow) 7. The students had an exam today (easy). 8. I passed all exams (successful) 9. You speak English (good). 10. He is a football player. He plays football (excellent). Типы вопросительных предложений 1. Общий вопрос Не содержит вопросительных слов, всегда требует ответа «да» или «нет». Вспомогательный глагол Подлежащее Смысловой Второстепенные | члены предложения Do you like music? Did they pass the exam? Will he come Краткий ответ Do you study here? — Yes, I do. Did they play football yesterday? — No, they did not. Will the train arrive at 5? — Yes, it will. 2. ( пениальный вопрос Начинается с вопросительного слова или группы слов where when who(m) whai which what kind of... whose how how many (how much) how long why где? куда? когда? кто? кого? кому? что? какой? какой (из)? (если есть выбор) какой? чей? как’ сколько? как долго? почему?
' Вопро-\ сительное Вспомогательный глагол Подлежащее Смысловой глагол Второстепенные члены предложения слово How do you get to work9 What did they do yesterday9 When wilt the concert begin 7 Специальные вопросы всегда требуют полного ответа, в котором сообщается информация. В вопросах к подлежащему и его определению сохраняется прямой порядок слов и не используются вспомогательные глаголы. Who broke the window? — The boys did. What ocean washes the American eastern coast? — The Atlantic Ocean. 3. Альтернативный вопрос Порядок слов в альтернативных вопросах такой же, как и в общих вопросах: Do you like tea or coffee? Did they go to the bank on Monday or on Tuesday? Will we pass the exam tomorrow or today? Альтернативные вопросы всегда требуют полного ответа, в котором сообщается информация. Do you play the piano or the guitar? — I play the guitar. Does the lesson begin at 8 or 8.30? — The lesson begins at 8. 4. Разделительный вопрос Разделительный вопрос состоит из обычного (утвердительного или отрицательного) предложения и краткого вопроса, который состоит из местоимения (вместо подлежащего) и вспомогательного глагола. Если предложение утвердительное, то краткий вопрос отрицательный, и наоборот, если предложение отрицательное, то вопрос утвердительный. Краткий вопрос переводится на русский язык «не правда ли?», «не так ли?» This is a good idea, isn’t it? Your brother likes football, doesn’t he? They don’t understand us, do they? She didn’t see him yesterday, did she? 38. Задайте вопросы к следующим предложениям. 1. Halloween takes place on the 31st of October 2. At midnight on the 31st of December people celebrate New Year.
3. In summer the British like to celebrate the end of winter 4. Many kinds of sports came from England. 5. About 60 million people live in the UK 6. Accent often shows the speaker’s native language. 7. In future people will live on other planets 8. Margaret Thatcher was Europe’s first woman prime minister. 9. Next year we will graduate from the university. 10. Our team didn’t win the last match on Tuesday. 39. Напишите вопросы к следующим ответам (возможны различные варианты). I. At the university. 2. At 7 o’clock. 3. By bus. 4. Tea and sandwich. 5. Yes, he does; he works very hard. 6. He likes watching television and reading. 7. English and French. 8. 1 read books every day. 9. Yes, she does. She wants to be an engineer. 10. Of course. I like pop music best 40. Like + -ing. Залайте вопросы к предложениям по образцу. Ответьте на вопросы. Model: I often get up eatiy. Do you like getting up early? — No, 1 don’t like getting up early. / Yes, 1 like getting up early. I. 1 often write letters 2. I often travel by train 3. 1 often visit museums. 4. I often go to the cinema. 5. 1 study English. 6. I study engineering at university 7. 1 go to the swimming pool. 41. Like или would like? Выберите правильный вариант. I. Would/Do you like a sandwich? — No, thanks. I’m not hungry. 2. Do/Would you like Maria? — Yes. She’s very nice. 3. Do/Would vou like to study abroad? — Yes. I’d/l like to go to Britain. 4. Can I help you? Yes, please. — l’d/1 like some water 5. What sports do you do? — I/I’d like swimming very much. 6. Can you play football? — No, but 1/1’d like to. 7. My car is 20 years old! — 1/1 ’d like a new one.
42. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about the British and American culture (Text 3). SPEAKING PRACTICE 43. Introducing yourself and other people. A. Study the following information. Expressions to introduce yourself Expressions to introduce others Responses My name is... I’m... Let me introduce myself; I’m... I’d like to introduce myself; I’m... Alex, please meet Nicolas. Alex, have you met Nicolas? I’d like you to meet Liza. I’d like to introduce you to Kate. Kate, this is Ana. Ana, this is Kate. Nice to meet you. Pleased to meet you. Happy to meet you. How do you do? B. Read the dialogue and notice how people introduce themselves and lers. Alex: Hello! My name is Alex Waterman. I’m the new manager. Peter. Hello! I’m Peter Bazov. Nice to meet you. Let me introduce Ms Kate Lyncheva. my colleague. Alex: How do you do? Kate: How do you do? C. Make similar conversations with a partner. 44. A. What holidays do you know? What do people do on each holiday? Match the lines to make sentences. We exchange presents... We dye and exchange eggs... We send Valentines... We play jokes... We give flowers and presents to women... on Women’s Day. on April Fool's Day. at New Year and Christmas. on St Valentine’s Day. at Easter. B. Discuss the following questions with your partner. 1. What are the public holidays in Russia? 2. Do they fall on the same or different days every yearB. 9 3. Are there any special holiday traditions in Russia? 4. What is your favourite holiday? Why? How do you celebrate it?
WRITING PRACTICE 45. Presenting statistics. Leisure activities in the UK and the USA. A. Study the table below and read the description of it. Pay attention to the key phrases in bold. Table 2.1 Selected activities performed in free time*: by age, 2009/10 England Percentages 16-24 P£-SC 35- 44 45-64 65 and over All aged 16 and over Watching television 88 85 88 89 92 89 Spending time with friends / family 87 85 85 83 82 84 Listening to music 90 78 76 74 69 76 Shopping 71 73 74 69 69 71 Reading 53 62 65 72 73 67 Eating out at restaurants 66 71 70 72 65 69 Days out 54 65 68 67 59 63 Internet / e-mailing 79 77 71 57 24 59 Sport 1 exercise 63 63 60 55 35 54 Gardening 16 36 51 64 62 49 Going to pubs / bars / clubs 59 63 50 44 33 48 Going to the cinema 72 61 55 42 21 48 * Respondents were shown a list of activities and asked to pick the things they did in their free time in the last year prior to interview. The most popular activities performed by all adults aged 16 and over arc shown in the table. Source' Taking Parr. The National Survey of Culture, Leisure and Sport, Departmentfor Culture Media and Span {201(f) The table shows some of the most popular free time activities in England. According to it, all age groups like watching television, spending time with family, shopping and eating out. Over 85% of people in all age groups like watching television, and almost 85% of people enjoy spending time with their family. Listening and shopping are among the most popular activities too. Over half of 16—24-year-olds enjoy reading, compared to almost three quarters of 65-year-olds. Only 16% of young adults are interested in gardening, compared to 64% of older adults. Young people are more interested in the Internet, e-mail and sport than older adults. In concinsion, some activities are popular in all age groups, but others are specific to particular age groups.
В. Study the pie chart about leisure activities in the USA and describe it using the plan below. Total leisure and sports time = 5.0 hours Watching TV (2 7 hours) Relating and thinking (17 minutes) Other leisure activities (17 minutes) Playing games; using computer for leisure (25 minutes) Reading (18 minutes) Participating in sports, exercise, recreation \__________(19 minutes) Socializing and ' communicating (38 minutes) Leisure time on an average day NOTE' Data include all persons age 15 and over. Dal a include all days of lhe week and are annual averages for 2010 Source. Bureau of Labor Statistics. American Time Use Survey. I. The pie chart shows the most popular.. 2. The data include all age .... 3. According to the chart the total leisure time per day is.... 4. The most popular activity is... .The Americans spend ... a day .... 5. The next popular activities include ... and .... 6. Almost equally popular are ....... and .... 7. In conclusion, the most popular activity is ... and the least popular 46. Translate the following text into English. День сурка (Groundhog Day) — традиционный народный праздник в Канаде и США. Люди отмечают его каждый год 2 февраля. В этот день американцы наблюдают за сурком, когда он вылезает из своей норки (hole). Его поведение в этот момент показывает, как скоро наступит весна. Если день пасмурный, сурок не видит своей тени (shadow) и покидает нору. Это значит, что зима скоро закончится и весна в этот год будет ранняя. Если день солнечный, сурок видит свою тень и прячется в нору. Это значит, что зима будет длиться еще шесть недель. Сурок, который живет в городке Панксатони в штате Пенсильвания (Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania), США. — первый официальный сурок-метеоролог (groundhog-meteorologist) Более ста двадцати лет, с 1887 года, люди следят (have been watching) за прогнозами (forecast) пенсильванского сурка. В этот день в штате проводится ежегодный
фестиваль, который стал известным во всем мире после выхода фильма «День сурка». Сурок по кличке Фил, который и сейчас живет в Пенсильвании, исполнил главную роль в фильме и стал знаменитым «синоптиком» (weather forecaster) в Америке. PROJECT BOX 47. Make a survey on leisure activities in your country. Ask your group mates I family members / friends questions about their free time activities. Present the data in the form of a table, graph or pie chart and report to the class.
UNIT3 A Pre-text exercises 1. Look at the following international words, guess their meaning and check the pronunciation. Qualification, career, laboratory class, course, mathematics, technology, management, student, Europe, profession, literature, biology, physics, chemistry, position, structure, engineer, faculty, method, match, prestigious, idea, specialist, certificate 2. Pronunciation: the letter i. A. Read these words. I. industry, skill, civil, differ, interest [i] 2. final, write, five, wide, slight [ai| 3. first, thirty, girl [з:] В. Put these words in group 1. 2 or 3. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Practise reading them. With, high, idea, specialize, bird, light, difficulty, will, size, arrive, bright, fifty, ride, thirsty, right, cricket, white, stir 3. Here are some examples with prepositions of piace. Read and learn them. to in / at go / come / return / walk, etc. to... We are going to Moscow next week. 1 want to go to study to America. We returned to the city centre. What time do you go to bed? go / come / return / walk, etc. home be / stay / do something, etc. in... Red Square is in Moscow. My friend studies in America This university is in the city centre I like reading in bed. be / stay / do something, etc. at home
I’m tired. I’m going home. [not “to home”) When did you come home? I’m tired. I’m staying at home Where's Kate? — At home. also in bed / in a street / in the world in a newspaper / in a magazine / in a book in a photograph / in a picture in a car {but on a bus / on a train / on a plane) in the middle (of...) at home / at work / at university at the station / at the airport at the doctor(’s) / at the dentist(’s) at a concert / at a conference / al a party / at a football match at my sister’s (house) at the end (of the street) 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. 1. Mv brother is studying mathematics_London University. 2. Moscow State University is__the centre of Moscow 3. How many pages are there____the book? 4. Where’s your father? — He’s__work,_____his office. 5. Will you be_home tomorrow morning? 6. When are you coming___home? 7. I was ill yesterday, so I did not go_the University. 8. What time do you usually go_wotk? 9. Were you___the conference Cambridge last week? 10. There were many people _ our party on Friday. 11. Are you going to go__the library today? 12. My sister is__University now. 13. Would you like to study_another country? 14. Ann looks very nice__this photo. Word building 5. Translate the following derivative nouns: verb + -ion I -lion / -ation -> noun recommend — recommendation, produce — production, complete — completion, educate — education, found — foundation, qualify — qualification, administrate — administration; verb + -ment —v noun manage — management, state — statement, improve — improvement, agree — agreement, depart — department, enroll — enrollment;
noun + -ship —» noun friend — friendship, leader — leadership, partner — partnership, scholar — scholarship. 6. Form nouns using suffixes -ment, -ion / -tion / -ation, -ship from these words, translate them. Companion, to develop, to combine, to move, fellow, to graduate, to inform, citizen, to measure, to communicate, member, to specialize, to disappoint. 7. Complete the sentences, using the adjectives and adverbs formed from the words in italics with the help of suffixes -ment, -ion / -tion / -ation, -ship. I. The teachers examine students’ knowledge at__. 2. If you want to become a leader you must know the basis of_. 3. The dancers moved very fast and I sometimes did not see their_. 4. When you become a citizen of a country you get of this country. 5. The companies agreed to cooperate and signed the__. 6. When you graduate from the university you write a_paper. 7. We are close friends. Our_began when we studied together. 8. Brainstorming. World Top Universities. A. Discuss in class. What is what? Check your ideas with the key on p. 71. a) the oldest institution of higher learning in the USA | OXFORD | b) was founded by Lomonosov; has the tallest | harvard-] educational building in the world c) Sir Isaac Newton spent the majority of his life there I MOSCOW-1 I SORBONNE7] d) second oldest surviving university in the world | FREIBURG~| f) one of Europe’s most prestigious universities; was founded in the 15th c. by the Habsburg dynasty e) public research university in Paris; appeared in the 12th c. [Cambridge]
В. What makes a university good? Write down five idea, tben choose only one that can make a university best. Compare your answers with a partner’s. Key to ex. 8p. 71. Harvard — a, Moscow — b, Cambridge — c. Oxfora — d, Sorbonne — e, Freiburg — f Active vocabulary 9. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: about — о, об; приблизительно according to — в соответствии с, согласно, по additional — дополнительный to admit — допуска i ь, принимать; admission — прием (е учебное заведение) Bachelor — бакалавр chemical engineering — химическое машиностроение civil engineering - гражданское строительство to complete — завершать, заканчивать compulsory — обязательный constantly — постоянно to contain — содержать, включать curriculum — курс обучения, учебный план degree — степень demand — требование department — факультет due to — благодаря, вследствие field — поле, область, сфера (деятельности, экономики и т.д.) general — общий; ant. specific — конкретный, точный grade — степень higher education — высшее образование humanities — гуманитарные науки in addition — в добавление, к тому же to last — длиться Master — магистр major — специальность postgraduate — аспирант practical training — производственная практика to prepare — готовить(ся) to qualify — обучать, давать квалификацию; qualification — квалификация to receive — получать to reqnire — требовать science — наука; natural sciences — естественные пауки; applied sciences — прикладные науки to select — выбирать; syn to choose skill навык, умение to specialize — специализироваться, specialization — специализация subject — предмет to take an examination сдавать экзамен; to pass an examination — сдать экзамен
to graduate from — оканчивать высшее учебное заведение; graduation - окончание высшего учебного заведения graduation paper - дипломная работа; syn Diploma paper technician — техник, специалист term — семестр throughout — повсюду, везде to train обучать, подготавливать undergraduate — студент way — способ, путь, дорога 10. Read the text and complete the following statements. The text tells us about... It specifies... The text also mentions... TEXT ЗА ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN THE UK People throughout the world recognize and respect UK engineering education. A professional engineering qualification from the UK is a good foundation for the student's future, his or her career and prospects for a high salary. Quality standards for UK institutions of higher education are among the best in the world. Universities, colleges and schools constantly prove that their courses meet strict criteria. Many other countries are now trying to follow the example of the UK. The education system in the UK is different from that in many other countries. Ar the age of 16, British children take General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations1. Then they study A-Levels2 which last for two years and qualify them for entry to university. Students tend to specialize in these courses and often study for three or four А-Levels. Most British begin their higher education at the age of 18 at colleges or universities. An undergraduate engineering course usually takes three years with extra subjects, but it takes longer (four years) if it includes a year in the industry for practical training or a year abroad. The universities offer a huge variety of undergraduate engineering courses, either in one of the major disciplines, such as civil, mechanical, electrical and electronic engineering, or in a specific branch of engineering, such as aerospace or automotive. The main subjects in the curriculum for any speciality are mathematics, engineering science3 and technology. In addition, many UK universities now have business skills in the curriculum. They are becoming an essential part of most jobs and include economics, management, communication and accountancy modules.
An undergraduate programme consists of a number of lectures, seminars, tutorials4 and laboratory classes, in total about 15 hours per week. According to a particular programme students take a number of lecture courses which may last one academic term or the whole year. Along with each lecture course there are seminars, tutorials, laboratory classes which illustrate the topics of the lectures. The academic year has three terms. Lectures and seminars take place in the first two terms which last for twenty four weeks in total. The third term is for laboratory classes and examinations and lasts for six weeks. Lectures are for large groups of students (from 20 to 200). Seminars and tutorials are much smaller than lecture classes and in some departments can be on a one-to-one5 basis — one member of staff and one student. Lectures, seminars and tutorials all last an hour, laboratory classes last two or three hours. In Britain they put much emphasis on the private study. Each student has a tutor whom he can consult on any academic or personal matter. The teaching encourages students to learn in the most effective way. Students who receive good grades in their undergraduate degree (BEng — Bachelor of Engineering) may choose to take a Master's degree, which takes minimum one more year. There is a number of graduate courses6, which enable the students to get an MBA (Master of Business Administration7), MSc (Master of Science8) or Doctorate in Engineering Management. Many university courses now involve study in continental Europe. The MEng (Master of Engineering) course at Bristol University, for example, has exchange partnerships with France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands. In the UK, work experience is now a valuable part of the learning process. Notes on the text 1 General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) — экзамен на получение аттестата об общем среднем образовании. ’ А-Level {Advanced Level) — экзамен по программе средней школы второго уровня сложности 3 engineering science— машиноведение ’ tutorial — консультация 5 one-to-one — зд. индивидуальный 6 graduate course — магистратура. ’ Master of Business Administtation — магистр делового администрирования. 8 Master of Science — магистр естественных наук (магистр в области одной из естественных дисциплин) Text and vocabulary exercises 11. Match the English phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. engineering education а) стандарты качества
2. high salary 3. meet strict criteria 4. entry to university 5. quality standards 6. a huge variety of 7. branch of engineering 8. business skills 9. undergraduate engineering course b) инженерное образование с) поступление в университет <1) высокая зарплата е) удовлетворять взыскательным требованиям f) деловые навыки g) огромное разнообразие h) отрасль машиностроения i) базовый университетский курс машиностроения 12. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: профессиональная квалификация инженера основная часть в совокупности весь гол учебный семестр преподаватель давать возможность придавать большое значение опыт работы процесс обучения 13. Choose the right answer. I. Quality standards for UK institutions of higher education are among the best.... a) in Europe b) tn the West c) tn the world 2. British children take General Certificate of Secondary Education examinations .... a) at the age of 18 b) at the age of 16 c) at the age of 14 3. An undergraduate engineering course usually takes.... a) four years b) three years c) five years 4. The main subjects in the curriculum for any speciality are ... a) mathematics, engineering science and technology 5. According to their programme students courses which last.... b) mathematics, chemistry and physics с) mathematics, natural sciences and technology take a number of lecture a) one academic term b) the whole year c) one academic term or the whole year
14. Find the right English equivalent for the following Russian words. 1. будущий a) feature 2. учить(ся) a) student 3. за рубежом a) aboard 4. чем a) than 5. четыре a) for 6. с, вместе c a) within 7. сейчас a) new 8. некоторый a) same b) future b) studies c) feather c) study b) about c) abroad b) then c) that b) fourth c) four b) without c) with b) now c) know b) some c) sum 15. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. People throughout the world recognize and respect UK engineering education. 2. Many countries in the world are now trying to follow the example of the UK. 3. Most British begin their higher education at the age of 18 at colleges or universities. 4. The universities offer undergraduate engineering courses only in one of the major disciplines, such as civil, mechanical, electrical and electronic engineering. 5. UK universities do not have business skills in the curriculum. 6. The academic year in British universities has four terms. 7. Students who receive good grades tn their В Eng degree may choose co take a Master’s degree. В Pre-text exercises 16. “False friends”. There are many words in English that can mislead you when you translate them into Russian. For every wrong translation of a “false friend” find the correct English word and complete the following table. Consult the dictionary if necessary. "False friend” Correct translation Wrong translation English word Master магистр мастер combine объединять комбайн
actually фактически актуально ? aspirant претендент аспирант cession передача прав сессия personal личный персонал 17. A. Study the following information. В английском языке существительные могут употребляться в качестве определения к другим существительным. И тогда два или более существительных стоят рядом. Например: laboratory work, state exam, bachelor degree programme, etc. При переводе на русский язык следует помнить, что в таких атрибутивных комплексах существительное всегда стоит на последнем месте, а остальные выполняют роль определения к нему и могут переводиться следующим образом: I) прилагательным, е^.: laboratory work — лабораторная работа, state exam — государственный экзамен; 2) существительным в родительном падеже, e.g.: education system — система образовании, world universities — университеты мира\ 3) существительным с предлогом, e.g.: Bachelor degree programme — программа обучения на степень бакалавра. В. These attributive complexes are taken from Text 3B. Read and translate them. US university course, admission process, physics and mathematics courses, graduate school, undergraduate degree, exam results, education courses, laboratory practice, postgraduate studies, undergraduate grade, work environment. 18. Read the following text and choose the correct subtitle (a—f) for each paragraph (I—VI). a) Qualification in Community Colleges; b) Rules of Admission; c) Technical Training Schools; d) Engineers in Science; e) Engineering University Course; f) Postgraduate Programmes.
TEXT ЗВ ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN THE USA I Engineering is quickly becoming one of the largest professions in the United States. Traditionally the academic fields of study are chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, and mechanical engineering. There are a lot of technical training schools; community colleges1; colleges that oiler four-year Bachelor degree programmes; universities which contain one or more colleges and graduate schools that offer Master’s or Doctoral Degree programmes in the USA. II In the United States students usually begin higher education after 12 years of primary and secondary school. University course usually consists of four years of study at an institution of higher learning. US university courses and programmes differ greatly from one another in any discipline. However. admission process for undergraduate degrees in engineering is similar to other programmes of study in the US. Most US colleges and universities require SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test)2 exam results, a personal statement and letters of recommendation. Ill Community Colleges in the US offer technical Engineering Degrees which include an Associate of Science (A.S.)3 and Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.)4. Students with an Associate’s Degree have qualification to work as a technician or can continue to study to earn a Bachelor's degree. IV Similar to other 4-year undergraduate degrees in the US, engineering students usually complete a number of general education courses before they choose a specific major. During the first two years they follow a basic programme which includes humanities, literature, science (biology, chemistry and physics) and mathematics courses. Every student selects at least one course from each of the basic fields of study: English (4 years), science, modern languages, history or physical education (at least one year). During the first two years students also need to fulfil the introductory courses in the subject of their interest. In the final two years students choose from courses that relate to their specific major — engineering science. Most undergraduate programmes combine mathematical and scientific theory with laboratory practice in order to prepare students for postgraduate studies or future work. During four years at the end of each year students have a final written examination. Like high school, the four undergraduate grades are commonly called freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years (alternatively called first year, second year, etc.). V After four years of study the students receive a Bachelor’s degree (either BEng or BSc). With an additional year of study students may get a Master’s
degree. In order to get admission to postgraduate engineering programmes tn the US, applicants must have an undergraduate degree in engineering. Postgraduate Engineering Students earn a Master's of Science (MS) ora Master’s of Engineering (MEng) degree. Most postgraduate engineering programmes develop the skills necessary in a competitive work environment. Many engineering schools offer a curriculum with a focus on using technology, working in teams and taking courses in other disciplines. VI The two highest degrees an engineer can earn are a Doctor of Science (DSc) or a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). In order to get a position as a researcher ora teacher, most engineerswill need to earn a Doctorate degree. A Doctorate degree usually takes a minimum of seven years of undergraduate and postgraduate study and writing of the dissertation. Notes on the text 1 community college — местный (общинный) колледж {двухгодичный колледж, готовящий специалистов средней квалификации для работы на территории честного сообщество) 2 SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) — стандартизованный тест, проводимый централизованно 5 Associate of Science — выпускник колледжа по специальности естественных наук. 4 Associate of Applied Science — выпускник колледжа по специальности прикладных наук. Text and vocabulary exercises 19. Match the English phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. fields of study 2. chemical engineering 3. civil engineering 4. electrical engineering 5. industrial engineering 6. mechanical engineering 7. technical training school 8. primary school 9. secondary school а) химическое машиностроение Ь) начальная школа с) области изучения d) гражданское строительство е) машиностроение О организация производства g) средняя школа h) техническое училище i) электротехника 20. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: основная программа вводный курс машиноведение будущая работа письменный экзамен первокурсник второкурсник студент младших курсов старшекурсник аспирантура
21. Find in the text the right word to complete the sentences. 1. Engineering is quickly becoming one of the_______professions in the United States. 2. In the United States students usually begin higher education after_ years of primary and secondary school. 3. US university courses and programmes___ greatly from one another in any discipline. 4. Engineering students usually complete a number of_____education courses before choosing a specific major. 5. During the first__years students need to fulfil the introductory courses in the subject of their interest. 6. After four years of study the students receive a_degree. 7. Many engineering schools offer a curriculum with a focus on_,______ and____ 8.______The two highest degrees an engineer can earn are a Doctor of Science and . 22. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. I. In the USA a university course usually consists of five years of study. 2. The US university programmes differ greatly from one another, however, admission process is similar. 3. Students with an Associate’s degree have qualification to work as a technician or can continue to study to earn a Bachelor’s degree. 4. Every student selects at least two courses from each of the basic fields of study during the first two years. 5. Most programmes combine scientific theory with laboratory practice in order to prepare students for postgraduate studies or future work. 6. In order to get admission to postgraduate engineering programmes tn the US, applicants must have an undergraduate degree in engineering. 7. A Doctorate degree takes about seven years of undergraduate and postgraduate study and writing of the dissertation. c Pre-text exercises 23. Collocations. Match a verb with a noun or a phrase. Translate them. I. make a) development 2. influence b) production
3. facilitate contribution 4. train 5. write 6-get 7. continue c) contribution d) Bachelor’s degree e) a graduation paper f) studies g) engineers 24. Read the following text to answer these questions. I. 1Рйея did the first engineering school appear in Russia? 2. How many state technical universities are there nowadays? 3. When do the Russians begin to study at university? 4. How many years did university programme last traditionally? 5. Why did the situation change? 6. What system of education are universities implementing now? 7. Which disciplines do the university programmes include? 8. What do students do to get a Bachelor's degree9 9- How long does it fake to get a Master's degree? 10. Are there postgraduate studies at technical universities in Russia? TEXT3C TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION Russian engineering schools are a unique national tradition; they significantly influence the development of science and technology, make contribution to the industrial process improvement and facilitate industrial production. The engineering education in Russia began with the foundation of the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences in Moscow according to Tsar Peter the Great's Decree dated 27 January 1701. Soon after the Navigational School, other schools appeared: the Artillery-Engineering School (1701), the Moscow Engineering School (1703) and St Petersburg Engineering School (1713). In 1733, the Mining College appeared in St Petersburg. It was equal in status to academies. In 1828, the first institute — St Petersburg Practical Technological Institute appeared. Nowadays there are 275 state technical universities in Russia. They train engineers in different fields of engineering and technology, natural sciences and social economics. The quality of Russian teaching in natural sciences and technology is higher than in many western countries. Most Russians begin to study at the university after the compulsory education (a secondary school, a lyceum or gymnasium) at the age of 17. Admission to the university is ac
cording to the Unified State Exam results. Competition for places in universities and other prestigious academic institutions is rather stiff. Traditionally the basic university programme lasted five years and at the end students received a university degree. For five years at the end of each year students had oral examinations. They also wrote a graduation paper for a university degree. At present due to the fact that Russia has signed Bologna Declaration, the system of higher technical education in Russia began to change according to the demands of the international educational organizations. Universities are now implementing a system similar to that of Britain and the USA: 4 years for a Bachelor’s degree and 2 more years for a Master’s degree. The Bachelor’s degree programmes last for at least 4 years of full-time university-level study. The undergraduate programmes correspond to the State Educational Standards which regulate almost 80S- of their content. The university itself elaborates other 20*%. The programmes include professional and special courses in Science, the Humanities and Socio-economic disciplines, professional training, completion of a research paper or project and State final exams. To get the Bachelor’s degree students defend a Diploma project under the guidance of a supervisor and pass the final exams. Students with the Bachelor’s degree may enter the Master’s programme (two more years). After graduation from the university students may continue postgraduate studies. It usually takes 3 or 4 more years and writing the dissertation to get the Candidate of Science degree (equivalent to the Ph. D. degree in the American and British systems) and 3 more years and defending the doctoral thesis to get the Doctor of Science degree (no equivalent in the American and British education systems). Text and vocabulary exercises 25. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. in accordance with a) докторская диссертация 2. sign b) разрабатывать 3. elaborate c) технологический прогресс 4. industrial process improvement d) подписывать 5. academic institution e) под руководством 6. doctoral thesis 0 научное учреждение 7. full-time university-level study g) в соответствии с 8. under the guidance h) научная работа 9. research paper i) очное университетское обучение
26. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: национальная традиция промышленное производство обязательное образование окончание университета устный экзамен основание прием в университет ЕГЭ почти государственный выпускной экзамен 27. Choose the right answer. 1. Russian engineering schools are a unique national... a) heritage b) system c) tradition 2. The engineering education in Russia began with the foundation of ... a) the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences b) the Moscow Engineering School c) St Petersburg Engineering School 3. The first institute — St Petersburg Practical Technological Institute appeared.... a) in 1733 b) in 1701 c) in 1828 4. The quality of Russian teaching in natural sciences and technology is higher than in... a) many eastern b) many western c) many countries countries countries 5. Admission to the university is according io the results of.... a) the preliminary M the Unified State c) state final exams exams Exam 6. Competition for places in universities and other prestigious academic institutions is rather.... a) low b) stiff c) high 28. Read the text given above once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he/she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you.
Agreeing Disagreeing politely 1 agree with you. I’m afraid, I cannot agree with you. Yes. that is what I think too. I see what you mean, but 1 think.. You are right! Well, as far as 1 know... I. Universities in Russia are now implementing a system similar to that of Britain and the USA. 2. The undergraduate programmes correspond to the State Educational Standards which regulate almost 70°t> of their content. 3. The university programmes include professional and special courses in different disciplines, professional training, completion of a research paper or project and State final exams. 4. To get the Bachelor’s degree students only defend a Diploma project under the guidance of a supervisor without final exams. 5. Students who want to devote themselves to science and teaching enter the Master’s programme. 6. After graduation from the university students may continue postgraduate studies. 7. In the American and British education systems there is no equivalent for Doctor of Science degree. 29. Retell the text according to the plan given below. 1. The background of engineering education in Russia. 2. General information about Russian engineering education (number of universities, education quality, admission process, competition). 3. Current education system in Russia 4. Undergraduate programmes. 5. Postgraduate studies. 30. Read the article below and give your comments on the advantages and disadvantages of the E.G.E. US-style Entrance Exam Takes Hold in Russia In2009, the E.G.E., or Unified State Exam (the Russian version of the American SAT), in Russian language and math became mandatory for high school graduation and college entrance. Students who are planning to enter college choose a third test according to their planned major. President Dmitri A. Medvedev is a strong supporter of the test as part of his modernization plan and an ef- fort to fight fraud and bribes. He said in a television interview in August 2009 that the E.G.E. is “a) directed against corruption; b) it makes the testing process much more transparent.”
Mr Medvedev and other officials, including Sergei B. Ivanov, the first deputy Prime Minister, also praised the test as a “social lift” that gives students from the provinces a fair chance to enter prestigious universities. But there are opponents to the experiment. Sergei Mironov, chairman of the Federation Council, Russia’s upper chamber of Parliament, said last month that the E.G.E. “experiment is playing a negative role’ and that Interior Ministry statistics showed that corruption in education doubled in 2009. Academics and parents say that they see an overall drop in education standards, embodied by the E.G.E.’s multiple-choice tests, which are the polar opposite of the oral exams and essays that were the basis of the Soviet testing system. “We see that students can do brilliantly on the E.G.E., but they come here and don’t know a lot,” said Yevgenia Petrova, who lias taught at Saratov State University for nearly 50 years. At State Educational Institution Educational Centre No. 109, students are preparing for the E.G.E. and they are not at all opposed to it. “The idea is not bad,” said Maria Zamyatina. “It just needs improvements”. (adapted from the international Herald Tribune) GRAMMAR REVIEW Образование и употребление Present, Past и Future Continuous (Progressive) в действительном залоге (Active Voice) Времена группы Continuous обозначают длительное действие, которое происходит, происходило или будет происходить в точно указанный момент или период в настоящем, прошедшем либо будущем (now, at 5 o’clock yesterday, tomorrow, when I caine/come). Например'. What are you doing now? When you came 1 was sleeping. Tomorrow at 10 we’ll be taking an exam. Что ты сейчас делаешь? Я спал, когда ты пришел. Завтра в 10 мы будем сдавать экзамен. Особенностью времен группы Continuous является то, что они выражают незаконченное действие, и, следовательно, переводятся глаголом несовершенного вида.
В Continuous не употребляются глаголы, выражающие чувства, восприятие и желание: to want, to like, to love, to wish, to see, to hear, to feel, to notice, to know, to understand, to remember, to recognize, to forget, to seem, to be, etc. Как правило, они стоят в одном из времен группы Simple. Спряжение глагола to work в Present Continuous (действие в процессе, совершается в тот момент, когда о нем говорят) Positive Negative Question I am working 1 am not working I’m networking Am 1 working? He is w orking He is not w orking He isn’t working Is he working? She is working She is not working She isn’t working Is she working? It is working It is not working It isn’t working Is it working? We are w orking We are not working We aren't working Are we working? You are working You are not working You aren’t working Are you working? They are working They are not working They aren’t working Are they working? Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые с Present Continuous: Now At the moment At this time сейчас, в данный момент Right now Правописание: come -> coming smoke smoking write -> writing run -> running sit -> sitting swim -» swimming lie —> lying die -> dying 31. Закончите предложения, употребив глаголы в скобках в правильной форме. 1. Please be quiet. I_(work). 2. Take the umbrella. It _outside (rain). 3. My parents___at their friends’ now (stay). 4. Where are you? — I _ dinner in the kitchen (cook). 5. You can turn the TV off. I_it (not watch). 6. Hurry up! The bus__(come). 7. The climate on the Earth___(change). 8. It is summer now. The days_longer and the nights____shorter (get). 9. Look! Kate___across the river (swim). 10. At present European countries_more foreign students from all over the world (receive).
32. Напишите вопросы в Present Continuous, используя слова в правильном порядке. 1. you / what I are / doing / now / ? 2. is / what / happening / your / to / brother / ? 3. why / you / not / are / to / listening I me / ? 4. are / you / tonight / going / out / ? 5. what / is / taking / he / time / an / exam / ? 6. Kate / are / Helen / when / dinner / for / coming / and / ? 7. what / she / is / book / reading / ? 8. it / raining / outside / is / now / ? 9. what I the / students / are / experiment / doing / ? 10. you / what I are / for / looking / ? 33. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Simple или Present Continuous в зависимости от ситуации. Model: I (do) English now, though I (speak) it fluently yet. I am doing English now, though I don’t speak it fluently yet. I. I (live) in Rostov, though I (stay) in Moscow at the moment. 2. Ann generally (take) the bus to work but today she (drive) a car. 3. We usually (have) dinner at home, but today we (have) it in the restaurant. 4. 1 (stay) with my parents at the moment, though I (have) my own flat. 5. They usually (not work) at the weekend, but they (work) this Sunday. 6. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. 7. I usually (work) at night, though I (have) a rest tonight 8. Look! It (rain), we cannot play tennis. 9. He sometimes (read) on a bus. but today he is (speak) to his friend. 10. What you (do) there? — I (try) to find my pen. 34. Переведите текст на английский язык, употребляя Present Simple или Present Continuous. Сейчас начало семестра и шуденческая жизнь начинается! Первокурсники знакомятся со своими одногруппниками (groupmates), преподавателями и новыми дисциплинами. Они узнают много нового и интересного о своем университете и будущей профессии. На первом курсе студенты изучают общеобразовательные дисциплины и вводные курсы по своей специальности. Они начинают заниматься научно-исследовательской работой Однако университет предлагает много возможностей не только для обучения и научной работы, но и творческого развития. Студенты, которые любят петь, танцевать и шутить, принимают участие (take part in) в студенческих фестивалях и праздниках.
Present Simple и Present Continuous для будущего времени Present Simple и Present Continuous используются для выражения действий в будущем. Present Continuous употребляется для выражения запланированных действий в будущем. Например: We are leaving for Moscow Завтра мы уезжаем в Москву, tomorrow. I am meeting my friends tonight. Я встречаюсь с друзьями сегодня вечером. Present Simple употребляется для выражения действий, происходящих в будущем по расписанию, распорядку Например: The concert starts at 8 o’clock. What time does the train leave? The train leaves at 4.15. Концерт начинается в 8 часов. Когда отходит поезд? Поезд отходит в 4.15. 35. Напишите предложения в будущем времени, используя Present Continuous или Present Simple. 1. I / not / go / out / tonight 2. the exam / start / at 8 o’clock 3. we / have / a party / next Saturday 4. the English course / finish / on 30 May 5. my brother I take part in / festival / in October 6. the train / arrive / in 5 minutes 7. I / play / tennis / with my friends / next Tuesday 8. Tim I not / come I with us / to the concert 9. what time / Bob and Sue / come / ? 10. when / you / go / on holiday I 2 Спряжение глагола to work в Past Continuous Positive Negative Question 1 was working 1 was not working Was 1 working? He was working He was not working Was he working? She was working She was not working Was she working? It was working It was not working Was it working? We were working We were not working Were we working? You were working You were not working Were you working? They were working They were not working Were they working?
Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые с Past Continuous The whole day yesterday — весь день вчера AU day long весь лень At that time yesterday — в это время вчера At that moment yesterday — в тот момент вчера 36. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Past Continuous. 1. In 2003, they__(work) at the power plant. 2. I___(read) all day long yesterday. 3. It _ (rain) in the evening, so we did not go out 4. When we came home, Nick______(sleep). 5. What did he say? — I don’t know. I__(not listen). 6. I (read) a book when he came in. 7. He __(watch) TV when you phoned 8. This time yesterday I___(not work), 1__(play) computer. 9. I was late but my friends_(wait) for me. 10. We met him when he_____(cross) the street. 37. Напишите вопросы в Past Continuous. 1. what I your friend / do / when you saw him / ? 2. what / you / do / at 11 o’clock yesterday I ? 3. it / rain / in evening / ? 4. where / you / work / in December / ? 5. why I they / laugh / when we came in / ? 6. what / she / read / the whole day I ? 7. what / happen / when I phoned / ? 38. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Past Simple или Past Continuous. We (walk) along the street io Mike’s house when we (see) him tn the bus (pass) by. He (see) us too but he (not get off) the bus because there (be) too many people. We (be) sorry that we (not speak) to him. It (be) his birthday and we (want) to congratulate him. But we couldn’t do anything, so we (come) back home. We (decide) to phone him later. At that moment we (hear) Mike’s voice behind us. He (manage) to get off the bus and (catch) up with us. We (be) very happy and (go) for a walk. When we (pass) by the cinema we (decide) to go and see a film. The film (be) good and we (enjoy) it very much! Спряжение глаголя to write в Future Continuous Positive Negative Question I shall be writing 1 shall not (shan’t) be writing Shall I be writing? He will be writing He will not (won't) be writing Will he be writing?
She will be writing She will not (won’t) be writing Will she be writing? It will be writing It will not (won’t) be writing Will it be writing? We shall be writing We shall not (won’t) be writing Shall we be writing? You will be writing You will not (won’t) be writing Will you be writing? They will be writing They will not (won’t) be writing Will they be writing? Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые с Future Continuous At this time tomorrow — в это время завтра From 3 till 4 tomorrow — с 3 до 4 часов завтра 39. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Future Continuous. I. This time next month I_(work) at the plant. 2. At 9 o’clock tomorrow she_(make) phone calls in her office. 3. I will come at 2 o’clock. — OK, I _ (wait) for you. 4. Can I take your computer? — No, I’m afraid, I_(use) it. 5. At this time tomorrow they (write) a test 6. The children_(stay) with their grandparents for the whole summer holidays. 7. Don’t phone them at 3 o’clock tomorrow; they__(carry) out an ex- periment. 8. Can we come to you at about 6.30? — No, I____(watch) the match on TV. 9. You will recognize her when you see her. She_(wear) a red dress. 10. At 10 o'clock tomorrow morning they_(clean) their flat. 40. Ответьте на следующие вопросы. I. What will you be doing at 9 o’clock tomorrow? 2. What will your friend be doing at 6 o’clock tomorrow evening? 3. What lesson will you be having at 10 o’clock tomorrow? 4. Will you be taking an exam tomorrow morning? 5. What will you be doing after the lessons tomorrow? 6. Will you be watching TV at 6 in the evening? 7. What will you be doing tomorrow evening? 41. Переведите предложения на английский язык, употребляя Present Simple, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Future Simple или Future Continuous. Традиционно в начале сентября студенты отмечают день первокурсника. Вчера, 10 сентября, студенты и преподаватели нашего университета поздравляли первокурсников с началом учебы. Перед главным корпусом (main building) университета студенты поставили мини-сце
ну и развесили воздушные шары. Праздник начался с поздравлений ректора университета. Его речь была короткой, но интересной. Весь вечер студенты пели, танцевали и шутили. Всем понравился Праздник первокурсника. Дальше у студентов будут лекции, семинары и лабораторные работы. Студенты будут работать и учиться усердно (hard). Зимой они будут сдавать свою первую сессию. Именно она и будет настоящим посвящением в (initiation into) студенты. Выражение be going to Мы используем be going to для выражения наших намерений в будущем или прошлом. На русский язык be going to переводится собираться (чт-л. делать). Например: She is going to sell her car. They were going to buy this house. Она собирается продать свою машину. Они собирались купить этот дом. 42. Закончите предложения. используя be going to (в соответствующем времени) + один из следующих глаголов: eat, give, rain, study, walk, buy, enter, work, play, see 1. My sister is going to university in September. She engineering. 2. It is very cloudy. It soon. 3. Our washing machine broke down. So we a new one 4. We are going to the cinema. What film_we_______t 5. I’m very hungry. I_ _ _ this sandwich. 6. Sally Cambridge University. 7. My new work begins in October. I______ in a big office. 8. It is our mother’s birthday soon. We her a special present. 9. We did not want to take a bus, we along the streets. 1П She does not come with us. She a computer. 43. Напишите, что вы собираетесь делать завтра, используя begoing to (ваши предложения могут быть утвердительными или отрицательными). I. get up at 7 o’clock 2. cook breakfast 3. go to the university by bus 4. have two lectures and a seminar 5. return home in the afternoon 6. have dinner
7. watch TV after dinner 8. read books in the evening 9. go for a walk with the friends 10. go to bed at 11 o’clock 44. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about the universities (Text 4). SPEAKING PRACTICE 45. Educational system in Britain and Russia. J. Match a question in column A with an answer in B. A В 1. Is the timetable at school the same every day? a) 16 and 18. 2. Do all children go to nursery school? b) No, you do different things. 3. What age do you go to primary school? c) You have to go between the ages of 11 and 16. 4. What age do you go to secondary school? d) Three years. 5. Does everyone leave school at 16? e) No, some people stay at school until they are 18. 6. What age do teenagers take public exams? f) You can study a lot of different things: engineering, business, science and others. 7. How long does a degree course usually last? g) You have to go between the ages of 5 and 11. 8. When do you do a postgraduate course? h) After you’ve got your first graduate degree. 9. How many terms are there in the academic year? i) Three: from September to December; from January to March and from April to July. 10. What subjects can you do at university? j) No, only some go between the ages of 3 and 4. B. Complete the sentences using the information from the table above. 1. The timetable at British school... 2. In Britain, nursery school education begins... 3. In Britain, primary school education...
4. British children... secondary school.. 5. Teenagers... public exams... 6. A degree course usually... 7. A postgraduate course... 8. The academic year... 9. At university you... C. Write down similar questions about educational system in Russia. Ask and answer them with your partner. WRITING PRACTICE 46. Translate the following text into English. Татьянин день В Татьянин день, 12 января, по новому стилю (by the new style) 25 января. 1755 года, императрица (empress) Елизавета подписала указ (Decree) «Об учреждении (establishment) Московского университета» и 12 (25) января стал официальным университетским днем. Поэтому святая Татьяна является покровительницей (patron saint) студентов. Сначала люди отмечали этот праздник только в Москве. Праздник состоял из двух частей: непродолжительной официальной церемонии в здании университета и веселого народного гуляния (public festival), в котором принимали участие почти все жители столицы. Затем Николай I распорядился праздновать не день открытия университета, а студенческий праздник — Татьянин день и День студента. После Октябрьской революции традиция праздновать Татьянин день прекратилась и появилась вновь только в 1995. Сегодня студенты во всех городах России отмечают свой праздник шумно и весело. PROJECT BOX 47. Find information about traditions and student life of any university (your own, or any Russian, or foreign one). Tell the ciass about it.
UNIT 4 A Pre-text exercises 1. Look at the following international words, guess their meaning and check the pronunciation. Specialist, academy, project, astronomy, geology, metallurgy, mineralogy, barometer, radio, signal, distance, assistant, radiation, demonstration, diagram, apparatus, competent, modern, army, prototype, laser, principle, director, institute. 2. Pronunciation: the letter e. A. Read these words. I. economy, become, return, reform |i| 2. medal, seven, every, president [e| 3. her, serve, university [з:] В. Put these words in group 1, 2 or 3. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Practise reading them. Remain, send, nene, chemistry, effort, method, metal, germ, lecture, help, become, relations, separate, element, enter, equipment, permit, several, develop. 3. Here are some examples with prepositions before, after, during, while. Read and learn them. before during after before the lesson during the lesson after the lesson Before the lesson we went to the library During the lesson we wrote a test After the lesson we went home
before while after before we took an exam while we were taking an exam after we took an exam Before we took an exam we felt nervous While we were taking an exam we did our best After we took an exam we went to a caffe Мы используем during + существительное (during the film), while r глагол (while we were watching). Мы так же можем использовать before -ing и after -ing. before -ing after -ing After learning the words he translated the text (= after he learned the words) I started work after reading the book (= after 1 read the book) I always have breakfast before going to work (= before I go to work) Before going to the teacher, he prepared carefully (— before he went to the teacher) 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. 1. Everybody was nervous___the examination. 2. We did not speak___we were eating. 3. The students were very tired _ the lesson. 4. I was reading the newspaper___1 was waiting for you. 5. My parents lived in the village_the war. 6. I do not eat much__the day, but____work I always have dinner. 7. He usually has lunch in the afternoon and__lunch he goes back to work 8. I fell asleep_the film. 9. She washed her hands____eating. 10. The boy thought carefully_answering 11. __going shopping we went home. Word building 5. Translate the following derivative adjectives: verb + -able —> adjective measure — measurable, consider — considerable, rely — reliable, drink — drinkable, eat — eatable; noun + -ous —> adjective right — righteous, mystery — mysterious, space — spacious, hazard — hazardous
6. Form adjectives from these words using suffixes -able, -ous, translate them: to accept, to enjoy, danger, to adapt, to read, anonym, to value, to consume, to change, to understand, fame. 7. Complete the sentences with the help of the adjectives formed from the words in italics using suffixes -able, -ous. 1. If you cannot eat something, it is not_. 2. He is not afraid of any danger. He is fond of_situations. 3. I cannot read this book. It is not_. 4. Everybody can rely upon him. He is a___person. 5. This castle has many mysteries. This___atmosphere attracts tourists from all over the world. 6. There is much space here. 1 like___rooms. 8. Brainstorming. A. Study the dictionary definitions of the word “engineer”. Look for similarities and differences. What definition is the best to your mind? “A person whose job involves designing and building engines, machines, roads, bridges, etc.” {Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English) “A person who runs or supervises an engine or an apparatus” (New Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) “A person whose job is to design or build machines, engines or electrical equipment, or things such as roads, railways or bridges, using scientific principles” (Cambridge International Dictionary of English) B. Think of your own definition of the word “engineer”. Compare with a partner’s one. Active vocabulary Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: aerospace engineering — авиационно-космическая техника to be in demand иметь спрос, быть популярным brain мозг branch — отрасль, подразделение; syn. section broad — широкий, обширный; syn. wide graphics — проектирование increasingly — все больше и больше, в большей степени innovation — инновация, нововведение; innovative инновационный to master — овладевать, усваивать
competent - компетентный competition — соревнование, конкуренция to cover — охватывать. покрывать despite — несмотря на drafting — черчение electrical engineering — электротехника to excel — совершенствовать, доводить до совершенства executive — управленец; top executive — высшее руководство extracurricular — необязательный, факультативный materials engineering — материаловедение, проработка материальных потоков mechanical engineering — ма- шиной 1 роение nuclear engineering — ядерная технология prototype — опытный образец relevant — значимый; существенный; важный suitable — годный, подходящий surely — конечно, непременно; syn. certainly, of course thanks to — благодаря topic — тема; syn. theme 10. Read the text and complete the following statements. The text is about... It describes... According to the text... TEXT 4A WHAT IS AN ENGINEER? Engineering applies scientific and mathematical principles, experience, judgement and common sense to make things that serve people. Engineers design bridges and important medical equipment as well as methods that minimize toxic effects of modern production process and public transportation systems. Engineering produces a technical product or system to meet a specific or urgent need. Engineering influences modern life and today you surely have already used one or more engineering achievement. Perhaps you woke up to a DAB1 clock radio or used a train or a bus? Maybe you have listened to an iPod? Or watched television? Do you have a mobile phone in your pocket or trainers on your feet? All these things are engineering achievements. Engineering covers a wide range of businesses and industries, and engineers work in all kinds of environments.
Historically the main branches of engineering include Aerospace engineering, Chemical engineering. Civil engineering. Electrical engineering and Mechanical engineering. Aerospace engineering deals with the design and construction of aircraft and spacecraft. Chemical engineering is the exploitation of chemical principles in order to carry out large-scale chemical processes, as well as design of new materials and fuels. Civil engineering deals with the design and construction of public and private projects, such as roads, railways, water supply systems, bridges, and buildings. Electrical engineering is a very broad area that may include the design and study of various electrical and electronic systems, such as generators, motors, electromechanical devices, computer systems, telecommunications, and many others. Mechanical engineering designs physical or mechanical systems, such as engines, vacuum technology and others. Due to the rapid advancement of technology many new fields are becoming important and new branches are developing, such as materials engineering, computer engineering, nanotechnology, mechatronics, genetic engineering, nuclear engineering, biomedical engineering, and environmental engineering. These new specialities sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches, such as Mechanical engineering and Mechatronics or Electrical and Computer engineering. Whatever you decide to specialize in, just remember that it is your choice, not your parents’, teachers' or friends’. The field of engineering is wide enough for people of all types and, despite public opinion, for women as well. In fact, some of the most successful engineers in the past were women. You must know about Marie Curie and Sophia Kovalevskaya but there were more. A British mathematician Ada Bryon Lovelace helped invent a machine that was a prototype of the modern computer. She also predicted the development of software and artificial intelligence years before they actually became reality. A universal computer programming language was named after her “ADA”. Grace Murray Hopper was an American computer scientist. Thanks to her programmers of today can write their programmes with the use of English rather than machine language, and this, of course, makes their jobs much easier. Elsa Garmire advanced optical technology and made the commercial use of lasers possible. Thanks to her we use CD players and laser printers in our everyday life. A chemist Stephanie Kwolek discovered a solvent that later was used in the production of Kevlar2, the key component of bullet-proof vests2. Mary Anderson invented the windshield wiper4 that is widely used in cars today. You should also know that engineers in all fields of engineering apply the sciences of physics and mathematics to find suitable solutions io problems or to make improvements. Engineering is considered a branch of applied mathematics and science. That is why engineers now should have knowledge of
relevant sciences for their design projects. They also must be competent tn computer programmes. At present computer is widely used in engineering. One of the most useful tools is computer-aided design (CAD) which allows engineers to create 3D models, 2D drawings and schematics of their designs. As a result, engineers should learn throughout their career. Notes on the text 1 DAB clock (= Digital Audio Broadcasting) — цифровое радиовещание, часы с цифровым радиовещанием. 2 Kevlar — кевлйр, торговое название арамида (синтетического волокна, обладающего высокой прочностью) 1 bullet-proof vests — бронежилет ’ windshield wiper — стеклоочистители (в машине) Text and vocabulary exercises 11. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. judgement 2. common sense 3. to meet a need 4. trainers 5. a wide range oi 6. all kinds of 7. rapid advancement 8. water supply system 9. rather than 10. applied mathematics 11. computer-aided design а) кроссовки b) здравый смысл с) удовлетворять потребность d) быстрое продвижение е) широкий диапазон f) всевозможный g) а не h) прикладная математика i) автоматизированное проектирование j) экспертное мнение к) система водоснабжения 12. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: оборудование нанотехнология исторически генная инженерия железная дорога программное обеспечение электромеханический прибор язык программирования 13. Choose the right answer. I. Engineering produces a technical product or system to meet a specific or urgent.... a) standard b) need с) requirement
2. Aerospace engineering deals with the design and construction of.... a) medical b) electronic devices c) aircraft and equipment spacecraft 3. Some of the most successful engineers in the past were.. a) children b) women c) teenagers 4. Ada Bryon Lovelace helped invent a machine that was a prototype of.... a) the modern b) the mobile phone c) the vacuum computer cleaner 5. Thanks to Grace Hopper programmers ol today can write their programmes with the use of English rather than .. a) computer language b) machine language c) artificial language 6. Engineering is considered a branch of applied mathematics and .... a) economics b) management c) science 14. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. Engineering applies scientific and mathematical principles, experience, judgement and common sense to make things that serve people. 2. Engineering covers a wide range of businesses and industries, and engineers work in all kinds of environments. 3. Chemical engineering deals with the design and construction of public and private projects such as roads, railways, water supply systems, bridges, and buildings. 4. Despite the rapid advancement of technology no new fields or new branches appear. 5. The field of engineering is not for women. 6. Mary Anderson invented the windshield wiper that is widely used in cars today. 7. Engineers now should be competent in computer programmes. 8. Engineers do not need to learn throughout their career. 15. A. These verbs with prepositions are from the text. Match each verb with a preposition. Lwake a) with 2. combine b) in 3. specialize c) up
4. carry 5. listen 6. deal 7. name d) to e) with f) after g) out B. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. 1. My brother is an engineer. He specializes__electrical engineering. 2. At the laboratory class we carried_an interesting experiment. 3. Our teacher always combines theoretical explanation____practice. 4. We listened___his report with great attention. 5. This research deals__the problem of renewable energy. 6. The Moscow State University was named______ M.V. Lomonosov. 7. I woke___early in the morning. В Pre-text exercises 16. Jobs. Match jobs from column A with activities from column B. Translate the sentences. A 1. A doctor 2. A lawyer 3. An accountant 4. A geologist 5. A scientist 6. A meteorologist 7. A government officer В a) helps people in court. b) conducts scientific research. c) forecasts the weather. d) maintains business accounts. e) works in the sphere of geological engineering. f) works for local or state government. g) treats people. 17. Read the following text. What information is new for you? Exchange your opinions with a partner. TEXT4B WHY BECOME AN ENGINEER There are many reasons why young people all over the world are increasingly choosing engineering as a career. Engineering by its nature is a creative profession, and if you like to question, analyze, invent, discover and create.
then engineering profession is ideal for you. Engineering will offer you intellectual and technical challenges and allow you to test your analytical and creative skills every day. Engineers help sustain our country in the international competition, maintain our standard of living, ensure a strong national security and protect public safety. Engineers also make a tremendous contribution to society through enhancement and protection of the environment. The ideas that engineers develop and the wealth that they generate solve global problems. Engineers have a high level of responsibility and autonomy within their area of work. As a member of such a respected profession, you will receive a high amount of prestige. Engineers are always leaders in technical innovation. They are developing such innovative engineering fields as biomedicine and robotics. There is a tremendous opportunity for engineers to collaborate with many other professionals, such as doctors, lawyers, accountants, geologists, scientists, meteorologists, and government officers. The professional engineers are always in demand. Besides, there is an opportunity for quick advancement to the top jobs for those who have abilities, ambition and wish to succeed. Qualified engineers with management abilities can be quickly promoted to top management with correspondingly high salaries. 24% of top executives in Europe hold degree in science, engineering or technology. Engineering is an international activity, and professional engineers often have the opportunity to travel abroad. The imagination, skills and experience of engineers have had more influence on the development of the world than any other profession. Engineering has never mattered more than nowadays. What engineers know and can do are critical resources for the sustainability of the world. Engineering students must prepare to master their profession and to excel it. First and foremost condition for a future engineer is a good engineering education. In Russia there are a lot of engineering high schools that provide students with theoretical knowledge and practical skills in all branches of modern engineering. A degree in engineering takes four to five years. Future engineers should study mathematics and physics. As engineers express ideas graphically and may need to visualize products or processes in three dimensions, they should also pay attention to graphics, drafting or design courses. A good way to develop interests in engineering is to join extracurricular activities like Science Olympiads or Business Games that focus on science, technology and communication. Such competitions exercise the brain, develop ability to think logically and to solve problems. These skills are valuable not only for work but throughout the whole life.
Text and vocabulary exercises 18. Match the English phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. by nature 2. standard of living 3. enhancement 4. respected profession 5. advancement 6. top jobs 7. qualified engineer 8. management abilities 9. top management 10. pay attention to а) уважаемая профессия b) высшие руководящие должности с) обращать внимание на d) продвижение е) по природе f) стандарт жизни g) способности к руководству h) высокие посты 0 улучшение j) квалифицированный инженер 19. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: национальная безопасность престиж общественная безопасность ездить за границу богатство первое и самое главное высокий уровень выража!Ь идеи графически ответственности отчетливо представлять на протяжении всей жизни 20. Find in the text the right w ord to complete the sentences. 1. There are many reasons why young people all over the world are increasingly choosing engineering as a__. 2. Engineering by its nature is a creative profession, and if you like to_, analyze,____,____and create, then engineering profession is ideal for you. 3. Engineering will offer you intellectual and technical_. 4. Engineers make a tremendous contribution to society_ enhance- ment and protection of the environment. 5. Engineers have a high level of_and____within their area of work. 6. Engineers are always leaders in_. 7. There is a tremendous opportunity for engineers to_with many other professionals. 8. The professional engineers are always_. 9.______Qualified engineers with management abilities can be quickly promoted to . 10. Professional engineers often have the opportunity to__.
21. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. Engineers help sustain our country in the international competition, maintain our standard of living, ensure a strong national security and protect public safety 2. The ideas that engineers develop and the wealth that they generate solve local problems. 3. 54% of top executives in Europe hold degree in science, engineering or technology. 4. The imagination, skills and experience of engineers have had more influence on the development of the world titan any other profession. 5. What engineers know and can do are critical resources for the sustainability of the world. 6. Engineering students must prepare to master their profession and to excel it. 7. In Russia there are a few high engineering schools that provide students with theoretical knowledge and practical skills in all branches of modern engineering. 8. A degree in engineering takes three to six years. c Pre-text exercises 22. Jobs and specialists. A. Divide the words given below into two groups: 1) words that describe jobs, e.g.: well-paid; 2) words that describe qualities necessary for a job, e.g.: patient. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Patient, well-paid, exciting, creative, good with people, good with numbers, imaginative, stressful, complicated, difficult, competent, interesting, qualified. B. Choose the words that can be used to describe engineers’ work and qualities that an engineer should have. Compare your ideas with a partner’s. 23. Read the following text to check your ideas. Then answer the following questions. 1. Why should an engineer develop his/her analytical skill si 2. What ability is very importantfor an engineer? 3. Why should the engineers have good communication skills? 4. Which academic subjects are importantfor engineers? 5. Is there a formula for a successful engineer?
ТЕХТ4С QUALITIES OF A COMPETENT ENGINEER Engineers are responsible for the greatest inventions and technologies the modem world depends on. Everything from space shuttles to air-conditioning systems requires the work of a competent engineer. To be successful in the field of engineering, one must have certain qualities. Analytical Skills. People make errors every day, no matter what the consequences are. The errors which engineers make may determine people’s life and death because even the slightest error can cause not only financial but physical damage as well. That’s why engineers should be able to analyze a situation as a whole and see all the factors that are involved in it. Every detail must be reviewed thoroughly during the design of a project. A good engineer should develop his analytical skills and constantly examine things, and think of ways to help things work better. Ability to Solve Problems and Creativity. The ability to solve problems is an important part of engineering. An engineer must be able to figure out the causes of a problem and quickly develop a solution. For this an engineer should be able to understand how things work and how problems arise. Creativity is also necessary. Only creative engineers can think of new and innovative ways to develop systems and make existing things work more efficiently. Communication Skills. Modern engineering is a team work, and a competent engineer understands that he is a part of a larger team of engineers who are working together to make successful projects. Therefore, engineers must work well as a part of that team and should have good communication skills. Besides, engineers should be able to translate complex technical language into plain everyday language and communicate both with colleagues and clients. Proficiency in Mathematics, Science and Computers. Engineering is closely connected with science and mathematics and always involves complex calculations. Scientific and mathematical principles are the main tool that engineers use to develop solutions to problems. A good engineer also lias vast technical knowledge He understands a lot of computer programmes and other systems that people commonly use during an engineering project. Moreover, engineers have to know all the latest developments in the industry. Changes in technology happen rapidly, and the most successful engineers keep abreast1 of new research and ideas. Interest in Engineering and Persistence. The most important thing that is required to be a successful engineer is genuine interest in engineering. But interest is not always enough. You have to be determined to succeed.
Of course, there is no precise formula what professional and personal qualities will help you become a successful engineer. Besides, not all these qualities are necessary, but if engineering is your future, you should know and try to develop them all. Note on the text 1 keep abreast — Быть в курсе, идти в ногу. Text and vocabulary exercises а) Ь) с) d) 24. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. space shuttle 2. air-conditioning system 3. consequences 4. figure out работа в команде подлинный интерес основной инструмент система кондиционирования воздуха последствия 5. team work 6. main tool 7. vast technical knowledge 8. genuine interest e) f) воздушно-космический аппарат g) постигать, разгадывать h) обширные технические познания 25. Synonyms. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: demand in the sphere of mistake all the time work out qualified a plenty of fast (2 words} 26. Choose the right answer. I. Everything from space shuttles to air-conditioning systems requires the work of.... a) a qualified worker b) a competent engineer 2. с) a competent manager The errors which engineers make may determine people’s... a) life and death b) health c) wealth The ability to solve problems is an important part of.... a) scientific research b) designing c) engineering
4. Modern engineering is.... a) a team work b) designing process c) an individual task 5. Engineering is connected with science and mathematics and always involves.... a) preliminary research b) complex c) scientific calculations experiments 6. A good engineer also has vast technical... a) skills b) experience c) knowledge 27. Read the text above once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he or she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing Disagreeing pohteiy I agree with you. I’m afraid, 1 cannot agree with you. Yes, that is what I think too. I see what you mean, but 1 think... You are right! Well, as far as 1 know... I. Engineers are responsible for the greatest inventions and technologies the modern world depends on. 2. Any person can be successful in the field of engineering. 3. A good engineer should develop his analytical skills, examine things and think of ways to help things work better. 4. Creativity can be a useful quality for an engineer. 5. Scientific and mathematical principles are the main tool that engineers use to develop solutions to problems. 6. The most important thing for a successful engineer is vast technical knowledge 7. There is a precise formula what professional and personal qualities will help you become a successful engineer 28. Sum up the text in 6—8 sentences. 1. The text tells us about... 2. According to it... 3. The text also mentions... 4. It emphasizes... 5. I want to point out the following facts that were new for me... 6. The text concludes... 7. Inasmuch as... 8. In conclusion I’d like to mention that...
29. Questionnaire. Can you become a competent engineer? Answer these questions to And out. 1. Do you like to solve problems? a) Yes, 1 do b) No, 1 don’t c) Not really 2. Do you like to communicate with people’ a) Yes, 1 like people b) I like people, but c) I don't really like at a distance 3. Are you good at analyzing things? a) Yes, 1 am b) No, 1 am not c) people Sometimes 4. Are you always accurate? a) Yes, always b) I don’t think it’s C) I’m generally important 5. When you have a problem how do you solve it? accurate a) I act according to my first instinct b) I consider alternative solutions and all pros and cons с) I get help from people who had a similar problem 6. Do you plan your work or do you do what you see at the moment? a) 1 usually plan my work b) 1 think planning is boring c) Both ways are for me 7. Are you good at mathematics and science? a) Yes, 1 am b) No, I am not c) It depends 8. Are you a creative person? a) Yes, 1 am b) No, 1 am not c) It depends 9- How long are you ready to study to become a competent engineer? a) Only at university b) All my life C) At university and a first year at a workplace Count your score: 1. a — 3 2. a — 2 3. a - 3
4. a —2 5. a — 1 6. a — 3 7. a — 3 8. a — 1 b —0 b— 3 b —0 b —0 b— 3 c —2 0—5points. You cannot become a good engineer. You may not have all the qualities to be a good engineer, but everything can be learned. Why not find out more about your shortcomings and improve them? You may turn out to be a dream engineer 5—14 points. You may become a good engineer. You have many of the characteristics necessary to work in this field, but not all of them. Try to make more efforts and improve yourself with the help of friends and teachers. 15— 22points. You will become a good engineer. You have the potential to become a competent engineer. You have good abilities and can find solutions. GRAMMAR REVIEW Образование и употребление Present, Past и Future Perfect в действительном залоге (Active Voice) Времена группы Perfect употребляются для выражения действий, свершившихся к определенному моменту в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем. Точный момент совершения действий не упоминается. Например: We have already passed the exam. We had passed the exam before you came. We shall have passed the exam by 10 o’clock tomorrow. Мы уже сдали экзамен. Мы сдали экзамен до того, как ты пришел. Завтра к 10 часам мы уже сдадим экзамен. Спряжение глагола to write в Present Perfect Positive Negative Question I have written I have not (haven’t) written Have I written? He has written He has not (hasn’t) written Has he written? She has written She lias not (hasn’t) written Has she written? It has written It has not (hasn’t) written Has it written? We have written We have not (haven’t) written Have we written? 10В
I You have written I You have not (haven’t) written I Have you written?! I They have written | They have not (haven't) written | Have they written? | Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые с Present Perfect: already, yet, just, never, ever, recently, today, this week / month, etc. Сравните: I have bought a book today / this week / this month.! We have just come. > Present Perfect How long have you worked there? For 5 years. I bought a book yesterday I last week / last month.! We came a minute ago. L Past Indefinite When did you work there? — Five years ago Present Perfect употребляется, когда точный момент действия неизвестен или неважен, в то время как Past Indefinite всегда обозначает действие-факт, произошедшее в определенный момент. 30. Закончите предложения, употребив глаголы в скобках в Present Perfect. 1. Where_____you___(be)? — I_____(be) to the doctor. 2. __you____(see) my glasses anywhere? — Yes. they were on the table. 3. He___just____(go out). 4. I_(lose) my passport. I cannot find it anywhere. 5. We___(buy) a new sofa. Come and look at it. 6. The film_just______(begin). You are a little late. 7. __you ever___(ride) a bicycle? 8. Many people__never_______(fly) a plane. 9. How long ____you___(know) Mr Smith? — I_______(know) him for 10 years. 10. It’smymother’sbirthdaytomorrowand 1 (not buy) her a present yet 31. Закончите предложения, употребляя for или since. 1. I’ve worked at this plant_1990. 2. She’s been abroad__five years. 3. She’s worked for this company_she left school 4. I’ve worked here___five years, but it’s time to leave now. 5. We’ve been friends_we started college. 6. They’ve had this new car_four months. 7. We haven’t seen him_two years. Where is he? 8. He lias lived in England_1998. 9. My brother has been in Italy_April.
32. Выберите глагол в Past Simple или Present Perfect. Justin Milton is a designer. He (started/has started) designing when he (has been / was) 15 years old. He (has studied / studied) design at the university for the next three years, and then he (got / has got) his first job in a research and development company. Now he is 33 and he (worked / lias worked) all over the country, and (he just decided / has just decided) to open his own designing firm in London. He (hasn’t thought / didn’t think) of a name for it yet. Four other top designing firms (have opened / opened) there this year, but Justin is optimistic. “My design (was always/ has always been) the best,” he says. “In 1992 I (made / have made) a number of electric devices for the Italian President when he (has come / came) to England, and he (has told / told) me that coffee-machine of my design (was / has been) the most comfortable to use!” 33. Раскройте скобки и употребите глаголы в Present Simple, Present Continuous или Present Perfect. John Harding (be) a computer engineer. He (work) at Hewlett Packard for two years. He (like) his job very much. “We (develop) technology for future and I really (like) what I (do),” he (say). Harding also (teach) children at elementary school in San Francisco. He (work) with high school students too. Harding’s working day (begin) at 9 o’clock. Now it (be) 9.30 and John (be) at his workplace. He (work) on a new software project. He and his colleagues (do) this project for three months. He (work) with a computer. He (study) the results of the previous tests. He (examine) the data and the information. One of his colleagues (speak) on the phone with their client. The working day (finish) at 6 in the evening. But after work John (not go) home. He (stay) at work and (complete) the tasks he (plan) in the morning. 34. Переведите текст на английский язык, употребляя Present Perfect, Present Simple или Present Continuous. Российские ученые сделали величайшие открытия в истории науки. Они изобрели периодическую таблицу химических элементов, лазер, самолет, вертолет, радиоприемник, телевизор, электродвигатель, персональный компьютер и т.д. Мы первыми запустили искусственный спутник (to launch a satellite) Земли, совершили первый полет в космос. Российская наука продолжает развиваться. И сегодня наши ученые делают много для того, чтобы люди жили комфортно. В настоящий момент очень актуальна тема энергетической эффективности. Ученые стараются использовать энергию солнца, ветра, океанов. Академик (academician) Российской академии естественных наук Виктор Петрик изобрел особую технологию изготовления оконного стекла. Стекло является не только окном, но и перерабатывает озон (ozone) в электрическую энергию.
Спряжение глагола to write в Past Perfect Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма I had / I’d written I had not / hadn’t written Had I written? He had / he’d written He had not / hadn’t written Had he written? She had / she’d written She had not / hadn’t written Had she written? It had / it’d written It had not / hadn’t written Had it written? We had / we’d written We had not / hadn’t written Had we written? You had / you’d written You had not / hadn’t written Had you written? They had / they’d written They had not / hadn’t written Had they written? Past Perfect употребляется для обозначения действия или события, которое завершилось до определенного момента в прошлом. Этот момент может быть выражен: а) с помощью указания на какое-то другое, более позднее по отношению к данному действие. Например'. Не bought a new car as he had broken his old one. Bill waited outside for his friend wondering where he had gone Он купил новую машину, так как разбил старую. Билл ждал своего друга на улице, недоумевая, куда тот ушел. б) с помощью таких выражений времени, как by six o’clock, by Sunday, by the end of the year. Например'. I had done the homework by Я сделал домашнюю работу 5 o’clock. к 5 часам. Не had already left by that time. К этому времени он уже ушел. Наречия и обстоятельства часто употребляемые с Past Perfect: just, already, yet, before that time, by 6 o’clock (к 6 часам) 35. Соедините два предложения в одно, используп Past Perfect. Model: Peter studied English. He went to England. Peter had studied English before he went to England or: After Peter had studied English he went to England. I. Tom studied French. He went to Paris. 2. We got to the cinema. The film began. 3. John ate all the cakes. Alice came home. 4. The students gathered. The teacher came into the classroom. 5. I returned home. I walked the dog.
6. We conducted the experiment. We obtained interesting results. 7. The teacher told us about the conference. We decided to take part in it. 8. We came home. John left. 9. He did not come to the cinema with us. He saw the him 10. We went to the university. We met our friend. 36. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect. 1. When the police (arrive), the car (go). 2. When I (get) to the shop, it (close). 3. They (eat) everything by the time I (arrive) at the party. 4. Nobody (come) to the meeting because Ann (forget) to tell people about it. 5. I (try) to telephone her several times, but she (leave) the city 6. She (not find) the book I (lend) her 7. He (wonder) why I (not visit) him. 8. I (be) hungry because I just (have) lunch. 9. 1 (not recognize) our teacher. She (change) a lot. 10. He (not know) the woman. He never (see) her before. 37. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple, Past Continuous или Past Perfect. 1. When I (see) my friend, he (read) a book which he (buy) two days before. 2. He wanted to visit the place where he (live) in his childhood 3. When 1 (come) home, my sister (prepare) for a test which our teacher (give) us. 4. When 1 (open) the door of the classroom. I (see) that the teacher already (come) and the students (write) a test. 5. Yesterday she (tell) me that she (work) in France and Germany. 6. Margaret was late for work. Her friend (be) very surprised. She never (be) late before. 7. I (return) home late because we (carry out) a difficult experiment. 8. When the rain (stop) I (look) out of the window and (see) that the wind (break down) a tall tree. 38. Переведите текст на английский язык, употребляя Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect или Present Perfect. История человечества много раз показывала нам, что ученые и инженеры сделали свои открытия случайно (accidentally). Гениальные идеи посещали (come to) их не во время того, как они размышляли над проблемой, а во время отдыха или сна. Менделеев увидел свою таблицу, когда спал. Ньютон (Newton) открыл
закон всемирного тяготения (law of universal gravitation), когда сидел под деревом и яблоко упало ему на голову. Архимед открыл свой закон (Archimedes’ principle), когда принимал ванну. Хьюберт Бут (Hubert Booth) изобрел пылесос (vacuum cleaner), когда обедал в ресторане. Александр Белл изобрел телефон, когда проводил эксперимент и случайно пролил кислоту (spill acid). Конечно, до этого все они очень много работали, размышляли, читали и экспериментировали. Спряжение глагола to write в Future Perfect Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма I shall / I’ll have written 1 shall not (shan’t) /1’11 not have written Shall I have written? He will / he’ll have written He will not / won’t / he’ll not have written Will he have written? She will / she’ll have written She will not (won’t) / she’ll not have written Will she have written? It will / it’ll have written It will not / won’t / it’ll not have written Will it have written? We shall / we’ll have written We shall not (shan’t) / we’ll not have written Shall we have written? You will / you’ll have written You will not (won’t) / you’ll not have written Will you have written? They will / they’ll have written They will not (won’t) / they’ll not have written Will they have written? Future Perfect используется при описании действия, которое будет завершено к определенному моменту времени в будущем Например: I’ll have finished the work before you come back. Many natural resources will have disappeared by the end of the century. Я закончу работу до того, как ты вернешься. Многие природные ресурсы исчезнут к концу этого века. Наречия и обстоятельства, часто употребляемые с Future Perfect Бу the time к тому времени By 5 o’clock tomorrow — к 5 часам завтра
39. Вставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Future Perfect. 1. By half past seven we (have) supper. 2. I (learn) English by the end of the year. 3. He (finish) his work before you leave. 4. When we see you next week we (buy) a new car. 5. By this time next week you (pass) all your exams. 6. Before I see you again I (visit) to Paris. 7. I hope I (not forget) all about the Future Perfect tense by the next lesson 8. By the end of this year we (graduate) from the university. 9. I (find out) the information when you phone me next time. 10. 1 (read) the book up to the end by tomorrow. 40. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple, Future Continuous или Future Perfect. 1. I think I (to do) this work tomorrow. 2. Don’t come to me. I (be) very busy: I (to do) my homework from 4 till 6. 3. I (to do) my homework by 6 o’clock tomorrow. 4. I (be) a student soon. I think I (to learn) a foreign language. 5. What you (to do) at 8 o’clock tomorrow evening? 6. By the time you get home I (to clean) the house. 7. By the time you come home in the evening I (cook) dinner. 8. My sister (help) you when she comes home. 9. I hope she (pass) the exam successfully and (be) free already at 10 10. We (clean) our house the whole day tomorrow. Модальные глаголы ,, Прошедшее Настоящее время 1 время Будущее время Эквиваленты сап — мочь, уметь could will be able to to be able to may — мочь (по разрешению) might will be allowed to to be allowed to must — должен had to will have to to have to / to be to should, ought to — следует had to will have to Глаголы may, can, must, should, ought to, have to, be to являются модальными глаголами. Они не обозначают действия, а выражают возможность, вероятность или необходимость совершения действия.
Например'. I can help you. He must come today May I enter the room? They had to stay at home. The exam is to begin at 9 o’clock. Я могу помочь тебе. Он должен прийти сегодня. Можно войти в комнату? Им пришлось остаться дома. Экзамен должен начаться в 9 часов. Must, have to, be to Для сообщения о том. что действие обязательно должно быть сделано, используется модальный глагол must, а также его эквивалент have to. В прошедшем времени используется только have to в Past Simple (had to). Например: I must tell you something. When did you have to meet het? Я должен вам кое-что рассказать. Когда ты должен был встретиться с ней? Сравните значения глаголов must и have to: I have to go and talk to her. Я должен пойти и поговорить с ней. (она сама меня вылвала) I must go and talk to her. Я должен пойти и поговорить с ней. (я сам хочу с ней кое-что обсудить) Модальный 1лагол must гакже обозначает высокую вероятность действия. Например: The door is open. He must be at Дверь открыта. Должно быть, home. он дома, (логический вывод) Модальный глагол be to (используются формы am, is, are, was, were) переводится как «положено, необходимо» (по плану, расписанию, договоренности) . Например: We are to meet at 5. Мы должны встретиться в 5. The students were to write the Студенты должны были писать test yesterday тест вчера.
Отсутствие необходимости совершать действие передается глаголом need + not, в то время как must + not выражает запрещение производить действие. Например'. Children must not play in the street. You need not go to the library. I’ll give you this book. Дети не должны играть на проезжей части. Тебе не нужно идти в библиотеку. Я дам тебе эту книгу. Should, ought to На русский язык should переводится «следует» и выражает совет. Ought to выражает долженствование; моральное обязательство, долг. Например'. You should help her. I should study hard I ought to pay our debts. Тебе следует помочь ей. Мне следует учиться усердно. Я должен заплатить наши долги. May, might и can, could сап may физическая, умственная возможность I can swim. Я умею плавать Не can not speak English. Он не умеет говорить по- английски. Can you play the guitar? Ты умеешь играть на гитаре? возможность-разрешение May I smoke here? Я могу курить здесь? 1 may not come home late. Я не могу приходить домой поздно Не may speak ю the professor. Он может разговаривать с профессором. реальная возможность I can go to the cinema. (1 have time and money) Я могу ПОЙТИ в кино. (У меня есть деньги и время) допускаемая возможность Не may live here. (I do not remember for sure) Он, возможно, живет здесь. (Я не помню наверняка) could might веж швая просьба Could you lend me the book, please? упрек, неодобрение You might pay more attention to your lessons. Ты не мог бы одолжить мне книгу, пожалуйста? Ты мог бы уделять больше внимания занятиям.
41. Выберите соответствующий глагол из скобок. 1. Mike__play the piano very well (can, should, must). 2. 1_skate when I was a child (cannot, couldn’t, mustn’t) 3. We____hurry. We’ve got plenty of time (cannot, needn’t, may not) 4. I’m sorry I’m late._I come in (must, should, may)? 5. __you help me with the task, please (could, must, may)? 6. you speak any foreign languages (can, should, may)? 7. It’s raining. You__take an umbrella (can, have, should) 8. I’m afraid I_come to the party on Friday. I’m very busy (can, can- not, may). 9. When I was young, I__climb the trees (could, must, should). 10. __I smoke here? — No, you mustn’t. It’s no-smoking area (must, may, should). 42. Напишите предложения про себя, используя модальные глаголы can. may, could, have to. must, be to. should, need (ваши преяложения могут быть утвердительными или отрицательными). 1. get up at 7 o’clock tomorrow 2. speak foreign languages 3. play musical instruments 4. speak when you were two years old 5. return home late at night 6. help parents 7. study hard 8. take exams two times a year 9. go to the university every day 10. smoke 43. Закончите это письмо, употребив модальные глаголы have to, must, should, can, could и had to в утвердительной или отрицательной форме. Dear Rob, Thanks for your letter! Гт sorry that I haven't written for so long, but five been really busy recently. You know last term I____to study hard. But sometimes I had free time and / ___go out or read a book. This term we___to study much harder. And I don’t have any free time and do what I want. I attend ail the lectures and seminars. Besides, I have four course papers in different subjects. And for them 1_find a lot of information, study it and write reports. Luckily, our teachers are not too strict and f_have
enough time to complete them all. If I do them successfully, I won't_to pass credit tests! So. I__finish my letter and continue my work. Love, Andrea. 44. Переведите предложения на английский язык, употребляя модальные глаголы can, may, have to, must, be to, should, need в соответствующем времени. 1. Студентам необходимо выполнить эту лабораторную работу к среде. 2. Нашей группе пришлось провести эксперимент за два часа. 3. Учебный семестр должен начаться в сентябре. 4. Наши ученые могут проводить очень сложные исследования. 5. Нам не нужно учить эту теорему на завтра. 6. Мне придется посетить дополнительный семинар завтра 7. Мы решили, что мы все должны принять участие в конференции. 8. Я не смог вчера помочь тебе и, к сожалению, не смогу помочь завтра. Тебе придется сделать эту работу без моей помощи. 9- Я могу взять твою ручку? — Да. 10. Он, должно быть, уже дома. SPEAKING PRACTICE 45. Interviewing. A. Read the following conversation and notice which questions the reporter asks. Jessica Ewing studies mechanical engineering at California State University in the USA. The reporter is interviewing her. Reporter (R.): When did you know you wanted to become an engineer? Ewing (E.): I knew it since my school years. R.: What is your speciality in engineering? E.: I study mechanical engineering with a focus on environmental engineering. R.: What’s the most difficult in your studies? E.: The most difficult thing is to realize that your ideas don’t always work. R.'. What’s the most pleasant in your studies? I know that I will be able to contribute to innovations that help society and environment.
В. Act out the dialogue with a partner. C. Answer the questions of the reporter for yourself. Then take it in turns with a partner to be the interviewer and the interviewee and compose similar dialogues. WRITING PRACTICE 46. Translate the following text into English. Современный инженер должен иметь знания, умения и понимание своей специальности. Инженеру следует много читать, изучать, обмениваться мнениями. Поэтому современный инженер умеет успешно сотрудничать с людьми. Инженер должен определять, как люди будут использовать приборы, которые он разработал. Он обязан также предвидеть эффект, который будет иметь его устройство. Инженеру часто приходится обдумывать, вычислять и сопоставлять (compare) различные факты. Современный инженер способен эксплуатировать (operate), ремонтировать и проектировать технологические процессы и устройства. Поэтому он умеет ставить задачи и находить решения, прогнозировать и изобретать. Предприятия нуждаются в профессионалах, которые способны создать или модернизировать изделие. Инженер должен знать науки, он умеет изобретать, он способен понимать свою ответственность. PROJECT BOX 47. You have recently discussed engineering professions. Find information about your speciality and future job (for this you may consult “Texts for supplementary reading” Texts 5, 6). Write a report about it. 1. Write down ten ideas (Example, systems engineer: logistics, team work, control of machinery, complex projects, etc.). 2. Use your notes to plan paragraphs. Introduction The aim of this report is to describe... This report considers... I’ve found really interesting information about... Contents Firstly,...
Generally... Secondly,... Thirdly,... Conclusion Therefore, I can say that... To conclude,... So, anyway, I think it’s a good idea if / that... 3. Use your notes to write the report.
UNIT 5 A Pre-text exercises 1. Look at the following international words, guess their meaning and check the pronunciation. Design, material, machine, system, process, fundamental, era, extraordinary, pyramid, statue, monument, religious, architecture, primitive, vertical line, plan, mechanism, operation, principle, static electricity, publication, electric generator, vacuum, electric motor, control. 2. Pronunciation: the letter o. A. Read these words. 1. some, cover, son, become |л] 2. not, hot, lost, from [n] 3. so, old, stone, gold [эи] 4. too, too], foot |u:| 5. form, sort, normal |o:] B. Put these words in group 1, 2, 3 or 4. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Practise reading them. Two, lot, got, enormous, know, does, month, grow, come, also, process, origin, goods, both, among, common, concept, floor, home, object, role, soon, door. C. Special pronunciation. Practise the words: word, world, work |з: ] how, now, power, allow, out, our |av] 3. Here are some examples with prepositions at and by. Read and learn them: • at: at (the age of) 20 / at 90 kilometres an hour / at 100 degrees
He made his invention at 35. She was driving at 120 kilometres an hour. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. • by: by = next to / beside We live by the sea. He is standing by the window. (go) by car / by bus / by plane (by air) / by bike... I like travelling by car. She usually goes to work by bus. but: on foot She always goes to work on foot, by co страдательным залогом: The book was written by Dickens. Who is TV invented by? by c Future Perfect: I will have finished the work by 10. 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. 1. How did you get there?_____train? — No,____plane. 2. My father got married______the age of 24. 3. The new plane is extremely fast. It can travel_thousand kilometres an hour. 4. Water freezes__0 degrees C. 5. Do you know the man________the next table? 6. In Russia children go to school_6 or 7 years old. 7. He will have returned home_____6. 8. The article was translated_me 9. She does not like to drive a car, she goes everywhere bicycle. 10. It is expensive to travel_air. Word building 5. Translate the following negative adjectives. Pay attention to the negative prefixes of the adjectives: safe — unsafe, stable — unstable, happy — unhappy, pleasant — unpleasant, familiar — unfamiliar, certain — uncertain, real — unreal; numerable — innumerable, expensive — inexpensive, visible — invisible, dependent — independent, different — indifferent, direct — indirect; possible — impossible, polite — impolite, perfect — imperfect, practical — impractical, mortal — immortal.
regular — irregular, relevant — irrelevant, rational — irrational, responsible — irresponsible, resistible — irresistible; legal — illegal, liberal illiberal, literate — illiterate, logical — illogical; honest — dishonest, able — disable, obedient — disobedient. 6. Complete the sentences making adjectives in brackets negative. I. This is a very___phenomenon (natural). 2. I do not know this formula. It is__to me (known). 3. This holiday is__among students (popular). 4. The results of their experiment were__(accurate). 5. The construction of such building is___(possible). 6. I think your idea is__(rational). 7. This device has__advantages (numerable). 8. The law considers video pirating___(legal). 9. 1 did not like the party. The atmosphere was___(pleasant). 7. Brainstorming. Past and Present of Engineering. A. Discuss with other students in class what inventions and achievements of the past were vital for the development of the human civilization: wheel lever concrete B. Which of these inventions do you think is the most useful and important for modern life? Put them in order 1—9. The first is the most important. Compare your ideas with a partner and then the class. electricity telephone internet airplane computer nuclear power automobile radio, television laser Active vocabulary 8. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: to acquire — получать, приобретать; овладевать; syn. to get advance — успех, прогресс to allow — позволять; делать возможным to apply — использовать, употреблять для (чего-л.) goods товары; consumer goods потребительские товары human - человек; человеческий; humanity — человечество to imagine — представлять, воображать; imagination воображение, фантазия
to attract — привлекать, притягивать available — доступный average — средний battery — батарея; syn. cell benefit — польза, выгода; to benefit — извлекать пользу. выгоду chain — цепь common — общий; обыкновенный; распространенный concept — понятие, идея conductivity — проводимость; syn. conduction to consider — считать, рассматривать to construct — строить, воздвигать; syn. to build, to erect; construction — строительство, строение; syn. structure, building current — ток; direct current (DC) — постоянный ток to determine — определять, обусловливать to devise — разрабатывать, изобретать; syn. to develop to distribute — распределять; distribution — распределение efficient — эффективный, результативный engine — двигатель, машина entire — весь, целый, полный environment окружающая среда equipment — оборудование essential — основной to exist — существовать to find out — узнать, выяснить, обнаружить force — сила to improve — улучшать; совершенствовать; improvement улучшение, усовершенствование inside — внутри integrated circuit — интегральная схема, ИС item предмет; syn. thing knowledge — знание lever рычаг to manufacture — производить, изготавливать: manufacturing производство, изготовление to observe наблюдать to prove — доказывать pulley — шкив, блок; ворот source — источник to store — сохранять, накапливать to support — поддерживать term — термин tool орудие; средство top — верх, верхушка; верхний, высший, лучший to transmit передавать, посылать unit единица vacuum — вакуум; vacuum tube электровакуумная лампа; vacuum cleaner — пылесос wheel — колесо wire — провод, проволока; copper wire — медная проволока, wireless — беспроводной
9. Read the text and complete the following statements. The text is about... It describes... The text also mentions... TEXT5A ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT ERA Engineering is the discipline, art and profession that acquires and applies technical, scientific and mathematical knowledge to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systemsand processes. The concept of engineering lias existed since ancient times when humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever and wheel. The term engineering is of later origin. It dates back to the 13th century and comes from the Latin word ingenium which means “a clever invention”. The Ancient Era covers three famous ancient civilizations — the Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans. The ancient Egyptians are considered the first builders ever known to a man. According to the historians, they constructed the Egyptian pyramids, the greatest and most famous structures in the human history, during 2800—2400 BC1. The extraordinary great pyramid, the Great Pyramid of Giza, was built by Cheops, son of Snefiro. Its original height was 146 metres, but later 9 metres at the top were lost. The Egyptians also built temples and statues. Ptolemaic temple is still one of the most famous religious monuments in Egypt. It is 137 metres long, 79 metres wide and 36 metres high. To build such structures ancient Egyptians required knowledge of theoretical and applied sciences and great skill in architecture and engineering. They also had to have a large work force in order to construct their enormous structures. However, their knowledge was purely experimental and their tools were very primitive. They mainly consisted of a builder’s thread2 to mark vertical lines, an angle, a measuring arm3 (52 cm long) and a straight edge4. With these primitive tools the Egyptians could make plans for their colossal but very beautiful structures that still impress the world. The ancient Egyptians taught humanity how to design and erect buildings and so they laid grounds for human civilization. Ancient Greek technology developed especially successfully during the 5th century BC. The ancient Greeks made discoveries that have influenced many aspects of modern life. Many of our everyday items use scientific principles that Greek scholars first explained. For example, the cord mechanism that we use to open and close curtains applies principles that Greeks discovered about the operation of a pulley. Seesaws, scissors and fishing rods are ex
amples of common objects that employ principle of the lever, which was also first explained by the Greeks. Indeed, the world has benefited greatly from the scientific discoveries that were made by the ancient Greeks. Ancient Romans are famous for their engineering achievements, although some of their own inventions were improvements of older ideas, concepts and inventions. For example, roads were common at that time, but the Romans improved their design and perfected the construction to the extent that many of their roads are still in use today. By the 1st century AD1 the Romans had become the best engineers and architects in the world. One of the greatest Roman engineering achievements was the use of the arch. The arch shape is very strong; it is able to support great amounts of weight. The Romans’ two greatest uses of the arch are the aqueduct and the bridge. Roman bridges were among the first large and lasting bridges that a man had ever built. And aqueducts (bridges and tunnels for the water) were used by the Romans to provide water to towns. The Romans also invented concrete and it allowed them to build very large structures (buildings and bridges) that have survived many centuries. The engineering discoveries of ancient Rome have played a key role in the history of architecture and engineering. Many of Rome’s roads, bridges and aqueducts have been in use from the 1st century until the 20th century. Several major structures from eariy Rome, for example the Coliseum, still stand. Notes on the text 1 AD=Алпо Domini (in the year of our Lord) — нашей эры; BC=before Christ — до нашей ары 2 builder's thread — отвес. 3 measuring arm — зд: измерительная линейка ’ straightedge — правйло. Text and vocabulary exercises 10. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. date back 2. ever known to a man 3. lay grounds for 4. cord mechanism 5. seesaw 6. fishing rod 7. the arch shape 8. the aqueduct 9. play a key role in а) удочка b) механизм движения шнура с) датироваться d) детские качели е) когда-либо известные человеку f) арочная конструкция g) акведук, водопровод h) заложить основы для i) игратьключевую роль в
11. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: более позднее происхождение рабочая сила примитивные орудия труда предметы ежедневного пользования ножницы до размера, степени человеческая цивилизация научные принципы согласно (чему-л.) для того, чтобы 12. Find the right English equivalent 1. знание a) known 2. также, тоже a) so 3. дорога a) road 4. собственный a) owe 5. время a) team 6. обеспечивать a) prove 7. век a) central 8. рано a) early for the following Russian words. b) knowledge c) know b) all c) also b) rod c) round b) own c) owl b) tame c) time b) provide c) provision b) centre c) century b) yearly c) curly 13. Choose the right answer. I. The concept of engineering has existed since_ a) the 1st century b) the 13th century c) the ancient times 2. The Ancient Era covers three famous ancient civilizations — the Egyptians, the Greeks and ... a) the Chinese b) the Romans c) the Indians 3. The Egyptians built pyramids, temples and ... a) castles b) monuments c) statues 4. The Egyptians’ knowledge was purely experimental and their tools were.... a) very primitive b) very complex c) very strange 5. The ancient Greeks first explained the principles of a pulley and ... a) awheel b) alever c) an engine 6. The Romans had become the best engineers and architects tn the world by.... a) the 5th century b) by the 1st century c) by the 3rd century BC AD AD
14. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. The term engineering dates back to the 13th century. 2. The ancient Egyptians are considered the best builders ever known to a man. 3. To build such colossal structures the ancient Egyptians required theoretical knowledge and great engineering skill. 4. Few of our everyday items use scientific principles that Greek scholars first explained 5. Among the greatest Roman engineering achievements was the use of the arch. 6. The Romans invented concrete and it allowed them to build very large structures. 7. Many of Rome’s roads, bridges and aqueducts did not survive until the 20th century. В Pre-text exercises 15. “False friends”. There are many words in English that can mislead you when you translate them into Russian. For every wrong translation of a “false friend” find the correct English word and complete the following table. Consult the dictionary if necessary. “False friend” Correct translation Wrong translation English word accurate точный аккуратный ? figure цифра фигура ? complex сложный комплекс ? data данные дата concrete бетон конкретный attraction притяжение аттракцион pole полюс поле 16. Do you know much about the history of electricity? Match the inventors, their discoveries and the dates to make sentences. Discuss with a partner. William Gilbert invented the Leyden jar in 1827. Pieter van Musschenbroek proposed Ohm’s law in 1879. George Simon Ohm made experiment with a kite in 1831.
Alessandro Volta used the term electricity in 1745. Michael Faraday invented the first electric bulb in 1752. Benjamin Franklin built the first electric motor in 1800. Thomas Edison invented an electric battery in 1600. 17. Read the following text to check your ideas. TEXT5B ADVENT OF ELECTRICITY Invention of electricity opened a new era in the development of engineering. Electricity has fascinated humanity since our ancestors first saw lightning. The ancient Greeks first noticed that if they rubbed amber, an electric charge was generated. This was what we now call as static electricity. The invention of electricity has taken several centuries to develop into its modern forms. And modern inventions are rarely the product of a single inventor’s efforts. That’s why the question “Who invented electricity?” does not have a one-word answer. The invention of electricity was a chain of inventions of many people. The term “electricity” was first used by an English scientist and physician William Gilbert in 1600 in his publication of De Magnete'. Gilbert based the term on the Greek word for amber, electron. In rhe same year the German scientist and inventor Otto von Guericke invented a machine that produced static electricity. This was the first electric generator. Otto von Guericke’s generator was a large sulfur ball which was placed on a pole inside a glass globe. The sulfur ball was rotated by a hand crank. When the ball rotated it rubbed against a pad and generated static electricity sparks. However, Otto von Guericke had no idea what these sparks were. His device was used for early experiments with electricity. In 1675, an Irish chemist and physicist Robert Boyle discovered that electric force was transmitted through a vacuum and observed attraction and repulsion of objects. Stephen Gray’s discovery of electrical conductivity in 1729 contributed greatly to the idea of electricity. Stephen Gray was an English dyer and amateur astronomer who first systematically experimented with electrical conduction. In 1733, the French chemist Charles Francois du Fay found out that electricity existed in two forms, which were later named as negative and positive by Benjamin Franklin. In 1745, Pieter van Musschenbroek, professor of physics at Leiden University, invented the Leyden jar2, the first electrical capacitor. The jar was made of glass; it was partially filled with water and con
tained a brass wire which came through its cork. An experimenter produced static electricity by friction and used the wire to store it inside the jar. Without the jar, the electrified material quickly lost its charge in the air. In 1752, Benjamin Franklin, an American scientist and engineer, made his famous experiment with a kite. He tied a metal key to the kite’s string and flew the kite during thunderstorm. The key conducted the electricity from the lightning. So Franklin proved the idea that lightning was electrical In 1800. an Italian researcher Alessandro Volta invented anelectric battery, the first source of DC current. It was the first electrochemical cell. The unit of potential difference has been named as “volt” in his honour. In 1827, George Simon Ohm, a German physicist, determined that there is a direct proportionality between the voltage and electric current — now known as Ohm’s law. In 1831, the English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday built the first electric motor. Later he built a generator and a iransformer. In 1879, Thomas Alva Edison invented the first light bulb. Houses, shops, factories, schools, streets and any other place you could think of at last were easily illuminated after dark. Thus the history of electricity runs from the ancient times up to the present days. Today electricity has become an essential part of our everyday life. It has brought a lot of advantages and comfort into our lives, and we owe it to all those people who made contributions to the invention of electricity. Notes on the text 1 publication of "De Magnet e" — трактат на латыни "О магнитах" ' the Leyden jar — лейденская банка. Text and vocabulary exercises 18. Match the English phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. sulfur ball 2. glass globe 3. hand crank 4. have no idea 5. attraction and repulsion 6. electrical capacitor 7. brass wire 8. electrified material 9. source of DC current 10. light bulb а) не иметь представления b) латунная проволока с) стеклянный шар d) рукоятка е) наэлектризованный материал f) источник постоянного тока g) притяжение и отталкивание h) серный шарик i) электрический конденсатор j) электрическая лампочка
19. Find the English words (1—9) in the text and choose the right meaning for them (a—i). 1. fascinate 2. rotate 3. friction 4. voltage 5. transformer 6. illuminate я) engine b) an electromotive force c) to turn around d) to attract e) not a professional f) rubbing one object against 7. amateur 8. cork 9. motor another g) a thing that closes a bottle h) a device that transfers current i) to give light 20. Find in the text the right word to complete the sentences. 1. Invention of electricity opened _ in the development of engineering. 2. The invention of electricity has taken __to develop into its modern forms. 3. The term “electricity” was first used by William Gilbert in_. 4. In 1675, Robert Boyle discovered that electric force was transmitted through_______. 5. _ discovered electrical conductivity in 1729- 6. The Leyden jar was the first _. 7. In 1752, Benjamin Franklin made his famous experiment with______. 8. In 1879,__invented the first light bulb. 21. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. The ancient Egyptians first noticed that if they rubbed amber, an electric charge was generated. 2. The invention of electricity is the product of a single inventor’s efforts. 3. Otto von Guericke’s generator was used for early experiments with electricity. 4. The French chemist Charles Francois du Fay found out that electricity existed in two forms, which were later named as negative and positive by Alessandro Volta. 5. The Leyden jar was made of glass; it was partially filled with water and contained a brass wire which came through its cork. 6. The English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday built the first electric motor, a generator and a transformer. 7. Today electricity has become an essential part of our everyday life.
с Pre-text exercises 22. Units of measure. Match the lines in the table. Practise the words and learn them: db ton |'mi:ta] weight in gigabyte ['desibel] sound km decibel [’kilogram] distance kg degrees Celsius (Un] П speed t metre |'kila,mi:to] power mps kilometre ['giga bait] computer memory W metres per second [di'griiz'selsios] distance MW watt |wnt| power °C megawatt |'mi:taz'p3:'sekand ] weight Gb kilogramme |’megowot| temperature 23. Read the following text to answer these questions. 1. Why is engineering considered the main driver of human development? 2. When did the wide distribution ofelectrical power become possible? 3. How many cars are there in the modern world? 4. Who was the first flight made by? 5. What invention led to the early designs of radio and television? 6. Where is climate control extremely necessary? 7. When and why was Internet devised? 8. Where is fiber optics used? 9. Is nuclear power safer than fossil fuels? TEXT5C MODERN ENGINEERING Engineering is a mam driver of human development. In recent years engineering has greatly influenced quality of our life and become a tool which makes changes to environment, society and economies. Engineers have devised new equipments and goods, power systems, weapons, new materials, transport and transportation systems, design of buildings, etc. The 20th century was a revolutionary period in the history of modern civilization. Let’s consider some of its greatest engineering achievements.
Electrification. The wide distribution of electrical power in the 20th century brought light to the world and power to almost every home and plant in modern society. Electrification is responsible for innumerable developments that have made life safer, healthier and more convenient; now it is hard to imagine our lives without it. It runs the smallest electric devices in homes and offices, the huge computers that control power grids1 and telecommunications systems, and the machinery that produces consumer goods. Automobile. At the beginning of the 19th century an average person travelled about 1,920 km in an entire lifetime, mostly on foot. Today an average person travels about 16,000 km a year by automobile alone, and there are half a billion cars in the world. The automobile has become the major transporter of people and goods in the world Airplane. Air travel has revolutionized our world. After the Wright brothers2 achieved the first successful flight in 1903, theaitplane developed rapidly, particularly in response to the needs of World War I, with advances in materials, wing design, and engines. In 1939, the gas turbine was introduced and this marked the beginning of jet transport. Today air travel makes possible transporting goods and people around the globe. Electronics. From vacuum tubes to transistors and microprocessors: electronic devices became smaller, more powerful and more efficient throughout the 20th century and provided the technological basis for countless innovations and products. The vacuum tube led to the early designs of the radio, television and computer. The key to this amazing revolution is the integrated circuit — the heart of the modern electronic systems. Brilliant engineering and innovation lie behind these elements that operate wireless communications, satellite broadcasts, air traffic control systems, microwave ovens, video cameras, touch-tone phones, computers, and many other innovations that have improved the quality, safety and convenience of modern life. Radio and Television. The introduction of radio and television were major reasons of social change in the 20th century. By the middle of the 1930s almost every home in the world had a radio, and in the 1940s the television first reached the market. Computers. Perhaps no other engineering device lias attracted the attention of an average person as much as a computer. A computer has become an essential part ofevery major industry — communications, manufacturing, research, medicine, education, government, entertainment, and others. It lias transformed business and lives around the world, increased productivity and opened access to vast amounts of knowledge with little effort Telephone. In the 20th century after a remarkable series of innovations, engineers transformed a system of copper wire, wooden poles and primitive transmitters into a modern telephone. Nowadays telephone poles with their
thousands of miles of copper wire are being replaced by new technologies, mobile telephones. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Our life changed greatly in the 20th century when air conditioning and refrigeration systems became more efficient. Climate control has become so reliable and inexpensive that it has grown from an invisible luxury to a common necessity. Control of air temperature and quality provides the clean environments necessary for surgery, manufacture of computer chips and many types of research. Internet. The Internet was devised in the 1960s as a tool to exchange information and share resources. What eventually grew out of this project is an amazing cheap technology that is now available to ordinary people at home, universities, public libraries and “cyber” cafts. Today the Internet has over 150 million users from 65 countries. We are only beginning to realize the future possibilities of its use Laser and Fiber Optics. Pulses of light from lasers are used in industrial tools, surgical devices and satellites. Fiber optic cables are used for modern communications; they carry much more information than copper cables. Nuclear Technologies. Today nuclear power plants generate about 20% of the world’s electrical power. Nuclear power is safer than fossil fuel systems in terms of industrial accidents, environmental damage, health effects and long-term risks. Notes on the text 1 power grid — единая энергосистема 2 the Wright brothers — братья Райт Text and vocabulary exercises 24. Match the English phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. main driver a) 2. jet transport b) 3. satellite broadcasts c) 4. air traffic control system d) 5. touch-tone phone e) 6. laser and fiber optics f) 7. surgical device g) 8. fiber optic cable h) 9. fossil fuel i) 10. long-term risks j) пневмотранспорт спутниковое вещание главный двигатель кнопочный телефон система авиадиспетчерской службы хирургическое оборудование оптоволоконный кабель ископаемое топливо долгосрочные риски лазерная и волоконная оптика
25. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: система транспортировки бесчисленные разработки всю жизнь полмиллиарда главный перевозчик в ответ на газовая турбина беспроводное общение микроволновая печь видеокамера 26. Choose the right answer. 1. The 20th century was a revolutionary period in the history of ... a) modern Europe b) modern America c) modern civilization 2. It is hard to imagine our lives without.... a) airplanes b) electricity c) automobiles 3. The introduction of the gas turbine marked the beginning of. a) car transport b) air transport c) jetrranspon 4. The heart of the modern electronic systems is... a) an electric battery b) a laser c) an integrated circuit 5. Nowadays old telephone communication is being replaced by... a) satellite broadcasts b) mobile telephones c) the Internet 6. Today nuclear power plants generate about.... a) 50^ of the world’s b) 20^ of the world’s c) 80^ of the world’s electrical power electrical power electrical power 27. Read the text above once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he or she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing Disagreeing politely I agree with you. I’m afraid, I cannot agree with you. Yes, that is what I think too. I see what you mean, but I think... You are right! Well, as far as I know... I. Engineering is a main driver of the human development. 2. The wide distribution of electrical power in the 19th century brought light and power to almost every home and plant in the world. 3. At the beginning of the 19th century people travelled mostly on foot.
4. There are half a million cars in the world. 5. The invention of a vacuum tube led to the early designs of the radio, television and computer. 6. Radio and television opened access to vast amounts of knowledge with little effort. 7. Control of air temperature and quality provides the clean environments necessary for surgery, manufacture of computer chips and many types of research. 8. Fiber optic cables carry less information than copper cables. 28. Retell the text according to the plan given below. 1. The role of engineering in the modern world. 2. Information about one or two of the greatest achievements of the 20th century (when and how they were developed, their role in our life) 29. Quiz. Are you an erudite person? A. Answer the questions and check your knowledge (see correct answers at page 137). I. Who made the first flight in an airplane? a) Louis Bleriot b) Oliver Wright 2. Who invented the electric light bulb? c) Wilbur Wright a) Thomas Edison b) James Herington 3. Who built the Great Wall? c) Henry Ford a) the Ancient b) the Ancient Japanese Chinese 4. Where did the first computer appear? c) the Ancient Romans a) in Britain b) in America c) in Japan E. Learn more! Read and translate the following: — the blue whale can produce sounds up to 188 decibels. This is the loudest sound that a living animal can produce; — Three Gorges Dam in China is the largest hydroelectric power station in the world with a power output of 22,500 MW. The dam of the station is 2309 metres wide and 101 metres tall; — the highest temperature the scientists produced in a laboratory was 511,000,000 °C at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor in Princeton, the USA. — Concorde was the world's most successful supersonic passenger airliner until 2003; — the hottest planet in the solar system is Venus, with a surface temperature of462 °C;
— sound travels about 4 times faster in water than in air; — boron nitride (BN) is the second hardest substance known to man; — Bug Dubai is a skyscraperand is the world’s tallest building. The Bug Dubai is 818 metres tall and includes homes, hotels and parkland. The more you know about the Burj Dubai, the more amazing the whole building seems. The most amazing are the observatory lifts which travel the longest distance between lowest and highest stops. These elevators also travel at 18 metres per second and it is a really fast ride! — Channel Tunnel is the longest tunnel with an undersea section in the world. The length of the Channel Tunnel is 50.5 kilometres. It links England to France. Construction of the tunnel began in 1988 and opened in 1994. The American Society of Civil Engineers ranks it as one of the Seven Wonders of the modern world Keys to the ex 29: lb, 2a; 3b; 4a. GRAMMAR REVIEW Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) to be + Ved (или 3-я форма неправильного глагола) Таблица времен в Passive Voice Simple Continuous Perfect Present am, is, are + Ved (3-я ф. гл.) am ,s are + beign ! Ved 3-я ф. m.) have] , ) +been + Ved has J (3-я ф. гл.) Past was, were + Ved (3-я ф. гл.) was were > + beign + Ved J 3-я ф. гл.) had + been + Ved (3-я ф. m.) Future '?11 !+be+Ved shall] (3-я ф. гл.) + have been + Ved shall] (3-я ф. гл.)
Например: The rooms are cleaned every day. Комнаты убирают каждый The house is being built now. Basketball was invented in America. день. Дом сейчас строят. Баскетбол был изобретен в Америке The article will be translated by her. Статья будет переведена ею The window has just been broken. Окно только что было разбито. Обратите внимание, первый элемент to be является переменной величиной и изменяется в зависимости от времени, а также лица и числа подлежащего; второй элемент остается постоянным, то есть в страдательном залоге всегда используется глагол с окончанием -ed или 3-я форма неправильного глагола (причастие II). Употребление времен в страдательном залоге соответствует правилам употребления соответствующих времен в действительном залоге. Форма страдательного залога употребляется в предложении, подлежащим которого является предмет или лицо. на который направлено действие, выраженное глаголом Например: Му car was stolen yesterday. Мою машину украли вчера. Football is played all over the world. В футбол играют во всем мире. I will be asked tomorrow at the Меня спросят завтра на уроке, lesson. Субъект действия может быть выражен дополнением с предлогом by (с одушевленными существительными) или with (с неодушевленными существительными). Например: The letter was written by John. Письмо было написано The letter was written with a pencil The bottle was filled with water. Джоном. Письмо было написано карандашом. Бутылка была заполнена водой. При преобразовании предложении из действительного залога в страдательный необходимо помнить следующее: а) дополнение в действительном залоге будет подлежащим в страдательном и наоборот.
Например'. They build new houses in our New houses are built tn our street. street. Они строят новые дома На нашей улице строятся на нашей улице. новые дома. б) глагол в страдательном залоге ставят в том же времени, что и в действительном. Лицо и число может меняться, так как меняется подлежащее. Например: 1 translate texts every day. Texts are translated every day. Я перевожу тексты каждый Тексты переводятся каждый день. день. в) если в предложении действительного залша имеется два дополнения, то любое из них может быть подлежащим в страдательном залоге. При этом важно помнить, что подлежащее в страдательном залоге всегда стоит в именительном падеже. Например: Nick gave me an interesting book. An interesting book was given to Николай дал мне интересную me. книгу. Мне дали интересную книгу. I was given an interesting book. Мне дали интересную книгу. г) дополнение с предлогом by в страдательном залоге часто опускается, если оно выражено личным местоимением. Например: Не showed me the plan. The plan was shown to me (by Он показал мне план. him). Мне показали план. Перевод глаголов в страдательном залоге на русский язык Существует несколько способов перевода английском конструкции страдательного залога на русский язык I. Соответствующей страдательной конструкцией. Например: Many houses were destroyed by Огнем было уничтожено the fire. много домов. The house is being built in our street. Дом строится на нашей улице.
2. Глаголом в действительном залоге в 3-м лице множественного числа с неопределенно-личным значением. Например'. The question has been discussed. Вопрос уже обсудили. The child is being dressed. Ребенка одевают. Поскольку в английском языке страдательный залог употребляется гораздо чаще, чем в русском, существует ряд случаев, представляющих определенную трудность при переводе. К ним относятся следующие. 1. Если в страдательном залоге указан носитель действия (by somebody), то при переводе может употребляться личная форма глагола действительного залога. Например'. The news is brought by my sister Новость принесла моя сестра 2. Если сказуемое в страдательной конструкции выражено глаголом с предлогом, то подлежащее переводят дополнением с соответствующим предлогом, а сказуемое — неопределенно-личной формой глагола. Например: The doctor lias been sent for. За доктором послали. The child is being looked after. За ребенком присматривают. 3. Если сказуемое в страдательной конструкции выражено глаголами to follow, to influence, to affect, to attend (ухаживать за), to penetrate, to succeed, to watch, то на русский язык подлежащее переводится дополнением с предлогом, а сказуемое — личной формой глагола в действительном залоге. Например: Не was influenced by his friend. Влияние на него оказал его друь The painting was long looked at Люди долго смотрели by the people. на картину. 4. После ряда глаголов (to give, to help, to send, to tell, to show, to ask, to see, to teach) подлежащее на русский язык переводят существительным или местоимением в дательном или винительном падеже, а сказуемое — неопределенно-личной формой глагола.
Например: Му friend was asked to come to Моего друга попросили the party. прийти на вечер. I wasn’t told about it- Мне об этом не сказали. 5. Безличные конструкции переводят следующим образом: It is known that Известно, что It is said that Говорят, что It is expected that Ожидают, что 30. Раскройте скобки и употребите глагол в страдательном залоге в соответствующем времени. I. I__a very interesting book to read (give). 2. He _ often____at the lesson (ask). 3. This problem__at tomorrow’s meeting (discuss). 4. This picture_by the great Russian artist Surikov (paint). 5. Today we__much homework (give). 6. The question _ (not answer). 7. These books___by Pushkin (write). 8. Our house__10 years ago (build). 9. My car____just__. I hope it__soon (steal, find). 10. 1__a good job today (offer). 31. Выберите правильный вариант перевода. I. The results of the experiment were influenced by the previous data. а) Результаты эксперимента повлияли на предыдущие данные. Ь) На результаты эксперимента повлияли предыдущие данные. 2. His business trip has been insisted on by his chief а) На его командировке настоял шеф. b) Он настоял на командировке шефа. 3. The report was followed by a lot of questions. а) За докладом последовало много вопросов. b) Доклад последовал за вопросами. 4. This scientist is often referred to by the authors of scientific papers. а) Этот ученый часто ссылается на авторов научных статей. Ь) На этого ученого часто ссылаются авторы научных статей. 5. This man is easily relied upon. а) На этого человека легко положиться. b) Этот человек легко полагается на других.
32. Измените предложения согласно модели, обратите внимание на временную форму глагола. Model: Yuri Dolgoruky founded Moscow in 1147. — Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. 1. Next year students will study some new subjects. 2. The plant produces modem equipment. 3. Our country launched the first sputnik into the space in 1957. 4. A lot of tourists visit St Petersburg in summer. 5. We shall send this letter at once. 6. We will have finished the work by the end of the next week. 7. The students have just translated this text. 8. They speak English in the LISA. 9. Alexander Bell invented the telephone. 10. Egyptians built pyramids. 33. Задайте вопросы к следующим предложениям. 1. Microwave oven was invented by Percy Spencer in 1955. 2. Mobile phones are being improved more and more nowadays. 3. The first telescope was made in Holland in 1608. 4. Radioactive elements radium and polonium were discovered by Marie Curie. 5. Plastic was first made in 1862. 6. Many inventions and improvements are made by modern scientists today. 7. Space will be colonized by humans in the future. 8. New communication technologies have been developed recently. 34. Раскройте скобки и употребите глагол в Past Simple страдательного или действительного залога. Metre and the Metric System The metric system (invent) in France. In 1790, the Academy of Sciences of Paris (direct) to standardize the units of measurement. A committee from the Academy (use) a decimal system and (define) the metre as one 10-mil-lionth of the distance from the equator to the Earth's Pole. The word metre (derive) from the Greek word matron, which (mean) measure. The centimetre (define) as one-hundredth of a metre; the kilometre (define) as 1000 metres. The metric system (pass) by law in France on August 1, 1793. For the metric unit of mass, the gram (define) as the mass of one cubic centimetre of pure water at a given temperature. I n common usage and in commerce, grams (use) as a unit of weight.
35. Раскройте скобки и употребите глагол в Past или Present Simple страдательного или действительного залога. | abacus — счеты the Babylonians — вавилоняне The first calculating machine (call) the abacus. It (use) by the Babylonians in about 3000 BC. In 1834, Charles Babbage (design) a machine for calculating, but it (be) too difficult to build. The first real computer (make) in 1948. Ten years later, Texas Instruments (produce) a chip that (make) of silicon, with an integrated circuit. In 1969, an American scientist (invent) a microprocessor with different parts of the computer on one silicon chip. Now these microprocessors (use) everywhere: in watches, cars, airplanes, in factories and offices. 36. Переведите текст на английский язык, используя Past Simple страдательного или действительного залога. Сталь (steel) и железо (iron) были изобретены китайской цивилизацией во втором веке до нашей эры. В первом веке до нашей эры древние китайцы изобрели насос (pump), который использовался в сельском хозяйстве. Одно из наиболее известных изобретений китайцев, бумага, было сделано во втором веке до нашей эры. Бумага использовалась как одежда. И только спустя еще один век бумага стала использоваться для письма. Спички (matches) — еще одно изобретение китайской цивилизации. Первые спички изготавливались из серы (sulfur). В Европу спички были завезены в 1530 году. Парные союзы • both... and... и... и.... как.... так и... Например'. Both Ann and Helen were late И Аня и Лена опоздали. They were both tired and hungry. Они были и усталыми и голодными. * either... or... или... или..., либо... либо... Например: Не studies either at college or at Он учится или в колледже, или university. в университете. Either you help me or your Или ты поможешь мне, или brother. твой брат.
• neither — пег... ни... ни... Например: Neither Tom nor Jane passed the exam. They neither came nor phoned. Ни Том, ни Джейн не сдали экзамен. Они ни пришли, ни позвонили. • (not) as/so... as... (не) такой же..., как... Например: I speak English as fluently as you. Я говорю по-английски так же бегло, как ты. Не runs not so fast as his brother. Он бегает не так быстро, как его брат. 37. Составьте предложения по образцу. Используйте both... and..., neither... nor..., either... or..., (not)as... as... Model: Tom was late. Ann was late too. —> Both Tom and Ann were late. I. The exam was not too difficult. The exam was not ton easy. —» The exam was neither... 2. It was a very long lecture. It was boring too. - > It was... 3. Have you got a cat? Or a dog? 1 know you have a pet. —> 1 know you have... 4. I have no time to team Italian. And I have no wish. —> I have... 5. Today the test is difficult. Yesterday the test was difficult too. —> The test today is... 6. He entered the university because he wanted to study engineering. He wanted to study science too. -> He entered the university to study both... 7. I do not know the inventor of a telephone. And 1 do not know the inventor of a mobile phone. —> I do not know... 8. I am not sure about who invented the radio. Maybe Popov did. And maybe Marconi. -> Radio was invented... Парные прилагательные В английском языке существуют пары прилагательных с окончаниями -ing и -ей. Прилагательные с окончанием -ing описывают явления, вещи, события, а прилагательные с окончанием -ed — чувства и эмоции Ving Ved amazing — удивительный amazed — удивленный electrifying — электризующий electrified — наэлектризованный satisfying — удовлетворительный satisfied — удовлетворенный, довольный
Например: There are a lot of amazing phenomena on the earth На земле много удивительных явлений. There were many people amazed Ъу this experiment. Было много удивленных этим экспериментом людей. The electrifying properties of this material are well known. Электризующие свойства этого материала хорошо известны. They experimented with the electrified material Они экспериментировали с наэлектризованным материалом. The results of the experiment were satisfying. Результаты эксперимента были удовлетворительными. The teacher was satisfied with our results. Преподаватель был доволен нашими результатами. 38. Выберите правильный вариант из скобок. I. These instructions are very (confusing /confused). I cannot understand them at all 2. This is an ancient (measuring / measured) device. 3. There were many (destroyed / destroying) houses in this street. 4. England is a (developed / developing) country. 5. Are you (interesting / interested) in football? 6. The (observed / observing) phenomenon puzzled them a lot. 7. The book was so (exciting / excited) that 1 could not stop reading. 8. The weather forecast was (terrifying / terrified). 9. We enjoyed the football match. It was (excited / exciting). 39. Прочитайте это письмо. Студент, который его писал, допустил ошибки с прилагательными, оканчивающимися на -ed. -ing. Найдите ошибки и исправьте их. Dear Rasa, I was really pleasing to get your letter. You are having a very busy time ut university. Fve been very busy too and Гт really looking forward to the holidays because Гт very tiring. You wanted some information about women scientists for your project. Unfortunately, I couldn't find really fascinated biographies. But Fve found interested information about scientist Rosalind Franklin. In 1951 she worked on the structure of DNA {ДНК), the substance which carries the body’s genetic code. She first photographed the structure of DNA. A year later, unknown to her, copies of her papers were shown to two scientists who worked on the same problem. Soon
Rosalind died. And these two scientists, Watson and Crick, were given the Nobel Prizefor their work on DNA. And now nobody knows about the work of Rosalind. Of course, you may think her story is a little depressed but I think it is not bored. To learn about forgetting names in the history is really excited! I won’t be surprising at all if you can find more information about her. All the best, Nick 40. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to learn more about engineering (Texts 7.8). SPEAKING PRACTICE 41. Facts that are interesting to know. Student I A. Read the story to your partner. When you find a blank_______, ask your partner a question to fill in the missing information. Dmitri Mendeleev is a famous Russian chemist who arranged as many as (1)____known elements into a periodic table according to (2) _______. The wonderful legend says that Mendeleev invented the periodical system in (3) _______. And it can be true! Mendeleev was constantly thinking about the system but couldn’t express it in a table. So eventually he could see the table in his dream. B. Listen to the story. Answer the questions of your partner using this information. 1. the properties of elements which were unknown 2. gallium, scandium and germanium 3. the University of St Petersburg C. Take turns to read the whole story. Student 2 A- Listen to the story. Answer the questions of your partner using this information. 1. 63 2. their atomic mass 3. his dream B. Read the story to your partner. When you find a blank_________, ask your partner a question to fill in the missing information. On the basis of his remarkable table Mendeleev predicted (I)________. Three of the elements, namely (2)________, were discovered later. He stud- ied also the nature of solutions and the expansion of liquids. Mendeleev was
an outstanding teacher and he worked at (3)_______. He also directed the bureau of weights and measures and served as the government adviser on the development of the petroleum industry- с. Take it in turns to read the whole story. WRITING PRACTICE 42. Study the scheme and explanations below. Describe the engineering design process in 10—12 sentences using the information and the following plan (you are free to make any necessary changes). There are ... in the engineering design process. The first step of the engineering design process is... Then the engineer should... The next step is... At this stage the engineer... After it the engineer... When the engineer... he / she.. It is necessary to note that.. Afterwards... And the last step... It should be also mentioned that all the stages... Steps in the Engineering Design Process
1. Identify the need or problem. 2. Research the need or problem. • Examine the current state of the problem and the current solutions • Search other options in the Internet, library, interviews, etc. 3. Develop possible solutions. • Brainstorm possible solutions. « Use mathematics and science. • Formulate the possible solutions in two and three dimensions. 4. Select the best possible solution(s). • Determine which solution(s) best meet(s) the original requirements. 5. Construct a prototype. • Model the selected solution(s> in two and three dimensions. 6. Test and evaluate the solution(s). Does it work? Does it meet the original design constraints? 7. Communicate the solution(s). • Make an engineering presentation that includes a discussion of how the solution(s) best meet(s) the needs of the initial problem, opportunity or need. • Discuss societal impact and alternative solutions. 8. Redesign. • Improve the solution(s) according to the information gathered during the tests and presentation. PROJECT BOX 43. Find interesting information about any of the inventions and discoveries of the modern or the ancient world. Tell the class about it.
UNIT 6 A Pre-text exercises 1. Look at the following international words, guess their meaning and check the pronunciation. Submarine, bankruptcy, torpedo, competent, detonation, paste, dynamite, ceremony, industrial revolution, cylinder, indicator, surprise, atomic bomb, radioactivity, isotope, neutron bombardment, uranium, interpretation, diskette. 2. Pronunciation: the letter u. A. Read these words. 1. up, but, culture, result [л| 2. student, during, usually [ju:| 3. put, could, butcher [u] 4. focus, industry, pressure [э| 5. curve, turn, curly [з:| В. Put these words in group 1,2,3,4 or 5. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Practise reading them. Number, success, include, study, publish, purchase, cellular, product, pump, much, education, fuse, use, true, push, rubber, cup, produce, curb, nuclear, us, struggle, burn, fur, cut, mute. C. Special pronunciation. Practise the words: build, building, guilt, business, busy |i| q + u quarter, quite, question [kw| 3. Here are some examples with nouns and prepositions. Read and learn them. • a demand / a need FOR something: Nowadays there is a great demand for power resources.
• a reason FOR something: The reason for the development of technology is a constant need for comfort. • an increase / a decrease IN some tiling There has been a constant increase in power demand. * an advantage / a disadvantage / a cause OF something: The advantage of the Internet is in an instant access to information. • a solution / an answer / a reaction / damage / attitude TO something: A solution to this problem has not been found yet We didn’t expect such a reaction to our words Tsunamis’ damage to the town was huge. • relationship / connection / contact WITH someone / something: The Internet offers people contacts with the whole world 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. I. We are trying to find a solution_this problem 2. I don’t know the answer__your question. 3. The reason_____my business trip is decrease _ prices for oil 4. I think there is no need_a new road. 6. We were good friends. But we do not have contact___each other. 7. Nobody knows what the cause_____the catastrophe was. 8. Do you have good relationship___your parents’ 9. The advantage___this device is its quiet work. 10. There was a thunderstorm at night The damage______plants, houses and people is considerable. II. He was asked questions by the police in connection_this crime. Word building 5. Translate the following derivative verbs. Pay attention to the prefixes of the verbs: construct — reconstruct, use — reuse, move — remove, place — replace, tell — retell, make — remake, shape — reshape; appear — disappear, cliarge — discharge, connect — disconnect, mantle — dismantle, approve — disapprove, appoint — disappoint; estimate — overestimate, underestimate, cliarge — overcharge, undercharge, employ — overemploy, underemploy, hang — overhang. 6. Translate the following derivative verbs: adjective, noun + -ify / -fy -> verb simple — simplify, pure — purify, solid — solidify, beauty — beautify;
adjective, noun + -ize / -ise -> verb special — specialize, modern — modernize, revolution — revolutionize, real — realize, maximal — maximize, minimal — minimize. 7. Complete the sentences with the help of the verbs formed from the words in italics using suffixes -ijy / -fy, -ize / -ise. Use Tenses where necessary. I. There was technical revolution in the 20th century. Its achievements ________the world. 2. The test is simple. The teacher_it very much. 3. The water in our rivers is not pure. We should _it. 4. Mobile phone is a modern invention. It__our life. 5. My special interest is nuclear power. I am going to_in this sphere. 6. Ice is a solid substance. It_at 0 degrees Celsius. 7. The danger was real. We____ it too late. 8. This is maximal pressure. We cannot____it more. 8. Brainstorming. A. Study the dictionary definitions of the word “invention”. Look for similarities and differences. What definition is the best to your mind? “A thing or an idea that has been invented” (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English) “A product of the imagination, a device or process originated after study and experiment” (New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language) “Something which has never been made before or the process of creating something which has never been made before” (Cambridge International Dictionary of English) B. Think of your own definition of the word “invention”. Compare it with a partner’s one. C. WTiich of these modern inventions is the most important to your mind? Put them in order 1—8. 1 is the most important. Compare your ideas with a partner and then the class. Г USB flash drive I MP3 format camera phones I Google I t Windows lithium battery ' J GPS SMS | Active vocabulary 9. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: artificial — искусственный; syn. lubrication — смазка man-made to maintain поддерживать, to believe - верить, полагать, сохранять, syn. to support считать to mention — упоминать
to collaborate — работать совместно, сотрудничать; collaboration — сотрудничество to condense конденсировать (превратить газ или пар в жидкость)-, condensation chamber — конденсационная камера core — ядро engine — двигатель; steam engine паровой двигатель to experience — испытывать, чувствовать, переживать, experience — (жизненный) опыт explosive — взрывчатый; разрывной, взрывной; explosion — взрыв extremely — чрезвычайно to found основывать, учреждать; syn. to establish; foundation - основание: учреждение; фонд fuse — плавкий предохранитель to heat — нагревать to identify — устанавливать, определять, распознавать to ignite воспламенять, зажигать insulation — изоляция to involve — привлекать, вовлекать leather — кожа {материал) to mix — смешивать; mixture смесь mystery — загадка, тайна; syn. puzzle namely — а именно nuclear fission — ядерное деление to own — владеть, иметь; own — собственный pressure — давление to pump закачивать; накачивать, pump — насос purpose цель, намерение to push — толкать to realize — осушествлять: выполнять; понимать, осознавать to recognize — сознавать; признавать; recognition признание to repair — ремонтировать the rest of — остальное, прочее rubber — резина safe — безопасный separate — отдельный to shape — придавать форму to solve — решать, разрешать to split (split, split) — расщеплять therefore — поэтому, следовательно to waste — терять даром, тратить впустую 10. Read the text and complete the following statements. This text is about... The main idea is (that)... The text also describes...
ТЕХТ6А ALFRED NOBEL AND THE INVENTION OF DYNAMITE Swedish industrialist, an engineer and inventor, Alfred Nobel was born into a family of engineers on 21 October 1833, in Stockholm, Sweden. His father was Immanuel Nobel, an engineer and inventor who built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. After bankruptcy, Immanuel left his family in Stockholm in 1837 and started up a new business in St Petersburg, Russia. His business was to manufacture submarine mines and torpedoes that he had designed for the Russian government. In 1842, when Alfred was nine, the rest of the family also moved to Russia. St Petersburg, at that time, was a world metropolis that imprinted on young Nobel love of scientific, social and cultural discovery. Alfred Nobel was given the first-class private education that focused on both the humanities and the sciences. Alfred was a good student, and by the age of 16 had become a competent chemist and was able to speak five languages fluently. His father sent him to the United States for further education; during this period Alfred also visited Paris and got in contact with nitroglycerin for the first time. Nitroglycerin is explosive liquid which was first made by an Italian scientist Ascanio Sobrero in 1847. In 1852, Alfred went back to Russia to work with his father as the Russian Navy had placed big orders for the Crimean War (1853—1856). After the end of the war Immanuel Nobel experienced another bankruptcy and moved back to Stockholm with his family. I n Stockholm, Alfred, his father and Alfred’s younger brother Emil opened a laboratory in 1859 where they started to do experiments with the explosive liquid nitroglycerin. Alfred saw that the advantages of nitroglycerin could be used in a commercial and technical way. Over the years they had several explosions in the laboratory; a big one in 1864 killed the younger brother Emil and several other people. The city of Stockholm made laws that experiments with explosives could not be made within the city limits of Stockholm. This did not stop Alfred; he moved his laboratory out of the city and continued his work. By that time Alfred had realized that he had to find a safe way to transport the explosive as well as a method to control the detonation of nitroglycerin In 1866, he successfully mixed nitroglycerin with silica which turned the liquid into paste. This paste could be formed and shaped as necessary, and this made it possible for safe transportation. The new material was patented in 1867 under the name “dynamite”. He also invented a blasting cap (detonator), which could be ignited by lighting a fuse. The market for dyna
mite and blasting caps grew very rapidly and over the years Alfred founded factories in over 20 countries. Alfred Nobel thought that the invention of dynamite could end all wars. But he saw that his invention was used as an extremely deadly product. In 1888, when Alfred’s brother Ludvig died, a French newspaper mistakenly published an article under the headline “The Merchant of Death Is Dead”. Alfred did not want to remain in history with such a horrible epitaph, and he created a will that soon shocked his relatives and established the now famous Nobel Prizes. It should be noted that, besides dynamite, Alfred invented synthetic rubber and leather and artificial silk. He was constantly involved in hard work and did not have much time for private life. Besides his interest in his business, Alfred was very interested in social and peace-related problems. He also had a great interest in literature and poetry and even wrote some of his own works. Though Alfred became famous for his invention of dynamite, many people did not intimately know Alfred Nobel. He was a quiet man who did not like a lot of pretense or show. He had very few friends and never married. He died in San Remo (Italy) on 10 December 1896. According to his will his fortune was to be used to establish a foundation that awarded a yearly Nobel Prize to people whose work helped humanity. On the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death, 10 December 1901, the first Nobel Prizes were awarded. Now the Nobel Prize is awarded in the areas of Physics, Chemistry. Physiology and Medicine, Literature, Economics, and Peace. The Nobel Prize ceremony is held in Stockholm on 10 December each year. The ceremony for the Nobel Prize for Peace is held in Oslo, Norway Text and vocabulary exercises 11. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. to start up 2. metropolis 3. place order 4. within the city limits 5. over the years 6. silica 7. blasting cap 8. a will 9. peace-related problems а) размещать заказ b) в пределах города с) спустя годы d) проблемы, связанные с миром е) начинать работать f) столипа g) двуокись кремния, кварц h) капсюль-детонатор i) завещание
12. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: подводная мина смертельный продукт Крымская война по ошибке в первый раз искусственный шелк стать банкротом состояние безопасная транспортировка ежегодный 13. Find the right English equivalent for the following Russian words. 1. к (о времени) a) buy b) by с) be 2. дальнейший a) further b) farther с) fathet 3. назад a) book b) buck с) back 4. работать a) walk b) word с) work 5. война a) wag b) wad с) war 6. заканчивать (ся) a) and b) end с) ind 7. мертвый a) dead b) died с) death 8.скоро,вскоре a) son b) sun с) soon 14. Choose the right answer. 1. Alfred Nobel was a Swedish industrialist, an engineer and ... a) a researcher b) a scientist c) an inventor 2. After bankruptcy in 1837 Alfred’s father started up a new business in. .. a) England b) Russia c) Poland 3. Alfred Nobel was given the first-class private education that focused on... a) sciences b) both the c) languages humanities and the sciences 4. Nitroglycerin is .... a) explosive solid b) explosive liquid c) explosive gas 5. In 1866, Alfred turned nitroglycerin liquid into paste when he mixed it with.... a) silicate b) silica c) silicane 6. Besides dynamite, Alfred invented synthetic rubber and leather and... a) artificial diamond b) artificial intellect c) artificial silk
15. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. Alfred Nobel was born into a family of scientists in 1833. in Stockholm. Sweden. 2. Alfred’s father was Immanuel Nobel, a scientist and inventor who worked in Stockholm. 3. In 1842, Alfred’s family moved to Russia, to Moscow. 4. Alfred was a good student and by the age of 16 had become a competent chemist 5. Alfred realized that nitroglycerin could be used in a commercial and technical way. 6. Alfred Nobel thought that the invention of dynamite could end all wars. 7. Alfred Nobel had very many friends and three children. 8. Alfred’s fortune was used to establish a foundation that awarded a yearly Nobel Prize to people whose work helped humanity. В Pre-text exercises 16. Function of one in a sentence. A. Study the following information. подлежащее в неопределенно-личных предложениях One never knows what to do in a situation like this Никогда не знаешь, что делать в подобной ситуации. One must do everything in time. Все следует делать вовремя. One may smoke here. Здесь можно курить. вместо существительного, чтобы избежать повторов It is easier to ask a question, then to answer one. Легче задать вопрос, чем ответить на него. There are troubles in everyday’s life, and often the small ones are more irritating than the big ones. В повседневной жизни бывают неприятности, и очень часто маленькие(неприятности) раздражают больше, чем большие. В. Look through Text 6В. Find sentences with one and translate them. Do not forget that one is also a numeral.
17. Read the following text and choose the correct question subtitle (a — f) for each paragraph (I—VI). a) What did Newcomen do? b) What was the first steam machine like? c) What is the role of a steam engine in industry? d) What other inventions did Watt make? e) How did Watt improve the steam engine? f) What was Watt obsessed by? TEXT6B STEAM ENGINE AND JAMES WATT I It is well known that modern civilization was forged in the factories of the industrial revolution. And the steam engine played the central role in it. Only due to a convenient source of energy industry could grow and prosper. Therefore, one can say that the steam engine made the modem progress possible. But where did the steam engine come from? Who was the inventor of this machine? It should be noted that the steam engine was not invented but developed. It was developed over a period of about a hundred years by three British inventors. II The first steam powered machine was built by Thomas Savery in 1698 in England. Savery built his machine to pump water out of coal mines. This machine was so simple that it had no moving parts. It also used a lot of coal to pump a small quantity of water. This machine cannot be called a true “steam engine”, of course. However, Savery first found a practical way how steam could be used to perform useful work. Ill The next stage in the history of the steam engine was a result of the work of Thomas Newcomen. Newcomen understood that Savery’s inefficient steam powered pump could be improved. He built a machine where the steam pushed a movable piston in one direction. This true “steam engine” was also used to pump water out of coal mines. Neither Savery nor Newcomen had any great purpose in mind for their machines. IV This all changed in 1763, when James Watt, a Scottish engineer, improved Newcomen’s design. James Watt was born on 19 January 1736, in Greenock. Scotland. Since his childhood he was obsessed by the idea to make things “work like clock” In his youth years he went to London with a dream to become a mathematical and philosophical instrument maker. When he returned to Glasgow he began making instruments for Glasgow University where he was given accommodation and a workshop. During his time there.
he met the chemist Joseph Black who was studying the heat properties of steam during that time. V In 1763, James was asked to repair a steam engine of Newcomen’s design. During the repair. Watt realized that the engine’s design could be improved, especially the amount of energy it wasted. Under the Newcomen design, a jet of cold water was used to condense the steam in the engine. Unfortunately this also cooled other parts of the engine, which then had to be reheated. Watt believed this inefficient use of energy could be corrected. Over the next several years. Watt improved the design of the Newcomen’s engine. He added a separate condensation chamber in which the steam could be condensed separately from the rest of the engine. This new design was almost 75 per cent more efficient than the previous one. James Watt invented the term “horsepower” as a way to explain to a potential buyer how much work his steam engines could do. Watt also made smaller improvements which included oil lubrication and insulation of the cylinder in order to maintain the high temperatures necessary for maximum efficiency. In 1775, Watt and the British manufacturer Matthew Boulton began to manufacture steam engines. VI Watt continued his research and patented several other important inventions. They included the rotary engine for various types of machinery; the double-action engine, in which steam is admitted into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine. He retired from the firm in 1800 and thereafter devoted himself entirely to research work. Eight years after his retirement, he founded the Watt Prize at Glasgow University. James Watt died in 1819 at the age of 83. In 1882,63 years after his death, the unit of electrical power was named after him a “watt”. Today James Watt’s name can be seen on almost every light bulb in the world. It is interesting to know that steam engines are still used today to run nuclear power plants. Text and vocabulary exercises 18. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. forge 2. it should be noted that 3. moving parts 4. movable piston 5. "work like clock” 6. instrument maker 7. a jet of cold water а) необходимо отметить, что b) работать как часы с) выковывать, ковать d) струя холодной воды е) приборостроитель f) подвижный поршень g) смазка маслом
8. oil lubrication 9. rotary engine 10. double-action engine h) ротационная машина i) двигатель двойного действия j) подвижные части 19. Find the English words or phrases in the text and choose the right meaning for them. 1. convenient 2. purpose 3. amount 4. cool 5. reheat 6. add 7. patent 8. admit 9. firm a) to heat again b) company c) to make cooler d) goal e) comfortable f) a right to make, sell the invention g) to join with something extra h) quantity i) to allow 20. Find in the text the right word or words to complete the sentences. 1. Only due to___industry could grow and prosper. 2. The steam engine was not invented but______over a period of about a hundred years. 3. The first steam powered machine was built by_in 1698 in England 4. Thomas Newcomen built a machine where the steam pushed a____in one direction. 5. In 1763, James Watt was asked to_a steam engine of Newcomen’s design. 6. Watt added a separate_in which the steam could be condensed sep- arately from the rest of the engine. 7. James Watt invented the term__to explain to a potential buyer how much work his steam engines could do. 8. Eight years after Watt retired, he founded_at Glasgow University. 21. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. One can say that the steam engine made the modern progress possible. 2. The first steam engine was used to pump waier out of coal mines. 3. Since his childhood James Watt was obsessed by the idea to make things “work like clock”. 4. James Watt increased efficiency of the steam engine up to 75 per cent.
5. Watt also invented an electric motor and a transformer. 6. In 1785, Watt and the British manufacturer Matthew Boulton began to manufacture steam engines. 7. Watt patented several other important inventions c Pre-text exercises 22. A. Match a verb with a preposition. Translate the verbs. 1. work a) to 2. result b) for 3. award c) in 4. nominate d) on 5. run away e) for 6. lead f) with 7. help g) from B. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. 1. Modern scientists are working_ different problems. 2. The professor was nominated_______the Nobel Prize and was awarded it______his discovery. 3. Many people had to run away_______Nazi regime 4. Our hard work resulted____excellent marks at the exam. 5. The discovery of nuclear fission led___the invention of a nuclear bomb. 6. Are you going to help me_____the homework? 23. Read the following text to answer these questions. 1. Why was the discovery of nuclearfission a complete surprise? 2. Who received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of nuclearfission? 3. Whose name was not mentioned for award? 4. What sphere did Lise Meitner specialize in? 5. Who did she collaborate with? 6. What puzzle did Meitner and her colleagues try to solve? 7. Why did Lise run away from Germany? 8. Who and when discovered nuclearfission? 9. Why did Meitner lose recognition for her work? 10. How did Albert Einstein call Lise Meitner? 11. What was named after Lise Meitner?
ТЕХТ6С LISE MEITNER AND THE DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FISSION When scientists first recognized, in late 1938, that a neutron could split an atom’s core, the discovery was a complete surprise. Indeed, no physical theory had predicted nuclear fission, and its discoverers did not have the slightest idea of its further use in atomic bombs and power plants. In 1945, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences1 awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Otto Hahn for the discovery of nuclear fission. The name of the physicist Lise Meitner, who collaborated with him in the discovery and gave the first theoretical explanation of the fission process, was not mentioned. Lise Meitner was bom in Vienna, Austria, on 7 November 1878. She was the third child of eight children in the family. Her father Philipp, who was a lawyer, hired tutors to teach the children, and she received good education in mathematics. Since the Viennese2 system of education did not allow girls to enter higher school from 1892 to 1901, she had to struggle a lot to get her education. In 1901, the Viennese government opened universities to women and Meitner entered higher school. Five years later she had a PhD in Physics. She went to the University of Berlin where she, as a woman, was not allowed to use the same laboratory as the men for her experiments. During this time she met Otto Hahn, a German chemist who was working on radioactivity. Meitner collaborated with him to work on radioactivity. The collaboration continued for 30 years. Together and independently they achieved important results in the new field of nuclear physics. In 1926, she became the first woman physics professor in Germany. During the 1920s and 1930s she was nominated for Nobel Prize several times. By 1937, Meitner and Hahn had identified at least 9 different radioactive elements and published several papers. During this time Fritz Strassmann joined them as an analytical chemist. They, just like many other people in different parts of the world, were working on nuclear fission. In 1934, Enrico Fermi produced radioactive isotopes by neutron bombardment of uranium. There were several products; were any of them transuranic elements? Meitner inspired Hahn and Fritz Strassmann to probe the possibilities. By 1938, the puzzle had not been solved yet. But they continued their investigation to solve this mystery. When Hitler came to Austria in 1938 Lise became a German Jew citizen. She had to run away from Germany to Denmark and then to Sweden. On 13 November 1938, Hahn met secretly with Meitner in Copenhagen. At her suggestion, Hahn and Strassmann performed further tests on a uranium product
that resulted in the discovery of fission tn their laboratory in Berlin. Hahn and Strassmann reported the discovery in January 1939- Meitner and her nephew, Otto R. Frisch, published the correct theoretical interpretation of fission a few weeks later. But the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Hahn alone. Thus Meitner lost recognition for her work. Though in fact namely she solved the mystery and Hahn just carried out the experiment to prove it, Hahn got all the credit and the Nobel Prize for it. He never tried to give Meitner credit for her contribution. The Nobel “mistake” was partly corrected in 1966, when Hahn, Meitner and Strassmann were awarded the US Fermi Prize3. Meitner did not know the end result of her discovery could lead to weapons of mass destruction. She believed her discoveries were to be used for peaceful putposes and refused to help with the development of the weapon. During her 60 years of work in the field of atomic physics she wrote 128 articles, served on scientific commissions and in the United Nations Committee on atomic energy. Albert Einstein called her “our German Madame Curie” Lise Meitner died in 1968. On her gravestone it is written “A physicist who never lost her humanity”. In 1992, physicists named their 109th element “meitnerium” in honour of Lise Meitner and finally gave her the official recognition she deserved Notes on the text 1 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences - Шведская Королевская академия наук 2 Viennese — венский 5 the US Fermi Prize премия Ферми (одно из самых престижных премий за научные и технологические достижения е США) Text and vocabulary exercises 24. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. not have the slightest idea 2. neutron bombardment а) исследовать b) не иметь ни малейшего представления 3. transuranic element 4. probe 5. a German Jew 6. at suggestion 7. get the credit for с) трансурановый элемент d) немецкий еврей е) по предложению f) бомбардировка нейтронами g) оружие массового поражения 8. weapons of mass destruction 9. gravestone h) надгробный камень i) получить признание за что-л.
25. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: ядро атома теоретическое объяснение радиоактивные изотопы вдохновлять конечный результат научные комиссии в конце концов для мирных целей атомная физика частично 26. Choose the right answer. 1. In 1938, scientists first recognized, that a neutron could split an atom’s ... a) structure b) shell c) core 2. For the discovery of nuclear fission Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize in.... a) Physics b) Chemistry c) Atomic Physics 3. Meitner collaborated with Otto Hahn to work on radioactivity lor.... a) 30 years b) 20 years c) 40 years 4. When Hitler came to Austria in 1938 Lise had to run away from Germany to... a) Denmark b) Sweden c) Denmark, then Sweden 5. Hahn and Strassmann reported the discovery in_ a) 1938 b) 1939 c) 1937 6. Meitner published the theoretical interpretation of fission... a) a few days later b) a few months later c) a few weeks later 27. Read the text above once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he / she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing Disagreeing politely I agree with you. I’m afraid, I cannot agree with you. Yes, that is what I think too. I see what you mean, but I think.. You are right! Well, as far as I know... 1. In 1901, Meitner entered higher school and five years later she had a PhD in Chemistry. 2. In 1926, she became the first woman physics professor in Germany
3. During the 1920s and 1930s she was awarded the Nobel Prize several times. 4. Meitner solved the mystery of nuclear fission, and Hahn just carried out the experiment to prove it. 5. Otto Hahn tried to give Meitner credit for her contribution. 6. Meitner helped with the development of the weapon. 7. In 1992, physicists named their 109th element “meitnerium” in honour of Lise Meitner. 28. Tell your partner about Lise Meitner according to the plan given below. I. Lise's childhood and education. 2. Her work with Otto Hahn on radioactivity. 3. Why she had to leave Germany and stop work on nuclear fission with Hahn. 4. Discovery of nuclear fission (who, when, the Nobel Prize award) 5. Meitner’s contribution to the atomic physics. 29. Read one of the articles about innovations below and give your comments on it. A Market for Ideas A pioneering “innovation marketplace” is making steady progress A problem shared is a problem solved: that is the belief that inspired InnoCentive, a firm that describes itself as the “world’s first open innovation marketplace”. It is based on a simple idea: if a firm cannot solve a problem on its own, why not use the rich of the Internet to see if someone else can come up with the answer? Companies, which InnoCentive calls “seekers”, post their challeng- es and problems on the firm’s website. “Solvers”, who number almost 180,000 compete to win cash “prizes” offered by the seekers. Around 900 challenges have been posted so far by some 150 firms which include big multinationals, such as Procter&Gamble More than 400 have been solved. InnoCentive believes that the approach can work for innovations in all sorts of fields, from chemistry to business process and even economic development. (adapted from the Economist) Asia Innovation Awards In November 2011, the winners of the Asia Innovation Awards 2011 were announced in Hong Kong. The gold award went to Adlens Ltd., cre ator of eyeglasses that can be adjusted to correct near- or far-sightedness. The Institute of Bioengineering and nanotechnology of Singapore, which
developed a portable disease detection system, won the silver award. “Each one of you has made a remarkable effort in coming up with an innovative idea and turning it into a reality that helps to enrich and improve the quality of life and productivity,” Francesco de Ferrari, Deputy Head of Private Banking Asia Pacific. told the winners. (adapted from the press) GRAMMAR REVIEW Страдательный залог с модальными глаголами can / could / may / ] might / must / should ] + be + Ved (3-я форма) have / be + to be + Ved (3-я форма) Очень часто в английском языке употребляется страдательный залоге модальными глаголами. В этом случае после модального глагола следует инфинитив глагола в страдательном залоге с частиией to или без нее. Например'. This problem must be solved. Your question cannot be answered. The work lias to be done. Эту проблему необходимо решить. На твой вопрос невозможно ответить Работу нужно сделать. При преобразовании предложений из действительного залога в страдательный используется сочетание того же модального глагола с инфинитивом в страдательном залоге. Например: Не must clean the room. Он должен убрать в комнате. We could hear the music. Мы могли слышать музыку. The room must be cleaned. В комнате необходимо убрать. The music could be heard Музыку можно было услышать. It should be mentioned that... It must be noted that... Безличные конструкции переводят следующим образом. Следует упомянуть, что... Необходимо отметить, что...
30. Закончите предложения, употребив инфинитив глаголов в скобках в страдательном залоге. 1. A decision can not___until the next meeting (take). 2. This building is dangerous. It must _ down very soon (knock). 3. George might____to America on a business trip (send). 4. The meeting had to___because of his illness (cancel). 5. The timetable was to__according to the new terms (change). 6. His car must___next Friday (repair). 7. A way to travel at the speed of light might_soon (discover). 8. The people should____about it (warn). 9. More roads should____in our town (build). 10. The news could______yesterday (publish). 31. Измените предложения согласно модели. Model: The scientists could not identify the substances. — The substances could not be identified (by the scientists). 1. Ancient people could observe the phenomenon of electricity. —> The phenomenon of electricity... 2. The scientists might continue the periodical table of elements in future. —> The periodical table of elements... 3. The archeologists could date the ancient city of Jericho back to 7000 BC. > The ancient city of Jericho... 4. The students had to do laboratory works. —> Laboratory works... 5. Doctors can apply X-rays to solve medical problems. —> X-rays... 6. We are to take an exam in Physics on Friday. -> An exam in Physics... 7. The modern engineers should develop technology of safe fuel. -» Technology of safe fuel... 8. We must protect our environment for future generations. —> Our environment... 9. People had to find an effective method of transportation. -> An effective method of transportation... 10. The engineers can create artificial intellect. —> Artificial intellect.. 32. Перепишите данный текст в страдательном залоге. | rubbish — мусор tin сап — жестяная банка | Our region is starting a new environmental programme. This programme ought to protect our environment from rubbish. According to it we must collect all old paper, glass bottles and tin cans. Then we must put them separately into special containers. When the containers are full, special workers can take them and bring to factories. The factories can recycle them into new products.
33. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя страдательный залог с модальными глаголами. 1. Наша работа должна быть закончена как можно скорее. 2. Эту статью следует перевести. 3. Лекции и семинары должны посещаться регулярно 4. Эту лабораторную работу можно не делать. 5. Книги и журналы можно взять в библиотеке. 6. К преподавателям необходимо обращаться за помощью. 7. Университет необходимо закончить с отличием. 8. Компьютер следует починить. 9. Эти бумаги можно забрать. 10. Бее законы необходимо выучить Местоимения some, any, по и их производные some (+) I need some money. Мне нужны деньги, (немного, неопределен ное количество) I need no money. Мне не нужны деньги. (вообще) В вопросительных предложениях, которые являются вежливыми просьбами или предложением чего-либо, употребляется some. Например: 1. Когда мы предлагаем что-нибудь: Would you like some tea? — Yes, please 2. Когда мы просим что-либо: Can you lend me some money? — Sure. How much do you need? 34. Вставьте some, any или no. 1. We don’t have__information for the project; I am going to search the Internet for_. 2. I am thirsty. Can I have_juice? 3. When we were on holidays, we visited_very interesting places. 4. I am short of money. Could you lend me_? 5. Do you know____good books about robots?
6. 1 didn’t make _ mistakes in the last test. 7. Have you got____friends at the university? 8. I don’t have____pictures of London but my friend has______. 9. We have practically___problems with the new equipment- 10. The factory wastes______energy. Промлвидные m some, any, no, every SOME ANY NO EVERY somebody someone кто-то, кто-нибудь anybody anyone кто-то, кто-нибудь nobody по one никто everybody everyone все something что-нибудь, что-то anything что-то, что-нибудь что угодно nothing ничего everything всё somewhere где-то, куда-то anywhere где-нибудь, куда-нибудь nowhere нигде, никуда everywhere везде 35. А. Заполните пропуски, вставив somebody, anybody, nobody или everybody. 1. Can____in your group speak French? 2. __left a book in our classroom yesterday. 3. I am afraid I shan’t be able to find_in the office now: it is too late. 4. __knows that water is necessary for life. 5. There is__here.______has gone to the lecture. 6. knew anything about America before Columbus discovered it. В. Вставьте anywhere, nowhere, somewhere или everywhere. 1. I put my books__yesterday and now I can’t find them______. — That is because you leave your books____. 2. You must go____next holidays. 3. Did you go_____on Saturday? 4. Where have you bought the pencils? — You can buy them____. 5. Where did you go on holidays? —____. We stayed at home. 6. I’m so tired. I’m not ready to go__. С. Вставьте anything, nothing, something или everything. 1. If you need____, ask me for help. 2. Look!___has happened? 3. He is the best student in our group, he knows . 4. Unfortunately, now we know_____about this man.
5. What’s wrong with you? Did____happen? 6. Practically_can change his opinion. Much, many, a lot of Few, little, a little, a few many с исчисляемыми существительными a lot (of) с существительными, при характеристике действия much с неисчисляемыми существитеяьн ы м и, при характеристике действия 1 have many friends. У меня много друзей. 1 have a lot of friends. У меня очень много (множество) друзей. 1 have a lot of money. У меня очень много (множество) денег. Не sleeps a lot. Он много спит. 1 have much money. У меня много денег. Не sleeps much. Он много спит. мало few с исчисляемыми существительными little с неисчисляемыми существительными, при характеристике действия 1 have few friends. У меня мало друзей. 1 have little money. У меня мало денег. Не sleeps little. Он мало спит. немного, немножко a few с исчисляемыми существительными a little с неисчисляемыми существительными, при характеристике действия 1 have a few friends. У меня немного (несколько) друзей. 1 have a little money. 1 can buy an icecream. У меня есть немного денег. Я могу купить мороженое. Не speaks English a little. Он немножко говорит по-английски.
36. А. Вставьте much, many, a lot of. 1. Do you drink__milk? 2. I like reading. I’ve got_books. 3. There isn’t__homework for tomorrow. 4. This book costs___money. 5. How____foreign languages do you know’ 6. There was____traffic in the street. В. Вставьте a little или a few. 1. Yesterday I wrote_letters to my friends. 2. Can I have___milk in my coffee, please? 3. He went away___minutes ago. 4. Do you speak any foreign languages? — Yes, French and___ English. 5. Have you ever been to London? — Oh, yes,___times 6. There is a church, a shop and __houses here. С. Вставьте little или few. 1. He showed____interest to this project. 2. He is not a creative man. He lias got _new ideas. 3. We must go faster, there’s_time. 4. Her English is very good. She makes very___mistakes. 5. Do you watch TV much? — No, I watch it very____. 6. It is difficult to find a place to stay in this town. There are_hotels. 37. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading" (Texts 9, 10, 11J to learn more information about famous inventors, inventions and innovations. SPEAKING PRACTICE 38. Important inventions and inventors. Student 1 A. Study the following table and ask your partner questions to fill in the missing information. Person Invention Date James Watt ? 1775 Samuel Morse telegraph ? 7 transatlantic cable 7 Alexander Graham Bell telephone 7 Thomas Edison ? B. Look through the information below and answer your partner’s questions. 1. Nicola Tesla invented an induction electric motor in 1888. 2. Rudolf Diesel invented a diesel engine in 1892.
3- In 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first airplane. 4. Model T Ford was invented in 1908 by Henry Ford, and in 1913 he launched the first assembly line. 5. The sewing machine was invented by Elias Howe in 1844. Student 2 A. Look through the information below and answer your partner’s questions. I. The first reliable steam engine was made by James Watt in 1775. 2. Samuel Morse invented telegraph in 1836 3. In 1866, Cyrus Field invented transatlantic cable 4. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. 5. Thomas Edison invented an incandescent light bulb in 1879. B. Study the following table and ask your partner questions io fill in the missing information. Person Invention Date 9 diesel engine I892 9 9 1903 Henry Ford Model T Ford, 9 ? 1913 Elias Howe sewing machine ? Nicola Tesla induction electric motor 39. Innovation word search. A. In the word search there are ten inventions of the 18th — 20th centuries. They go in four directions: left to right, diagonally top left to bottom right, diagonally bottom left to top right, and top to bottom. Can you find them all? A R D VI I II О I R О T Q P F T О L T W W A U О Q N S D F E F G U Q U N A COMP S C V U E D T E О T О R С V В E N V О U Z S В J M G L A С О N R G L В E E N G I N E L U U T E R I L D В L E G R A P H M
В. Among the inventions you found in the word search, which do you find: — most useful? — most important for the 21st century? — least useful? — most harmful? C. Discuss it with a partner. WRITING PRACTICE 40. What does the following scheme show? Describe it in 8—10 sentences. Here are some useful phrases for you. 41. Translate the following text into English. С древних времен человек изучал природу и пытался понять суть вещей и явлений. Позднее он стал копировать то, что видел вокруг и реализовывал свои идеи. Например, прообразом современного вертолета была стрекоза. Многие природные явления были значительно изменены и преобразованы человеком в процессе творческого созидания. И могут быть изменены и в будущем. Чаще всего оригинальная идея, возникающая в голове у изобретателя, не имеет ничего общего с конечным результатом. В истории есть примеры, когда задача решалась не так, как было запланировано, или решение становилось результатом случайности. Некоторые предметы были «изобретены» учеными независимо друг от друга дважды. Поэтому некоторые идеи и продукты не удает-
ся запатентовать, так как аналогичная идея была реализована раньше. Для того чтобы такие истории не случались, в мире издается много научных журналов, где ученые всего мира делятся с коллегами своим опытом и достижениями. PROJECT BOX 42. Informal and formal letters. 1. Informal letter. Your English or American pen friend is to do a project on the Russian inventorsand inventions. Find information about any Russian scientist or engineer and his / her invention or achievement. Write a letter about him / her. 1. Choose the person and find information. 2. Invent the name of your friend and some personal information about him I her. 3. Plan paragraphs: 1) share some general information about your life; 2) write about the inventor and invention; 3) wish luck with the project 4. Look at the letter below to find out how to begin / how to finish (you are free to make any changes). Nickola i Basov 45 Prosveshcheniya St Novocherkassk Rostov region 346400 March Z,20— David White 45 Agate Road London NW6 OAH Dear David, I was really pleased to get your letter. I congratulate you! Now you are a student. You are having a very busy time at the university. And you can understand now why I’m always so busy too. You wanted some information about... Of course, you may find more information about it. But I hope that my help will make your project a success. AH the best, Nick.
5. Use your notes to write the letter. B. Formal letter. Study the following advertisement and write a letter to apply for the scholarship. Use the plan below. SCHOLARSHIPS INNOVATION Thanks to a generous donation, the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg is announcing three scholarships of $200 000 each for research into innovation. Applications must be received as detailed on claes.alvstam@handels-gu.se UNIVERSITY OF GOTHENBURG SCHOOLOl BUSINESS ECONOMICS AND LAW (adapted from the Economist) 1. Think of some innovative ideas you can describe in 2—3 sentences (the main idea and a few details). 2. Plan paragraphs: 1) opening (the reason for writing); 2) focus (some personal information and information about the invention); 3) closing (positive closing, complimentary close, name, enclosure). 4. Look at the letter below to find out how to begin / how to finish (you are free to make any changes).
To: claes.alvstam@handels.gu.se From: Mikhail Remozov mikreni@mail.ru Date: March 1,20 — Subject: Scholarship application Dear Sirs, I read about a scholarship for research into innovation advertised in the Economist. And I would like to apply for it. I am a... I My name is... and I am... I would like to offer / write about... All the further details are in my enclosed project. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Faithfully yours, Mikhail Remozov hZ" Enclosure 5. Use your notes to write the letter.

PART II UNIT 7 A Pre-text exercises 1. Pronunciation. Chemical elements and substances. Match the lines in the table. Practise the words. sulphur dioxide nitrogen oxide helium sulphuric acid carbon dioxide oxygen nitrogen hydrogen nitric acid foksidpn] [’naitrik 'msidj [’naitndpn] [’naitndpn ’vksaid] [’sAlfa dai'nksaid] [’karban dai'nksaid] [sAl'fjvank 'eesid] [’hi:liam] fhaidradsan] гелий азотная кислота диоксид серы, сернистый газ кислород азот оксид азота серная кислота водород углекислота, углекислый газ 2. Choose the correct word from the alternatives in this text. Since life first appeared (on / at) the Earth four billions years ago, there have been tremendous changes. Ice ages, volcano eruptions, earthquakes have changed mountain chains and course (for / of) rivers. Some species have been displaced (by/with) others which are more favoured (from/by) new environments. Nowadays scientists are studying the changes which can take place (in / by) 50 years’ time. A rapidly growing population is one (of/ for) the causes (from / of) social and environmental problems. (Thanks to / Because of) the population growth global food shortages will become much more serious (than / as) today, leading (on / to) poverty. Renewable energy technologies will meet the world’s energy demand (in/by) 2030.
Wireless technology will be everywhere. There will be no wires (on/at) and (behind / below) your desk. We will be able to control people (round / around) us (with / by) a tiny microchip and (across / through) the access (to / in) the Internet Word building 3. A. Translate the following compound words. Pay attention to their word-formative model: motor-car, half-life, meanwhile, gunpowder, aitplane, highway, workshop, double-action, low-power, workman, headache. B. Find compound words in the texts of this unit and translate them. 4. Look at the groups of words below. Look at their suffixes and decide what part of speech each word is- Translate the w ords. Science, scientific, scientist; invent, inventor, invention; design, designer; revolution, revolutionary, revolutionize; employ, employer, employment, unemployment; discover, discoverer, discovery. 5. Complete the sentences with one of the words from ex. 4 in the correct form. I. They hope to___the cause of the accident very soon. 2. We need more money for____research into communication technol- ogies. 3. My sister works as an industrial_for a big company. 4. There is a low level of_in the country. 5. GPS navigator is a___device of the modern era. 6. James Dyson is the___of a new type of a more powerful vacuum cleaner. 7. Scientists have made an exciting _ on the planet Mars. They believe that there is water there Active vocabulary 6. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: to absorb — впитывать; поглощать nitrogen — азот acid — кислота; acid rain — on one hand с одной стороны; кислотный дождь; acidity on the other hand — с другой кислотность стороны
to affect — влиять, воздействовать; syn. to influence, to impact, to have an impact on approximate!} - приблизительно complex — сложный; syn. complicated disease — болезнь; syn. illness to emit — испускать, выделять; выбрасывать, извергать to encourage — поощрять, поддерживать extinct - вымерший; to become extinct — вымирать fossil fuel — ископаемое топливо generation — поколение to get rid of — избавиться от greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект hazard — риск, опасность; syn. danger; hazardous - опасный health — здоровье to interfere (with) вмешиваться во (чйю-jl), повлиять на (исход чего-л.)', interference — вмешательство layer - слой; ozone layer — озоновый слой mankind человечество; syn. humanity oxygen — кислород pest — вредитель; pesticide — пестицид petrol — бензин planet — планета poison — яд; poisonous — ядовитый to pollute — загрязнять; syn. to contaminate; pollution загрязнение, pollutant загрязняющий агент to promote — способствовать, содействовать to protect — защищать; protection — защита to purifi - очищать, purification — очищение rubbish — мусор sediment — осадок, отложение to separate — отделять, разделять society — общество soil — почва solar system — Солнечная система species — биологический вид vapour — пар, испарение vegetation — растительность wildlife — живая природа 7. Brainstorming. Going green. A. Scan the following information. Fashion: Junky www.junkystyling.co. uk Make new from old: that was Annika Sanders and Kerry Saegar's idea when they founded their Junky label in 1997. Since then, their creations from quality second-hand goods have become the latest word in the fashion world and a regular design show.
Interior: Feelfelt www.feelfelt.ch Filip Haag of Spiez in Switzerland has visited Kyrgyzstan for years. And when he returns home he brings hand-crafted carpets of pure wool with him. And then makes them into stools, cushions and more. His Feelfelt company is one of the recognized trade labels in the world. Freestyle: Excellent www.pyua.de The German-based PYUA sports fashion label has already earned the award for its eco-responsibil-ity. The concept: jackets made of recycled materials are themselves fully recyclable. They are also virtually indestructible and wearable for several winter seasons. Mobility: Volvo C30 Electric www.volvocars.com A world electric-car premier Volvo C30 is launched for private individuals. The II-horsepower electric motor promises a range of at least 120 kilometres. The international test market for the car includes Russia as well. B. Discuss in class the following questions. I. What do you think of such ways of recycling things? Why is recycling popular nowadays? 2. What do you do to recycle things? 3. Why do car manufacturers create electric cars? C. What eise can be done to protect the environment? In your opinion, which of these practical ways is the most useful to protect our environment? Put them in order 1—6. 1 is the most useful. Compare your ideas with a partner’s and then the class. ' j to sort rubbish I I io save energy in homes I I to help animals | | to recycle things | | to buy recycled things | | to use bicycle instead of caT 8. Read the text and complete the following statements. The text is about... It describes... The text also mentions...
ТЕХТ7А OUR PLANET - THE EARTH Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is a part of the universe, which includes millions of other galaxies and their stars and planets. The Earth, our home planet, is the only planet in our solar system where there is life. All of the things necessary for life are provided under a thin layer of the atmosphere that separates us from the space. The Earth is made up of complex, interactive systems. Air, water, land and life create a world that is constantly changing. If we look at the Earth from the space, we can observe it as a whole system. There are five parts of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the biosphere, the geosphere, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The atmosphere extends from the Earth surface for several hundred kilometres. We can see the lowest part when we look at the clouds. Near the surface of the Earth, air consists of 78 percent of nitrogen, 21 percent of oxygen, and I percent of other ingredients. The atmosphere affects the whole Earth’s climate and local weather. It protects us from all harmful radiation that comes from the Sun and also protects us from meteors as well. The biosphere includes all life from single-celled bacteria to plants and animals. The geosphere is all minerals, rocks, sediments and soils. The hydrosphere includes the oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, groundwater, and water vapour. Oceans cover nearly 70 percent of the Earth’s surface. The presence and distribution of water vapour in the atmosphere is responsible for much of the Earth’s weather. The cryosphere is the frozen part of the Earth and includes snow, glaciers and sea ice. The Sun has a large impact on the Earth and is also considered a part of the Earth system. The Earth has a diameter of 12,756 kilometres at the equator, and it has a mass of about 6 - IO21 kilograms. The Earth Dibits the Sun at a speed of about 29.76 kilometres per second. The Sun is about 149.6 million kilometres away from the Earth. Without the Sun, the Earth could not exist. Let’s imagine that the Earth is a giant machine, full of moving parts and complex systems. All those systems need power, and that power comes from the Sun. The Sun is an enormous nuclear power source — through complex reactions, it transforms hydrogen into helium and as a result light and heat are released. Because of these reactions, every square metre of our planet’s surface gets about 342 watts of energy from the Sun every year. When this energy reaches the Earth, it provides power for a variety of reactions, cycles and systems. It drives the circulation of the atmosphere and the oceans. It makes food for plants, which many people and animals eat. Life on the Earth could not exist without the Sun, and the planet itself could not develop without it.
As the Earth spins on its axis, parts of the planet are in the sun while the others are in the shade. In other words, the sun appears to rise and set. The parts of the world that are in daylight get warmer while the parts that are dark gradually lose the heat they absorbed during the day. You can understand better how much the Sun affects the Earth’s temperature if you stand outside on a partly cloudy day. When the Sun is behind a cloud, you feel cooler than when it is not. The surface of our planet absorbs this heat from the Sun and emits it. Our atmosphere does the same thing — it absorbs the heat that the ground emits and sends some of it back to the Earth. The Earth’s relationship with the Sun also creates seasons. One hemisphere of the Earth points toward the Sun as the other points away. The hemisphere that points toward the Sun is warmer and gets more light — it is summer there, and in the other hemisphere it is winter. This effect is less near the equator titan at the poles, the equator receives approximately the same amount of sunlight all the year round. The poles, on the other hand, receive no sunlight at all during the winter months, that is why they are frozen. Most people take the differences between night and day (or summer and winter) for granted. But these changes in light and temperature have an enormous impact on other systems on our planet. One is the circulation of air through our atmosphere. Let’s consider how it happens. The sun shines brightly over the equator. The air gets very warm because the equator faces the sun directly and because the ozone layer is thinner there. As the air warms, it begins to rise and creates a low pressure system. The higher it rises, the more the air cools Water condenses as the air cools and creates clouds and rain The air dries out as the rain falls. The result is warm, dry air, relatively high in our atmosphere. Because of the lower air pressure, air rushes toward the equator from the north and south. As it warms, it rises and pushes the dry air away to the north and the south. The dry air sinks as it cools and creates high-pressure areas and deserts to the north and south of the equator. This is only one example of how the sun circulates air around the world. Text and vocabulary exercises 9. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. the Milky Way 2. interactive 3. single-celled bacteria 4. water vapour 5. nuclear power source 6. spin а) одноклеточные бактерии b) водяной nap с) источник ядериой энергии d) ось e) Млечный Путь f) поворачиваться (вокруг)
7. axis 8. take for granted 9. a low pressure system g) принимать как должное h) система низкого давления i) взаимодействующий 10. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: в результате тень вставать (о солнце) садиться (о солнце) постепенно полушарие область высокого давления циркулировать гидросфера криосфера 11. Find the right English equivalent for the following Russian words. 1. тонкий 2. сто a) thick a) hundred b) thin b) hungry с) titan с) hanged 3. эффект a) affect b) effective с) effect 4. из, от a) from b) form с) for 5. есть, кушать a) it b) eat с) ate 6. тепло a) hit b) heat с) hot 7. за, позади a) below b) beneath с) behind 8. ночь a) knight b) knit с) night 12. Choose the right answer. 1. All of the things necessary for life are provided under a thin layer of ... a) biosphere b) geosphere c) atmosphere 2. Air, water, land and life create a world that is constantly... a) moving b) changing c) developing 3. The atmosphere extends from the Earth surface for. a) several hundred b) several thousand c) several hundred metres kilometres kilometres 4. The atmosphere protects us from the Sun’s radiation and from meteors .... a) as well as b) as well c) well 5. The presence and distribution of water vapour in the atmosphere is responsible for.. a) the Earth’s b) the Earth’s life c) the Earth’s air weather
6. Every square metre of our planet’s surface gets about 342 watts of energy from the Sun.. a) everyday b) every month c) every year 13. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is a part of the universe, which includes millions of other galaxies and their stars and planets. 2. The Earth, our home planet, is not the only planet m our solar system where there is life. 3. The atmosphere affects the whole Earth’s climate and local weather. 4. The geosphere includes the oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, groundwater, and water vapour. 5. As the Earth spins on its axis, we have days and nights. 6. The Earth’s relationship with the Sun creates seasons. 7. The Earth’s poles receive approximately the same amount of sunlight all the year round. 8. The Sun circulates air around the Earth в 14. Read the following text and answer the questions. TEXT7B ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF THE EARTH /. What is environment? The environment is our physical surroundings. It includes both human (man-made), social and physical (natural) features. Natural features include soil, the atmosphere, vegetation and wildlife. Human features include housing, transport and industry Social features include things such as culture, language and political systems. 2. What are the main environmental problems? Many people all over the world are concerned about human action tn the environment. Human interference with the environment causes many environmental problems. Some of the largest problems which are now affecting the world are acid rain, air pollution, global warming, hazardous waste, ozone depletion, smog, water pollution, oveipopulation, and rainforest destruction. Every environmental problem has causes and numerous effects.
3. What causes acid rain? Acid rain is caused by numerous plants that are burning fossil fuels. When oil, gas and coal are being burnt by power stations sulphur dioxide (SO2) is released into the atmosphere. Motor vehicles that are burning oil and petrol put nitrogen oxides (NO*) into the atmosphere. These gases mix with water droplets in the atmosphere and create weak solutions of nitric and sulphuric acids. When precipitation occurs these solutions fall as acid rain. 4. What problems are caused by acid rain? Acid rain increases the acidity levels of rivers, lakes and seas. This can kill aquatic life. Acid rain increases the acidity levels of soils. This can kill vegetation. For example, the scientists have found out that acid rain from the LI К has destroyed the roots and leaves of forests in Germany and Scandinavia. Acid rain can erode buildings and monuments (particularly if they are made from limestone) 5. What is global warming? Global warming is the worldwide warming of the atmosphere. Global warming is caused by the increases in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases that are released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are being burnt. These gases also cause the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that controls the balance of heat within the Earth’s atmosphere. It is the process during which the natural layer of gases in our atmosphere absorbs a small percentage of the sun’s radiation that is reflected from the earth’s surface. Without the greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature can be about —18 degrees Celsius. 6. What problems are caused by global warming? Due to the higher temperatures in the atmosphere the tee caps will melt and sea levels will rise. This will cause flooding in many low-lying areas of the world. These areas include Bangladesh. East Anglia (England) and the Netherlands. 7. What is wafer pollution? Water is necessary for life on earth. All organisms contain it; some live in it; some drink it Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive if their water is polluted by toxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms. Water pollution can kill large numbers of fish, birds and other animals, in some cases all members of a species in the area that has been polluted. It is unpleasant to look at, to smell and to swim in the polluted streams, lakes and coastal waters. Fish and shellfish from polluted waters may be unsafe to eat. People who drink polluted water can become ill, and, in due course, may have cancer or children with birth defects. The major water pollutants are chemical, biological or physical materials that degrade water quality. Pollutants can be classified into eight categories, each of which presents its own set of hazards.
8. What is the harmful effect of petroleum products? Oil and oil chemicals are used for fuel, lubrication, plastics manufacturing, and many other purposes. These petroleum products get into water mainly by means of accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks, pipelines, and leaky underground storage tanks. Oil in the sea and ocean water damages the feathers of birds and the fur of animals and often causes their death. Petroleum products are also poisonous if animals drink them. In addition, oil may be contaminated with other harmful substances. 9. What is the harmful effect of pesticides and herbicides? Chemicals that people use to get rid of pests and weeds on farms or in suburban yards may be collected by rainwater and carried into streams, rivers. Some of these chemicals are biodegradable and quickly decay into harmless or less harmful forms, while others are not biodegradable and remain dangerous for a long time. Text and vocabulary exercises 15. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. feature 2. ozone depletion 3. ice caps 4. low-lying areas 5. coastal waters 6. shellfish 7. cancer 8. accidental spill 9. tanker truck 10. storage tank а) ледниковый покров b) автоцистерна с) функция, функциональная возможность d) рак (болезнь) е) резервуар для хранения нефтепродукта 0 прибрежные воды g) моллюск; ракообразное h) истощение озонового слоя i) случайное разлитие j) низколежащие области 16. Find the English words or phrases in the text and choose the right meaning for them. 1. smog 2. rainforest 3. aquatic life 4. microorganism 5. petroleum product 6. mainly 7. weeds 8. suburban yards 9. biodegradable a) mostly b) any bacteria or virus c) smoke with fog d) wild plants e) sea or ocean life f) gardens g) something that quickly decays h) tropical forest i) oil product
17. Find in the text the right word or words to complete the sentences. 1._____interference with the environment causes many environmental problems. 2. Acid rain is caused by numerous plants that are burning_. 3. Motor vehicles that are burning oil and petrol put_into the atmo- sphere. 4. The greenhouse effect is a _ phenomenon that controls the balance of heat in the atmosphere 5. Without_, the average surface temperature can be about —18 de- grees Celsius. 6.__________will cause flooding in many low-lying areas of the world. 7. The major water_are chemical, biological or physical materials that degrade water quality. 8. Chemicals that people use to_pests and weeds on farms may be collected by rainwater and carried into streams, rivers. 18. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. The environment includes both human (man-made), social and physical (natural) features. 2. H uman interference with the environment does not cause any environmental problems. 3. When oil, gas and coal are being burnt by power stations nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere. 4. Acid rain increases the acidity levels of rivers, lakes and seas. 5. Global warming is the worldwide warming of the atmosphere. 6. Plants and animals can survive in polluted water. 7. Petroleum products get into water by means of accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks, pipelines, and leaky underground storage tanks. c 19. Read the following text and choose the correct subtitle (a—e) for each paragraph (I—V). a) Methods to Minimize c) Exploitation of Nature Nature Damage b) Ecological Problems d) The Main Goal of Mankind Now e) Man and Nature
ТЕХТ7С INDUSTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT I Since the ancient times nature has served a man as the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with the environment, and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man’s interference with nature began to increase. Today the contradictions between man and nature are great. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other substances. The waste from factories and plants, electric and atomic power stations gets into lakes, rivers and seas, it poisons the air, and it destroys plants and animals. The pollution of the environment affects man’s health greatly. It can lead to such diseases as asthma, bronchitis, cancer; it impacts on the central nervous system and so on. II The demographic explosion and scientific and technological revolution of the second half of the 20th century have led to a sharp increase in the exploitation of natural resources, and thus to their depletion. For example, currently more than 3.5 billion tons of oil and about 4.5 billion tons of coal and charcoal are taken out of the entrails every year. Furthermore, the human race produces a huge quantity of industrial and domestic waste. Ill Between the 1970s and the 1990s, almost 200 million hectares of forest were destroyed; soil is polluted by waste, rubbish, heavy metals, pesticides, toxins, radioactive materials. Pollution of the atmosphere is caused mainly by the industrial and transport sectors, which emit millions of tons of solid and gaseous substances. Also under threat are the planet’s water resources, which are of no less importance for the survival of the human race. Water which is used in industry, agriculture and in the home, returns to reservoirs chemically and biologically polluted. Water resources, therefore, are being polluted by oil products and other forms of waste. The numerous ecological problems are leading to the rapid decline in bio-diversity of fauna and flora, both in specific regions and on the planet as a whole. IV Ecological ignorance of the people leads to the further destruction of nature and worsens the living conditions for all living beings. Mankind has nearly committed suicide. So the main goal of mankind now is to stop destroying the planet. And then step by step we must begin to restore what lias been destroyed, so that future generations could happily live here. V Society has developed a number of methods to minimize the damage of our industrial and economic activity. The most effective methods are: • to rationalize the use of natural resources; • to introduce ecologically clean and low-waste or waste-free technologies; to build purification facilities and locate production rationally;
• to conclude various international environmental protection agreements: • to encourage the activities of private, public and state ecological organizations, committees and funds, which promote and sponsor environmental protection activities; • to improve people’s ecological awareness; • to set up a system of “Red books” that contain information about rare species that are becoming extinct. These are only the initial steps of people that must be carried out to protect the environment not only for the sake of the present but for the future generations as well. Text and vocabulary exercises 20. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. charcoal а) ухудшать(ся) 2. furthermore b) иметь не меньшее значение 3. under threat с) древесный уголь 4. be of no less importance d) живое существо 5. worsen е) совершить самоубийство 6. living being f) под угрозой 7. commit suicide g) малоотходный 8. step by step h) к тому же, кроме того 9. low-waste i) безотходный 10. waste-free j) шаг за шагом 21. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: промышленные и домашние противоречия отходы центральная нервная условия жизни система радиоактивные материалы флора и фауна биологическое разнообразие тяжелые металлы 22. Choose the right answer. I. With the development of civilization man’s interference with nature began.... a) to increase b) to decrease c) to disappear
2. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with ... a) one billion tons of b) one million tons c) billions tons of waste of waste waste 3. Pollution of the atmosphere is caused mainly by the industry and ... a) transport b) agriculture c) economy 4. Ecological ignorance of the people leads to .. a) development of b) destruction of c) destruction of industry nature industry 5. One of the methods to protect the environment is to rationalize the use of... . a) natural resources b) electrical power c) new technologies 6. People must protect the environment for future ... . a) life b) generations c) people 23. Read the text above once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he / she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing Dis agreeing politely I agree with you. I’m afraid, I cannot agree with you. Yes, that is what I think too. I see what you mean, but I think.. You are right! Well, as far as I know... 1. People never lived in harmony with the environment because it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. 2. Today the contradictions between man and nature are great. 3. The pollution of the environment can lead to different diseases. 4. Water which is used in the home returns to reservoirs clean. 5. The ecological problems are leading to the rapid decline in bio-diver-sity of fauna and flora on the planet. 6. The main goal of mankind now is to develop industry and economy. 7. People should encourage the activities of different ecological organizations, committees and funds, which promote and sponsor environmental protection activities 24. Sum up the text in 6—8 sentences. I. The text tells us about... 2. According to it... 3. The text also mentions...
4. It emphasizes... 5. 1 want to point out the following facts that were new for me... 6. The text concludes... 7. Inasmuch as... 8. In conclusion I’d like to mention that... 25. Read one of the articles below and give your comments on it. Litter bins for modern living In Finland the annual amount of waste produced per person has increased from 250 kg to 500 kg in the past 20 years. So the city of Helsinki needed new litter bins. These bins also had to contend with the city’s freezing conditions in winter and with vandalism. Helsinki firm Creadesign, which designed the city’s bins 20 years ago, was briefed to create the new ones. To cope with the increase in waste, Creadesign made the latest bins not only double the size, but gave them a wider mouth. This allows them to take large pizza and beer boxes, which were less prevalent in the early 1990s. The city of Helsinki estimates that these bins will only need to be emptied half as often as the previous ones, which will save on costs. The new bins have caps that don’t allow snow and rain to get in. To prevent vandalism the cap is inclined, which won’t let people stand on the bins. Creadesign’s new bins are being installed this year, to coincide with Helsinki’s role as World Capital of Design. (adapted from the Financial Times) К new approach Zurich 4irport and Skyguide (Switzerland’s air traffic control company) have developed a new procedure to minimize CO2 emissions on approach to the airport. In the EU emissions of CO2 generated through air transport have to be reduced by as much as 10 per cent. Swiss International Airlines, Zurich Aitporl and Skyguide have devel oped an innovative approach procedure that significantly reduces CO2 emissions Like many other attports around the world, Zurich Airport is closed during the night. The first aircraft arrives at around 6 a.m. The result is often a plenty of flights in the early morning — which entails unnecessary noise and CO2 emissions.
An alternative approach system defined “Greener Wave” has been developed. This means that every aircraft that arrives in the morning is assigned a Tactical Time of Arrival (TTA) in the form of a three-minute arrival time window. This new method allows pilots to modify the flight and adjust its speed. By flying at a slower speed and scheduling their arrival, the pilots can reduce CO2 emissions substantially. The analysis of some 10,000 flights has determined that the Greener Wave system reduces approximately one tonne the amount of CO2 emissions per flight during the first morning wave of incoming air traffic. The pioneer model will be adopted by other airports in Europe. (adapted from the press) GRAMMAR REVIEW Согласование времен Правило согласования времен в английском языке обязывает соот носить время глагола в придаточном предложении со временем глагола в главном предложении. В русском языке такой зависимости не су- Не knows that Он знает, что шествует. Основные положения согласования времен сводятся к следующему. 1. Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в настоящем или будущем времени, то сказуемое придаточного предложения может стоять в любом времени, которое требуется по смыслу: she studies English. она изучает английский. she will study English. она будет изучать английский. she studied English. что она изучала английский. 2. Если сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем вре- мени, то сказуемое придаточного предложения должно стоять в одном из прошедших времен. Выбор конкретной видо-временной формы определяется тем, происходит ли действие в придаточном предложении одновременно с главным, предшествует ему либо будет происходить в будущем: <she studied English. она изучает английский. she would study English. она будет изучать английский. she had studied English. что она изучала английский.
Для обозначения будущих действий в прошедшем используется время Future-in-the-Past. Г” would + V Например'. We ail hoped tliat he would come Мы все надеялись, то он скоро soon. придет. Не thought they would help Он думал, что они помогут. В ряде случаев правило согласования времен не соблюдается: а) если сказуемое придаточного предложения выражено модальными глаголами must, should, ought и инфинитивом. Например: Не told us that he should leave Он сказал, что должен уехать immediately. немедленно. I knew he must visit his sick Я знал, что он должен наве- friend. стить своего больного друга. б) если сказуемое прида точною предложения выражав! общеизвестный факт. Например: The pupils were told that the Ученикам сказали, что Земля Earth goes round the Sun. вращается вокруг Солнца. в) в придаточных предложениях определения, а также в придаточных сравнения, которые вводятся союзом than. as... that, as/so... as, less than. Например: Last year 1 worked less than I В прошлом году я работал work now. меньше, чем работаю сейчас. Правило согласования времен особенно часто соблюдается в косвенной речи, то есть когда мы своими словами пересказываем содержание того, что было сказано другими. Сравните: Прямая речь Косвенная речь Не said, “ 1 shall do it tomorrow.” Он сказал: <Я сделаю это завтра». Не said that he would do it the next day. Он сказал, что сделает это завтра.
Mary said to me, “I worked at this office." Мери сказала мне: «Я работала в этом учреждении». Mary told me, that she had worked at that office. Мери сказала мне. что работала в этом учреждении. При преобразовании утвердительных предложений из прямой речи в косвенную производятся следующие изменения: I) может употребляться союз that; 2) заменяются местоимения в зависимости от смысла; 3) глагол to say, за которым следует дополнение, может заменяться глаголом to tell (без предлога to); 4) заменяются времена и наречия места и времени. Согласование времен и наречий в косвенной речи Прямая речь Косвенная речь Present Simple “ I do not remember his name,” she said. Past Simple She said she did not remember his name. Present Continuous “She’s speaking to Joe,” he said. Past Continuous He said she was speaking to Joe. Present Perfect “I’ve bought you some flowers,” she said. Past Perfect She said she had bought me some flowers. Past Simple “He lost all the money." she said. Past Perfect She said that he had lost all the money. Past Continuous “ I was travelling to Moscow while she was living to Rostov,” he said. Past Continuous He said he was travelling to Moscow while she was flying to Rostov. Future Simple “ГИ see you later,” he said. Future in the Past He said he would see me later. tonight, today, this week / month / year now that night, that day, that week / month / year then, at that time, at once, immediately yesterday, iast night / week / month / year the day before, the previous night / week / month / year tomorrow, next week / month / year the day after, the following day, the next day / week / month j year
two days / months / years, etc., ago two days / months / years, etc., before “He arrived last week,” she said. She said that he had arrived the previous week. Вопросительные предложения в косвенной речи изменяются следующим образом. Общие вопросы вводятся союзами if. whether (частица «ли»), порядок слов вопросительного предложения заменяется порядком слов утвердительного предложения Например: Не asked me, “Do you know my He asked me if I knew his telephone number?” telephone number. Он спросил меня. «Ты знаешь Он спросил меня, знаю ли мой номер телефона9» я номер его телефона. Специальные вопросы вводятся тем же вопросительным словом, с которого начинается вопрос в прямой речи, порядок слов заменяется порядком слов утвердительного предложения. Например-. Не asked me, “When will you come to my place?” Он спросил меня: «Когда ты придешь ко мне?» Не asked me when 1 would come to his place. Он спросил меня, когда я к нему приду. При преобразовании глаголов в повелительном наклонении (просьбы и приказы) из прямой речи в косвенную они остаются в форме инфинитива с частицей to. Не said to me, “Give me your pen.” He asked me to give him my pen. Он сказал мне: «Дай мне свою Он попросил меня дать ему ручку». мою ручку. 26. Выберите нужный вариант. I. They hoped the experiment (will prove / would prove) their theoretical hypothesis. 2. Jill said the exam (is/was) more difficult than the previous one. 3. He agrees he (doesn’t know / didn’t know) what the results of the experiment (will be / would be) like. 4. The professor said the term “ecology” (means/meant) “the study of nature”.
5. She knows we (will be busy / would be busy) tomorrow. 6. I thought they (are waiting / were waiting) for me in the entrance hall. 7. I think 1 (will finish/would finish) the translation on Monday if 1 (have / had) time. 8. We hope he (will tell / would tell) her about it when he (sees, saw) her 27. Выполните упражнение согласно модели. Model: She has lived abroad for five years. —> I didn’t know (that) she had lived abroad for five years I. My colleague has completed the project on environmental engineering. -> I didn’t know (that) .. 2. The term “ecology” was first used in 1866 by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel. > I didn’t... 3. The futurologists have proved this idea. -> I didn’t... 4. He has graduated from the university, and now he is a software designer. - > I didn’t... 5. Our teacher is going to give us a lecture on the ecological problems of Russia. -> I didn’t... 6. Human civilization has affected the environment greatly. - > I didn’t... 7. The scientific conference completed its work a week ago. —> I didn’t.. 28. Преобразуйте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную. Соблюдайте правила согласования времен и наречий, при необходимости измените местоимения. Model: Не said, “Му friend was born in Rostov, and since that time he has lived there.” -> He said that his friend had been born in Rostov and since that time he had lived there. I. She said, “If the new manager arrives on Monday, we will be able to begin our work immediately.” 2. He said, “Everybody is going to attend the scientific conference which will be held in our city in May.” 3. They said, “The goods that have been exported from Sweden are of high quality.” 4. The teacher said, “His knowledge oi English is quite good though he makes grammar mistakes.” 5. She said, “The environmental problems cannot be solved easily.” 6. She said, “The books you need are in great demand everywhere.” 7. He said, “I do not have to look for the necessary information — my colleague has already found it.” 8. “I’ve translated the article.” he said. 9. “We must fulfil the work thoroughly,” she said. 10. “ The number of people on the Earth will grow greatly,” he said.
29. Выполните упражнение согласно модели. Model: “ What are the environmental problems of your town? ” she asked. -> She asked me what environmental problems of my town were. “Were you at the conference yesterday?” she asked. —> She asked me if 1 was at the conference the previous day. 1. “Why do you like your job?” she asked. -> She asked me... 2. “When did he start to study at the university'?” she asked. -> She asked me... 3. “What exams have you passed?” she asked. -> She asked me... 4. “When did you go to the library?” she asked. She asked me.. 5. “Where does he study?” she asked. -» She asked me... 6. “What were the students doing at 5 yesterday?” she asked. —* She asked me.. 7. “Do you like your studies?” he asked. 8. “Have you done the laboratory work yet?” he asked. 9. “Are you going on holiday?” he asked. 10. “Was your brother at the lecture?” he asked. 30. Эти предложения в прямой речи. Передайте их в косвенной речи согласно модели. Model: “Come up to me and help.” -> She/he asked me to come up to her/him and help. 1. “Help me with my project on Biology.” 2. “Bring me the book, please.” 3. “Give in your course paper.” 4. “Study harder.” 5. “Finish the work and you may be free.” 31. Прочитайте интервью. Передайте его в косвенной речи. Julie Pollitt works as a project manager for NASA Research Center in the USA. The reporter is interviewing her. R.: How did you decide to become an engineer? P.: I was always interested in NASA. So I studied mechanical engineering at University of Connecticut, got a Bachelor’s degree and found a job in NASA. R.: Do you like your job? P.: 1 enjoy it. I manage and organize groups of designers, scientists and engineers. 1 set goals for them and control the whole process of work during a project. R.: What can you advise to engineering students’ P.: Use a lot of different possibilities to get knowledge and experience while you are at university.
32. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” (Texts 12, 13, 14) to learn more information about ecology. SPEAKING PRACTICE I. Look at Figure 1. A. Industry is the major source of greenhouse gases. On the basis of the data choose the correct source of environmental pollution below. 1. The figure for (industry / commercial and residential heating) is marginally higher than for agriculture. 2. The figure for (consumer and commercial products / commercial and residential heating) is substantially lower than for agriculture.
Table of Activities to Save Water Figure 3 3. The figure for (agriculture / consumer and commercial products) is a little less than for commercial and residential heating. 4. The figure for (other sources of pollution / agriculture) is nothing like as high as for transportation. 5. The figure for (transportation / commercial and residential heating) is approximately the same as for agriculture. B. For the words and phrases in bold find the correct meaning. I. roughly identical to 2. fractionally 3. a great deal 4. far / much less titan 5. slightly less than C. Discuss with a partner what sources of pollution can be meant by the sector “other”. Take it in turns to describe the pie chart. II. Look at Figure 2. A. What emissions does the graph represent? Match the years on the graph with these verbs: escalate, fluctuate, reach a peak, remain relatively stable. B. What effect do carbon emissions have on the environment? Discuss with a partner. III. Look at Figure 3. Scan the following information and discuss with a partner what y ou personally can do to help save water resources.
Only 1% of the world's water is usable to us. About 97% is salty sea water, and 2% is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. Thus that I % of the world’s water supply is a precious commodity necessary for our survival. Dehydration (lack of water) will kill us faster than starvation (lack of food). Since the plants and animals we eat also depend on water, lack of it could cause both dehydration and starvation. WRITING PRACTICE 34. Translate the following text into English. Экологические проблемы человечества стали весьма существенными проблемами всей природы на Земле. Отходы промышленности и сельского хозяйства загрязняют окружающую среду, так как они содержат множество веществ и материалов, которые невозможно утилизировать. Загрязнение ведет к изменению окружающей среды, создает угрозу здоровью людей, вызывает деградацию экосистем. Быстро сократились и продолжают уменьшаться запасы многих, главным образом, минеральных и топливных ресурсов Земли, что создает серьезные экономические проблемы Загрязнение окружающей среды в большинстве стран увеличивается из-за низкого технического уровня производства, устаревшего технологического оборудования, сокращения капитальных вложений в природоохранные меры. Отдельные страны и общество в целом принимают меры по снижению загрязнения. PROJECT BOX 35. Think of ecological problems of the area you live in. Write a report about any of them, for example, traffic. 1. Choose the problem and write down ten words about it. 2. Use your notes to plan paragraphs: I) introduction (some introductory remarks on the environmental problems in general); 2) information about the problem (Example: traffic: causes traffic jams, air pollution, etc.); 3) what we should do about the problem (more public transport, etc.). 4. Use your notes to write a report.
UNIT 8 A Pre-text exercises 1. Pronunciation and word stress: nouns and verbs. In English there are words the spelling of which is the same whether they are nouns or verbs, but their pronunciation is different. A. Read aloud the following words paying attention to the differences in their pronunciation. word noun verb produce [’prndjuzs] [pra'dju:s] estimate [’esttmat] ['estimeit] process [’prauses] [prau'ses] object ['otxjjekt] [ab'dsekt] conduct ['kondAkt] [kan’dAkt] contrast ['knntro:st| [kan’tra:st] transform [’tnensfo:m] [traens’fxm] transport [’trfenspozt] [trazns’pa:t] B. Can you see a pattern in these words? Work in pairs, read words at random from the table to each other. Decide whether the partner is pronouncing each word as a noun or a verb. 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions. I. We always refer______works in our articles. a) on b)to c)of 2. This scientist is known____everybody in his country. a) at b) for c) to
3. Her brother has been _ _ work for three months a) out on b) out of c) all over 4. They were listening__the music attentively. a) on b) at c) to 5. You can never rely__him. He is so unsenous. a) on b)at c)of 6. The mountains were covered____snow and looked very beautiful. a) over b) after cjwith 7. The scientists are satisfied__the results of their work. a) with b)on c) under 8. The kittens jumped__and children were laughing happily. a) out of b) from under c) up and down 9. He says that he has travelled_for the last twenty years. a) over again b) all over the world c) on the world 3. Fill in the gaps with the suitable word to complete the sentences. 1. Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics and appropriate experience to find___solutions to a problem. a) suitable b) unsuitable c) suite 2. Engineers typically attempt to predict how well_designs will per- form to their specifications prior to full-scale production. a) their b) your c) our d) his 3. As all modern scientific and technological novelties, computers and software____an increasingly important role. a) plays b) play c) is playing d) played 4. Using computer-aided design software, engineers_create drawings and models of their designs more easily. a) may b) must c) are able to d) have to 5. Engineering is a subject that ranges_large collaborations to small individual projects. a) from b) of c) in d) on
Word building 4. Translate the following words analyzing their word-formation model. Completely, impossible, mysterious, different, communication, conductor, magnetism, magnetic, generator, arrangement, endlessly, remarkably, fundamental, longer, harder. 5. Make nouns from the following verbs by adding appropriate suffixes. to contain to manufacture to move to require to produce to estimate to survive to concentrate to collect to present to separate to extract 6. Brainstorming. A. Study the dictionary definitions of the word “energy”. Look for similarities and differences. What definition is the best to your mind? “A source of power, such as fuel, used for driving machines, providing heat, etc.” (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English) “Usable power (as heat or electricity); also: the resources for producing such power” (New Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) “The power that comes from electricity, gas, etc.” (Cambridge International Dictionary of English) “A form of power such as electricity, heat or light that is used for making things work” (Macmillan Dictionary) B. Think of your own definition of thr word “energy”. Compare with a partner’s one. Active vocabulary 7. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: ability — способность, умение application — применение, использование. употребление bond связь; to bound соединять to collide — сталкиваться, соударяться combustion — горение, сжигание exploration — исследование, разведка fossil fuel — органическое (ископаемое) топливо to generate — производить; generation — поколение; выработка, производство heat — тепло to light — освещать non-polluting — незагрязняющий
competitive конкурентоспособный to contribute - вносить вклад to convert — преобразовывать. превращать dam плотина, дамба to define — определять to deliver — поставлять, снабжать energy — энергия; kinetic energy — кинетическая энергия: potential energy — потенциальная энергия, alternative energy — энергия из нетрадиционных (альтернативных) источников nucleus - ядро; pl. nuclei particle — частица to rely on — полагаться на... renewable — возобновляемый (о природных ресурсах) resource — запасы, ресурсы to supply — снабжать, поставлять 8. Read the text and complete the following statements. This text is about... The main idea is that... The text also describes... TEXT8A WHAT IS ENERGY? Scientists define energy as the ability to do work, the ability to cause motion and change. People use energy to do different things for them. Energy gives us light, moves cars along the road and boats over the water. It bakes cakes in the oven and keeps ice frozen in the freezer It plays our favourite songs on the radio and lights our homes. Energy is needed for our bodies to grow and it allows our minds to think. Modern civilization is possible because we have learned how to change energy from one form to another and use it to do work for us and to live more comfortably. Energy is found in different forms including light, heat, chemical reactions and motion. There are many forms of energy, but they can all be put into two categories: potential and kinetic. Potential energy is stored energy and the energy of position — gravitational energy. There are several forms of potential energy.
1) Chemical energy which is stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. Chemical energy is converted into thermal energy when we burn wood in a fireplace or burn petrol in a car’s engine. 2) Mechanical energy which is stored in objects by tension. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy. 3) Nuclear energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom — the energy that holds the nucleus together. Very large amounts of energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called “fission”. The sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in a process called fusion. 4) Gravitational energy is energy stored in an object’s height. The higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored. When you ride a bicycle down a steep hill and pick up speed, the gravitational energy is being converted into motion energy. Hydropower is another example of gravitational energy, where the dam “piles up” water from a river into a reservoir. 5) Electrical energy is what is stored in a battery and can be used to power a cell phone or start a car. Electrical energy is delivered by tiny charged particles called electrons, typically moving through a wire. Lightning is an example of electrical energy in nature, so powerful that it is not confined to a wire. Kinetic energy is motion — of waves, molecules, substances, and objects. There are several forms of kinetic energy. 1) Radiant energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Sunshine is radiant energy, which provides the fuel and warmth that make life on the Earth possible. 2) Thermal energy, or heat, is the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances. As an object is heated up, its atoms and molecules move and collide faster. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy of the Earth. 3) Motion energy is energy stored in the movement of objects. The faster they move, the more energy is stored. It takes energy to move an object and energy is released when an object slows down. Wind is an example of motion energy. A dramatic example of motion is a car crash, when the car comes to a total stop and releases all its motion energy at once in an uncontrolled instant. 4) Sound is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression / rarefaction) waves. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate — the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Typically, the energy in sound is far less than other forms of energy. One form of energy can be converted into another form. This transfer is based on the law of conservation of energy — one of the laws of thermodynamics.
Text and vocabulary exercises 9. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: способность выполнять работу потенциальная и кинетическая (энергия) деление, расщепление заряженные частицы тепловая энергия движение гравитационная энергия слияние, плавление поперечные волны энергия движения 10. Find equivalents to the following words. Match each word in A w ith the corresponding equivalent in B. A 1. vehicle 2. to define 3. to store 4. to transform 5. kind 6. to liberate 7. fast 8. shape В a) to release b) rapid c) type d) to change e) to keep f) car g) to determine h) form 11. Choose among the words in parentheses the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentence. 1. Scientists define energy as the ... to work. a) chance b) possibility c) ability 2. There are many forms of energy, but they can all be ... into two categories: potential and kinetic. a) divided b) put c) considered 3. Chemical energy is convened into ... energy when we burn wood or burn petrol in a car’s engine. a) potential b) mechanical c) thermal 4. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called... . a) fusion b) splitting c) fission
5. ... energy is energy stored in an object’s height. a) Electrical b) Gravitational c) Longitudinal 6. Kinetic energy is... of waves, molecules, substances and objects. a) motion b) fusion c) lightning 7. Motion energy is energy... in the movement of objects. a) kept b) taken c) stored 12. Read Text 8A once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he / she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases. Agreeing I agree with you... Yes, that’s what I think too... You are quite right!.. Disagreeing politely Yes, but don’t you think..? True, but I think... I see what you mean, but.. 1. Energy is of no importance in our life. 2. There are only two forms of energy. 3. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal are examples of stored chemical energy 4. We don’t know anything about nuclear energy. 5. Gravitational energy is energy stored in an object’s height. 6. Lightning can’t be an example of potential energy. 7. Kinetic energy is motion of waves, molecules, objects, and substances. 8. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the Earth. 9. Wind is an example of potential energy. 10. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or a substance to vibrate. В 13. Read the following text. What information is new for you? Exchange your opinions with a partner. TEXT8B ENERGY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES Energy generation technologies are essential contributors to sustainable energy. They generally contribute to world energy security, because they reduce the use of fossil fuel resources and enable to mitigate greenhouse gases.
One can define three generations of renewable technologies that date back to more than 100 years ago. I) First-generation technologies appeared during the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include hydropower, biomass combustion, and geothermal power and heat. 2) Second-generation technologies include solar heating and cooling, wind power, and modern forms of bioenergy. 3) Third-generation technologies are still under development and include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, solar thermal power, geothermal energy, and ocean energy. First-generation technologies are most effective in places that are rich in natural resources. Their future use depends on the exploration of the available resource potential, particularly in developing countries, and on overcoming problems of the environment pollution. Among sources of renewable energy, hydroelectric plants are the most long-living — many existing plants have operated for more titan 100 years. However, hydroelectric plants have some disadvantages, for example, dislocation of people who live in the place where the reservoirs are planned and release of significant amounts of carbon dioxide during construction and flooding of the reservoir. Markets for second-generation technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. The challenge is to broaden the market base for continued growth worldwide. Strategic deployment in one country not only reduces technology costs for users there, but also for those in other countries, contributing to overall cost reductions and performance improvement. Solar heating systems are a well-known second-generation technology. They generally consist of solar thermal collectors, a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage, and a reservoir or tank for heat storage and subsequent use. The systems may be used to heat domestic hot water, swimming pool water or for space heating. The heat can also be used for industrial applications or as an energy input for other uses such as cooling equipment. In many climates, a solar heating system can provide a very high percentage (50 to 75^) of domestic hot water energy. Solar thermal power stations have successfully operated in California commercially since the late 1980s. Some of the second-generation renewables, such as wind power, have high potential and low production costs. Wind power accounts for approximately 20^ of electricity use in Denmark, 9% in Spain and l°i> in Germany. However, it may be difficult to have wind turbines in some areas for aesthetic or environmental reasons, and it may be difficult to integrate wind power into electricity grids in some cases. Third-generation technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialized. But in the future, civilization will be forced to research and de
velop alternative energy sources. Our current rate of fossil fuel usage will lead to an energy crisis this century. In order to survive the energy crisis many companies in the energy industry are inventing new ways to extract energy from renewable sources. The third-generation technologies may have potential comparable to other renewable energy technologies, but they still need sufficient attention. These newest technologies include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, solar thermal power stations, hot dry rock geothermal energy, and ocean energy. Text and vocabulary exercises 14. Give Russian equivalents to the following w ord combinations. Essential contributors, sustainable energy, world energy security, to mitigate greenhouse gases, overcoming problems, available resource, strategic deployment, thermal collector, fluid system, point of usage, environmental reasons, to extract energy, biorefinery technologies, biomass gasification, biomass combustion, to move the heat from the collector, current rate. 15. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. I. First-generation technologies are least competitive in places rich in natural resources. 2. Among sources of renewable energy hydroelectric plants are the most long-living. 3. Geothermal power plants can operate 24 hours per day. 4. Solar heating systems generally consist of solar thermal collectors. 5. Wind power accounts for approximately 40*¥ of electricity use in Denmark, 12*? in Spain and 7°t> in Germany. 6. Third-generation technologies are widely demonstrated all over the world. 16. Choose the right answer. I. Energy generation technologies are essential contributors to .... a) unstable energy b) sustainable energy c) nonviable energy 2. First-generat ion technologies appeared during... a) the industrial b) the Renaissance c) the ancient epoch revolution 3. A well-known example of second-generation technology is_ a) hydropower b) thermal power c) solar heating stations stations systems
4. Third-generation technologies are ... a) still under b) out of date c) environmentally development harmful 17. Read Text 8Б once more and render it according to the following scheme: 1) The text tells (runs about) the main / central idea is / in brief... 2) According to the text.. 3) To all appearances... 4) Needless to say... 5) Then I’m going to add... 6) I want to point out the following facts that were new for me... 7) In conclusion I’d like to say... 8) I like... because.... I dislike... because. c 18. Read the text to get information about "green energy” and answer the following questions. 1. What is green energy? 2. Why is green energy called “green’'? 3. What processes does green energy include? 4. What are the types of green energy? TEXT8C GREEN ENERGY The term "green energy” is used to describe environmentally friendly and non-polluting sources of energy. Now that oil prices are getting more expensive, many countries are focusing on green energy as an alternative energy source. Energy is considered renewable when it is generated from resources that are replenished constantly and naturally. The most commonly used sources are the sunlight, but although solar energy is considered as one of the primary sources of renewable energy, there are still some other types of green energy that are equally effective and from which, useful and clean energy is being produced.
Although a lot of countries today are relying on non-renewable energy sources like coal, oil and natural gas just to supply most of their energy needs, but still their reliance on this non-renewable energy or fossil fuels presents a big problem. The world’s supplies of fossil fuels are just limited. In fact, the world is running out of it and it will even be more expensive to get the remaining supplies of this. Whereas in renewable energy we can easily get a source from it as we use this energy sources to generate electricity that we need for our home, factories, offices, etc. We have some types of green energy sources that you can use. Hydropower Energy. Hydroelectric power stations are normally set up along with dams and are located in big rivers, seas and other places where there is good natural flow of water. Doing that can immensely help as the kinetic energy of water is very high and because it is almost 800 times denser than the air, it has more potential to turn turbines and thus produce more electricity. Wind Energy. It is another good type of renewable energy. Because of abundant wind farms that have been installed worldwide, a lot of people have been satisfied with the energy that they need. Basically, this type of energy works through the wind energy that rotates these large blades which in turn rotate turbines that are located inside the generator. Wind mills are situated at a specific place, which is also called as a “wind farm”. The best area to place wind mills would be on higher altitudes where there are winds blowing with high speeds. The wind is another clean, efficient and non-harmful renewable source of energy which helps in reducing the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Geothermal Energy. It is one of the most important sources of energy which comes from our very own mother Earth. The core of the Earth is very hot and it gives out heat energy. There are some locations of the Earth such as “the geysers” where the heat from the centre of the Earth can be accessed. That is why this immense heat energy from the centre has been used to produce the electricity that we need. Solar Energy. This is what has been used worldwide. It comes from the sun and can be turned into electricity and heat. The solar panels on the roofs of the houses, buildings and other establishments are used to store the solar energy. Each type of green energy has advantages and disadvantages, but it is important to create and to use environmentally friendly power sources. Text and vocabulary exercises 19. Translatethefollowingword combinations into Russian. Memorize them. Environmentally friendly; non-polluting; alternative energy source; primary sources; renewable energy; non-renewable energy.
20. Read the information about the types of energy; compare the pictures below. Discuss with a partner different types of energy. Types of Energy Basically ENERGY can be divided into two types: 1) Non-Renewable energy; 2) Renewable energy. Non-Renewable Energv 4- Resources cannot be regenerated once consumed, such as natural oil and gas, coal, chemical fuel, nuclear fuel, forests, etc. Renewable Energy г Resources are replenished with time, such as hydropower, solar / wind / wave energy, vegetable oil, etc. Non-Renewable Renewable Energy Picture 1 Picture 2 21. A. Look through the informat ion dealing with the usage of tidal power in Great Britain. B. Express your own point of view about the possibilities of tidal power usage in Russia. Share your opinion with other students. Tidal Power1 — the Energy from the Sea The tide moves a huge amount of water twice each day, and harnessing it could provide a great deal of energy — around 20% of Britain’s needs. Although the energy supply is reliable and plentiful, converting it into useful electrical power is not easy. There are eight main sites around Britain where tidal power stations could usefully be built, including the Severn, Dee, Solway and Humber estuaries. Only around 20 places in the world have been identified as possible tidal power stations.
A few years ago "tidal power’’ meant "tidal barrage”2. But these days there are other options as well The largest tidal power station in the world (and the only one in Europe) is in the Rance estuary in northern France, near St Malo. It was built in 1966. A major drawback of tidal power stations is that they can only generate when the tide is flowing in or out — in other words, only for 10 hours each day However, tides are totally predictable, so we can plan to have other power stations generating at those times when the tidal station is out of action. Tide coming in Tide yirj out There have been plans for a “Severn Barrage” from Brean Down in Somerset to Lavernock Point in Wales. Every now and again the idea gets proposed, but nothing has been built yet. It would cost at least £15 billion to build, but other figures about the project seem to vary depending on where you look. For example, one source says the Severn Barrage would provide over 8,000 megawatts of power (that's over 12 nuclear power station’s worth): another says it would be equivalent to 3 nuclear power stations. The variation in the numbers is because there are several different Severn Barrage projects, so be careful about which numbers you quote if you’re a student researching this topic There would be a number of benefits, including protecting a large stretch of coastline against damage from high storm tides, and providing a ready-made road bridge. However, the drastic changes to the currents in the estuary could have huge effects on the ecosystem, and huge numbers of birds that feed on the mud flats in the estuary when the tide goes out would have nowhere to feed. Notes on the text 1 tidal power — энергия приливов и отливов ' barrage — плотина; дамба, запруда 22. The pie chart shows the ratio of non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the world. Take turns to discuss the chart w ith a partner. Geothermal Solar 1%
23. Translate the sentences below into English using a dictionary. 1. Энергетическими ресурсами считаются: топливные ресурсы, энергия рек, энергия атома, солнечная энергия и энергия ветра, приливов и отливов. 2. Основные запасы энергетических ресурсов России находятся в восточной части страны, в то время как основным регионом потребления энергии является западная часть страны. 3. Альтернативная энергия считается экологичной и возобновляемой, так как ее основой служит энергия Солнца и Земли. 4. Цель альтернативной энергетики состоит в предотвращении глобального потепления и энергетического кризиса на Земле. 5. Имея большой экономический потенциал, альтернативная энергетика способна обеспечить многим странам энергетическую независимость. 24. Read the articles about energy below and give your comments on one of them. Energy demand in developed and non-developed nations Developed nations and non-de-veloped nations today consume the same amount of energy. By 2035, the consumption of developed nations would have increased by less than 15% whereas the others would have increased by 80% While the Middle East would increase its natural gas production by 15 tcf (trillion cubic feet) by 2035, others including Australia, South America and so on would have increased theirs by 335 tcf. Natural gas production is diversifying and new fields will be exploited. This includes shale gas resources in the US Energy derived from coal would increase by 10% in North America by 2035. This may be due to the use of more efficient processes, and not necessarily increased coal usage and greenhouse gas emissions. India, China and other developing Asian countries will double their energy from coal by 2035, consuming five times more than North America. By 2035, energy from biomass, waste and tidal / ocean power will be five times as much as energy derived from either solar or geothermal. But the capacity of each renewable source will increase fourfold Finally, carbon emissions are projected to increase by 5% in developed nations but 60% in developing nations including India and China by 2035 The emissions of developing nations which were even in 2005 with OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries will be double that of OECD by 2035. (from Turbomachinery International)
Shepherds Flat in Oregon will be the first world’s largest wind project in the U. S. in 2012. It will use GE’s (General Electric’s) 2.5— 100 wind turbines. “Our 2.5—100 machine is designed to yield the highest annual energy production in its class,” said Victor Abate, vice president-renewable energy for GE Power&Water World’s Largest Wind Farm Stretching across 30 square miles of north-central Oregon, the Shepherds Flat project will include 338 GE 2.5—100 wind turbines and will have a total capacity of 845 megawatts. When completed in 2012, Shephards Flat will be larger than any wind farm currently in operation in the world. Total project value is approximately $2 billion. (from Turbomaehinery International) GRAMMAR REVIEW The Infinitive The Infinitive (инфинитив) — неличная форма глагола, имеющая в качестве основного признака частицу to и обладающая свойствами глагола и существительного: to build (строить), to read (читать), to speak (говорить). Инфинитив имеет видовые и залоговые формы. Признак действия Active Passive Одновременность to + V to be + Ved, (3-я ф. гл.) Предшествование to have + Ved (3-я форма) to have been + Ved (3-я ф. гл.) I am sorry to trouble you. I am sorry to have troubled you. I am glad to be working with you Простите за беспокойство. Мне неприятно, что я вас побеспокоил. Я рад, что работаю с вами. В предложении инфинитив выполняет функции подлежащего, части глагольного (модального) и именного сказуемого, дополнения или части сложного дополнения, определения и обстоятельства. Если инфинитив стоит в начале предложения, то он может: а) вводить придаточное предложение цели (часто в этом случае перед ним стоит союз in order to) и переводиться на русский язык при
помощи предлога «для» + существительное или при помощи союзов «для того, чтобы» и «чтобы» + русский инфинитив: (/л order) То define the word “innovation” you must know all the definitions of the term. Для того чтобы опредеють {чтобы определить) Для определения слова «новшество, инновация» вы должны (вам нужно) знать все определения этого термина. 6) являться подлежащим и переводиться существительным или неопределенной формой глагола: То meet the requirements of our customers is the general purpose of our firm. Удовлетворение требований наших клиентов — главная цель фирмы. Удовлетворять требования наших клиентов — вот в чем заключается цель нашей фирмы. В функции определения инфинитив употребляется в форме страдательного залога. Он переводится определительным придаточным предложением или придаточным оборотом, имеющим оттенок дол- женствования или будущности: The design to be made by our specialists is intended for a new firm. Проект, который должен быть выполнен / будет выполнен нашими специалистами, предназначен для новой фирмы. Формы инфинитива Active Passive Simple (Indefinite) to study to be studied Continuous (Progressive) to be studying — Perfect to have studied to have been studied 25. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитив. 1. We use energy to do things for us. 2. Energy is needed for our bodies to grow and it allows our minds to think. 3. What made specialists develop alternative energy sources?
4. It seemed to us that to prove efficiency of second-generation technologies was not easy 5. Solar thermal power stations are very expensive. You had better not use this technology in this region. 6. To estimate third-generation technologies you must know how they work. 7. It is possible to divide all forms oi energy into categories: potential and kinetic 8. To recognize valuable sources of energy one should know their physical properties and characteristics 9. The main points to be observed during a generator’s job should be recorded very carefully. 10. The energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable and we manage to do a lot more with them. 26. Запомните глаголы, после которых следует инфинитив + to и переведите предложения на русский язык. agjee They agreed to update their low efficiency plant-arrange Sanford Company arranged to begin its new repowering project last August. ask New York State regulators asked authorities to enlarge an existing site for a new power plant. choose Florida power and Light Company chose to increase its current generating capacity. decide This company decided to reduce NO,emissions by using new boilers. expect Florida Power and Light Company expects to be the most profitable power plant. fad A traditional engine generator failed to work successfully due to critical loads forget They forgot to write down all temperature rises during the experiment. hope I hope to determine the thermal model parametres without complicated and expensive measurements. manage You must manage to follow these instructions while working with constant voltage. need We need to prepare all our arguments for and against as far as long transient cases are concerned
promise They promised to take part in modelling power semiconductors with ideal switches, resistors and current sources try We try to show this thermal model in the thermal network. would like I would like to visit a new power station because it is a very interesting thermal model. 27. Запомните uiaroabi, после которых инфинитив употребляется без to, и переведите предложения на русский язык. feel I felt a new turbine shake. had better You had better learn all the safety rules. hear I heard the engine start vibrating. let Let the current pass through this wire. make The original cost of our power plant made us decrease (заставлять) expenses. Но: в страдательном залоге c to The scientists were made to carry out this experiment again. see We never saw this steam unit work under such conditions. would rather You would rather work with three existing generating units. 28. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в необходимую форму. Помните, после каких глаголов инфинитив употребляется без to. I. I would rather (I'd rather) (to visit) this top plant because it continues to enjoy the strongest growth in the American utility industry. 2. They would rather (to enhance) the reliability of our local supply and (to help) the city meet its growing need for power. 3. What are you doing now? You had better fto start) changing the generating engine. 4. He doesn’t like her answer. Let her (to make) this experiment again. 5. They have installed old equipment. Make them (to change) it. There is a great amount of up-to-date equipment 6. You had better (to approve) this unit because of its minimal environmental impacts. 7. 1 have never seen such a project (to be) compatible with public health and safety.
The Complex Object The Complex Object (Сложное дополнение) — это сочетание существительного в общем падеже (или личного местоимения в объектном падеже) с инфинитивом, выступающее как единый член предложения. We know gravity to pull on every M ы знаем, что земное particle of a body. притяжение действует на каждую частицу тела. В этом предложении дополнением к сказуемому know является оборот gravity to pull (что притяжение действует), а не одно слово gravity, так как на вопрос What do you know9 (Что вы знаете?) ответ будет не gravity, а gravity to pull, т.е. все сочетание gravity to pull является неразрывным и относится к сказуемому как единое целое — сложное дополнение. Объектный инфинитивный оборот переводится на русский язык придаточным дополнительным предложением (вводимым союзами что, чтобы, как), подлежащее которого соответствует существительному в общем падеже (или местоимению в объектном падеже) переводимого оборота, а сказуемое соответствует инфинитиву этою оборота. We know electrons to travel from M ы знаем, что электроны the cathode to the anode. переходят от катода к аноду. В объектном инфинитивном обороте инфинитив может употребляться также в страдательном залоге: We know a vector quantity to be represented by means of a straight line. She did not want him to be laughed at. Мы знаем, что векторная величина изображается прямой линией. Она не хотела, чтобы над ним смеялись. Объектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется: I) после глаголов to hear (слышать), to see (видеть), to feel (чувствовать), to watch, to observe (наблюла ib). После этих глаголов частица to перед инфинитивом не употребляется: She watched him go from group to Она наблюдала, как он ходил group от группы к группе Примечание 1. В сложное дополнение после глаголов восприятия может входить как инфинитив, так и причастие. При этом причастие обычно обозначает процесс, инфинитив — законченное действие.
Например'. She saw me approaching. Она видела, как я подходил к воротам. Не saw те approach the gate. Он видел, что я подошел к воротам. Примечание 2. После глаголов to hear в значении «узнать» и to see в значении «понимать» объектный инфинитивный оборот не употребляется. Например: I hear tliat your son entered the Я слышал (узнал), что ваш сын University. поступил в университет. I see that you understand the Я вижу (понимаю, знаю), что rule вы понимаете правило. 2) после глаголов, выражающих волеизъявление: to want (хотеть), to wish, to desire (желать) и др., а также после оборота 1 should like (я хотел бы): I should like her to look through my report. I have some notes I want you to read over. Я бы хотел, чтобы она просмотрела мой доклад. V меня есть некоторые записи, которые я хочу, чтобы вы просмотрели. 3) после глаголов, выражающих мнение, суждение, предположение и т.п.: to believe (полагать, считать); to consider (считать); to think (думать, считать); to suppose (полагать); to know (знать); to prove (оказываться, доказывать); to understand (понимать); to expect (ожидать); to assume (предполагать, допускать) и др.: Experiments proved heat and other forms of energy to be mutually convertible. We believe him to be a good engineer. Опыты показали, что тепло и другие формы энергии взаимно обратимы. Мы считаем, что он хороший инженер. 4) после глаголов, выражающих приказание, требование, принуждение, просьбу, разрешение: to order, to command (приказывать); to cause, to make (заставлять, принуждать); to request (просить); to allow, to permit (разрешать, допускать) и др. В этом случае инфинитив употребляется в страдательном залоге:
Raising the piston allows water Движение поршня вверх дает to be forced through the valve возможность атмосферному by the atmospheric pressure. давлению проталкивать воду через клапан (букв.: позволяет, чтобы вода проходила через клапан под напором атмосферного давления). Объектный инфинитивныи оборот также употребляется после глаголов в неличной форме: The young man stood in the Молодой человек стоял в дверях, doorway watching him work, наблюдая, как он работает. 29. Переведите предложения на русский язык. 1. I know your friend to have written an article on an energy source. 2. Do you know energy generation technologies to contribute to world energy security? 3. What energy is cheaper to generate: nuclear or geothermal? 4. 1 didn’t expect third-generation technologies to be still under development. 5. Among sources of renewable energy hydroelectric plants are believed to have operated formore than 100 years. 6. 1 saw strategic deployment in one country be able to reduce technology costs for users. 7. I know our civilization will be forced to research and develop alternative energy sources. 8. They believe renewable sources of energy to be very promising. 9. Solar heating systems can make a fluid system move the heat from a collector to its point of usage. 10. During the experiment we saw the temperature fall rapidly. 30. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, дайте полные ответы. 1. Do you want your friend to help you make the paper about new power stations? 2. Do modem scientific achievements let our specialists use wind and solar energy as green energy sources? 3. Would you like your assistant to help you in you r recording the results? 4. What sources of energy do you believe to be more clean, efficient and поп-harmful: thermal or solar? 5. Have any experiments proved the pressure of a gas turbine to depend on its concentration? 6. May one expect the third-generation technologies to be quite reliable?
The Complex Subject Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (Сложное подлежащее) — это сочетание существительного в обшем падеже (или местоимения в именительном падеже) в функции подлежащего с инфинитивом в качестве второй части составного глагольного сказуемого. Служебную часть этого сказуемого составляют в основном глаголы в форме страдательного залога, примыкающие к инфинитиву, такие как to see (в значении «считать»), to say (сказать), to think (думать), to suppose (предполагать), to believe (считать, полагать), to find (находить, считать), to know (знать), to make (заставлять) и т.д.: All bodies are known to possess Известно, что все тела имеют weight. вес. Перевод предложения, содержащего субъектный инфинитивный оборот, следует начинать со служебной части составного глагольного сказуемого. Значение служебной части передается в русском языке неопределенно-личным оборотом, который является главным предложением в русском сложноподчиненном предложении (Известно,...). Субъектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется с глаголами в форме страдательного залога, такими как to say (говорить), to report (сообщать), to announce (объявлять), to state (утверждать), to suppose (полагать) и т.д.: When two bodies oscillate at the same frequency, they are said to be in resonance. The atmosphere has been proved to extend several hundred kilometres above the Earth. Когда два тела колеблются с одинаковой частотой, говорят, что они находятся в резонансе. Доказано, что атмосфера простирается на несколько сот километров над землей. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется также со следующими глаголами в действительном залоге: to seem, to appear (казаться), to prove (оказаться), to happen, to chance (случаться): To an ordinary observer the air Обычному наблюдателю кажет-seerns to have no weight. ся, что воздух не имеет веса. I happened to be there at that Я случайно был там в это time. время. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется со словосочетаниями to be likely / unlikely / certain I sure. В этом случае инфинитив
в субъектном инфинитивном обороте обычно выражает действие или состояние, относящееся к будущему времени Не is sure to be sent there. A large proportion of radium is likely to be lost from sea water. Он, безусловно, будет послан туда. Большая часть радия, вероятно, будет потеряна при получении его из морской воды. 31. Переведите предложения на русский язык. 1. The high-voltage lines are known to be as high as 155,000 volts. 2. The world’s supplies of fossil fuels do not seem to be depleting. 3. The experiment was expected to take place in our laboratory 4. The turbines appear to rotate and cause electricity produced by several wind mills. 5. The evaporated water appears to cool and form into clouds. 6. Oil is known to be one of the most important sources of energy. 7. Coal is still the most important fuel and is likely to remain the main source of energy for years to come. 8. This type of energy proved to be very effective. 9. These two teams happened to work on the same problem of green energy sources that could be used 10. This device appears to be of some interest. The values measured proved to be equal. 32. Переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на инфинитивные обороты. I. The term “green energy” is believed to be very popular to describe environmentally friendly and non-polluting sources of energy. 2. The computerized systems of planning and control at a new power plant proved to be reliable. 3. The certain kinds of fuel are most likely to be used in a new process. 4. Hydropower energy plants are known to be set up along the dams and to be located in big rivers, seas and other places. 5. The best area to place a wind mill is certain to be located inside the generator. 6. Clean, efficient and поп-harmful renewable sources of energy are sure to help in reducing the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. 7. The core of the Earth is thought to be very hot and to give out heat energy.
33. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about energy resources (Texts 15,16). SPEAKING PRACTICE 34. With a partner ask and answer questions to discuss the chain of subsequent problems. Nowadays the focus has been to discover new resources from increasingly challenging reservoirs and locations But the days of “easy oil and gas” are over Global energy demand continues to surge and is set to double m the first half of the XXI century, thanks to improving living standards and population growth WRITING PRACTICE 35. Look through the information below. Use it as the basis for writing an essay on the opport unities and prospects for reducing energy consumption and eliminating energy wastage in Russia. European renewable energy policy' is relatively young, having started since 1997. Now it is a key component of energy strategy. Reducing energy consumption and eliminating energy wastage are among the main goals of the European Union. Renewable sources of energy — wind power, solar power (thermal, photovoltaic and concentrated), hydro-electric power, tidal power, geothermal energy and biomass — are essential alternatives to fossil fuels. Their use reduces greenhouse gas emissions, diversifies energy supply and reduces dependence on unreliable and volatile fossil fuel markets (in particular oil and gas) There is significant potential for reducing consumption, especially in energy-intensive sectors such as construction, manufacturing, energy conversion and transport. It is expected to cut annual consumption of primary energy by 2(1 *¥ by 2020. To achieve this goal, Europe is working to mobilize public opinion, decision-makers and market operators and to set minimum
energy efficiency standards and rules on labelling for products, services and infrastructure. The growth of renewable energy sources also stimulates employment in Europe, the creation of new technologies and improves our trade balance. (from materials of European Commission. URL: http.//ec.europa eu/energy/efiiciency) PROJECT BOX 36. Consult the Internet and reference books to prepare a report about the main resources of energy in English-speaking countries.
UNIT 9 A Pre-text exercises 1. Reading aloud (numbers, dates and units of measure). A. Study the following information. 1) Л slash ( / ) means “for [each) ” or “per” when a number comes before it. For example, $2.95 / MW means the price is $2.95 for each megawatt. 3 Ibs/sec $22.45/dozen 16 tonnes/year three pounds per second $22.45 for each dozen or: $22.45 per dozen 16 tonnes per year 2) A slash ( /) means ‘’and” when it separates two nouns. Water / Waste water plants = Water and Waste water plants B. In pairs, take it in turns to read aloud the numbers, dates and units of measure below. Consult the dictionary if necessary. 2011 1800s 204,305 MW 6.5% 160 m2 m3 m (two words) km / h C. Read aloud the following text. Check yourself with the text (printed upside down) that follows. At the 2011 Electric Power Conference and exhibition, Brazil’s outlook for natural gas fired projects was discussed. Up until the late 1900s, 95% of the nation’s power generation was hydro. In 2001 and 2002, Brazil rationalized power production and planned to construct 49 thermal power stations. By' December 2009, 15% of the country’s 106,333 MW was thermal, the rest was hydro. By' 2019, Brazil’s planned energy mix will be 12.2% natural gas, 7.4% coal, 3.5% nuclear, 12.7% hydro, 9-9% wood, 31% oil, 21.5% sugar
лге ио (з шоу (q joj (в •Алошэш ruoqj эцээл oj ржц| pue siuaodjo jo| в мэи>[ эц 9 joj (o uo (q jb (в 'Х|влл в o8 oj рэррэр эгл рив шлем лэщел sbm лэщеэм aqj, S ui (о ио (q Aq (в Ji p?i|i] Aaqj asncoaq uibjj subj oj JU3M AsqjL V jy(3 uo(q u| (в чпеЗв tuaqj jaSioj oj jou «мор tuaqj sjojm pue sjobj aqj цв рзлэушэшзл aq jsbj '£ ui (o uo (q jb (в •uiiq ass оj рв13 Алэл злам. эм рив Авр rajuiM ррэ в рэлилв Ajuopj j jb (э ио (q ui (в •aAqpooS 8и 1 Abs jnoqjim иооилэуе aqj jja] aqs • [ sdB3 aqj ui ||y oj рломр&иоэ aqj asooqj £ At the two thousand and eleven Electric Power Conference and exhibition, Brazil’s outlook for natural gas fired projects was discussed. Up until the late nineteen hundreds, ninety-five per cent of the nation’s power generation was hydro. In two thousand and one and two thousand and two, Brazil rationalized power production and planned to construct forty-nine thermal power stations. By December two thousand and nine, fifteen per cent of the country’s one hundred and six thousand three hundred and thirty-three megawatt was thermal, the rest was hydro. By two thousand and nineteen, Brazil’s planned energy mix will be twelve point two per cent natural gas, seven point four per cent coal, three point five per cent nuclear, twelve point seven per cent hydro, nine point nine per cent wood, thirty-one per cent oil, twenty-one point five per cent sugar cane and three point seven per cent other renewables. From two thousand and ten to two thousand and nineteen, natural gas production and imports will increase from one hundred million cubic metres per day to one hundred and sixty-seven million cubic metres per day. •р/£шдо £9i oj p/£uipj 001 iuojj 3SB3J3ui iiiMsuodtui рив uoijonpoid sb3 |BJti)BU ‘6I0Z oj oiOZ wojj 'saiqBMauar raqjo ^,£'£ рив эиез
7. We didn’t know what to do _ these circumstances and asked him for advice. a) under b) at c) by 8. They always keep everything______secret. a) on b) at c) tn 9. He was going along the forest picking _ all the mushrooms he saw. a) on b)at c) up 10. Ring me___when you come home. I ’ll be waiting for your call. a) up b)on c)over 3. Fill in the gaps with a suitable word to complete the sentences. I. Maxwell defines electricity as a_physical quantity. a) measuring b) measurable c) immeasur- d) measure able 2. The properties of charged bodies_such tliat the charge of one body may be equal to that of another. a) were b) is c) are d) was 3. Faraday investigated the nature of electricity and frequently used the ________“quantity of electricity” to refer to quantities of electric charge. a) term b) word c) pronounce- d) name ment 4. The nucleus contains positively charged particles_protons and un- charged particles called neutrons. a) call b) is calling c) called d) had called 5. Power is a basic part of nature and it is one of our_widely used forms of energy. a) most b) more c) less d) least 6. An electric power station uses either a turbine, engine, water wheel, or other similar machine____an electric generator or a device that converts mechanical or chemical energy into power. a) drives b) drove c) to drive d) had driven 7. Dictionaries often define electricity as “a fundamental entity_na- ture consisting of negative and positive kinds” a) of b) in c) with d) within
8. Ifa charged particle moves through a constant magnetic field, its speed stays the same, but its direction is_changing. a) constantly b) constant c) inconstant d) inconstantly Word building 4. Guess the meaning of the derived words. Analyze their word-formation model. Green — greenish; large — largely; pure — purity — purify; geology — geologist — geological; nature — natural; compress — compression; migrate — migration; react — reaction; produce — production — producer; general — generally; history — historically; arrange — arrangement; economy — economical — economist; extract — extraction; profit — profitable — profitably; inject — injection; gas — gaseous; significance — significant — significantly; place — displace; concentrate — concentration. 5. Find the derivatives of the words in italics in the right-hand columns. 1. geology a) geography b) science c) geologist d) specialist 2. discover a) degree b) develop c) discovery d) determine 3. ordinary a) obtain b) outside c) often d) extraordinary 4. furnish a) finish b) turn C) furnishing d) furniture 5. land a) among b) landing C) last d) later f>. simple a) steamer b) ship C) site d) simplicity 7. soon a) closer b) near c) sooner d) same 6. Brainstorming. A. Study the dictionary definitions of the word ‘electricity”. Look for similarities and differences. VVhat definition is the best to your mind? “A form of energy from charged elementary particles, usually supplied as electric current through cables, wires, etc. for lighting, heating, driving machines, etc." (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English) I) “A fundamental form of energy observable in positive and negative forms that occurs naturally (as in lightning) or is produced (as in a generator) and that is expressed in terms of the movement and interaction of electrons”; 2) “Electric current or power”. (New Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) “A form of energy, produced in several ways, which provides power to devices that create light, heat, etc." (Cambridge International Dictionary of English)
“A form of energy that can produce light, heat and power for machines, computers, televisions, ere.” {Macmillan Dictionary) B. Think of your own definition of “electricity”. Compare with a partner’s one. Active vocabulary 7. Read and learn the following words and word combinations: to adapt — приспосабливать acceleration - ускорение appliance — прибор, устройство, syn. device: electric appliance / device — электрический прибор application — применение, использование circuit — цепь, контур; схема; circuitry — схема (электрическая) contradictory — противоречивый to convert — преобразовывать direction — направление distribution распределение; распространение electric current - электрический ток; alternating current (AC) — переменный ток; direct current (DC) — постоянный ток electric field - электрическое поле to emerge — появляться, возникать; syn. to appear to encompass — заключать в себе expansion — расширение finite - ограниченный; syn. limited incompatible - несовместимый induction — индукция interaction — взаимодействие magnet — магнит meaning - значение means — средства motion — движение; syn. movement power grid — единая энергосистема precise — точный; syn. exact to refer to — иметь отношение, относиться to resemble — походить, иметь сходство to rotate — вращать, вращаться rotor — ротор, рабочее колесо spark — искра stator — статор (двигателя) steam — пар storage — сохранение. хранение transmission lines — линии электропередач to utilize — использовать, расходовать, употреблять; syn. to use versatile — многогранный, разносторонний voltage — напряжение
8. Read the text and complete the following statements. This text is about... According to the text... The text also specifies... TEXT9A WHAT IS ELECTRICITY? Modem life will surely be impossible without electric energy. We need it almost everywhere in our homes, shops, factories, on farms, roads and in all public places like hospitals and educational institutions. What is electricity? This question is impossible to answer because the word electricity has several contradictory meanings. These different meanings are incompatible, and the contradictions confuse everyone. Even engineers and scientists cannot sometimes grasp the concept. Formally, electricity is a form of energy. Electricity is the liow of electrons. All matter is made up of atoms, and an atom has a centre, called a nucleus. The nucleus contains positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutrons. The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons. The negative charge of an electron is equal co the positive charge of a proton, and the number of electrons in an atom is usually equal to the number of protons. When the balancing force between protons and electrons is upset by an outside force, an atom may gain or lose an electron. When electrons are “lost” from an atom, the free movement of these electrons constitutes an electric current. Electricity is a basic part of nature and ic is one of our most wtdely-used forms of energy. In order to understand the phenomenon “electricity” it is necessary to learn more about the correct names for all its separate phenomena. Here are a few of them. Electricity (from the Latin electricus) is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning and static electricity, but in addition, less familiar concepts, such as the electromagnetic field and electromagnetic induction In general usage, the word “electricity” refers to a number of physical effects. In scientific usage, however, there are a lot of more precise terms that refer to electricity: electric charge — a property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter produces electromagnetic fields;
electric current — a movement or flow of electrically charged particles, typically measured in amperes; electric field — influence produced by an electric charge on other charges in ns vicinity; electric potential — the capacity of an electric field to do work on an electric charge, typically measured in volts; electromagnetism — a fundamental interaction between the magnetic field and the presence and motion of an electric charge. Electrical phenomena have been known to mankind since the ancient era, though advances in the science were not made until the 17—18th centuries. Practical applications for electricity, however, were few. and it would not be until the late 19th century that engineers were able to put it into industrial and domestic use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society. Electricity’s extraordinary versatility as a source of energy can be used in countless applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation. Electrical power is the basis of modern industrial society, and it can be expected to remain it for the foreseeable future. Text and vocabulary exercises 9. Find in the text words or phrases which mean the same as: электрическая энергия различные значения электромагнитная индукция электрически заряженные частицы электричество электрон магнитное поле практическое применение 10. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations. Electric energy; electric charge; electric current; electric field; electric power; electrical science; electrical phenomena; electric potential; magnetic field; electrical technology. 11. Choose among the words below the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences. I. Modern life will surely be... without electric energy. a) desirable b) possible c) impossible 2. The word “electricity” has several... meanings a) identical b) similar c) contradictory
3. These include different phenomena, such as lightning and static electricity, electromagnetic field and electromagnetic... a) induction b) lightning c) dynamics 4. Electrically... matter produces electromagnetic fields. a) lighted b) applied c) charged 5. Electric ... is a movement or flow of electrically charged particles, measured in amperes. a) voltage b) resistance c) current 6. Electric potential is the capacity of an electric field to do work on an electric charge, measured in— . a) amperes b) volts c) ohms 12. Read Text 9A once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he / she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing Disagreeing politely I agree with you. Yes, but don’t you think..? Yes, that is wlrat I think too. True, but I think... You are right! I see what you mean. but... 1. Modern life will surely be impossible without electric energy. 2. ‘Electricity" is a very simple term. 3. In scientific usage the term “electricity” is vague. 4. Electrical phenomena have never been studied. 5. Tire rapid expansion in electrical technology in the 19th century transformed industry and society. 6. Electricity’s versatility as a source of energy means can be used in countless applications. 7. The basis of modern industrial society is the use of electrical power. 13. Give a brief summary of the text below. Electricity is the flow of electrical power or charge. It is a secondary energy source which means that we get it from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power, and other natural sources, which are called primary sources. As you know, the energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable, but electricity itself is neither renewable nor non-renewable. Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely-used forms of energy. Many cities and towns were built alongside waterfalls (a pri-
тагу source of mechanical energy) that turned water wheels to perform work. Before electricity generation began slightly over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food was cooled in iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by wood-burning or coal-burning stoves. Beginning with Benjamin Franklin’s experiment with a kite one stormy night in Philadelphia, the principles of electricity gradually became understood. Thomas Edison helped change everyone’s life — he perfected his invention: the electric light bulb Prior to 1879, direct current (DC) electricity had been used in arc lights for outdoor lighting. In the late 1800s, Nikola Tesla pioneered the generation, transmission, and use of alternating current (AC) electricity, which can be transmitted over much greater distances than direct current. Tesla’s inventions used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes and to power industrial machines. 14. Translate the following sentences into English. I. Термин «электричество» был введен английским естествоиспытателем Вильямом Гилбертом в 1600 году. 2. В начале XVIII века английский ученый Стефан Грэй обнаружил, что существуют вещества, которые проводят электричество 3. В 1820 году Эрстед и Ампер открыли связь между электричеством и магнетизмом. 4. В 1834 году Фарадей ввел понятия электрического и магнитного полей. В 15. Read the following text. What information is new for you? Exchange your opinions with a partner’s. TEXT9B HOW IS ELECTRICITY GENERATED? To solve the problem of sending electricity over long distances, George Westinghouse developed a device called a transformer. This made it possible to supply electricity to homes and businesses located far from the electric generating plant. Despite its great importance in our daily lives, most of us rarely stop to think what life would be like without electricity. Yet like air and water, we tend to take electricity for granted. Every day we use electricity to do many
functions for us — from lighting and heating / cooling our homes to being the power source for televisions and computers. Electricity is a controllable and convenient form of energy used in the applications of heat, light and power. One of the devices for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy is an electric generator. The process is based on the relationship between magnetism and electricity. In 1831, Faraday discovered that when a magnet is moved inside a coil of wire, electrical current flows in the wire. The large generators used by the electric utility industry have a stationary conductor. A magnet attached io the end of a rotating shaft is positioned inside a stationary conducting ring that is wrapped with a long, continuous piece of wire. When the magnet rotates, it induces a small electric current in each section of wire as it passes. Each section of wire constitutes a small, separate electric conductor. All the small currents of individual sections add up to one current of considerable size. This current is what is used for electric power. Spinning coil of wire Turbine 1 spins shaft Magnet Magnet North pole South pole An electric utility power station uses eithera turbine, engine, waterwheel, or other similar machine to drive an electric generator, ora device that converts mechanical, or chemical energy into electricity. Steam turbines, interna] combustion engines, gas combustion turbines, water turbines, and wind turbines are the most common methods to generate electricity. In the United
States, for example, most of the electricity is produced in steam turbines. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) into mechanical energy. Steam turbines have a series of blades mounted on a shaft against which steam is forced, thus rotating the shaft connected to the generator. In a fossil-fuelled steam turbine, the fuel is burned in a furnace to heat water in a boiler to produce steam. Coal, petroleum (oil) and natural gas are burned in large furnaces to heat water to make steam that in turn pushes on the blades of a turbine. Nuclear power is a method in which steam is produced by heating water through a process called “nuclear fission”. In a nuclear power plant, a reactor contains a core of nuclear fuel, primarily enriched uranium. When atoms of uranium fuel are hit by neutrons they fission (split), releasing heat and more neutrons. Under controlled conditions, these other neutrons can strike more uranium atoms, splitting more atoms, and so on. Hydropower is also the source for electricity generation. It is a process in which flowing water is used to spin a turbine connected to a generator. Text and vocabulary exercises 16. Find in the (ext the words or phrases which mean the same as: поставлять электричество производить пар принимать как должное нагревать воду кинетическая энергия ядерное расщепление механическая энергия испускать тепло паровая турбина вращать турбину 17. Compose your own sentences with each English equivalent of the w ords and phrases given in exercise 16. Compare your variants with the sentences of your partner. 18. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations. To supply electricity to homes; electric utility industry; rotating shaft; stationary conducting ring; internal combustion engines; gas combustion turbines; nuclear-power plant; flowing water. 19. Find in the text the right word to complete the sentences. I. To solve the problem of sending electricity over long distances, George Westinghouse developed a device called a _. 2. This made it possible to_electricity to homes and businesses locat- ed far from the electric generating plant. 3. Electricity is a controllable and convenient form of_used in the applications of heat, light and power.
4. One of the devices for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy is an electric . 5._____The large generators used by the electric utility industry have a stationary . 6. When the magnet____. it induces a small electric current in each sec- tion of wire as it passes. 7. A turbine__the kinetic energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) into mechanical energy. 20. Give a brief summary of the text below according to the following scheme: 1. The text tells (runs about) the main / central idea is/ in brief... 2. According to the text... 3. To all appearances... 4. Needless to say... 5. Then I’m going to add... 6. 1 want to point out the following facts that were new for me... 7. In conclusion I’d like to say... Transformers A transformer transfers power between two or more electrical circuits when each of those circuits is carrying an alternating electric current. Transfers of this sort are important because many electric power systems have incompatible circuits — one circuit may use large currents of low voltage electricity while another circuit may use small currents of high voltage electricity. A transformer can move power from one circuit of the electric power system to another without any direct connections between those circuits. A transformer’s current regulation involves a natural feedback process’ To begin with, a transformer consists of two coils of wire that share a common magnetic core. When an alternating current flows through the primary coil (the one bringing power to the transformer), that current produces an alternating magnetic field around both coils and this alternating magnetic field is accompanied by an alternating electric field (recall that changing magnetic fields produce electric fields). This electric field pushes forward on any current passing through the secondary coil (the one taking power out of the transformer) and pushes backward on the current passing through the primary coil. The net result is that power is drawn out of the primary coil current and put into the secondary coil current. When you send an alternating current through the primary coil of wire in a transformer, that current produces a magnetic field in the transformer. Because the current in the primary coil is changing with time — it’s an al
ternating current — (his magnetic field is changing and changing magnetic fields are accompanied by electric fields. In the transformer, this electric field pushes electric charges around the secondary coil of wire in the transformer. Since these electric charges are pushed in the direction they are travelling, work is being done on them and their energies are increasing. However, in the transformer the secondary coil of wire has fewer turns in it than the primary coil of wire. As a result, the charges do not receive as much energy per charge (as much voltage) as the charges in the primary coil are giving up. This type of transformer, in which the secondary coil has fewer turns of wire than the primary coil, is called a step-down transformer and reduces the voltage of an alternating current. Note on the text 1 natural feedback process — естественный процесс обратной связи С 21. Read the text below and answer the questions. I. How does an electric motor work? 2. How does electric current create magnetic poles in metal? 3. Is the magnetic interaction attractive or repulsive? 4. How does a fan motor work? 5. How does an electromagnetic doorbell work ? TEXT9C ELECTRIC MOTORS Electric motors are everywhere. In your house, almost every mechanical movement that you see around you is caused by an AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current) electric motor. A simple motor has six parts: I) armature, or rotor; 2) commutator; 3) brushes; 4) axle; 5) field magnet; 6) DC power supply. An electric motor uses the attractive and repulsive forces between magnetic poles to twist a rotating object (the rotor) around in a circle. Both the rotor and the stationary structure (the stator) are magnetic, and their magnetic poles are initially arranged so that the rotor must turn in a particular direction in order to bring its north poles closer to the stator’s south poles and vice versa.
Electric motors involve rotating coils of wire which are driven by the magnetic force exerted by a magnetic field on an electric current. They transform electrical energy into mechanical energy. The rotor thus experiences a twist (what physicists call a torque) and it undergoes an angular acceleration — it begins to rotate. But the magnets of the rotor and stator are not all permanent magnets. At least some of the magnets are electromagnets. In a typical motor, these electromagnets are designed so t hat their poles change just as the rotor’s north poles have reached the stator’s south poles. After the poles change, the rotor finds itself having to continue turning in order to bring its north poles closer to the stator’s south poles and it continues to experience a twist in the same direction. An electric current is itself magnetic — it creates a structure in the space around it that exerts forces on any magnetic poles in that space. The magnetic field around a single straight wire forms loops around the wire — the current’s magnetic field would push a magnetic pole near it around in a circle about the wire. But if you wrap the wire up into a coil, the magnetic field takes on a more familiar shape. The magnetic interaction between the stator and the rotor is repulsive — the rotor is pushed around in a circle by the stator’s magnetic field; it is not pulled. To see why this is so, imagine unwrapping the curved motor so that instead of having a magnetic field that circles around a circular metal rotor you have a magnet (or magnetic field) that moves along a flat metal plate. As you move this magnet across the plate, it will induce electric currents in that plate and the plate will develop magnetic poles that are reversed from those of the moving magnet — the two will repel one another. That choice of pole orientation is the only one consistent with energy conservation and is recognized formally in “Lenz’s Law”. For reasons having to do with resistive energy loss and heating, the repulsive forces in front of and behind the moving magnet do not cancel perfectly, leading to a magnetic drag force between the moving magnet and the stationary plate. This drag force tends to push the plate along with the moving magnet. In the induction motor, that same magnetic drag force tends to push the rotor around with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. In all of these cases, the forces involved are repulsive — pushes not pulls.
For example, a fan motor is an induction motor, with an aluminum rotor that spins inside a framework of stationary electromagnets. Aluminum is not a magnetic metal and it only becomes magnetic when an electric current flows through it. In the fan, currents are induced in the aluminum rotor by the action of the electromagnets. Each of these electromagnets carries an alternating current that it receives from the power line and its magnetic poles fluctuate back and forth as the direction of current through it fluctuates back and forth. These electromagnets are arranged and operated so that their magnetic poles seem to rotate around the aluminum rotor. These moving/changing magnetic poles induce currents in the aluminum rotor, making that rotor magnetic, and the rotor is dragged along with the rotating magnetic poles around it. After a few moments of starting, the spinning rotor almost keeps up with the rotating magnetic poles. The different speed settings of the fan correspond to different arrangements of the electromagnets, making the poles rotate around the aluminum rotor at different rates. Text and vocabulary exercises 22. Find in the text words or phrases which mean the same as: постоянная структура направление постоянный магнит металлическая пластина магнитный полюс вентилятор вращать вращающий момент энергия сопротивления взаимодействие пружина колебаться 23. Make up situations using the English equivalents of the words given above. 24. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations. Repulsive forces; stationary structure; particular direction; in order to...; angular acceleration; permanent magnets; familiar shape; resistive energy; induction motor: alternating current: changing magnetic poles: electromagnetic doorbell. 25. Work in pairs, think of some questions to review the contents of the text and ask each other. Use the word combinations below: electric motor rotor magnetic interaction magnetic poles stator to provide electric power
26. Read Text 9C once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he / she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing 1 agree with you. Yes, that is what I think too. You are right! Undoubtedly Exactly That’s true Disagreeing politely Yes, but do not you think..? True, but 1 think... I see what you mean, but... I don’t think so Quite the opposite I am not sure I. An electric motor uses only repulsive force between magnetic poles to twist a rotating object (the rotor) around in a circle. 2. An electric current is itself magnetic — it creates a structure in the space around it that exerts forces on any magnetic poles in that space. 3. If current flows around the loop in the direction of the fingers of your right hand, then your thumb points to the north pole that develops at one end of the coil. 4. The magnetic interaction between the stator and the rotor is not repulsive. 5. A fan motor is an induction motor, with an aluminum rotor that spins inside a framework of stationary electromagnets. 6. When you press the button of an electromagnetic doorbell, you complete a circuit that includes a source of electric power. 27. A. Look through the information dealing with the usage of electricity in American houses. B. Express your own point of view about the possibilities of electricity usage in Russia. Share your opinion with other students. Electricity in American Household About 30% of the fossil fuel consumed in the US is used in the form of electricity. Electricity use is the foundation of our way of life. Most communication is based on it. Most machines, other than vehicles, are powered by electric motors. Lighting is universally electric. Most recent is the rising tide of electronic devices, including computers, as essential elements of living. Other 8% Refrigeration 8% Appliances 9% Compuiers& Electronics 9% Lighting 11% Space Cooling 12% Шег Heating 12% Space Heating 31%
The chart shows how the average home used energy in the USA in 2007. Your use may vary depending on your lifestyle, the size of your family and the size, age and efficiency of your appliances. Of course, heating is a bigger part in the winter and air conditioning is a bigger part in the summer. The amount used also varies with the weather and the amount of insulation in your home’s walls and ceiling Household appliances use a varied amount of electricity, depending on their efficiency. Location of an appliance can affect electricity usage. Forex-ample, a clothes dryer in an open location like a garage, is likely to be somewhat less efficient than one located in a house Another factor affecting electricity usage of an appliance is the age of the appliance. If your refrigerator is forty years old, your electricity bills are quite high. If you have purchased a refrigerator in the US within the last five years, you are likely to have a more energy efficient appliance, which represents significant savings on your electricity bill. Today, more and more appliances in the US are now given the Energy Star* seal of approval, which guarantees less usage of electricity. Relatively new washing machines use about 360 kilowatt hours per year. Relatively new dryers use approximately 765 kilowatt hours per year. A computer and monitor without sleep mode can use up over 400 kilowatt hours per year. Large appliances like air conditioners are some of the worst consumers of electricity. Central air conditioning may use as much as 2,000 kilowatt hours per year, and sometimes more. Electric furnaces are the most expensive however, using over6,000 kilowatt hours per year. Most appliances today are now labelled with their average rate of usage and, of course, kilowatt usage can depend upon how much you use an appliance. If you rarely turn on an electric furnace, you’re not likely to use much electricity. Keeping appliances clean and turning off appliances when not in use. like the TV or computer, can mean a little less money paid to the company supplying your electricity. With electricity supply sometimes being exceeded by demand in heavily populated areas, it makes sense to choose appliances that will use the least amount of electricity possible. Note on the text 1 Energy Star — международный стандарт для энергоэффективных потребительских товаров Был принят в США на основе государственной программы в 1992 г, а Австралия, Канада, Япония, Новая Зеландия, Тайвань и Европейский союз присоединились к данной программе Подразумевается, что устройства, имеющее логотип Energy Slor, имеют среднее энергопотребление на 20—304: меньше своих аналогов равной функциональности
28. The picture below shows the process of delivery of electricity to the point of destination. With a partner take it in turns to describe the picture. Wien electricity leaves a power plant (/), its voltage is increased at a “step-up” substation (2). Next, the energy travels along a transmission line to the area where the power is needed (3). Once there, the voltage is decreased, or “stepped-down”, at another substation (4), and a distribution power line (5) carries the electricity until it reaches a home or business (6). GRAMMAR REVIEW The Participle Причастие — это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая свойства глагола, прилагательного и наречия. В английском языке различают два причастия: Participle I и Participle II. Причастие может иметь формы относительного времени и залога. Признак действия Active Passive Одновременность Ving being + Ved. (3-я ф. гл.) П редшествование having + Ved, (3-я ф. гл.) having been + Ved, (3-я ф. гл.) Формы Present Participle употребляются для обозначения действия, одновременного с действием глагола в личной форме. Being late I took a taxi I heard the problem being discussed. Так как я опаздывал, я взял такси. Я слышал, как обсуждали эту проблему.
Формы Perfect Participle употребляются для обозначения действия, предшествующего действию глагола в личной форме. Having passed the exams he went Сдав экзамены, он vexan to the Crimea. в Крым. Кроме глагольных свойств причастие обладает свойствами прилагательного и наречия. Как и прилагательное, оно может выполнять функцию определения и стоять перед определяемым словом или после него. В последнем случае оно образует обособленный причастный оборот. Например: This walking excavator is of modern design. The problems being discussed at the meeting were of great importance. The idea used in his design is the same as in his teacher’s work. The term “polymer” used by many specialists appeared in 1910. Это] шагающий экскаватор современной конструкции. Проблемы, обсуждавшиеся (которые обсуждаюсь) на заседании. были очень важными. Идея, используемая в его проекте, такая же, как и в работе его учителя. Термин «полимер», используемый многими специалистами, возник (появился) в 1910 г. Как наречие Participle I, Participle II, Perfect Participle могут использоваться в качестве обстоятельств: Our architect does his work well using new materials Having examined the internal qualities of gypsum everj specialist can easily call it building material of the 21st century. Наш архитектор хорошо делает свою работу, используя новые материалы. Изучив присущие гипсу свойства, любой специалист может легко назвать его строительным материалом XXI века. Часто в функции обстоятельств употребляются причастия I и II с союзами when, while, if, as, unless... While using new equipment, the При использовании (используя) engineers pay special attention to нового оборудования safety. инженеры уделяют особое внимание безопасности.
When renovated the house was При обновлении (перестройке) partially transformed. внешний вид дома был частично изменен. Participle I (asking) в функции определения переводится: а) причастием действительного залога с суффиксами -ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ, -вш, -ш. Например: asking — спрашивающий; б) глаголом в личной форме предложении. Most home heating and cooling systems do not mechanically bring fresh air into the house. в придаточном определительном Большинство бытовых нагревающих и охлаждающих систем не доставляют свежий воздух в дома. В функции обстоятельства Participle I переводится: а) деепричастием с суффиксами -ая, -яя~, -ось' -ясь', б) глаголами в личной форме в придаточных обстоятельственных предложениях; в) предлогом «при» + существительное, когда перед Participle I Active стоят союзы when, while, if, as, unless... Developing / when developing При разработке новой the new management system, системы управления engineers use modern computers, инженеры используют новые компьютеры. Participle I Passive (being asked) в функции определения переводят: а) причастием страдательного залога с суффиксами -щ, -eta, -м; б) глаголом в личной форме в придаточном определительном предложении: The design being updated by our П роект, который обновляют specialists will be used in 2 years, (сейчас) наши специалисты, будет использован через 2 года. в) глаголом в личной форме в придаточном обстоятельственном предложении: Being updated by our specialists Поскольку сейчас проект the design will be used in 2 years, обновляется нашими специалистами, он будет использован через 2 года.
Participle П (asked) в функции определения переводится: а) причастием страдательного залога с суффиксами -ни, -м, -т, -ш. б) глаголом в личной форме предложении. The discussed plans are of great importance. This plan discussed by our specialists is very important for us. в придаточном определительном Обсуждаемые планы имеют большое значение. Этот план, обсужденный нашими специалистами, очень важен для нас. Или: Этот план, который обсуждался нашими специалистами, очень важен для нас. В функции обстоятельства Participle II переводится: а) глаголом в личной форме в придаточном обстоятельственном предложении, б) предлогом «при» + существительное, когда перед Participle 11 стоят союзы when, if, as, unless и т.д. Unless discussed by specialists the design must not be used in the near future. When used the design showed all the merits of its creators. Если проект не обсуждался нашими специалистами, его нельзя использовать в ближайшем будущем. При использовании этот проект показал все достоинства его создателем. Perfect Participle Active (having asked) в функции обстоятельства переводится: а) деепричастием совершенного вида с суффиксами -ав, -ив; б) глаголом в личной форме в придаточном обстоятельственном предложении, вводимом союзами так как, после того как, когда: Having discussed the design of a new building, we can start looking for suitable materials. Обсудив проект нового знания, мы можем начать поиски соответствующих материалов. Perfect Participle Passive (having been asked) в функции обстоятельства переводится глаголом в личной форме в придаточном обстоятельственном предложении, вводимом союзами так как, noeie того как, когда:
Having been discussed by Пос le обсуждения / Пос ге specialists the design can be used того, как проект обсудили at once. специалисты, его можно сразу использовать. 29. Прочитайте предложения и переведите их на русский язык, найдите и назовите форму причастий. 1. Do you know the device converting mechanical enetgy into electrical one? 2. Electrically charged matter produces electromagnetic fields. 3. The moving electrons are electricity. 4. Most of the portable devices made in this factory produce varying amounts of electricity depending on their size 5. It is easy to create electricity from sunlight using a solar cell or you can create electricity from the chemical energy in hydrogen and oxygen using a fuel cell. 6. A positive terminal remained untouched. 7. The monopoly structure of the industry must be dismantled in favour of competition among generators. 8. After watching the documentary on global warming, we felt a bit depressed. 9. A permanent magnet used showed good results. 10. A special switching system formed had all the necessary properties. 30. Раскройте скобки, поставив причастие в нужной форме, переведите предложения на русский язык. I. (То send) power over long distances George Westinghouse developed a device (to call) a transformer. 2. Wires in the generator (to waste) more power as heat are considered to be more complicated. 3. There is a (to grow) demand for the electricity (to produce) by environmentally friendly and non-polluting sources of energy. 4. (Not to know) of their parametres they could not arrange the electromagnets properly. 5. The generator has a series of (to insulate) coins of wire (to form) a stationary cylinder. 6. A turbine (to convert) the kinetic energy of a moving liquid (or gas) to mechanical energy is widely used in industry. 31. Переведите следующие словосочетания на англиискии язык. Построенная электростанция; несущий положительный электрический заряд; изучив новые модели трансформаторов; измеряя переменный ток; заряженные частицы; ранее использованные электри-
чес кие приборы; определяя направление; используя кинетическую энергию; построив новую станцию, работающую на энергии ветра; специалист, знающий иностранный язык. 32. Образуйте соответствующие формы причастия от приведенных в скобках глаголов. Переведите предложения на русский язык. 1. Bohr imagined the atom (to consist) of two parts: the nucleus and the electrons. 2. When the alternating voltage is impressed upon a closed circuit, current begins to flow (to start) at a zero value. 3. The core itself becomes a magnet (to set up) its own lines of force. 4. Russian scientists have succeeded in developing quantum generators (to call) lasers. 5. (Tobe built) on the basis of transistors lasers are successfully used in technology 6. J.J. Thomson explored the mysterious phenomena (to associate) with the conduction of electricity through gases. 7 The problems (to discuss) are connected with the technical properties of a new nuclear power station. 33. Закончите предложения, используя как часть сложного дополнения (Complex Object). a) Participle I 1. Did anyone see the chart (to show) the average home used energy? 2. I saw a water heater (to use) more electricity titan a well-located and insulated water heater. 3. Did you hear any noise (to call) for your attention? 4. We all sensed danger (to approach). 5. Can you feel something (to burn)? b) Participle II 1. We want the experiment (to finish) by Saturday. 2. You should make your arguments concerning this electronic device (to change). The Nominative Absolute Participle Construction (Самостоятельный причастный оборот) Причастие в сочетании с существительным или местоимением может образовывать причастные обороты. В английском языке причастные обстоятельственные обороты бывают двух типов: а) обороты, в которых причастие выражает действие, относящееся к подлежащему предложения. Они соответствуют русским деепричастным оборотам и называются зависимыми. 24В
Speaking of the equipment we Говоря об оборудовании, мы should take into consideration all должны учитывать все новые new designs. проекты. б) обороты, в которых причастие имеет свое собственное подлежащее, отличное от подлежащего основного предложения. Такие обороты называются независимыми, пли самостоятельными, причастными оборотами. Они соответствуют русским обстоятельственным придаточным предложениям или самостоятельным предложениям в зави- симости от их места в предложении The design having been completed, the specialists felt relief. Когда проект был закончен, специалисты почувствовали облегчение. Независимый причастный оборот, стоящий в начале предложения, переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением с союзом так как, поскольку, когда, пос ге того как, есш и др. Независимый причастный оборот, стоящий в конце предложения (или как часть сложного предложения), переводится на русский язык придаточным присоединительным предложением с союзом и, а, причем и др. I. Other liquids being too light, a barometer uses mercury. — Так как I поскольку прочие жидкости слишком легкие, в барометре используется ртуть. 2. Radioactivity discovered, great progress was made in atomic physics. — Когда (после того как) была открыта радиоактивность, был сделан большой прогресс в атомной физике. 3. The car started moving along the highway, its speed gradually accelerating. — Автомобиль начал двигаться по шоссе, и (при этом) скорость его постепенно увеличивалась. 34. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на независимые причастные обороты. I. The worker repairing the device at that time. I went to the chief instead of him. 2. The device being repaired, we will soon be able to get it for installation 3. The worker having repaired the device, the engineer examined it. 4. The device having been repaired, we could start it immediately. 5. The intensity of the current being unchanged, the parametres of the system did not change either 6. The new devices showing promise, scientists began to develop them at a rapid pace. 7. With friction eliminated, no force at all would be necessary to keep mechanisms in motion.
8. No more time left, we had to enhance the experimental work. 9. The mixture would not be combustible, the fuel uniformly mixed with the air. 10. The driver having repaired the engine, we could go further. 35. Найдите самостоятельный причастный оборот и переведите предложения на русский язык. 1. Silver being very expensive, other metals are used as a conductor. 2. The atmosphere always contains some moisture, the amount varying not only from day to day, but from hour to hour. 3. The leaves being taken off, the plant stops growing. 4. The speed of light being extremely great, it is impossible to measure it by ordinary methods. 5. The electricity is carried exclusively by the electrons, the atomic nuclei remaining stationary. 6. Other conditions being equal, the acceleration will be the same. 7. Acids react with oxides of all the metals, salt and water being formed. 36. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на причастия и причастные обороты. 1. The control systems applied nowadays will be discussed at the conference to be held at our university next month. 2. The technologies introduced received general recognition. 3. Having been constructed recently, a new electronic device lias important applications in our laboratory. 4. The results obtained, differed depending on the substance. 5. One might use this device at high speed as well as at low speed, if desired. 6. Unless treated properly, this material will not be a good lining. 7. Expressing velocity the unit of time must be given as well as the number denoting the velocity. 8. At the same temperature the coefficient for the mixture is lower than that of the pure liquid indicating an influence of dioxine, differing from that on water and alcohol. 37. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about electricity and its production (Texts 17, 18). SPEAKING PRACTICE 38. A. Speak about the mysterious stuff that we call “electricity”. Where does it come from? Why is it able to do so many different things? Share your opinion with a partner.
В. Look at the picture below. What other examples of electricity usage come to your mind? Throughout your house, you probably' find electnc outlets where you can plug in all sorts of electrical appliances f Electricity is all around us For most of us modern life would be impossible without it ________________ i During a thunderstorm, there are huge bolts of electricity called “lightning” that shoot down from the sky Most portable devices contain batteries, which produce varying amounts of electricity depending on their size On a much smaller scale, you can get a shock from static electricity on dry' winter days WRITING PRACTICE 39. Form filling. You want to subscribe to a scientific journal. Look through the subscription form below and fill in this form or tick the appropriate boxes. YVAESSERI Publisher of the Power Plant Chemistry Journal Subscription Form for 20 — Start date: Subscriber's address Printed version e-paper* Printed version + e-paper* Europe 200 € г-i 172 € 210 € n Outside Europe 220 € U 230€ LJ 'A subscription to our e-paper requires accepting and signing of a license agreement. First name: | Name: | Company Company address: City: Postal/ZIP code: Country: State: E-mail address: Phone: Charge my credit card:.... .. (MasterCard / Eurocard, VISA or Amex) Cardholder’s Address (City):...................... Name of Cardholder as Printed on the Card:................................
Credit Card Number | . . | Expiration Date | ...(MM) . . (YY) CW / C..........(You can find your card verification value / code on the front of your American Express credit card (a four-digit number) above the credit card number on either the right or the left side of your credit card. This number is printed on your MasterCard and Visa cards in the signature area on the back of the card (it is the last 3 digits after the credit card number in the signature area of the card) Signature | | Date: | .... (DD / MM / YYYY)~ Email or fax this form to: +41 44 940 23 40 ______________________________________________________subscription@waesseri.com Remarks: PROJECT BOX 40. Consult the Internet and reference books to prepare a report about modern trends of electricity production in Russia / USA / Great Britain.
UNIT 10 A Pre-text exercises 1. Pronunciation and spelling. Homonyms. Homonyms are words that sound the same but have different | meanings and spelling. A. Find the words on the left that have the same pronunciation as the words on the right. 1. site 2. cell 3. see 4. weather 5. plain 6. threw 7. hour 8. wait 9. whole 10. sum 11. for 12. no В a) four b) our c) weight d) sea e) whether f) sight g) hole h) some i) plane j) through k) sell 1) know B. Look at the phonetic symbols. For each transcription write two words. 1. [’weda]__________________________ 2. [SAin] __________________________ 3. fsait]___________________________
4. [sei]___________________________ 5. [plein] ________________________ 6. [haul] C. Correct the spelling mistakes in each sentence. 1. On the hole the construction sight has been chosen correctly. 2. Sum of the electric devices in hour houses use about 37.5 kilowatt ours per month 3. We do not no yet weather it will rain tomorrow 4. The wait of this automobile is about a ton. 5. Yesterday I accidentally through my sell phone into the river. 6. The plain had a forced landing on the plane. 7. The see transportations are very cheap in hour region. 2. Here are some expressions with the prepositions under and up. Translate and memorize them. it is up to you to pick up to sit up up to date to be under the circumstances time is up to ring up to stand up up and down to be under consideration io be under repair to save up to wake up hurry up up to the mark 3. Fill in the gaps w ith the expressions above in the appropriate form. 1. If you__early in the morning, you will be able to do a lot. 2. They were going along the forest_mushrooms on their way. 3. Children,___, please. We have little time 4. John____and left the room. 5. You must solve this problem yourself,_. 6. Will you__me______when he brings the papers? 7. This is_technology and we are going to use it. 4. Fill in the correct prepositions. I. I have to apologize_being late. 2. She tried to prevent the children _jumping into the water. 3. Sometimes 1 have to walk to work and sometimes 1 go___bus. 4. Thank you___coming to visit us. 5. The boys met______the corner of the street. 6. The smallest room is located___the left of the hall. 7. We entered the building__entrance number 3. 8. There was a dark spot____the ceiling. 9. We have to be at the airport___6 p.m.
5. Choose the correct word to fill the gaps. 1. As with all modern scientific and technological endeavours, computers and software_____an increasingly important role a) plays b) play c) played d) wasplaying 2. Computer models of designs____be checked for flaws without having to make expensive and time-consuming prototypes. a) may b) can c) must d) should 3. Computer Engineering___a discipline encompassing electronic engi- neering and computer science. a) are b) am c) is d) was 4. Electronic equipment today relies heavily_computer technology. a) to b) on c) at d) in 5. There is a high demand_engineers who are able to design and man- age all forms of computer systems in industry. a) for b) tn c) with d) on 6. The computer__an integral part of modern everyday life. a) will become b) lias become c) became d) to become 7. As the computer became very accessible, the sphere of its use wid- ened. a) significant b) significantly c) insignificant d) insignificantly 8. The use of computers as bases_the storage of tremendous volume of information is probably the most widely-used function. a) for b) in c) with d) at 9- It is now_to convert a tremendous quantity of pictures and copies of unique documents which were, in former times, inaccessible for most researchers, into digital format. a) unimportant b) possible c) impossible d) important 10. The use of the computer will become because it allows us to accustom children to the world of knowledge in forms which are very comfortable to them and yet provide programmes with important content a) less b) most c) unimportant d) more important important important
Word building 6. Guess the meaning of the words in bold type. Science — scientist — scientific; technology — technological technologically, to increase — increasingly, important unimportant, accurate — accurately; to compute — computer; translate — translation; to suit — suitable; to fabricate — fabrication; design — designer; to develop — development, use — usage; finite — infinite, to avail — available; to install — installation; to equip - equipment; to research — researcher; quick — qnickly; to specialize — specialization; to use — to reuse. 7. Translate the following words analyzing their word-formation model: undergraduate polysterol write-off reduction three-wheeled measurement motorcar half-life high-rise middle-of-the-read assimilation semiconductor well-established taxi-cab polychromatic hard-line easy-to-use read-write control-surface full-time straightforward monochromatic reaction adjustment sky-line motor-cycle meanwhile well-trodden 8. Brainstorming. A. Study the dictionary definitions of the words “transport" and “construction". Look for similarities and differences. What definition is the best to your mind? transport “A system for carrying people or goods from one place to another using vehicles, roads, etc." {Oxford Advanced Learner!, Dictionary of Current English) I) “A vehicle (as a truck or airplane) used to transport persons or goods.” 2) “An act or process of transporting.” {New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language) “A system of vehicles, such as buses, trains, aircraft, etc. for getting from one place to another.” {Cambridge International Dictionary of English) construction “The process or method of building or making something, especially roads, buildings, bridges, etc.’’ {Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English) “The process, art, or manner of constructing something.” {New Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) “The work of building or making something, especially buildings, bridges, etc." {Cambridge International Dictionary of English)
В. Think of your own definitions of the words “transport” and ‘ construction”. Compare with a partner’s one. C. Explain in English the meaning of the words below: mechanisms machinery Active vocabulary 9. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: agglomeration — укрупнение; интеграция; агломерация (носе генных пунктов) alloy — сплав alteration — переделка, перестройка assembly — сборка, монтаж bearing — подшипник benefit — польза; преимущеово construction — строительство contractor — подрядчик density плотность; концентрация equipment — оборудование to exceed — превышать. выходить за пределы facilities - возможности, средства, оборудование to fit — подгонять, монтировать; устанавливать; fittings - арматура {принадлежности) freight — фрахт, перевозка грузов gear — передаточный механизм, шестерня grease — пластичный смазочный материал to handle - обрабатывать, перерабатывать, управлять; регулировать to maintain поддерживать, обслуживать; maintenance — содержание, техническое обслуживание to manufacture — производить mould — опалубка для бетона network — сеть (как совокупность дорог) productivity — производи- тельность repair — ремонт; починка resident — житель, постоянно проживающее лицо site — стройплощадка; место (для строительства), off-site — вне места эксплуатации (системы, оборудования); сторонний solder — паять, спаивать specialty — договор /документ за печатью specification — спецификация, технические условия supervision — наблюдение, управление, контроль terminal — конечная станция; перевалочный пункт; стоянка traffic — движение; транспорт transmission - трансмиссия, привод
hand tool — ручной инструмент highway — шоссе, магистраль infrastructure — инфрастру- ктура inland — (расположенный) внутри страны machinery — машинное оборудование; машины, механизм machine tool - станок transport (transportation) перевозка, транспортирование, транспортировка vehicle — транспортное средство weld — сваривать: сварной шов 10. Read the text and complete the following statements. This text is about... The main idea is that... The text also describes.. TEXT10A TRANSPORT Transport, or transportation, is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans (“across”) and porta re (“to carry”). The field of transport has several aspects which can be divided into a triad of infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes, or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports). The vehicles generally ride on the networks. such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, airplanes. The operations deal with the control of the system, such as traffic signals and ramp metres, railroad switches, air traffic control, etc., as well as policies, such as how to finance the system (for example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes). Broadly speaking, the design of networks is the domain of civil engineering and urban planning, the design of vehicles of mechanical engineering and specialized subfields such as nautical engineering and aerospace engineering, and the operations are usually specialized, though might appropriately belong to operations research or systems engineering. There are different modes of transport which are the combinations of networks, vehicles and operations. Modes of transport include walking, the road transport system, rail transport, ship transport and modem aviation.
Worldwide, the most widely-used modes for passenger transport are the automobiles, followed by buses, air, railways, and urban rail. The most wide-ly-used modes for freight transport are sea, followed by road, railways, oil pipelines and inland navigation. There is a well-known relationship between the density of development and types of transportation. Intensity of development is often measured by Floor Area Ratio (FAR)1, the ratio of useable floor space to area of land. As a rule, FARs of 1.5 or less are well suited to automobiles, those of six and above are well suited to trains. The range of densities from about two up to about four is not well served by conventional public or private transport. Many cities have grown into these densities and are suffering traffic problems People need transport to go from one place to the other (from home to work, to shop, back to home, for instance). Transport is a “derived demand” in that transport is unnecessary but for the activities pursued at the ends of trips. Good land use keeps common activities close (e.g. housing and food shopping), and places higher-density development closer to transportation lines and hubs. Poor land use concentrates activities (such as jobs) far from other destinations (such as housing and shopping). Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking) can easily exceed 20 per cent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste. Note on the text 1 Floor Area Ratio — коэффициент общем площади Text and vocabulary exercises 11. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: несколько аспектов железнодорожные станции велосипед как правило пассажирский транспорт нефтепроводы способы транспортировки транспортные сети морской порт управление движением во всем мире грузовые перевозки внутренняя навигация обычные действия 12. Find the right English equivalent for the following Russian words. 1. разделяться) 2. расти 3. тротуар a) to diverge a) to grow a) bailment b) to decide b) to draw b) pavement c) to divide c) todrow c) payment
4. сокращать a) to reduce b) to refuse c) to repulse 5. внутренний a) island b) inland c) lowland 13. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations. The field of transport; transport networks; traffic control; node; ramp; to deal with; broadly speaking; urban planning; specialized subfields; transport system; widely-used; passenger transport; hub; to go from one place to the other; railroad switches; air traffic control; the use of tolls; gasoline taxes: oil pipelines; to suffer traffic problems; transportation facilities. 14. Match the English words on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. movement 2. to avoid 3. operation 4. development 5. consumption 6. to relate 7. vehicle 8. to streamline а) избеги ib b) развитие с) иметь отношение d) потребление e) движение f) транспортное средство g) действие h) модернизировать 15. Choose among the words below the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences. I. Transport, or transportation, is the_of people and goods from one place to another. a) movement b) walking c) rising 2. The field of transport has several aspects which can be divided into a triad of infrastructure,___, and operations. a) vehicles b)cars c) carts 3. The vehicles__ride on the networks, such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, and airplanes. a) never b) seldom c) generally 4. The design of networks is the domain of____engineering and urban planning. a) mining b) civil c) mechanical 5. There are___modes of transport. a) different b) no c) single
6._____Worldwide, the most widely-used modes for passenger transport are the . a) trains b) ships c) automobiles 7. There is a_between the density of development and types of trans- portation. a) treatment b) relationship c) brotherhood 8. People____transport to go from one place to the other. a) try b) need c) do not use 16. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. 1. The term “transport” is of Greek origin 2. The field of transport has very few aspects, one of which is vehicles. 3. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.). 4. Worldwide, the most widely-used modes for passenger transport are the automobiles, followed by buses. 5. People seldom use transport to go from one place to the other 6. There is not any relationship between the density of development and types of transportation. 17. Give a brief summary of the text below. The Urban Transit Challenge As cities continue to become more dispersed, the cost of building and operating public transportation systems increases. For instance, only about 80 large urban agglomerations have a subway system, the great majority of them being in developed countries. Furthermore, dispersed residential patterns, characteristic of automobile dependent cities, make public transportation systems less convenient for the average commuter. In many cities additional investments in public transit did not result in significant additional ridership. Unplanned and uncoordinated land development has led to rapid expansion of the urban periphery. Residents may become isolated in outlying areas without access to affordable and convenient public transportation. Urban transit is often perceived as the most efficient transportation mode for uiban areas, notably large cities. However, surveys reveal stagnation or a decline of public transit systems, especially in North America. The economic relevance of public transit is being questioned. This paradox is partially
explained by the spatial structure of contemporary cities which are oriented along servicing the needs of the individual, not necessarily the needs of the collectivity. Thus, the automobile remains the preferred mode of urban transportation. In addition, public transit is publicly owned, implying that it is a politically motivated service that provides limited economic returns. In Europe transit systems also depend on government subsidies. Little or no competition is permitted as wages and fares regulated, undermining any price adjustments to changes in ridership. Thus public transit often serves the purpose of a social function (“public service”) as it provides accessibility and social equity, but with limited relationships with economic activities. 18. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading" (Text 19) to get information about geographical challenges facing urban transportation. В 19. Read the following text to know about the key sector of civil engineering construction. TEXT 10B CONSTRUCTION From the pyramids of Egypt to the international space station, construction industry has always faced the challenges of the future — advancing civilization and building our quality of life. Today, the construction industry is undergoing vast changes — the technological revolution, population growth, environmental concerns, and more. Modem construction industry is a high-hazard industry that comprises a wide range of activities involving construction, alteration and / or repair. Construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Houses, apartments, factories, offices, schools, roads, and bridges are only some of the products of the construction industry. This industry’s activities include the building of new structures, including site preparation, as well as additions and modifications to existing ones. The industry also includes maintenance, repair and improvements on these structures. The construction industry is divided into three major segments. Each of them requires a unique team to plan, design, construct and maintain the project.
1) The construction of buildings. This segment includes contractors, usually called general contractors, who build residential, industrial, commercial, and other buildings. 2) The Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction. This segment comprises establishments whose primary activity is the construction of entire engineering projects (e.g., highways, dams, bridges, tunnels, and other projects related to the infrastructure), and specialty trade contractors, whose primary activity is the production of a specific component for such projects. Specialty trade contractors in Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction generally are performing activities that are specific to heavy and civil engineering construction projects and are not normally performed on buildings 3) Industrial construction. Specialty trade contractors perform specialized activities related to all types of construction such as carpentry, painting, plumbing, electrical work. The construction of buildings is considered to be an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. The earliest practices of building construction may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) when humans stopped their nomadic existence, thus causing a need for the construction of shelter. The most exiting example of large structure constructions are the Pyramids in Egypt. Other ancient historic examples of building constructions include the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China and the stupas1 constructed in ancient Sri Lanka. The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts, insulae2, harbours, bridges, dams, and roads. Modern methods of construction are more complicated titan in early history of mankind. Today’s professional builders understand building science and know how to build a house that not only looks good, but also well constructed and great to live. New houses are bright and comfortable all the year round, and take full advantage of the many advances in building products, materials and technologies. Another most important change that has occurred during the modern time all over the world is that the process of construction has been steadily moving away from the building site. Modern methods of construction involve the manufacture of buildings with potential benefits such as faster construction, fewer housing defects and reductions in energy use and waste. Typically modern methods of construction involve the manufacture of buildings parts off-site in a specially designed factory. The two main products of modern methods are: 1) panels, including ready-made walls, floors and roofs, which are transported to the site and assembled quickly, often within a
day; 2) modules — ready-made rooms, which can be pieced together to make a whole house or flat. Modules are used most frequently for bathrooms or kitchens, where all the fittings are added in the factory. In Europe modern methods of construction also include innovative sitebased methods, such as use of concrete moulds. The components are made in factories to precise specifications and then shipped to building sites where trained building crews install them. The benefits of using such premanufactured components are numerous. Prefabricated components can be brought in as they are needed and installed immediately. Furthermore, these materials and products are manufactured under strict quality control and confirm to construction standards. A range of materials is used for construction of buildings, the most common being wood, steel and concrete, although many houses have a brick outer layer and so look like traditional houses. Notes on the text 1 stupas — ступа (купо юобразное сооружение на моги ie царя или вождя; хранилище реликвий) г insulae — блок домов, квартал (в древнеримской архитектуре). Text and vocabulary exercises 20. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. Equality of life 2. vast changes a) b) вопросы охраны окружающей среды древняя человеческая 3. environmental concerns c) деятельность смягчать последствия 4. a wide range of activities d) изменения климата огромные изменения 5. ancient human activity e) готовый 6. to moderate the effects of f) качество жизни climate 7. ready-made g) широкий спектр деятельности 21. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: кочевой образ жизни жилой дом профессиональный гавань строитель мост отойти от строительной площадки
дамба строгий контроль качества дорога строительные нормы улучшение наружный слой 22. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations. High hazard industry; apartments; carpentry; painting; plumbing; electrical work; functional need; building site; offsite; premanufactured components; wood: steel: concrete: brick. 23. Choose the right answer. I. Construction industry has always faced the challenges of the ... a) future b) past c) present 2. Today the construction industry is undergoing.... a) temporary b) small changes c) vast changes stagnation 3. Modern construction industry is a high-hazard industry that comprises .... a) a wide range of b) specific kinds of c) a narrow range of activities activities activities 4. Construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of.... a) residential districts b) infrastructure c) household items 5. The construction of buildings is considered to be .. a) an ancient human b) a modern human c) not important activity activity kind of human activity 24. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. I. From the pyramids of Egypt to the international space station, construction industry has always faced the challenges of the past. 2. Modern construction industry is a high-hazard industry that comprises a wide range of activities involving construction, alteration and / or repair. 3. Construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of residential districts. 4. Another most important change that has occurred during the modern time all over the world is that the process of construction has been steadily moving away from the building site.
5. Modern methods of construction involve the manufacture of buildings with definite disadvantages such as slower construction and increase in energy use 6. A range of materials used for construction of buildings is limited by the use of brick. 25. Translate the following sentences into English. I. Строительство зданий, являясь самым древним видом строительной индустрии, остается наиболее востребованной промышленной сферой современной жизни. 2. Строители планируют, проектируют, рассчитывают, строят, ремонтируют и реконструируют объекты, составляюшие основу жизнедеятельности общества. 3. Проектируя объекты, такие как мосты, дороги, жилые дома и административные здания, ирригационные системы и водоводы, линии электропередач и другие, инженеры-строители должны задумываться о социальных, экологических и экономических последствиях своей работы. 26. Give a brief summary of the text below according to the following scheme: I. The text tells (runs about) the main / central idea is / in brief... 2. According to the text... 3. To all appearances... 4. Then I’m going to add... 5. I want to point out the following facts that were new for me... 6. In conclusion I’d like to say... Construction Jobs Project Managers. The project manager has the ultimate responsibility for the successful completion of the project. He or she must hire subcontractors, keep track of the budget, monitor the project schedule, and act as a coordinator among the many different groups on the job site. Project managers work for general contractors and will typically have degrees in engineering or construction management. Some project managers may specialize in specific trades and will work for subcontractors to oversee a specific portion of the project. Superintendents. Superintendents work closely with the project manager to ensure the job is completed on schedule. These individuals work out on the job site, where they interact with subcontractors, arrange for material deliveries and coordinate among trades. One of the biggest responsibilities of the superintendent is to look for potential problems that may delay the job and find possible solutions to these issues. Superintendents often work their way up to this position through a trade such as carpentry or plumbing. There is
less emphasis on educational requirements for superintendents, who often benefit more from experience in the industry. Tradesman. The majority ofconstruction workers are involved in a specific trade, such as dry wall or painting. These individuals work for subcontracting companies and are hired by general contractors to complete a specific portion of the job. Many tradesmen obtain jobs through apprenticeship programmes, which combine educational and work experience to provide a thorough understanding of the trade. Others may start as labourers or assistants, or may attend trade schools to improve their skills. Estimators. Project estimators work in the office and spend little to no time out on the job site. These employees use drawings and specifications to estimate the total cost to complete a project. Many estimators have degrees in business or construction related fields, though others may work their way up from assistant estimating positions. Estimators work for general contractors and subcontractors, though some may be employed by architects and engineers to help with cost analysis. Designers. The design team plays a big role in the construction industry and is involved throughout the duration of a project. This team consists of architects and engineers, most of whom have degrees and licenses in their particular field. Designers must create drawings for the project that satisfy the functional and design needs of the owner, as well as the project budget. Architects and engineers must also incorporate all applicable building codes while ensuring the structure is safe and practical to build. Once design is complete, the design team attends project meetings, performs job site inspections, and coordinates with the general contractor to resolve problems and conflicts. 27. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about construction (Text 20). c 28. Read the following text to answer the questions. I. How can machinery be described? 2. What is the focus of machinery and equipment manufacturing sector? 3. What are the spheres of machinery and equipment manufacturing sector application? 4. What are key subsectors of machinery? 5. What does power generating machinery and equipment comprise? 6. What does metalworking machinery comprise? 7. What is general industrial machinery and equipment cover?
TEXT ЮС MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT Machinery can be described as an assembly, fitted with or intended to be fitted with a drive system other than directly applied human or animal effort, consisting of linked parts or components, at least one of which moves, and which are joined together for a specific application. The machinery and equipment manufacturing sector is almost entirely focused on supplying capital goods or their components to other sectors of the economy, such as the industrial, agricultural or construction sectors, with a view to improving their productivity growth and quality. It provides equipment for use in many mining, manufacturing, energy and construction sectors, as well as producing domestic appliances. Furthermore, the machinery and equipment manufacturing sector covers arms and ammunition, whether for military or sporting uses, including some military vehicles such as tanks, but not military aircraft or warships (which are classified under the manufacture of transport equipment). Key subsectors of machinery are: 1. Specialized machinery and equipment for specific industry. These are machinery and equipment for agricultural, mining and construction and the machine tools and parts sectors, and a miscellaneous division, which manufactures equipment for a variety of industrial and commercial sectors. Specialized machinery is complex process which includes machine operation, design and engineering, parts assembly and manufacturing supervision. Due to the specific and precise nature of the particular machinery and equipment manufactured, production and assembly processes must be followed closely so that variation in component construction is minimized. Products manufactured for use by the agricultural, mining, machinery or other industrial sectors must be practical, easy to maintain and reliable, as well as being designed and engineered with expertise. Design specifications may involve carriage capacity for large masses or volumes, the handling of specific materials and drilling or digging requirements. Production of machinery and equipment is mostly in metals and alloys; however, some specific products may also involve plastics, rubber or glass. 2. Power generating machinery and equipment, which comprises machinery for the production and use of mechanical power. This includes internal combustion engines, as well as steam, gas, wind and hydraulic turbines, pumps and compressors, taps and valves, bearings, gears, driving elements and transmission equipment, but excludes the manufacture of propulsion engines for aircraft, vehicles or cycles.
3. Metalworking machinery, which comprises the manufacture of mechanical power transmission equipment, parts for industrial machinery, electric and gas welding and soldering equipment, rolling mill equipment, machine tools, dies, hand tools of all types (such as axes, spanners, screwdrivers, wrenches, hammers, pincers, riveting tools and other hand tools), cutting tools 4. General industrial machinery and equipment. This category covers establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing machinery, equipment, and components for general industrial use, and for which no special classification is provided. It includes furnaces and burners, lifting and handling equipment and non-domestic cooling and ventilation equipment. The general industrial machinery and equipment industry is heavily dependent upon sales to other manufacturing businesses and to construction industries. Nowadays machinery and equipment manufacturing sector is an important part of efficient industry and economy. Hydraulic cranes, earthmovers, generators, construction equipment, oilfields pieces, transport and other related accessories are very important because they enable people to complete their targeted tasks in an easy way, to reduce the manual labour and also the risk factor. Text and vocabulary exercises 29. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. capital goods 2. ventilation equipment 3. welding equipment 4. quality 5. handling equipment 6. internal combustion engine 7. lifting equipment 8. cooling equipment 9. propulsion engine 10. domestic appliances II. soldering equipment а) бытовая техника b) двигатель внутреннего сгорания с) средства производства d) паяльное оборудование е) подъемное оборудование f) главный двигатель: тяговый двигатель g) сварочное оборудование h) погрузочно-разгрузочное оборудование i) вентиляционное оборудование j) холодильное оборудование к) качество
30. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: отвертка гидравлический кран ручной инструмент; строительное оборудование слесарно-монтажный инструмент клепальный инструмент месторождение нефти режущий инструмент ручной труд 31. Give Russian equivalents to the following w ord combinations. Rubber; glass; die; axe; spanner; rolling mill equipment; wrench; hammer; pincer; furnace; burner; earthmover, oilfield pieces. 32. Retell Text IOC according to the plan given below. I. General description of machinery and equipment manufacturing. 2. Key subsectors of machinery. 3. Specialized machinery and equipment for specific industry. 4. Power generating machinery and equipment. 5. Metalworking machinery. 6. General industrial machinery and equipment. 33. Study the following words and word combinations to read the text below: bearing — подшипник journal bearings — подшипник скольжения guide bearing — направляющая sliding bearing — скользящий подшипник, подшипник скольжения ball bearing шарикоподшипник thrust bearing — I) упорный подшипник; 2) нажимнои подшипник сиепления friction — трение, сила трения lubricant — смазочный материал, смазка reciprocal motion — возвратно-поступательное движение to revolve — вращаться; вертеться babbitt metal - баббит soft alloy — мягкий сплав The Bearings Any machine, however simple, consists of one or more basic machine elements or mechanisms. One of the more familiar elements and mechanisms used in machinery and equipment is a bearing.
A bearing is a housing or support for a rotating part or one that moves linearly. Bearings are of two basic types: plain and rolling-element. Plain bearings are based on sliding motion between a stationary and a moving member, and are almost universally used in engines. Rolling-element bearings have either balls or rollers that accommodate motion between the stationary and moving parts. In either case, a film of lubricant separating moving surfaces is essential for long service life. Plain bearings that support loads perpendicular to their axis of rotation are called journal bearings; rolling-element bearings carrying similar loads are called radial bearings. Bearings of either type that support loads parallel to their axis of rotation are called thrust bearings. A journal, or sleeve, bearing consists of a cylindrical housing supporting a rotating shaft. The term “journal” refers to the portion of a shaft contained within a bearing; “sleeve” refers to the bearing configuration. If the bearing is a full-cylindrical, 360-degree design, it is called a bushing. A shaft that is loaded in a single direction can be supported by a journal bearing in the form of a partial cylinder. Such a bearing supports the shaft in the load zone only. For example, cranes, earth-moving equipment and railroad journals use partial-cylinder bearings io support loads directed against the top portion of an axle. Journal bearings frequently contain two or more parts to facilitate removal or replacement. Automotive engine main bearings, for instance, contain two half-round sleeves which hold the crankshaft journals. Ball bearing Plain (sliding) bearing Journal bearing Thrust bearings accommodate the axial movement of a rotating shaft. They are usually used in conjunction with journal bearings and are lubricated by grease, which leaks from the ends of the journal housings. Ball bearings are, perhaps, the most familiar type of rolling-element bearing. Radial ball bearings contain the rotating motion of a shaft and are functionally similar to plain journal bearings. Ball thrust bearings are the functional equivalent of plain thrust bearings. A ball-bearing assembly includes balls, a retainer, races, the rotating shaft and the supporting housing. The balls are made of hardened steel, ground to a true sphere, and polished to a fine finish. The balls are held in position by a retainer, or spacers, and roll
between races which must also be ground and polished to a fine finish. Bearing housings differ in design depending on the application and serve to support the bearing and contain the lubricant. Suitable seals are usually provided to exclude water, dust, dirt or other external contaminants from the bearing components and to prevent leakage of the lubricant from the housing. 34. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get information about mechanisms (Text 21). GRAMMAR REVIEW The Gerund The Gerund (герундий) — это неличная форма глагола, оканчивающаяся на -ing и обладающая свойствами глагола и существительного. Герундий всегда выражает действие как развивающийся процесс, например: building (строительство), reading (чтение), fighting (борьба). Как глагол герундий может иметь следующие признаки: а) определяется наречием: I like reading aloud. Я люблю читать вслух. б) может иметь прямое дополнение: I like reading such books. Я люблю читать такие книги в) имеет видовые и залоговые формы: Признак действия Active Passive Одновременность Ving being + Ved (3-я форма непр. гп.) Предшествование having + Ved (3-я форма непр. гл.) having been + Ved (3-я форма непр. гл.) Как существительное герундий может употребляться с предлогами и может определяться притяжательным и указательным местоимением, а также именем существительным в притяжательном падеже: We heard of his beingsent Мы слышали, что его послали at a practice to the modern на практику в современную engineering school. техническую школу. Как существительное герундий может быть в предложении: а) подлежащим: Reading is useful. Чтение полезно.
6) частью составного именного или глагольного сказуемого: Mathematical operations are adding, subtracting and others. I began reading this book yesterday. Математические операции — это сложение, вычитание и др. Я начал читать эту книгу вчера. в) дополнением (прямым и предложным): Logical operations include comparing, selecting and others. Supercomputers are used for calculating complex problems. Логические операции включают сравнение, выбор и др. Суперкомпьютеры используются для решения сложных задач. г) обстоятельством (всегда с предлогом) After finishing calculations а После окончания вычислении supercomputer puts out results. суперкомпьютер выдает результаты. д) определением (всегда с предлогом): The way of solving this problem is Способ решения этой задачи rather difficult. довольно труден. В зависимости от функции, которую герундий выполняет в предложении, он может переводиться: 1) существительным; 2) инфинитивом; 3) деепричастием; 4) существительным с предлогом; 5) придаточным предложением. Например: 1) Adding and subtracting are reasonable operations. 2) The fifth generation PCs began operating at the end of 90s. 3) After completing computations of the problems the personal computer displayed the answers 4) Nowadays the high-speed processors are used for processing information. Сложение и вычитание — это разумные операции. ПК пятого поколения начали работать в конце 90-х годов. Окончив вычисления задач, персональный компьютер выдал ответы на экран. В настоящее время высокоскоростные процессоры используются для обработки информации.
5) The Internet's being used for To, что Интернет используется transmitting e-mails is known для передачи электронных long ago. посланий, известно давно. 35. Прочитайте предложения, найдите в них герундии и проанализируйте его перевод. I. There are many ways of solving the problem. 2. I avoided crossing the streets at the red lights 3. We know of their taking a special interest tn industrial automation. 4. Newton, the famous scientist, was sometimes engaged in working out difficult problems. 5. We are very sorry for not using instrumentation by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems. 6. Their using these construction techniques surprised us. 36. Измените следующие предложения, употребив герундий. Model I- They will deal with theoretical rules of construction before they start a real project at a construction site. They will deal with theoretical rules of construction before starting a real project at a construction site. 1. You should define boundary conditions before you predict some material properties. 2. Before we design certain facilities, we shall collect all necessary information. 3. Before he uses core concepts of mechanics, kinematics, material science, he will require a solid understanding thermodynamics and structural analyses. Model IT. After the experiment he began to prepare for his new re- search After the experiment he began preparing for his new research 1. With the rise of engineering as a profession we stopped to apply this term narrowly. 2. They started to prepare students tor careers at the forefront ol research, teaching and design. 3. They finished to predict how well their designs would perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production. Model III: When he entered the laboratory, he came up to me at once (on) On entering the laboratory he came up to me at once. 1. You can get better results if you pay attention to the latest achievements in machinery.
2. He will be able to answer all these questions after he prevents accidents at his workplace. 3. When he leaves his laboratory, he usually switches off the equipment (on). 37. Запомните глаголы, после которых употребляется герундий, и составьте свои предложения с данными глаголами. I. to burn out 6. to avoid 11. to deny 2. to excuse 7. to fancy 12. to finish 3. to consider 8. to hate 13. to like, to love 4. to involve 9. to mind 14. to stop 5. to practice 10. to risk 15. to suggest 16. to enjoy 17. to forgive 18. to imagine 19. to postpone Model: 1) He doesn’t mind increasing efficiency and productivity when designing this mechanism for a new model of construction equipment. 2) You should stop enlarging your workplace under these conditions. 38. Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, после которых употребляется герундий, и составьте свои предложения с ними. То accuse of — They are accused of not predicting the material properties of this substance. To be interested in — Our engineers are interested in improving skills in designing complex automatic systems in every industrial sector. To be good at — The graduates of this institute are good at designing creative construction projects. To think about — I’m thinking about sending my resume to several prospective employers. To look forward to — Modern engineers are looking forward to creating revolutionary new model of automobile. In spite of — In spite of using the obsolete technology, experiment with the development of mechanisms for the repair technique was successful. Instead of — He wotked at home laboratory instead of goinghome To object to — The general manager of the company didn’t object to my buying new equipment. 39. Закончите предложения, исполмуя герундий. I. They intended... 2. She was fond of... 3. Thank you for... 4. I don’t insist on... 5. He succeeded in... 6. There was no hope of... 7. Do you have any objections to... 8. What is the most effective method of..?
SPEAKING PRACTICE 40. Among the main problems that modern cities face, traffic congestion is one of the most important. A. Study the table to learn the main reasons of traffic congestion. Traffic congestion is caused by: 1 1 1 T narrow streets shortage of off-street parking people not using public transport more people own and use cars B. Ask and answer the questions with a partner. I) Is it necessary to construct ring roads and by-passes to avoid traffic congestion? 2) Will one-way streets speed up traffic flow? 3) What is the use of multi-storey car parks? 4) Should drivers leave their cars at the edge of buildings and then ride the bus or train to their destination9 Will it help to reduce traffic congestion? 5) Is it necessary to ban private cars coming from the outskirts into the city centre on all days or on definite days (for example, on Sundays)? 6) Should the authorities charge car drivers when they enter the city centre? 7) What is the use of construction of the pedestrianized streets? 8) Does a complete solution of traffic congestion problem require that people should use public transport instead of private cars? WRITING PRACTICE 41. Use the information below as the basis for writing an essay. Study the cases of car dependency in your city. Automobile dependency ranges from low where a set of transportation alternatives are available to high where few if no alternatives outside automobile use are possible. When automobile trips exceed 75S of all personal trips (such as commuting and shopping). a situation of high dependency is observed. Automobile dependency is also linked with the urban spatial structure as cities with a low level of car dependency tend to be centralized with high levels of density while cities with a high level of automobile dependency have low levels of centrality and density.
PROJECT BOX 42. A. Study the information and picture below. Leaning / Tottering Buildings The British Parliament’s Clock Tower (more commonly known as Big Ben) is leaning north-west by 0.26 degrees, or 17 inches (43.5 cm), according to documents that were recently made public. But Big Ben isn’t alone; architects have been correcting the Leaning Tower of Pisa since the 1170s when it was still being built. Germany’s Leaning Tower of Suurhusen, which at an angle of 5.19 degrees holds the Guinness World Record for the most tilted tower in the world, dates back to the 1450s. In modern times, many buildings have been designed at a deliberate slant. The |65-metre Montreal Tower, finished in 1987, is the world's tallest manmade leaning tower and inclines at a 45-degree angle. In 1996, the Puerta de Europa in Spain was completed with two towers sloping towards each other at a 15-degree angle. Late this year the Capital Gate is set to be finished in Abu Dhabi at a slant of 18 degrees. (http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/20ll/l0/teaning-buitdings). Selected tear Height metres iyear of completion} B. Consult the Internet to prepare a detailed report about one of the leaning buildings. You are free in your choice.
UNIT 11 A Pre-text exercises 1. Confusing words. In English there are words that sound and look alike thus frequently causing confusion. A. Study the pairs of such words and their meanings below. accept [ak'sept] to agree except [tk’sept] not including affect [o’fekt] to change effect [ffekt] a result expand [ik’sptend] increase in size, number, importance expend [ik’spend] to use or spend something human ['hju:man] relating to man or mankind humane [hju’mein] characterized by kindness, mercy, sympathy science [’saians] a branch of knowledge since [sins] starting from the time when principle ['pnnsap(a)IJ a standard or rule principal ['pnnsap(a)l) chief adapt [a’deept] to adjust to different conditions adopt [a’dnpt] to accept ensure [in’Ja:] to guarantee assure №] to convince B. Choose the correct word to complete the sentence. 1. Well-designed workspaces_____that workers perform their jobs in op- timal comfort. a) ensure b) assure 27B
2. Ergonomics studies engineering. a) humane b) human 3. Engineering uses the__of science and technology. a) principles b) principals 4. Ergonomists_____workplaces and products to people’s sizes and physical strength. a) adopt b) adapt 5. Developing technologies_______our environment. a) affect b) effect 6. All the experiments___ one were successful a) accept b) except 2. Choose the correct word to complete the sentences. I. What will you do__these circumstances? a) under b)ovei c) after 2. Hurry___because the train is just on the platform. a) up b)on c)from 3. It is __ what to do in this situation. It must be your decision. a) up to now b) up to you c) up to it 4. When you come, we’ll talk it_. It is a very serious question a) over b) under c) after 5. It was clear_everybody that he was lying. a) at b) on c) to 6. The debates were_this urgent problem. a) by bjovei c)on 7. She is the best_mathematics and chemistry. a) in b) on c) at 8. The lecturer read the lecture_the problems of natural environment. a) by b)over c)on 3. Brainstorming. Explain in English the meaning of the words below: computerization ergonomics nanotechnology
Word building 4. Guess the meaning of the words in bold type. Progress — progressive, direction — directionless, simple — simplicity, importance — important, technology — technological technologically, to construct - construction to deconstruct — deconstructive. to limit — to delimit, certain — uncertainly, security — insecurity 5. Translate the following terms analyzing their word-formation model: transceiver acknowledgement application connectionless driver knowbot multicast multimedia multiplexing repeater selector catenet Ethernet Internet modem netiquette netizen broadcasting subnetwork carcinotron cryotron plasmatron as-cast as-controlled d.c. a. c. s. a. b. p. 6. Translate the following terms analyzing their w ord-formation model. Prototype; supercomputer; subsystem; installation; compiler; intranet; marketing; transistor; adjustment; controller; biometric; updating; supermarket; computerize; enforcement; programmer; user; competitor. Active vocabulary 7. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: access — доступ accident - несчастный случай, катастрофа; авария accuracy — правильность, соответствие, точность to adapt принимать, перенимать, усваивать to alter изменять; вносить изменения to calculate — вычислять to consolidate — объединять to design — проектировать, разрабатывать device — устройство, приспособление digital — цифровой hardware — аппаратное обеспечение intricate — сложный. замысловатый; затруднительный numerical — числовой; цифровой, численный obsolete - устаревший to oversee — наблюдать, смотреть (за чем-л.) to predict — предсказывать, прогнозировать prevention — предотвращение, предохранение, предупрежден ие to process — обрабатывать
dimension — размер, величина; измерение to diversify — разнообразить; изменять, модифицировать to eliminate — устранять, исключать endeavour — попытка, старание; стремление fabrication — производство, изготовление fatigue — усталость, утомление to promote — продвигать; способствовать, содействовать to reduce — уменьшать. reduction — сокращение, уменьшение to research — исследовать to separate — отделять; разделять software — программное обеспечение time-consuming - трудоемкий to unity — объединять, соединять workplace — рабочее место 8. Read the text and complete the following statements. This text is about... The main idea is that— The text also describes... TEXT11A COMPUTERS Every day our life spectrum is broadening, new technologies are being created. Many different types of technologies are available and are used through computers which are present in every aspect of modern life. Computer is an electronic digital device that processes information with astonishing speed and accuracy. Computers process information by helping to create it and by displaying it, storing it, reorganizing it, calculating with it, and communicating it to other computers. Computers can process numbers, words, still pictures, moving pictures, and sounds. The most powerful computers can perform tens of billions of calculations per second. Since 1946, when the first electronic digital computer was built, the technology of computer hardware and software has advanced tremendously. When computers first appeared, existing technological methods received incremental improvements. As a result, the problem of computerization of economy and industry had arisen in industrially developed countries. This problem was complex because computers, on the one hand, were a new technology, and, on the other hand, were so radically different from any tool used previously that they opened up a wide range of new design methods and processes.
With time computer technologies with their numerical methods helped people predict technology performance more accurately than previous approximations. That is why like all modern scientific and technological endeavours, computers and software play an increasingly important role in our everyday and professional life. The computer has fundamentally changed the way we work, learn, communicate, and play. Every kind of organization throughout the world conducts business with computers. Students, teachers, scientists, professionals of different fields of activity use the computer. Millions of individuals and organizations communicate with one another via a network of computers called the Internet. As a result, the high demand for professionals who are able to design and manage all forms of computer systems in industry has arisen. First of all, it concerns the engineers, who now must use a variety of software which aids in their work. The engineers must research, design, develop, test, and oversee the technical devices with the help of computers. Using computer-aided design (CAD)1 software, engineers are able to create drawings and models of their designs more easily. Computer models of designs can be checked for flaws without having to make expensive and time-consuming prototypes. The computer can automatically translate some models to instructions suitable for automatic machinery (e.g., CNC2) to fabricate a design. The computer also allows increased reuse of previously developed designs, by presenting an engineer with a library of predefined parts ready to be used in designs. Of late, the use of finite element method analysis (FEM analysis3 or FEA4) software to study stress, temperature, flow as well as electromagnetic fields has gained importance. In addition, a variety of software is available to analyze dynamic systems. Engineers use computers to access thousands of rapidly growing data bases that store numbers, words, maps, chemical and physical structures; and they search them millions of times a year. The base of scientific knowledge today is huge. The volume of new information is not only large, but it is growing exponentially. Rapid changes in many fields are making basic knowledge and skills obsolete, so it is continually being modified and basic concepts and theories are being revised. New theories emerge as new discoveries offer new ways of looking at the data. Modern, high-speed computers have facilitated the rapid movement of different fields of industry, financial resources, goods and services, and have created interdependence among the world’s economies. Interplay between engineering and computer technology is considerable. In order to remain at the forefront of innovation and design, the engineers have
had to integrate computer technology into their manufacturing systems. By using computers, computer-aided design and manufacture, engineers are able to achieve greater productivity, along with increased reliability and quality. Notes on the text 1 CAD (computer-aided design) — автоматизированное проектирование 1 CNC (computer numerical control) — компьютерное числовое программное управление 3 ГЕМ (finite-elements method) — метод конечных элементов ’ FEA (finite-elements analysts) — анализ с использованием метода конечных элементов. Text and vocabulary exercises 9. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. available 2. incremental 3. approximation 4. to predict 5. to manage 6. endeavour 7. drawing 8. time-consuming 9. accuracy 10. improvement II. to fabricate а) точность b) прогнозировать с) доступный, подходящий d) рисунок,чертеж e) трудоемкий f) поэтапный g) улучшение h) управлять i) стремление, усилие j) производить, изготовлять к) приближенное значение 10. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: в геометрической прогрессии предоставлять доступ, допускать конечный элемент предопределенный: предписанный повторное использование взаимодействие производственная система высокоскоростной быстрое движение финансовые средства товары взаимосвязь, взаимозависимость интегрировать надежность
11. Choose the right answer. 1. Computer is an electronic_device that processes information with astonishing speed and accuracy. a) digital b) digitate c) nonnumeric 2. When computers first appeared, existing technological methods received incremental ___ a) degradation b) deceleration c) improvements 3. Computer technologies with their_methods helped people predict technology performance more accurately than previous approximations. a) literal b) numerical c) nonnumerical 4. High demand for professionals who are able_all forms of computer systems in industry has arisen. a) to manage b) to clean c) to admire 5. Modern, high-speed computers have facilitated the_of different fields of industry, financial resources, goods and services. a) irreversible change b) rapid movement c) slow progress 6. By using computers, engineers are able to achieve greater_. a) inefficiency b) inexpediency c) productivity 12. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Информационные технологии широко применяются в производстве и промышленности. 2. Компьютерной технике доверено управление сложным оборудованием в энергетике, машиностроении, перерабатывающей промышленности. 3. Компьютер контролирует процессы проектирования и производства различных изделий. 4. С появлением промышленных роботов, обеспечивших автоматизацию производственных процессов, стало возможным компьютерное управление комплексными автоматизированными производствами. 5. Домашние компьютеры используются главным образом для развлечений и обучения, однако их применение расширяется для решения экономических задач — от управления денежными средствами и инвестициями до занятия бизнесом на дому.
13. A. Study the following words and word combinations to read the text below. B. Give a brief summary of the text. motherboard — системная плата, материнская плата circuit board — плата socket — гнездо, розетка laptop - ноутбук, портативный компьютер central processing unit (CPU) — центральный процессор chip - чип. микросхема read-only memory (ROM) - постоянное запоминающее устройство random access memory (RAM) — оперативная память Basic Input I Output System (BIOS) — базовая система ввода-вывода What Is Inside a Computer? The base of operations for the brains of a computer is the motherboard The motherboard serves as a literal foundation for many of the other elements inside your computer. It is a large printed circuit board. The motherboard provides the connections and sockets that let other components communicate with each other. Motherboards come in different shapes and sizes—a motherboard in a laptop computer might not look like one front a desktop PC. The computer brain is a microprocessor called the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU is a chip containing millions of tiny transistors. It is the CPU’s job to perform the calculations necessary to make the computer work — the transistors in the CPU manipulate the data. You can think of a CPU as the decision maker. Another critical component in computers is memory. The two most important kinds of memory are read-only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM). Computers can read data stored in ROM, but cannot write new data to it. With RAM, computers can read from and write to that memory. Without computer memory, every calculation on a computer would be stateless. That means there would be no way to preserve information from one moment to the next and every process would start on a clean slate That is not useful if you want to create complex programmes. Many desktop PCs have the capacity for additional RAM. The user simply has to open the computer and plug RAM chips into the appropriate sockets on the motherboard. But other computers are sealed systems — you are not meant to open them and make changes so you’re pretty much stuck with what you have got. A chip called the Basic Input / Output System (BIOS) works closely with the CPU. BIOS is a specific kind of ROM. If you think of the CPU as the brain of the computer, then you might consider BIOS to be the spine. It is
the job of BIOS to handle interactions between the software running on a computer and the machine’s hardware components. The motherboard, CPU, ROM, RAM and BIOS handle most of the heavy lifting for computer processes. They are in charge of allocating resources to applications so that they run smoothly. They also accept input from devices like keyboards, mice and other computer accessories. 14. A. Study the picture below which illustrates the parts of a computer. JB. Discuss with a partner what functions are performed by each of the listed parts. Give your explanations. 15. Keyboard. Can you match the keys with their names? Consult dictionary if necessary. Check with the keys below. 1. ampersand 12. I apostrophe 2. asterisk 13. colon 3. I at 14. ] comma 4. dash 15. | curly brackets
5. ~ exclamation mark 6. | hyphen 7. | number |6. ] full stop / period I point / dot 17. ] semicolon 18. double quotation marks / inverted commas per cent 9-1 round brackets 10. “I tilde 11. angled brackets 19. ] square brackets 20. 1 backslash 21. I forward slash Keys: 12 ’ 13. : 14., 15- {| 16.. 17.; 18. “ ” 19-|] 20. \ 21-/ 16. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about computers (Text 22). В 17. Read the following text to get information about ergonomics. TEXT11B ERGONOMICS Ergonomics, also known as human engineering or human factors engineering. is the science of designing machines, products and systems to maximize the safety, comfort and efficiency of the people who use them. 2B7
Ergonomists draw on the principles of industrial engineering, psychology, anthropometry (the science of human measurement), and biomechanics (the study of muscular activity) to adapt the design of products and workplaces to people’s sizes and shapes and their physical strengths and limitations Ergonomists also consider the speed with which humans react and how they process information, and their capacities for dealing with psychological factors, such as stress or isolation. Armed with this complete picture of how humans interact with their environment, ergonomists develop the best possible design for products and systems, ranging from the handle of a toothbrush to the flight deck of the space shuttle. Ergonomists view people and the objects they use as one unit, and ergonomic design blends the best abilities of people and machines. Humans are not as strong as machines, nor can they calculate as quickly and accurately as computers. Unlike machines, humans need to sleep, and they are subjected to illness, accidents, or making mistakes when working without adequate rest. But machines are also limited — cars cannot repair themselves, computers do not speak or hear as well as people do, and machines cannot adapt to unexpected situations as well as humans. An ergonomically designed system provides optimum performance because it takes advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of both its human and machine components. One of the primary goals of ergonomics is prevention of workplace illness and accidents. Ergonomists work to eliminate these problems by designing workplaces, such as offices or assembly lines, with injury prevention in mind. They position tools and machinery to be accessible without twisting, reaching or bending. They design adjustable wotkbenches, desks, and chairs to comfortably accommodate workers of many different sizes, preventing the need to continuously lean or overextend the arms. Ergonomists also determine and design safe workplace environmental conditions, such as correct temperature, lighting, noise, and ventilation to ensure that workers perform under optimal conditions. Ergonomists also seek to increase worker efficiency and productivity when designing workspaces. They place those pieces of equipment used most frequently in closest proximity to the worker and arrange systems in ways that are convenient and easy to use. Well-designed workspaces ensure that workers perform their jobs in optimal comfort, without experiencing the unnecessary physical and mental fatigue that can slow work performance, reduce accuracy or cause accidents.
Text and vocabulary exercises 18. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: наука проектирования обрабатывать информацию точно приспосабливать, адаптировать окружающая среда конвейерные линии совершать ошибку хорошо спроектированные рабочие места 19. Choose among the words below the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences. 1. Ergonomics is the science of designing machines, products and systems to maximize the safety, comfort and_of the people who use them. a) importance b) effect c) efficiency 2. Ergonomists the best possible design for products and systems. a) develop b) imagine c) create 3. Ergonomists view people and the objects they use as one unit, and ergonomic design blends the best____of people and machines. a) abilities b) skills c) characteristics 4. _ machines, humans need to sleep, and they are subjected to illness, accidents or making mistakes when working without adequate rest a) Like b) Unlike c) As 5. Machines cannot____to unexpected situations as well as humans a) adapt b) regulate c) correspond 6. One of the__goals of ergonomics is prevention of workplace illness and accidents. a) main b) important c) primary 7. They___tools and machinery to be accessible without twisting, reach- ing or bending. a) make b) position c) design 8. Ergonomists determine and design safe workplace_____conditions, such as correct temperature, lighting, noise, and ventilation. a) house b) place c) environmental
9. Well-designed workspaces ensure that workers perform their jobs in optimal____. a) convenience b) comfon c) atmosphere 20. Read Text 11B once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what y ou think about them and ask your partner if he / she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing Disagreeing politely I agree with you. Yes, but don’t you think...? Yes, that is what I think too. True, but I think... You are right! 1 see what you mean, but... 1. Ergonomics is an applied science. 2. Ergonomists draw on principles of industrial engineering, psychology, anthropometry and biomechanics to adapt the products and workplaces to people’s sizes and shapes and their physical strengths and limitations. 3. Ergonomists also consider the speed with which humans react and how they process information, and their capacities for dealing with psychological factors. 4. Humans are not as strong as machines, nor can they calculate as quickly and accurately as computers. 5. Ergonomists seek to increase worker efficiency and productivity when designing workplaces. 6. Ergonomists place those pieces of equipment used most frequently in closest proximity to the worker and arrange systems in ways that are convenient and easy to use. 21. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Эргономика — это наука, изучающая человека в условиях производства с целью оптимизации условий труда. 2. Соответствие условий труда физиологическим и психическим возможностям человека обеспечивает наиболее эффективный результат работы. 3. С точки зрения эргономики человек и его место работы рассматриваются как единая сложная система, поэтому эргономика не только изучает, но и проектирует целесообразные варианты конкретных видов человеческой деятельности, связанных с использованием новой техники. 22. Workplace ergonomics. The picture below illustrates the key points of workplace ergonomics when using a computer.
A. Study the picture and information below. Head Head back. Eyes Document Holder Level with the top Adjacent to and at chin tucked, e 7, of screen same height as cars, shoulder, hips aligned Neck Use headphones Do not cradle phone between head and shoulder1 Elbows At sides slightly more than 90 degree bend Chair Fully adjustable with lumbar support in small of the back Keyboard Same height as elbow with wrists slightly bent Keystioke gently' Mouse Adjacent to and at same height as keyboard Chair Height Hips slightly more than 90 degrees, feet flat on the floor TAKE BREAKS EVERY 30 MINUTES'. B. Discuss the following questions with your partner. • Are these rules being observed at workplaces? • Do you yourself remember io follow these rules when using a computer? • Why is it important? Think of at least three reasons. C. Look through the list of common mistakes people make when using a computer. too high a monitor no document holder reference paper at wrong height non-ergonomic chair twisted posture mouse at different height than keyboard legs crossed cradling phone is on shoulder no wrist rests for keyboard or mouse right arm stretched to reach mouse poor lighting D. Discuss with your partner the consequences of such mistakes for human health.
E. Sum up your ideas in 6—9 sentences in written form (you are free to make any changes). 1. Workplace ergonomics is about... 2. It calls attention to... 3. Ergonomics emphasizes... 4. It stresses the importance of... 5. When using a computer people should... 6. You must not... 7. I’d like to point out that if... 8. It may lead to... 9. To conclude I’d like to mention (that). .. 23. Consult ‘ Texts for supplementary reading” (Text 23) to get more information about ergonomics. c 24. Read the following text and answer the questions. 1. What is nanotechnology? 2. What are the main scientific approaches of nanotechnology? 3. When was the term “nanotechnology” defined? 4. How is nanotechnology used? 5. What does it mean to society? TEXT11C NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology is the engineering method in which fully functioning devices are manufactured at the molecular scale. Through this method, the devices that are manufactured will be having higher performance than the conventional ones. The main unifying theme is the control of matter on a scale smaller than one micrometre, normally between 1—100 nanometers, as well as the fabrication of devices on this same length scale. It is a highly multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as colloidal science, device physics and supramolecular chemistry. Much speculation exists as to what new science and technology might result from these lines of research. Some view nanotechnology as a marketing term that describes pre-existing lines of research applied to the sub-micron size scale.
Nanotechnology could variously be seen as an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale, or as a recasting of existing sciences using a newer, more modern term. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology: one is a “bottom-up” approach where materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically using principles of molecular recognition; the other being a “top-down” approach where nanoobjects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. The first distinguishing concepts in nanotechnology were made by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech in 1959. Feynman described a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, and so on down to the needed scale. The term “nanotechnology” was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper as follows: “Nanotechnology mainly consists of the processing, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule”. In the 1980s the basic idea of this definition was explored in much more depth by Eric Drexler, who promoted the technological significance of nanoscale phenomena. Nanotechnology got started in the early 1980s with two major developments: the birth ofcluster science and the invention ofthe scanning tunneling microscope. Now nanotechnology changes the world and the way we live, creating scientific advances and new products that are smaller, faster, stronger, safer, and more reliable. After about 20 years of steady progress in nanotechnology research and development, scientists in the whole world have a much clearer picture of how to create nanoscale materials with properties never before envisioned. A unique aspect of nanotechnology is the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume present in many nanoscale materials, which opens new possibilities in surface-based science, such as catalysis. A number of physical phenomena become noticeably pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, it becomes dominant when the nanometer size range is reached. Additionally, a number of physical properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume of materials. This catalytic activity also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.
Undoubtedly, nanotechnology is going to be the future, as studies are going on in diversifying the technology from materials with dimensions in nano scale to materials in dimensions of atomic scale. Some new methods like molecular self-assembly have been developed to make this possible. There may be a future when all the common basic needs like food, shelter and even costly diamonds will be made by nanorobots. Nanotechnology will let us: • achieve the ultimate in precision: almost every atom in exactly the right place; • make complex and molecularlv intricate structures as easily and inexpensively as simple materials; • reduce manufacturing costs to little more than the cost of the required raw materials and energy Text and vocabulary exercises 25. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. multidisciplinary field а) устойчивый прогресс 2. molecularly intricate structures b) способность управлять 3. steady progress 4. ability to manipulate 5. molecular scale 6. marketing term 7. molecular component с) маркетинговый термин d) междисциплинарная область e) молекулярный компонент f) молекулярный уровень g) молекулярно-сложные структуры 26. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: полностью функцией ирующее устройство изготовление устройств коллоидная наука супрамолекулярная химия существующие ранее линии сокращение производственных затрат уникальный аспект наноразмерные материалы молекулярная самосборка квантовый размерный эффект
27. Choose the right answer to complete the following sentences. 1. Nanotechnology is the engineering method in which fully functioning devices are manufactured .... a) at the molecular b) at the atomic scale c) at the molecular scale composition 2. The first distinguishing concepts tn nanotechnology were made .. a) in 2010 b) in 1890 c) in 1959 3. A number of physical phenomena become noticeably pronounced as the size of the system .... a) decreases b) increases c) rises 4. When compared to macroscopic systems, a number of physical properties .... a) remain unchanged b) change c) upgrade 28. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Нанотехнология — общий термин для обозначения методов создания устройств размерами менее 100 нм, среди которых и новая элементная база для компьютеров (наноэлектроника). 2. Нанотехнология характеризуется работой с материалами на молекулярном или атомарном уровне. 3. Идея использования нанотехнологий выдвинута в 1985 г. американским ученым Эриком Дрекслером. 4. Компании, работающие с наноматериалами, делятся на шесть категорий: получение и обработка наноматериалов, нанобиотехнология, программное обеспечение, нанофотоника, наноэлектроника и наноприборостроение. 29. Read the extract from the article from “The Journal of Geotechnical Nanotechnology” to discover the main idea. Give a brief summary of it. Nanotechnology and Life Sciences “Nanotechnology is no longer a myth, ft is science based on real life successes” Many of us are already familiar with nanotechnology. We are inundated on a daily basis with plenty of information via newspapers, magazines or scientific research publications. There is also plenty of money available to conduct the nano research, both from the governmental agencies, as well as from
private agencies. We are all also familiar with how nanotechnology is going to achieve varying things, scientifically and otherwise. Nanotechnology is no longer a myth, it is science based on real life successes. It is going to bring in a market value of about $25 billion by the year 2011, which is not very far away; it is just four years more. It is truly a revolution, competing with some of the great revolutions there have been so far such as textiles, railroad, automobile, computer, and so on. Having really seen the impact of the nanotechnology revolution, I want to give you a heads-up on exactly what the nanoscale is. It takes about one nanometer to reach one billionth of a metre; the depiction that you see is equal to one nanometer. Nanoscience is al] about understanding the scientific aspects of materials and technologies of the nanoscale. Present nanotechnologies are about converting this basic science into applied benefits. I am going to outline why these nanomaterials are important, and why we feel the importance ofthe nanomateria] is not only within the man-made things, but also in the natural environment. The nanomaterials are really important because the materials possess very, very unique properties. Take gold for example; we are all familiar with gold. You can see these ornaments are owned by many people in different countries. Solid gold is bright yellow in colour, whereas the nano-sized gold is bright red in colour. The optical and mechanical properties of the gold change with size. Think of any property, the nanoscale has very unique properties. The idea is to convert, take advantage of these nanoscale properties, and build items by utilizing those unique advantages. Nanotechnology is not really new, it’s been there in nature, we now have the opportunity to understand the presence of nanoscience and nanotechnology in nature. There are several, very exciting examples. For example, abalone1 pearls. I am sure we are al] familiar with abalone pearls, which are extremely expensive and are made up of nanostructured calcium carbonate with protein and caibohydrate mortar. That's what makes these abalone pearls worth millions of dollars. Whereas the familiar chalk that we use for writing on the board is also made of calcium carbonate. Chalk is worth pennies when compared to the millions of dollars of value of associated with abalone pearls. That is the kind of value that nanotechnology and nanoscience possess within the natural environment. Similarly, there are power plants, literally power plants which are chloroplasts in various plants that we’ve seen, and that is what is responsible for energy, and this is again a nanostructured material. by Ch. Kumar {The Journal of Geotechnical Nanotechnology)
Note on the text 1 abalone (also called- ear shelf) — морское ушко (разновидность съедобных морских моллюсков рода Htiliotis, раковины которых часто используются для орнамента или украшения) 30. The diagram below illustrates the key points of innovative application of nanotechnology. A. Study the diagram and information below. Other 9% Materials 31 % Pharmaceuticals 17%_ Nanotech Application Currently, nanotechnology is described as revolutionary discipline in terms of its possible impact on industrial applications. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to many problems using emerging nanotechniques. Depending on the strong interdisciplinary character of nanotechnology there are many research fields and several potential applications that involve nanotechnology. Related potential nanotechnology applications. Nanotechnology in chemicals anti baste nanostructured materials: — ultra-lightweight, high-strength, precision-formed materials; — nano-composite polymers for structural and electronic applications, — membranes and filters for cost-effective desalinization of water: — thermal and optical barriers; — high efficiency and novel catalysts; — resistant textiles. Nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine: pharmaceuticals and medical products: — new and more effective drug compounds; — nearly perfectly targeted drug delivery; — diagnostics, sensors and assays, — DNA sizing and sequencing; — bioelectronics; — bio-warfare protection. — antibacterial dressings and coatings.
Nanotechnology in electronics and computing: — miniaturized supercomputers; — terabit non-volatile memory; — pervasive computing; — low voltage and high brightness displays; — faster semiconductors and microprocessors. Nanotechnology: energy generation: — thin film photovoltaics for cost effective solar energy; — cost competitive fuel cells for automotive applications; — micro fuel cells for portable power applications; — high capacity, rapid charge batteries. JB. Work in pairs. Discuss the current progress in chemistry, physics, materials science, biotechnology, etc. thanks to nanotechnology, which creates novel materials with unique properties. Discuss the opportunities of nanotechnology use in: • providing renewable clean energy; • supplying clean water; • improving the environment; • creating new electronics, fabrics, goods, and food. 31. A. Study the following information. When talking about the nanotechnology, it is important to know how small “nano” actually is. Just how small is “nano”? For example, a nanometer is one-billionth of a metre. In comparison, a human hair is about 100,000 nanometers in diameter. In the International System of Units, the prefix “nano” means one-billionth, or I0-9; therefore, one nanometer is one-bil-Honth of a metre. It's difficult to imagine just how small that is, so here are some examples. • A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick • A strand of human DNA is 2.5 nanometers in diameter. • There are 25,400,000 nanometers in one inch. • A human hair is approximately 80,000— 100.00U nanometers wide. • A single gold atom is about a third of a nanometer in diameter • On a comparative scale, if the diameter of a marble was one nanometer, then diameter of the Earth would be about one metre. • One nanometer is about as long as your fingernail grows in one second. JB. Compare different units with respect to metres: • I centimeter — 1,00th of a metre; • I millimetre — 1,000th of a metre; • 1 micrometer — 1,000,000th of a metre; • 1 nanometer — 1,000,000,000th of a metre; • Atomic diametre — 0.1 nanometer — 1,000,000,000,0th of a metre.
C. The illustration below has three visual examples of the size and the scale of nanotechnology. Study the picture to know how small things at the nanoscale actually are. Discuss it with the partner. DNA 2.5 nanometers diameter Bacterium 2.5 micrometers Large Raindrop 2 5 millimetres diameter Nanopartklc 4 nanometers diameter Ant 4 milimetres Speedway 32. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading” to get more information about nanotechnology (Text 24).
GRAMMAR REVIEW Attributive Constructions Атрибутивные конструкции представляют собой один из наиболее распространенных типов свободных словосочетаний в современном английском языке. Они часто встречаются в общественно-политических и научно-технических текстах В беспредложном сочетании существительных опорным словом является не первое (как в русском языке, например, скорость ветра), а последнее существительное. Существительные слева от него выполняют функцию определения, т.е. отвечают на вопросы what/which/ what kind/whosel (какой/который/чей?) и передаются на русский язык или при помощи прилагательного, или существительного в косвенном падеже. Наиболее трудными для перевода являются атрибутивные сочетания, включающие более двух-трех слов, как, например: “World without bombs” conference programme — программа конференции «За мир без бомб»; Africa denuclearization declaration — Декларация об объявлении Африки безъядерной зоной; European Petroleum Equipment Manufacturers Federation — Европейская Федерация предприятий по производству оборудования для нефтяной промышленности и т.д. В этих случаях сначала необходимо найти ключевое слово, с которого следует начинать перевод. Такое слово всегда находится в конце атрибутивного сочетания (цепочки определений). Определения могут переводиться следующим образом: 1) прилагательным: a steam turbine — паровая турбина; 2) существительным в родительском падеже: the airplane wing — крыло самолета; 3) существительным с предлогом: a steam engine car — автомобиль с паровым двигателем; 4) переставлением членов атрибутивной группы: working expectancy — ожидаемая продолжительность трудовой деятельности, administrative efficiency — умелое руководство; 5) описательным переводом* jet lag (дос ювно: реактивное отставание) — нарушение суточного ритма организма, расстройство биоритмов в связи с перелетом (отсюда в этом словосочетании слово jet — реактивный самолет) через несколько часовых поясов.
В предложении это словосочетание, естественно, можно перевести гораздо короче с учетом контекста: On the third day of my stay in California I still had a jet lag На третий день пребывания в Калифорнии я по-прежнему ощущал разницу во времени. 6. группой существительных: the car speed calculation problem проблема вычисления скорости автомобиля. Наибольшая широта смысловых восочетаниях, образованных из двух или более существительных (N + N : Noun + Noun — stone wall) или существительных, перед которыми стоит многочленное сочетание в роли определения (см. последний пример). В таких словосочетаниях главным словом является последнее существительное, а предшествующие слова чаше всего выполняют функцию определения-stone wall связей прослеживается в сло- shuttle diplomacy top trade union leaders (UK) I top labor union leaders (US) стена (какая?) из камня или каменная челночная дипломатия лидеры (какие? чего?) союзов (каких?) профессиональных (какие лидеры профсоюзов?) высшие —> высшее руководство профсоюзов Иногда первое существительное в словосочетании N + N выступает в роли (а) обстоятельства или (б) дополнения- (a) weekend rally seashore bike ride (б) space programme corruption struggle митинг в конце недели велосипедная прогулка по берегу моря программа космических исследований борьба с коррупцией Многочленные словосочетания при переводе необходимо понять с точки зрения смысловой связи составляющих их компонентов, при этом основным или опорным словом все равно будет последнее: Most-favoured-nation trading Статус наибольшего status. благоприятствования в торговле
33. Проанализируйте перевод атрибутивных конструкций: district attorney drafting committee ratification instrument business calculations capital flow rates expenditure pattern space age session committee group air force unit construction efforts районный прокурор редакционный комитет ратификационная грамота хозяйственные расчеты темпы движения капитала структура расходов космическая эпоха группа сессионного комитета авиационное подразделение строительная деятельность 34. Переведите атрибутивные конструкции на русский язык: separation payments service establishment welfare expenditures target growth rate background paper birth control ocean floor air mass temperature drop credit facilities package deal arrangement community centre community education child-care workers ocean current surface current velocity air mass density water drop temperature SPEAKING PRACTICE 35. A. Study the diagrams which illustrate the results of the Canadian scientists’ research on students’ use of a computer and the Internet (http://www.ccsd.ca / pubs / literacy / literacy.htm). Diagram 1. Computer Use
Diagram 3.1 use the Internet far.. B. Ask and answer the following questions with your partner. 1. Do you have access to computers and the Internet? 2. How do you use computers and the Internet? 3. Where do you use computers? 4. Where do you surf the Internet? 5. What do you like about using computers and the Internet? 6. What don’t you like about using computers and the Internet? C. Discuss the following items with your partner. • Computers offer you new ways to learn, to read and write. • Using computers gives you a new skill. • Knowing how to use computers can help you get a job. • Computers are fun. Many people like to play computer games. On the Internet, you can also find out about music and movies. • They cost a lot of money. Many people cannot afford to buy one. • Computers are useful, but they are also invasive.
WRITING PRACTICE 36. Look through the information below. Use it as the basis for writing an essay about the spread of new technologies and the hazards to users. We have entered the modem world of new communication devices, microtechnologies and nanotechnologies. A new challenge has arisen out of these technologies: the ergonomic challenge to the technology users. New technology and communication infrastructures are aimed to better productivity and quality. These technologies allow for the sharing of information from one facility or employee to another with clear and concise communication that reduces errors. For example, almost everyone lias a camera phone now. You now are able to snap a picture of a nearby building or monument, send the photo to a database and soon receive a map and information about where you are. Increasingly sophisticated mobile phones are becoming popular devices to use for search for directions and other information. Easier still is the global positioning system (GPS), portable devices or software that can be installed in PDAs (personal digital assistant) and phones or into vehicles. PDA-like cell phones used by many professionals offer a host of functions: e-mail, text messaging and Web browsing, among them. They were purchased by 16 million people worldwide in 2004; 4 million more than traditional PDAs. More than 2.2 million people have bought a BlackBerry since they came on the market, helping it to corner the top end of the wireless communications market. There were 200 million total phones sold globally in 2006. The proliferation of broadband has more users moving more data across more networks. All that motion lias made users come to expect the ability to connect from anywhere at any time in any country. PROJECT BOX 37. A. Study the next few paragraphs which provide a brief introduction to the core concepts of nanotechnology. As you know, manufactured products are made from atoms. The properties of those products depend on how those atoms are arranged. If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamond If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace elements), we can make computer chips If we rearrange the atoms in dirt water and air , we can make potatoes > . (from http://www zyvex com/nano/) B. Consult the Internet to get more information about the wonderful transformations of substances when using nanotechnology. Prepare a report.
UNIT 12 A Pre-text exercises 1. Pronunciation and spelling. English spelling is not as chaotic as you may think. A computer analysis has shown that &4°i> of English words have a regular spelling pattern, and only i°i> are unpredictable. Unfortunately these 3% include some of the most common words in the language, e.g.. although, business, graph, who, etc. A. Look at the transcription of the words belonging to the unpredictable three per cent and write them down. Check the dictionary if necessary. I. [hel6] 2. [n’zazs] 3. ['tjtelintls] 4. [Туи:з(э)п] 5. [sak’ses] 6. [pra’feflajn] 7- [Tjuzcfa] __________________ 8- [’!е3э] _____________ 9. [satkl] ___________________ 10. [tn'Jo:] __________________ B. Write down as many other words as you can that you believe are part of the unpredictable three per cent referred to in this exercise (think about numbers, auxiliaries and modals). Check with a partner. Do you both agree that their pronunciation is illogical? 2. Choose the correct word from the alternatives in this text. (Throughout / During) human history, engineering has developed civilization. (For / Since) the Stone Age the humanity has seen many wonders of engineering skill. (When / As) civilization grew, it flourished (with I by) the help of more and more complex tools (of / for) agriculture, manufacture and technologies for human interaction and communication. Inventions (such as / so as) the mechanical clock and the printing press changed civilization (ever / forever).
Exploration (of/into) space, invention (for/of) the microchip, mobile communication and many others are all achievements that would not become possible (with/without) engineering. (In/At) the 20th century, engineering devised its greatest accomplishments. Engineering has changed the world (in / on) ways that seemed impossible. Life (as / so) we know it would not be the same (with / without) engineering. Word building 3. Guess the part of speech of the words in bold type and translate them. To doubt - undoubtedly, broad - broaden, deep — depth, high — height, to live - life living alive, side — inside outside alongside, real — reality realize realization, graduate — graduation undergraduate - postgraduate, employ employment unemployment employee — employer, compare — comparison comparative, important - importance. 4. Fill the blanks with the correct form of the word in brackets. 1. I’d like to get a job working in_research, (science) 2. There were more than a hundred of____for this job. (apply) 3. I collaborated with a famous modern scientist last year. It was an_ experience! (forget) 4. If 1__all the formulas, I will do well in the test, (memory) 5. His writing is_. I can never understand anything of it. (legable) 6. He’s been__for six months now. He is quite depressed about it. (employ) 7. That dog is___. It attacked me yesterday, (danger) 8. The___from this substance can kill a human being, (poisonous) 9. The___of modern engineers and scientists have changed our life, (ac- complish) 10. The timetable has been changed, you can know all_in the office, (alter) Active vocabulary 5. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: to capture — поглощать, захватывать challenge — сложная задача, проблема concern — интерес, участие, забота to consume потреблять to convert — преобразовывать, превращать to predict — предсказывать, прогнозировать to prevent — предотвращать; prevention — предотвращение to provoke — вызывать, провоцировать to remain — оставаться count er measure - контрмера
to eliminate — устранять, исключать to ensure — гарантировать, обеспечивать; syn. to guarantee to expand — расширяться; увеличиваться в объеме, размерах, количестве foremost - передний, передовой fortunately — к счастью; ant. unfortunately large-scale — крупномасштабный; ant. small-scale to maintain поддерживать, сохранять, защищать to meet expectations — удовлетворять ожидания to penetrate (into) — проникать (в) search - поиск; to search — искать; syn. to look for semiconductor — полупроводник to sustain — поддерживать; обеспечивать; sustainable устойчивый (не наносящий ущерба окружающей среде)' sustainability - устойчивое развитие threat — угроза; to threaten угрожать treatment — лечение violation — нарушение vulnerable — уязвимый; vulnerability — уязвимость б. Brainstorming. A. What is the role of engineering in our future life? What does the following scheme show? The challenge for the 21st century Sustainably balance our world’s needs for food, fuel and fiber JB. In your opinion what challenges do modern engineers have? Write down three things. Compare your list with a partner’s one. Discuss in class. 7. Read the text and complete the following statements. The text is about... It describes... The text also mentions...
TEXT 12A CHALLENGES FOR ENGINEERING The population of the Earth is growing and it needs and desires to expand. Old and new threats to personal and public health demand more effective treatments. Human vulnerability to diseases, terrorism and natural disasters require new methods of protection and prevention. People need more and more products and processes that increase the joy of life. Each of these areas of human life — sustainability, health, vulnerability and joy of living — is waiting for engineering solutions. Engineers all around the world will try to meet these expectations. Foremost among these challenges are those that ensure the future itself. The Earth is a planet of limited resources, and its population consumes them at a rate that cannot be sustained. The humanity needs to develop new sources of energy and at the same time to prevent or reverse the degradation of the environment. Sunshine has long offered a source of environmentally friendly power, which each hour gives the Earth more energy than the planet’s population consumes in a year. To capture that power, to convert it into useful forms and especially to store it for a rainy day are the greatest engineering challenges. Another popular possibility for long-term energy supplies is nuclear fusion1, the artificial recreation of the sun’s source of power on the Earth. Unfortunately, engineering developments in this field are not enough yet. Engineering solutions for both solar power and nuclear fusion are technologically and economically more profitable than the use of fossil fuels. But their success remains unlikely if ever possible. Another environmental problem concerns the atmosphere’s dominant component, the element nitrogen. The biogeochemical cycle that extracts nitrogen from the air for plants, and hence food, has been changed by human activity. Because of widespread use of fertilizers and high-temperature industrial combustion2, the rate at which nitrogen is removed from the air has been doubled in comparison to pre-industrial times. And this causes smog and acid rain, pollutes drinking water and makes global warming possible. Engineers must design countermeasures for nitrogen cycle problems. The quality and quantity of water is also one of the chief problems of the modern world. Both for personal use (e.g. drinking, cleaning, cooking, removal of waste) and large-scale use (eg. irrigation for agriculture) water must be available to maintain quality of life. New technologies for desalinating sea water may be helpful, but small-scale technologies for local water purification may be even more effective for personal needs.
Naturally, water quality and many other environmental problems are closely related to questions of human health. While many of the diseases of the past have been controlled and even eliminated by modern medicine, other old ones such as malaria remain deadly. One goal of biomedical engineering today is personalized3 medicine. Doctors have long recognized that people differ in their susceptibility to disease and their response to treatments. Deeper understanding of the human body and biochemical interactions offers the possibility to determine the reasons of disease for any person individually. Another goal of new medicine is the treatment of novel diseases and viruses. Engineering solutions are necessary to prevent different natural disasters. Technologies for early detection of such threats and rapid countermeasures rank among the most urgent of today’s engineering challenges. The infrastructures of cities and services are becoming older and older. The engineers must find the way to renew and sustain it and at the same time to preserve ecological balance and to increase the aesthetics of living spaces. The external world is not the only place where engineering is important. The inner world of the human mind should benefit from new methods of instruction and learning Some new methods of instruction, such as computer virtual realities, will be adopted also for entertainment and leisure. All these examples of the challenges that engineers will face in the 21st century illustrate the complexity of the tasks that must be fulfilled to ensure the sustainability of civilization and the health of people and to bring more joy to life. Text and vocabulary exercises 8. Match the English phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. I. limited resources 2. reverse degradation 3. environmentally friendly 4. unlikely if ever possible 5. extract 6. fertilizers 7. susceptibility 8. living spaces а) удобрения b) экологически приемлемый с) маловероятен, если вообще возможен d) ограниченные ресурсы е) обратить ухудшение f) склонность; восприимчивость g) жилое пространство h) извлекать
9. Find in the text the w ords or phrases which mean the same as: искусственное воссоздание личные нужды выгодный срочный, безотлагательный преобладающий компонент человеческий разум питьевая вода развлечения и досуг 10. Synonyms and antonyms. For every word in the left column find a synonym or an antonym from the right column. 1. desire 2. new 3. disease 4. rate 5. sunshine 6. long-term 7. unfortunately 8. personal 9. large-scale 10. external a) sunlight b) speed c) fortunately d) wish e) public f) inner g) small-scale h) illness i) novel j) short-term 11. Find in the text the right word to complete the sentences. I. Each of the areas of human life —___, health, vulnerability and_— is waiting for engineering solutions. 2. Foremost among these challenges are those that ensure the__. 3. One of the possibilities for long-term energy supplies is_. 4. Among environmental problem concerns is the atmosphere’s dominant component, the element______. 5. Engineers must design___for nitrogen cycle problems. 6. Small-scale technologies for local water_may be more effective for personal needs. 7. One of the goals of new medicine is the__of novel diseases and vi- ruses. 8. Engineering solutions are necessary to prevent different__. 9. The engineers must find the way to__and______the infrastructures of cities 12. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. I. The population of the Earth is growing and it needs and desires to expand.
2. Human vulnerability to diseases, terrorism and natural disasters require new methods of protection and prevention. 3. The Earth is a planet of rich resources, and its population consumes them at a rate that can be easily sustained. 4. The success of engineering solutions for both solar power and nuclear fusion is possible in the future. 5. The rate at which nitrogen is removed from the air has remained the same in comparison to pre-industrial times. 6. New technologies for desalinating sea water cannot be helpful. 7. All diseases of the past have been controlled. В Pre-text exercises 13. A. Scan the following information. Dr Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, best-selling author and popularizer of science. He was born in California in 1947 and went to study physics at Harvard University, before receiving his PhD from the University of California. He continues Albert Einstein's search to unite the four fundamental forces of nature — the strong force, the weak force, gravity and electromagnetism — into one unified theory. Kaku has been teaching at the City College of New York for more than 25 years. He is also a visiting professor at the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton and a Fellow of the American Physical Society. B. During the Credit Suisse Thoughtleadership Conference 2011 Dr Michio Kaku gave an interview about human civilization development trends in the next decade. Read his answers (I—VIII) and the interviewer’s questions (a—h) to match them. a) What are the future trends with regard to energy? b) Which are the major breakthroughs you foresee in the next decade? c) And what are energy perspectives in the more distant future? d) What else could you make with graphene? e) How does one study time as a physicist9 f) What other major advances do you foresee, арап from these breakthroughs in medicine and energy? g) What will be instead of transistors? h) How does fusion actually work?
TEXT 12В HUMAN CIVILIZATION IN THE NEXT DECADE Medicine will be revolutionized in the coming decade, as a result of breakthroughs in genetic and molecular medicine, predicts futurist and physicist Mi-chio Kaku. Our energy issues will be resolved and we will increasingly be using nanotechnology, notably in the next generation of laptaps. I We know that time is a measurement of change, so we try to write down equations and establish a model of a galaxy, a planet, an atom... With global warming, for example, we have models of the weather and equations that govern it. You also have to be able to access or calculate and analyze the past correctly. We know the past. If your theory cannot calculate the past, then it’s obviously wrong. II If you take a look at medicine, it has evolved from what we consider witchcraft into a mode] of antibiotics, vaccines and sanitation. It has increased our life span hy about 30 years. We are now entering the third era of medicine: molecular and genetic medicine, where everything is reduced to proteins, DNA and RNA. We may eventually even solve the aging process. Today, we can nearly double the life span of most organisms, ranging from yeast and spiders to dogs and monkeys. Ill We are now dependent on fossil fuels, but we are gradually entering the age of hydrogen. In the next decade I think there is going to be a mix of fossil fuels and renewable energies. The price of gasoline on average is going up, while the price of renewables on average is going down. In about 10 years, the lines of the two curves will cross. IV If we look 20 years ahead, another possibility opens up: fusion. The first fusion reactor will be operational in 2019 in France and extract more energy than you put into it. Commercialization may take another 10 years. So we’re talking about 2030 at the earliest. V Fusion uses seawater as a basic fuel. We have unlimited seawater. Fusion also creates very little waste. The only problem is: it does not exist yet. So it is still hypothetical. But as mentioned, the French are seriously investing in it. So are the US, Russia, Japan and South Korea VI There will be massive improvements in information technology. In 10 years’ time, computer chips will cost about a penny, so information in that sense will be nearly free We will eventually be moving to the post-sil-icon era. The growth of computer power is already slowing down and will probably flatten out in 10 years. There are two reasons for it. The first is heat. Transistors are getting too hot. And secondly, there is the quantum mechanics aspect.
VII We will probably move on to molecular computers, quantum computers, atomic computers and the next step could be molecular, atomic and quantum transistors. This is also called nanotechnology. Speaking about nanotechnology, graphene is the strongest material known today, stronger than diamonds and made out of one layer of carbon. The good news is that graphene conducts electricity, so laptops may be using graphene to compute in the future. The bad news is that it is very difficult to make. VIII You could perform miracles, such as constructing a space elevatoi, if you were able to make thousands of miles of graphene. A space elevator means you go into an elevator, push the up button and shoot into outer space on a cable held up by centrifugal force. That could reduce the cost of space travel by a factor of thousands. That could be the future of the space program late in this century. Graphene could be the wonder mater ial of the future! (adaptedfrom the press) Text and vocabulary exercises 14. Match the English words and phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. breakthrough 2. evolve 3. witchcraft 4. DNA а) колдовство: черная магия b) выдающееся достижение с) эволюционировать d) рибонуклеиновая кислота (РНК) 5. RNA 6. graphene 7. laptop 8. by a factor of е) ноутбук f) в п раз g) графен h) дезоксирибонуклеиновая кислота (ДНК) 15. Find the English words or phrases in the text and choose the right meaning for them. 1. resolve a) to make twice as much 2. notably b) at last 3. life span c) to solve 4. eventually d) particularly 5. double e) ten years’ period 6. decade 0 to lower 7. flatten out g) length of life 8. reduce h) to stabilize
16. American English. A. There are some American English words in the interview. Match them with their British equivalents. American British elevator programme program analyse gasoline lift analyze petrol B. Look through the following words and divide them into British English words and their American equivalents. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Autumn; mail; mobile; phone; tube; speciality; resume; vacation; railway; fall; holiday; post; cell; phone; railroad; subway; shop; curriculum vitae (CV); major; store. 17. Find in the text the right word or words to complete the sentences. 1. has increased our life span by about 30 years. 2. The first fusion reactor will be operational in 2019 in_. 3. There will be massive _ in information technology 4. Graphene is___material known today. 5. Graphene is made out of one layer of_. 6. _could be the future of the space program late in this century. 18. Sum up Dr Michio Kaku’s ideas about our future in 6—8 sentences. 1. Dr Michio Kaku tells about... 2. According to him... 3. He also mentions.. 4. Dr Kaku emphasizes... 5. I want to point out the following facts that were interesting for me... 6. Dr Kaku concludes... 7. As for me, I think... 8. In conclusion I’d like to mention that... c 19. Read the follow ing text to answer the questions. 1. How cart we predict technological changes? 2. What is the forecastfor 2020? 3. What are the slogans for new technology sector? 4. Will the problems ofcomputer security and privacy be solved in thefuture? 5. Will information technologies penetrate into every aspect of dur life? 6. What will computers of future allow us to do? 7. What kind of risks can be provoked by technological innovations? 8. Why should all people realiie technology's potential?
ТЕХТ12С TECHNOLOGIES OF THE 21ST CENTURY One way to predict technological change over time is to consider measurements of speed, size or cost. From this perspective, progress is easy to calculate. Twenty-five years ago a megabyte of semiconductor memory cost around $550,000; today it costs around $4. Microprocessors in 1997 were 100,000 times faster than the 1950 originals. If these trends go on to continue — and there are many experts who think they will — by 2020 one computer will be as powerful as all modern computers in Silicon Valley1. “Faster”, “cheaper”, “smaller” are the slogans for future technology sector. Network technology will continue to move forward. Considerable progress will be made in the computer industry. All audio, video and text information sources will be in digital form and available for universal search. Most current problems of computer security and privacy will have been solved. Many analysts predict slow progress in the area of “artificial intelligence” in the future. Considerable progress is expected in the development of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)2, a three-dimensional version of the text-based HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)3 that currently dominates Web pages on the Internet. Twenty-five years from now, after more than fifty years of development, the microprocessor, information technologies in general and networks will probably have penetrated into every aspect of human activity. Many parts of the world will be wired, responsive and interactive. The use of computers will allow us to choose where and how to live and work. The computers will also greatly increase possibilities of production, transportation, energy, commerce, education, and health. For example, industrial robots will perform dangerous, high-precision tasks in many sectors of the economy. They will also be employed in deep sea and outer space operations. In the field of energy production and conservation, new horizons will open up. Powerful computerswill make design of environmentally sustainable products easier. Computer will develop electronic commerce. Anyone with a computer and Internet access will be able to sell and buy goods and services from around the world. As a result, new products and services and new markets will appear. Computer technologies will improve our capacity to communicate. In order not to get lost in the ocean of information, people will probably use “knowbots” (knowledge robots) to navigate effectively. A person will transfer his / her wishes to a computer, a special programme will decode them and do different tasks, for example check e-mail or search for necessary information on its own. Still, with all these advantages, there are a lot of risks that could be
provoked by tomorrow’s technological innovations. Firstly, tomorrow’s technologies contain destructive potential that mankind won’t be able to control. Dependence on computers, networks and the software makes society’s life-support systems (from nuclear power plants to security systems) vulnerable to attacks of different people, terrorists, for example. The spread of information technology also makes violation of basic privacy or civil rights easier. People also have more opportunities to commit crime such as fraud or theft and will not be punished for it. Secondly, purely technological risks involve vulnerability to system breakdowns, for example in the air-traffic control infrastructure. Some people are afraid that as the world becomes more dependent on technology, there will be a risk of unmanageable mistakes that can cause social or economic catastrophe. Thirdly, innovative technologies such as human cloning or artificial intelligence always raise ethic problems. Fortunately, these risks will depend not only on new technologies but also on social and political choices. That is why all people should realize technology’s potential and be ready to make a choice. Notes on the text 1 Silicon Valley — Силиконовая долина. Кремниевая долина (район в штате Калифорния, США. мировой центр компыт герной и э кктронной индустрии) 1 VRML — язык конструирования виртуальной реальности, язык VRML (произносится ввермуш) 1 HTML —: зой разметки НТ Ml Text and vocabulary exercises 20. Match the English words or phrases on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right. 1. over time 2. slogan 3. network technology 4. artificial intelligence 5. wired, responsive, interactive 6. commit crime 7. high-precision 8. outer space 9- life-support system 10 unmanageable а) искусственный интеллект b) высокоточный с) с течением времени d) сетевые технологии е) совершать преступления f) космическое пространство g) соединенный проводами. быстрореагирующий, взаимодействующий h) лозунг, девиз i) неконтролируемый j) система жизнеобеспечения
21. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as: в этом ракурсе цифрован форма всемирный поиск текущие проблемы трехмерный доступ к Интернету подделка кража наказывать за клонирование 22. Verbs with prepositions. A. Match a verb with a preposition, translate them. 1. move 2. penetrate 3. open 4. depend 5. go 6. search a) into b) for c) on d) on e) forward f) up B. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. Translate the sentences. 1. The technology never stands still, it always moves_. 2. I do not like to depend___other people’s help. 3. The new course in engineering will open_____opportunities for better understanding of engineers’ work. 4. Are you planning to go____your studies? 5. The light penetrated____every room of the house. 6. I’m preparing for my seminar and going to search the internet _ necessary information. с) effectiveness 23. Choose the right answer. 1. One way to predict technological change over time is to consider measurements of speed, size or.... a) shape b) cost 2. By 2020 one computer will be as powerful as all modern computers in ... a) Death Valley b) Silicon Valley c) Valley Forge 3. The slogans for future technology sector are_ a) farther, more, b) newer, larger, better taller с) faster, cheaper, smaller 4. Considerable progress will be made in .... a) the computer b) the medicine industry c) the artificial intelligence
5. Computer will develop electronic ... a) industry b) commerce c) communication 6. Tomorrow’s technologies contain destructive potential that mankind won’t be able .... a) to control b) to eliminate c) to decrease 24. Read the text above once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he / she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you. Agreeing Disagreeing politely I agree with you. I’m afraid, I cannot agree with you. Yes, that is what 1 think too. 1 see what you mean, but I think... You are right! Well, as far as I know... 1. All audio, video and text information sources will be in digital form and available for universal search. 2. Many analysts predict fast progress tn rhe area of “artificial intelligence” in the future. 3. Thirty-five years from now the information technologies in general will probably have penetrated into every aspect of human activity. 4. Industrial robots will perform dangerous, high-precision tasks in many sectors of the economy. 5. Dependence on computers makes society’s life-support systems vulnerable to attacks of different people, terrorists, for example. 6. The spread of information technology makes violation of basic privacy or civil rights more difficult. 7. Innovative technologies such as human cloning or artificial intelligence always raise ethic problems stem. 25. Retell the text according to the plan given below. I. Predictions for future development of computers and technology sector. 2. The changes that computers will bring into our life in future. 3. The risks that technological innovations involve. GRAMMAR REVIEW Глаголы should и would Глаголы should и would выполняют несколько функций в английском языке:
а) употребляются для образования Future-in-the-Pasc, необходимого в придаточных предложениях дополнения по правилу согласования времен. Например'. We hoped to pass the exam Мы надеялись, что сдадим successfully. экзамен удачно. б) служат для образования сослагательного наклонения. Например: I would never help him. Я бы никогда не помогала ему. в) выступают в качестве модальных глаголов. Например: The engine would never start. Двигатель не желал заводиться. Глаюлы should и would употребляются с инфинитивом без частицы to. Сослагательное наклонение (Subjunctive Mood) Сослагательное наклонение выражает предполагаемое, условное или желаемое действие. В английской научно-технической литературе сослагательное наклонение употребляется: 1) в придаточных предложениях после безличных оборотов типа: it is necessary, it is important, it is desirable, etc. Например: It is necessary that they should Необходимо, чтобы они apply the new method. применили новый метод. 2) в придаточных предложениях цели, вводимых союзами: so that (так чтобы), lest (чтобы не). Например: Write down these data lest you Запишите эти данные, чтобы should forget them. не забыть их. 3) в условных предложениях Например: If we have fused two metal pieces. Если бы мы расплавили we would have obtained weld. два куска металла, мы бы получили сварное соединение.
Условные предложения Придаточные предложения условия обычно вводятся союзами if eciu, unless если не. ^является наиболее употребительным Например: If you ask him, he will help you. Если вы его попросите, он вам поможет. Unless I have a good reason, Если у меня не будет серьезной I shall not do it. на то причины, я не буду делать это. В английском языке условные предложения подразделяются на гри типа. I тип условных предложении выражает реальное, осуществимое условие, относящееся к настоящему или будущему времени. Например: придаточное предложение главное предложение If + Present Simple Present Simple shall, will + V If it gets dark. Если становится темно. If it gets dark. Если станет темно. we switch the light on. мы зажигаем свет. we shall switch the light on. мы зажжем свет. II тип условных предложений составляют предложения, выражающие маловероятное, нереальное условие, относящееся к настоящему или будущему времени. В условных предложениях II типа смысловой глагол главного предложения употребляется в сослагательном наклонении. Если в придаточном предложении смысловым является глагол to be, то для всех лиц и чисел употребляется его форма were. При переводе условных предложений II типа на русский язык употребляются глаголы с частицей бы и в главном и в придаточном предложениях. Например: придаточное предложение главное предложение If + Past Simple should, would + V If I had time. Если бы у меня было время. If I were you. На твоем месте I would read this book, я бы прочитала эту книгу. I would choose engineering profession, я бы выбрала инженерную специальность.
Ill тип условных предложений составляют предложения, выражающие неосуществимые действия, относящиеся к прошедшему времени. Например'. придаточное предложение главное предложение If + Past Perfect should, would + have + Ved, 3-я ф. пепр. гл. If you had listened to me carefully. Если бы вы слушали меня внимательно, you would not have asked me such questions вы бы не задавали мне таких вопросов. Бессоюзное присоединение условных придаточных предложений Условные предложения II типа с глаголами to be и to have и все условные предложения 111 типа могут присоединяться к главному бессоюзным способом В этих случаях в условных придаточных предложениях применяется обратный порядок слов. Например: Had you told me about it before. Если бы вы сказали мне I should have helped you. об этом раньше, я бы вам помог. Were I free now. I should go to Если бы я был свободен the seaside. сейчас, я бы поехал на море. 26. Раскройте скобки и образуйте условные предложения I типа. I. If you (look for) a job, it (be) important to write a CV. 2. If he (succeed) in this job, he (be able) to get a promotion soon. 3. If people (find) new sources of energy, it (protect) the environment 4. If you (enter) a university, you (take) examinations. 5. If he (return) home early, he (watch) this TV programme. 6. If you (come) to see me, I (be) very glad. 7. If we (not get) a letter from him, we (be) worried. 8. If you (not work) hard, you (pass) the exams successfully. 9. If I (have) enough money, I (travel) around the world. 10. Do you think you (find) job if you (leave) school? 27. Раскройте скобки и образуйте условные предложения II типа. I. If I (be) you, I (not do) it like that. 2. If you (do) your morning exercises every day, your health (be) better.
3. They (not come) to us if you (invite) them. 4. If I (be offered) the job, I (take) it 5. Many people (be) unemployed if the factory (close down). 6. If I (listen) to you, I (not fail) the exam 7. If he (drive) carefully, he (avoid) the accident 8. If she (study) more, she (be) a better student. 9. If I (live) in France, I (speak) French well. 10. I (give) Kate your message if I (see) her. 28. Прочитайте следующий текст и закончите предложения: interface — интерфейс; часть программы, взаимодействующая с пользователем electro-conductive sweat — электропроводный пот e-prints — электронный рисунок bodily sensors — телесные сенсоры remotely — на расстоянии Tomorrow's People is a book of Susan Greenfield where she describes how the 21 st century technology will change the way we live, think and feel. People of Tomorrow The development of the 21st century sciences will change our lives greatly. The physical world will become an interface where we will be able to exchange information through the electro-conductive sweat of a handshake and communicate through the e-prints on our “softwear” (clothes) At home, children will play with their “smart toys” or a kind of sub-atomic nanotech Lego. Meanwhile, their parents will communicate “remotely” with their virtual friends and relatives. They all will live in the Hyperhouse with smart devices that are activated by bodily sensors. I. If the physical world became an interface, we... 2. If our sweat could be electro-conductive, we... 3. If our clothes could have e-prints, people... 4. If the nanotechnology developed toy industry, our children... 5. If people could communicate remotely, they... 6. If we lived in the Hyperhouse with smart devices, we... 29. Раскройте скобки и образуйте условные предложения III типа. 1. If medicine had not developed, many people (die) without medical care. 2. If he had not improved his test results, he (not pass) the exam. 3. If the teacher hadn’t recommended us this book, we (do) the test badly. 4. I (not buy) the ticket if she liadn’t helped me.
5. If you had had breakfast, you (not be) hungry now 6. The accident would not have happened if the driver (be) drunk. 7. The air would not have been polluted if the factories (not emit) waste. 8. We would have never communicated at a distance if Alexander Bell (not invent) a telephone. 9. If people (not fly) into space, we would not have known so much about our planet. 10. If you had known more about it, we (not have) problems. 30. Переведите на английским язык. I. Если вы поможете мне решить эту задачу, я помогу вам. 2. Если бы я был на твоем месте, я бы спросил совета. 3. Если бы я знал немецкий язык, я бы учился в Германии. 4. Если я не буду занята завтра, я переведу твою статью. 5. Ты бы много знал, если бы читал этот журнал. 6. Если бы люди не использовали личный транспорт, то воздух был бы чише 7. Если бы ты пришел вчера на лекцию, ты бы знал о тесте. 8. Если люди будут продолжать загрязнять атмосферу, жизнь на Земле скоро прекратится. 9. Люди не столкнулись бы с проблемой загрязнения окружающей среды, если бы бережно относились к природе. 10. Если промышленность будет развиваться дальше, климат на земле поменяется. 31. Consult “Texts for supplementary reading’’ to learn more about present and future of engineering (Texts 25,26). SPEAKING PRACTICE 32. Science and technology in our life. A. Read the following statements and discuss them with a partner. Prove your point of view. • Everyone was far happier before such inventions as the computer and automobile. • Science has become the new religion. • In the future there will be a common language. • Humans will live all over the universe in the future. B. How has science improved your life? Think of three examples and explain in class. C. What scientific or technological advance would make your life easier? Think of three ideas and discuss with a partner and then in class. Do you think any of these will be invented soon? Prove your point of view.
D. Think of your role in developing science and technology. What career path do you tend to choose: science, industry or sales? Why? Write down at least three reasons. Discuss in class. E. Study the picture below. It shows a career path in civil engineering industry. With a partner discuss steps of a career path for your speciality. Draw a scheme, discuss in class. Whose scheme is the most detailed / precise / true to life? WRITING PRACTICE 33. Composing a resume and a cover letter. A resume is a brief summary of your education, experience and skills. A cover letter accompanies your resume and describes who you are, why you are interested in the position and adds a personal touch to your resume. A. Read the resume below and till in the gaps with the following words and expressions: computer skills, entry-level, bachelor, experience, foreign language, skills, expected graduation. Daniel White 714-555-20201 danwhite@yandex.com 2222 Candy Lane, Anaheim, CA 92808 CAREER OBJECTIVE Seeking an (I)_____mechanical engineering position.
EDUCATION California State University, Fullerton (2)of Science Degree, Mechanical Engineering (3) May 2015 RELATED COURSES Fluid Mechanics Strengths and Materials Lab Robotics Mechanical Design Fluids and Heat Lab Thermal Systems Design COURSE PROJECT Electrical Vehicle Conversion Design (4) ____________________________________________________ Knowledge and extensive use of AutoCAD Microsoft Office and Microsoft Windows Match CAD, Master CAM WORK (5)________ None LEADERSHIP SKILLS Team Leader in a Course Project As a team leader researched, designed and tested a 96V electric DC motor (6)______________________________________________________________ Speak, read and write English and German B. Use the resume above as a model and write down your own one. C. Complete the sentences in this letter. Use the job advertisement and the words below. Changi News _____________July 20, 20 —__________ Office secretary wanted. Candidate having excellent communication skills, computer knowledge with office work experience of 3—5 years may send their resume to Mt Paul Look, Human Resource Director, International Airport, Islamabad 659589 applying forward part-time Resource enclosed interview Sincerely advertised
(Write your address here)_____________________ July 24,20-Mr Paul Look Human (1)________Director International Airport Islamabad 659589 Dear Mr Look, I am (2)_________for the position of office secretary that was (?) ______in the July 20th Changi News. I worked as a (4)_________secretary after university for three years. My experience has provided me with an excellent background in the practical skills of office work. Now I am looking for a full-time position. I hope that you will consider my (5) ______resume, which provides full details of my qualification. And I would like to schedule an (6)_______. I look (7)_______to hearingfrom you. (8)______yours, _________________(Write your name here) _________________(Print your name here) Enclosure D. Read the following job advertisement and write a letter to apply for the position. -J. Calling Young Engineers Welcome to Monnet Group — a diversified infrastructure — industrial conglomerate with a strong “people” ethos. We invite applications from young, dynamic, talented and output-driven engineers for the position of: Graduate Engineer Trainees (GETs) in Mechanical, Electrical, Metallurgy, Civil, Mining and Geology at various locations in India. Candidates having a Degree in Engineering (B. Eng., В Sc., M. Eng., M. Sc.) would be required to apply online through the Monnet Group website www.monnetgroup.com
PROJECT BOX 34. Your persona! career plan. Study the scheme below and compose a plan for your future career. Here are some questions to help you. | —-| yXTf 7CAREER\ I PLANNING / Making | _J Exploring decisions Г your options • What is my ideal job? • What are my strengths? • What are my weak points? • What are my goals? • What are my interests? • Is my qualification sufficient? • What should I do now to develop my skills?
TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING Text 1 Canada Canada occupies most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area. The variety of Canada’s geography, ecology, vegetation and landforms explain a wide variety of climates throughout the country. Because of its size, Canada has mure lakes than any other country, containing much of the world’s fresh water. There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains. Canada is also geologically active and has many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes. Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces and three territories, governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with the British monarch (at present Queen Elisabeth II) as its head of the state. The executive power belongs to the Cabinet, which is headed by the Prime Minister of Canada, the head of government. Canada is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world’s highly developed countires, Canada has a diversified economy that is based on its abundant natural resources and on trade. It is one of the world’s top ten trading nations. Other most important sectors of economy include service, logging and petroleum industries. Canada is a member of the G8, NATO, WTO, Commonwealth and UNO. Canada is an industrial nation with a highly devel oped science and technology sector. The country has eighteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry and medicine. Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations and one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. Atlantic Canada has large offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta has large oil and gas resources. The Athabasca Oil Sands give Canada the world’s second-largest oil reserves, behind Saudi Arabia. Canada is the largest producer of zinc and uranium.
and is a global source of many other natural resources, such as gold, nickel, aluminium, and lead. Canadian culture has historically been influenced by British, French, Aboriginal cultures and traditions. There are distinctive aboriginal cultures, languages, art and music spread across Canada. Many North american indigenous words, inventions and games have become an everyday part of Canadian language and use. The canoe, snowshoes, the toboggan, tug of war, and tobacco are examples of products, inventions and games. Some of the words include the barbecue, caribou, hammock, skunk, mahogany, hurricane and moose. Text 2 Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere which comprises the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Australia is the world’s smallest continent and sixth largest country by total area. Australia is the driest inhabited continent, only its southeast and southwest corners have a temperate climate. Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats and is recognized as a mega diverse country. Much of Australia’s flora and fauna (about 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of fish) is unique. Australia is a federation which has six states and two major mainland territories. The form of government used in Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. The British monarch is represented by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level. Although the Governor-General has extensive executive powers, he normally uses them only on the advice of the Prime Minister. A prosperous developed country with a multicultural society, Australia ranks highly in such spheres as human development, quality of life, health care, life expectancy, public education, economic freedom and the protection of civil liberties and political rights. The most important sector of economy is service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services.
However, agriculture and natural resources also contribute substantially to the country’s economy. Australia is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth, Pacific Islands Forum and the World Trade Organization. English is the national language in Australia. Australian English lias a unique accent and a small number of unique terms. Answer the questions about Canada and Australia. I. Where is Canada I Australia situated? 2. What is special about the geography of Canada I Australia ? 3. What is the government structure of Canada I Australia ? 4. Which languages are official in Canada / Australia? 5. What are the most important sectors of Canadian / Australian economy? 6. Are there any natural resources in Canada / Australia ? Text3 Holidays in Great Britain and the USA There are only six public holidays a year in Great Britain, that is days on which people do not need to go to work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day1, Good Friday2, Easter Monday3, Spring Bank Holiday4 and Summer Bank Holiday5. In Scotland, the New Year's Day is also a public holiday. Almost all these holidays are of religious origin, though for many people they have lost their religious significance and are simply days on which people relax, eat, drink and have fun. All the public holidays, except Christmas Day and Boxing Day, fall on different days each year. Good Friday and Easter Monday depend on Easter Sunday which falls on the first Sunday after a full moon on or after March 21st. The Spring Bank Holiday falls on the last Monday of May or on the first Monday of June, while the Summer Bank Holiday comes on the last Monday in August or on the first Monday in September. Besides public holidays, there are other festivals, anniversaries and simply days, for example Mother's Day and Halloween, on which certain traditions are observed, but they are ordinary working days. Christma» Day is the most popular festival in Britain and the US. This holiday is observed on the 25th of December. People decorate their houses, have parties and exchange presents. Children usually do a pantomime which is a traditional English entertainment at Christmas. But the most important at Christmas is giving presents. Family members wrap their presents and leave them under the Christmas tree. Children leave a long sock at their beds; they hope that Father Christmas will bring them small presents. The New Year is not as popular as Christmas in England. Some people ignore it completely and go to bed at the same time as usual on New ^fear’s Eve. Many others, however, celebrate it in one way or another. In Canada
New Year’s Day has a long tradition of celebration. It is a time for visiting friends and neighbours and for asking the blessing of the head of the family. People have house parties, dinner dances and special theatre entertainment. In the USA many people have New Year parties. A party usually begins at about 8 o’clock and goes on until early morning. At midnight they listen to the chimes of Big Ben, drink a toast to the New Year and sing “Auld Lang Syne”6. Mothers’ Day is traditionally observed on the fourth Sunday in Lent'. This is usually in March. The day dates from the time when many girls worked away from home as domestic servants in big households. Mothering Sunday was established as a holiday for these girls when they went home to see their parents, especially their mother. They took presents for their mothers with them. Nowadays this custom remained. People visit their mothers if possible and give them flowers and small presents. On Bank Holidays people usually go into the country and to the coast. If the weather is fine, many families take a picniclunch or tea with them and enjoy their meal in the open. Bank Holidays are also time for big sports meetings. There are also horse races and fairs ail over the country. Many Londoners will visit Whipsnade Zoo. People also go boating on the Thames and on other rivers. Halloween means “holy evening” and takes place on October 31st. Although it is a more important festival tn the USA titan in Britain, many people in the United Kingdom celebrate it too. At parties people dress up in strange costumes and pretend they are witches and ghosts. They cut horrible faces in pumpkins and other vegetables and put a candle inside, which shines through their eyes. Children knock on doors at Halloween and ask if you would like a “trick” or “treat”. If you give them something nice, a “treat”, they go away. However, if you don’t, they play a “trick” on you, for example, make a lot of noise or spill flour on your front doorstep. Every year on the second Monday in October, Americans celebrate Thanksgiving. Families and friends get together for a big feast. It is a public holiday in the US. Many people go to church in the morning and at home they have a big dinner with turkey. People gather to give the God thanks for all the good things in their lives. Notes on the text 1 Boxing Day — день рождественских подарков (26 декабря). 1 Good Friday — Страстная, Великая пятница ’ Easier Monday — второй день Пасхи, первый понедельник после Пасхи 3 Spring Bank Holiday — весенний день отдыха 3 Summer Bank Holiday— тстний день отдыха; называется августовским днем отдыха ' “Auld Lang Syne" - “In memory of past limes" - Доброе старое время» (шот 1итккая песня на с шва Рибер> ю Бёрнса, по фидиции поют на прощание в конце праздничного ыкдв). 7 Lem— Великий пост
Answer the questions. 1. How many public holidays are there in Great Britain ? 2. What is the most popular holiday in GB and the USA ? 3. What do people usually do at Christmas ? 4. In which country is New Year the most popular holiday ? 5. When do the British celebrate Mothers' Day? 6. What do the people do on Banks Holidays ? 7. When do the Americans and the British celebrate Halloween ? 8. Is Thanksgiving Day a public holiday in Britain? Text 4 A. The University of Cambridge The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University, or simply Cambridge) is the second oldest university in England and the fourth oldest in the world. Academically, Cambridge (1231) ranks as one of the world’s top five universities and the leading university in Europe. The university currently has 31 colleges. In addition to the colleges, there are over 150 departments, faculties, schools and other institutions. The Cambridge University Engineering Department (CUED) is one of the largest departments in the university. It was founded in 1875. The Cambridge University engineering undergraduate curriculum, called the “Engineering Tripos” is a four-year programme. Cambridge University students graduate from the Tripos with the equivalent of a Master of Engineering Degree Teaching at the Engineering Department consists of lectures and laboratory works. Students specialize in many fields of engineering such as Mechanical Engineering, Structures and Materials, Electrical and Information Engineering, Mathematical Methods. The department currently admits 300 students a year. Cambridge is famous for the unique method of teaching — the supervision. Small groups of students — usually between one and three — meet with a member of the university's teaching staff or a doctoral student. Students must complete an essay in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session with the difficulties they had with the material of that week’s lectures. Students have one to three supervisions per week, depending upon their subject. Cambridge maintains a long tradition of student participation in sport and recreation. Rowing is a very popular sport at Cambridge. There are competitions between different colleges and against Oxford. There are also matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket to chess. Among famous Cambridge Engineering Department graduates there are F. Whit
tie — the inventor of the jet engine, N. Patrick — an astronaut, A. Broers — a nanotechnology pioneer, A. Hopper — a founder of Acorn Computers and many others B. The University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (also Cal, California, Berkeley, Cai-Berkeley, UCB, and U C Berkeley), is a public research university (1868) Berkeley, California, United States. Berkeley offers some 300 undergraduate and graduate degree programmes in a wide range of disciplines. The University of California, Berkeley currently ranks the 3rd among world universities and has the highest number of graduate programmes. There are 14 colleges and schools in Berkeley. “Colleges” are both undergraduate and graduate, while “Schools” are generally graduate only. The College of Engineering is one of 14 schools and colleges at the university. It ranks the 2nd in the USA. The college appeared in 1931 when the Colleges of Mechanics and the College of Civil Engineering merged. The college offers one of the most prestigious engineering programmes in the world. The Programme includes a variety of closely related areas of the physical and biological sciences, mathematicsand engineering. The optionsofthe curriculum prepare students for advanced study in engineering, science, bioengineering or medicine. There are four majors in the curriculum: Computational Engineering Science, Engineering Mathematics and Statistics, Engineering Physics and Environmental Engineering Science. Engineering student societies, a vital part of the College, offer many opportunities to develop communication and leadership skills as well as long-lasting friendship. UC Berkeley's students have an on-line television station, CaiTV, an independent newspaper The Daily Californian and a FM radio station KALX Among Berkeley graduates there are 65 Nobel laureates. L. Peter Deutsch, Butler Lampson and Charles P. Thacker developed a number of pioneering computer technologies that inspired the first computer company — the Apple Mackintosh. Willard Libby pioneered radiocarbon dating2, Andrew Fire helped to discover RNA interference gene3, Glenn T. Seaborg with Albert Ghiorso discovered 12 chemical elements. C. The Bauman Moscow State Technical University The Bauman Moscow State Technical University (informally “Bauman-ka”) is a public university in the heart of Russia’s capital, Moscow. The Bauman MSTU is one of the oldest (1830) and largest Russian technical universities. The Bauman Moscow State Technical University maintains the best
traditions of engineering work in Russia. Most progressive ideas and unique solutions originated there: Russia’s first gas mask, helicopter, gas-turbine locomotive4, electronic computer, the world's first kinescope (television picture tube), jet liner5, nuclear power plant, and lunar exploration vehicle6. In 1989 BMSTU became Russia’s first technical university and ranks first among technical higher schools. Today BMSTU is a large research and educational complex: its 14 faculties train specialists in 10 departmentsand 62 specialities in mechanical engineering, instrument making, applied mathematics, biomedical technologies and facilities, engineering business and management. According to the MSTU curriculum, it offers Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD degree programmes. All training programmes meet state educational standards and carry national accreditation. Graduates of all degrees earn appropriate certificates. MSTU's distinctive approach to education is combination of the academic studies with fundamental and applied researches and design and experimental works. The University provides close co-operation activities with Russian Academy of Sciences and Industry. The students of MSTU traditionally take part in different social and sport activities. One of the famous traditions is to celebrate “the Equator” (the middle) of the student life. Among famous university graduates there are S.P. Korolev — the founder of the Soviet Space Programme, V.G. Shuk-hov — a great Russian engineer and scientist, A.N. Tupolev — the Russian aeronautical engineer, N.E. Zhukovsky — one of the founders of hyrdo- and aerodynamics, S.A. Lavochkin — a Russian aircraft designer, S.I. Vavilov — a Russian physicist and many others. Answer the questions about any university. I. What are the informal names of the university? 2. When did the university appear? 3. How does the university rank in the world I Europe I Russia ? 4. How many colleges f departments / faculties are there at the university? 5. What fields do the students specialize in ? 6. Are there any traditions at the university? 7. What famous people studied at the university ?
Text5 Nature of the Engineers’ Work Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical problems. Their work is the link between social needs and commercial applications. Engineers consider many factors when they develop a new product. For example, when engineers develop an industrial robot, they precisely specify the functional requirements; design and test the robot's components; integrate the components to produce the final design; and evaluate the design’s overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to the development of many different products, such as chemicals, computers, gas turbines, helicopters, and even toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production or maintenance. These engineers supervise production in factories, determine the causes of component failure, and test products' quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some engineers move into engineering management or into sales. In sales, an engineering education enables them to discuss technical aspects and assist in product planning, installation and use. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs; to simulate and test how a machine, structure or system operates; and to generate specifications for parts. Many engineers also use computers to monitor product quality and control process efficiency. The field of nanotechnology, which involves the creation of high-performance materials and components, also introduces entirely new principles to the design process. Most engineers work in office buildings, laboratories or industrial plants. Others may work outdoors at construction sites and oil and gas exploration and production sites, where they monitor or direct operations or solve onsite problems. Some engineers travel to plants or worksites. It is important for engineers to continue their education throughout their careers because their work depends on their knowledge ofthe latest technology. Engineers in high-technology areas, such as advanced electronics or information technology, know that technical knowledge can become outdated quickly. Text 6 What Do Different Engineers Do? Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to solve problems that involve the production or use of chemicals and other products. They design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing, plan and
test methods of manufacturing products and treating byproducts, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in a variety of manufacturing industries other than chemical manufacturing, such as those producing energy, electronics, food, clothing, and paper. In addition, they work in healthcare. biotechnology and business services. Chemical engineers apply principles of physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as chemistry. Some may specialize in a particular chemical process, such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular held, such as nanomaterials, or in the development of specific products. They must be aware of all aspects of chemical manufacturing and how the manufacturing process affects the environment and the safety of workers and consumers. Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads, buildings. aitports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems. They must consider many factors in the design process from the construction costs and expected lifetime of a project to government regulations and potential environmental hazards such as earthquakes and hurricanes. Civil engineering, considered one of the oldest engineering disciplines, encompasses many specialties. The major ones are structural, water resources, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching. Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, test, and oversee the manufacture and installation of computer hardware, including computer chips, circuit boards, computer systems, and related equipment such as keyboards, routers and printers. The work of computer hardware engineers is similar to that of electronics engineers in that they may design and test circuits and other electronic components; however, computer hardware engineers do that work only as it relates to computers and computer-related equipment. The rapid advances in computer technology are largely a result of the research, development and design efforts of these engineers. Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical equipment. Some of this equipment includes electric motors; machinery controls, lighting and wiring in buildings; radar and navigation systems; communications systems; and power generation, control and transmission devices used by electric utilities. Electrical engineers also design the electrical systems of automobiles and aircraft. Although the terms “electrical” and “electronics engineering” often are used interchangeably in academia and industry, electrical engineers traditionally have focused on the generation and supply of power, whereas electronics engineers have worked on applications of electricity to control systems or signal processing. Electri
cal engineers specialize in areas such as power systems engineering or electrical equipment manufacturing. Environmental engineers use the principles of biology and chemistry to develop solutions to environmental problems. They are involved in water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues. Environmental engineersconduct hazardous-waste management studies in which they evaluate the significance of the hazard, advise on its treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. They design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems, conduct research on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects, analyze scientific data, and perform quality-control checks. Environmental engineers are concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues. Some may study and attempt to minimize the effects of acid rain, global warming, automobile emissions, and ozone depletion. They also may be involved in the protection of wildlife. Many environmental engineers work as consultants, helping their clients to comply with regulations, prevent environmental damage, and clean up hazardous sites. industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production — people, machines, materials, information, and energy — to make a product or provide a service. They are concerned primarily with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization and technology. To maximize efficiency, industrial engineers study product requirements carefully and then design manufacturing and information systems to meet those requirements with the help of mathematical methods and models. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, and they design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality. They also design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services and determine the most efficient plant locations. Industrial engineers develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programmes. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related to the work of managers. Materials engineers are involved in the development, processing and testing of the materials used to create a range of products, from computer chips and aircraft wings to golf clubs and snow skis. They work with metals, ceramics, plastics, semiconductors, and composites to create new materials that meet certain mechanical, electrical and chemical requirements. They also are involved in selecting materials for new applications. Materials engineers have developed the ability to create and then study materials at an atomic level, using advanced processes to replicate the characteristics of those materials and their components with computers. Most materials engineers specialize in a
particular material. For example, metallurgical engineers specialize tn metals such as steel, and ceramic engineers develop ceramic materials and the processes for making them into useful products such as glassware or fiber-optic communication lines. Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, manufacture, and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices. Mechanical engineering is one of the broadest engineering disciplines. Engineers in this discipline work on power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal combustion engines, and steam and gas tutbines. They also work on power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, machine tools, material-handling systems, elevators and escalators, industrial production equipment, and robots used in manufacturing. Some mechanical engineers design tools that other engineers need for their work. In addition, mechanical engineers work in manufacturing or agriculture production, maintenance or technical sales; many become administrators or managers. Mining and geological engineers find, extract and prepare coal, metals and minerals for use by manufacturing industries and utilities. They design open-pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral-processing operations that separate minerals from the dirt, rock and other materials with which they are mixed. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers are working to solve problems related to land reclamation and to water and air pollution. Mining safety engineers use their knowledge of mine design and practices io ensure the safety of workers and to comply with State and Federal safety regulations. They inspect the surfaces of walls and roofs, monitor air quality, and examine mining equipment for compliance with safety practices. Text 7 A. Engineering and Science Engineering and science are closely related. Both engineering and science rely on accurate observation of materials and phenomena. Both use mathematics and classification criteria to analyze these observations. Scientists interpret their observations and make recommendations for practical action on their basis. Scientists may also complete engineering tasks.
such as designing experimental apparatus or building prototypes. Engineers, in their turn, sometimes explore new phenomena in the process of developing technology and thus become, for the moment, scientists. However, engineering is quite different from science. Scientists try to understand nature. Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature Engineers stress invention. To embody an invention the engineer must put his idea in concrete terms and design something that people can use. It can be a device, a gadget, a material, a method, a computing programme, an innovative experiment, a new solution to a problem or an improvement of the old one. Design has to be exact; it must have its geometry, dimensions, and characteristic numbers. That’s why engineers should study mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and mechanics. B. Engineering and Medicine The study of the human body, from different perspectives and for different purposes, is an important common link between medicine and some engineering disciplines. Medicine studies the function of the human body and helps the human body function properly, if necessary, through the use of technology. Modern medicine can replace several of the body’s functions through the use of artificial organs and artificial devices such as. for example, brain or heart implants. The engineering disciplines study the human body as a biological machine and find out how to replace biology with technology. The human body, as a biological machine, has many functions that are modeled with the use of engineering methods. The heart, for example, functions like a pump: the skeleton is like a structure with levers; the brain produces electrical signals, etc. These similarities as well as the application of engineering principles in medicine, have led to the development of biomedical engineering, artificial intelligence, robotics and others. Both medicine and science find solutions to real world problems This often requires experimentation and that’s why empirical knowledge is an essential part of both. C. Engineering and Art There are definite connections between engineering and art: they are direct in some fields, for example, architecture, landscape architecture and industrial design. These disciplines are even sometimes included in a University’s Engineering programme. Design is considered as a component of engineering.
Both engineers and designers create something new or even novel. Among famous historical figures Leonardo da Vinci is a well-known artist and engineer, an excellent example of close relations between art and engineering. His creativity found the broadest expansion namely in engineering. Da Vinci made detailed sketches of the airplane, the helicopter (and other flying machines), the parachute, the submarine, the armored car, the ballista (a giant crossbow), rapid-fire guns, the centrifugal pump (it was designed to drain wet areas, like marshes), ball bearings and many other incredible ideas that were centuries ahead of Da Vinci's time. Leonardo da Vinci called himself simply an “engineer”. There is another example: one of the most well-known design and construction projects of the Renaissance is the dome of St Peter’s Basilica in Rome. The engineer was another brilliant artist — Michelangelo. The original design was done by architect and engineer Donato Bramante, who did not manage to complete the project. Before he died, Bramante recommended his nephew, the painter Raphael for the job. Raphael was neither architect nor engineer, but knew enongh to strengthen the dome’s support columns, which was necessary to prevent the structure from collapsing under its own weight. Text8 The History of Mechanical Engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, and energy. Practitioners of mechanical engineering are called mechanical engineers. Mechanical engineers use these principles and others in the design and analysis of automobiles, aircraft, heating and cooling systems, manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, and more. Mechanical engineering is found in many ancient and medieval societies throughout the globe. In ancient Greece, there were brilliant mechanical engineers such as Archimede (287—212 BC), as well as Heron of Alexandria (10—70 AD). Their mechanical works deeply influenced mechanics in the western tradition, although there were many others who contributed to early mechanical science. In ancient China, there were also many notable figures, such as Zhang Heng (78—139 AD) and Ma Jun (200—265 AD). The medieval Chinese engineer Su Song (1020—1101 AD) incorporated an escapement mechanism1 into his astronomical clock tower. It happened two centuries before the escapement mechanism appeared in clocks of medieval Europe. Before the industrial revolution, most engineering was restricted to military and civil uses. Military engineers designed fortification systems and var
ious war machines. Civil engineers were responsible for building and ground structures. During the early 19th century in England mechanical engineering developed as a separate field to provide manufacturing machines and the engines for them. The first British professional society of civil engineers was formed in ISIS; society of mechanical engineers followed in 1S47. In the United States, the first mechanical engineering professional society was formed in 1880. The first engineering schools in the United States were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. An engineering education was based on mathematics and science. Note on the text 1 escapemenl mechanism — выпускное устройство. Text 9 Ernest Rutherford Emest Rutherford (1871—1937) was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. His family emigrated from England before he was bom and had a farm near Nelson in New Zealand. He was one of 12 children; he liked the hard work on the form, but was a good student and won a university scholarship. After college, he won another scholarship to study at Cambridge University in England. It was a turning point in his life There he met J.J. Thomson (who soon discovered the electron), and Thomson encouraged him to study X-rays This was the start of a long and productive career in atomic physics. Rutherford created new terms for some of the most basic principles in the field: alpha, beta and gamma rays, the proton, the neutron, half-life, and daughter atoms. Several of the famous physicists of the century, Niels Bohr, James Chadwick, Robert Oppenheimer, studied under his supervision. Rutherford found that all known radioactive elements emit two kinds of radiation: positively and negatively charged, or alpha and beta. He showed that every radioactive element decreases in radioactivity over a unique and regular time, or half-life, and eventually become stable. In 1901 and 1902, he wotked with Frederick Soddy to prove that at high velocity atoms of one radioactive element spontaneously turn into another. Many scientists of that time rejected this idea. They believed that the atom is indivisible and unchangeable. But by 1904 Rutherford’s publications and achievements gained
recognition. He was a vety active researcher: during seven years he published 80 papers. In 1907, he went to the University of Manchester and with Hans Geiger set up a centre to study radiation. In 1909, he began experiments that changed the basis of physics. He discovered the atomic nucleus and developed a model of the atom that was similar to the solar system. Like planets, electrons orbited a central, sun-like nucleus. For his work with radiation and the atomic nucleus, Rutherford received the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Rutherford became a knight in 1914. In 1919, he discovered that alpha particles can “disintegrate” the nuclei of certain elements, for example nitrogen. Nitrogen in this process actually transforms into an oxygen isotope, so Rutherford first carried out a transmutation reaction (formation of hydrogen and oxygen isotope by bombardment of nitrogen with alpha particles). Later in 1919, he became a director of the Cavendish Laboratory. His warm, outgoing personality made him an outstanding mentor to researchers. As years went by Rutherford took on more supervision and less research. In 1931, he became the First Baron Rutherford of Nelson, New Zealand and joined the House of Lords. Rutherford died two years before the discovery of atomic fission. Text 10 Nikola Tesla Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 — 7 January 1943) was an inventor, mechanical and electrical engineer. He was one of the most important contributors to the birth of commercial electricity, and is best known for his many revolutionary developments in the field of electromagnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tesla’s theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) including the system of electrical distribution and the AC motor. Aside from his work on electromagnetism and electromechanical engineering, Tesla contributed to the establishment of robotics, remote control, radar and computer science and theoretical physics. Nikola Tesla was born on 10 July 1856 in Smiijan, Lika, which was then part of the Austo-Hungarian Empire, region of Croatia. His father, Miluiin Tesla was a Serbian Orthodox Priest and his mother Djuka Mandic was an inventor in her own right of household appliances. Tesla studied at the Re-
alschule, Karlstadt in 1873, the Polytechnic Institute in Graz, Austria and the University of Prague. At first, he intended to specialize in physics and mathematics, but soon he became fascinated with electricity. He began his career as an electrical engineer with a telephone company in Budapest in 1881. It was there, as Tesla was walking with a friend through the city park that the elusive solution to the rotating magnetic field flashed through his mind. With a stick, he drew a diagram in the sand explaining to his friend the principle of the induction motor. Before going to America, Tesla joined Continental Edison Company in Paris where he designed dynamos. While in Strassbourg in 1883, he privately built a prototype of the induction motor and ran it successfully Unable to interest anyone in Europe in promoting this radical device, Tesla accepted an offer to work for Thomas Edison in New York. His childhood dream was to come to America to harness the power of Niagara Falls. Young Nikola Tesla came io the United States tn 1884. Tesla spent the next 59 years of his productive life living in New York. In 1886, Tesla formed his own company. In 1887, he constructed the initial brushless alternating current induction motor. In the same year, he developed the principles of his Tesla coil. In April 1887, Tesla began io investigate what later was called X-rays. In the early research, Tesla devised several experimental devices to produce X-rays. He also commented on the danger of working with X-ray-producing devices. Tesla continued research in the field and performed several experiments prior to Roentgen’s discovery. But he did not make his findings widely known. Tesla developed the Tesla generator in 1895. Tesla demonstrated “the transmission of electrical energy without wires” in 1891. The Tesla effect (named after Tesla) is a term for this type of electrical conduction (that is, the movement of energy through space and matter). In 1891, he became a citizen of the United States at the age of 35. Tesla established his laboratory in New York in the same year. From 1893 to 1895, he investigated high frequency alternating currents. He generated AC of one million volts with a Tesla coil, designed tuned circuits, transmitted electromagnetic energy without wires, and built the first radio transmitter. Tesla researched ways to transmit power and energy without wires over long distances. In his experiments, he made mathematical calculations and computations and discovered that the resonant frequency of the Earth was approximately 8 hertz (Hz) After his demonstration of wireless communication through radio in 1894 people recognized him as one of the greatest electrical engineers who worked in America. But because of his eccentric personality and his unbelievable claims about possible scientific and technological developments, everybody
regarded Tesla as a mad scientist. Tesla never put much focus on his finances and died in great poverty at the age of 86. A monument to Tesla stands at Niagara Falls, New York. This monument portrays Tesla reading a set of notes. There is a copy of the monument in front of the University of Belgrade Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Nikola Tesla has appeared in popular culture as a character in books, films, radio, TV, music, live theatre, comics and video games. The lack of recognition during Tesla’s lifetime has made him a tragic character suitable for dramatic fiction. Text 11 Modern Inventions You can’t reinvent the wheel, but it is difficult to overestimate its significance in our lives. The name of the inventor, however, is lost in the winds of time. During the past two decades technology has developed so quickly and the world lias changed so greatly that our life has been completely revolutionized. Let’s consider some of the revolutionary inventions that made our lives so much more comfortable and beautiful. USB flash drive. Not so long ago there was a time when we used to store digital information on a thin plastic diskette which had numerous drawbacks and a 2 mb memory. That was the floppy. Then the revolution came — Trek Technology and IBM began to sell the first USB flash drives in 2000, and the world was never the same again. The USB have been gradually increased in size from a basic I6 mb to gigantic 256 gb in recent times. This, of course, gives endless opportunities and numerous solutions to constantly increasing needs. Lithium battery. Size is no guarantee of power — the lithium batteries are the perfect example of that. Everything wireless, from cell phones and laptops to wrist watches and digital camera, are being powered by this small handy invention. It may be interesting to note that around 1936, archaeologists discovered in a village near Baghdad a number of terracotta jars which each contained a rolled-up sheet of copper with an iron rod. Some scientists believe these were ancient galvanic cells, about 2,000 years old. It is believed that a common food acid, such as lemon juice or vinegar, served as an electrolyte. Windows. The story began in Plaza Hotel, New York City on the 10th of November 1983 when Windows was officially launched by the two Microsoft founders Paul Allen and Bill Gates. Windows was their company’s first graphical user interface operating system. The story never ended, as Windows has become the soul of most computers in the world. Of course. Window's can be criticized, but every time it is being criticized Windows comes up with a newer, safer version to silence its critics.
MP3Format. It’s hard to believe that the mp3 (full name MPEG Audio Layer III) format came into existence only in 1991! It is a standard for audio compression that makes any music files smaller and provides the best quality of sound. But you may not know that during modification tests, the project almost died! The encoding did not work properly and just two days before release of the first version of the M P3 codec1, an error was discovered. Just imagine for a second if the developers, Dieter Seitzer and Karlheinz Brandenburg, had given up then... Camera Phones. Cell phones were always important, but the additional function made them more enjoyable. The first commercial camera phone was made by Sharp Corporation and appeared in the market in 2001. Global Positioning System. The GPS, a provider of reliable positioning, navigation and timing2 helps people all over the world. GPS navigators are widely used today. They can be incorporated into your cars, hoats, computers, mobile phones, watches and more. Their advantages include safety from car theft, identification of traffic free routes and speed control of your car. Besides, you will never be lost with the GPS! Google. It is the best Internet programme which gives answers practically to everything. It was first launched about ten years ago, and its success can be imagined from the fact that it is now a billion dollar company, and that there is no Internet user on our planet who does not know this name SMS. Its significance can be assessed from the fact that over 2.4 billion SMS are delivered across the planet each day and it is now the most wide-ly-used data application around the world. The initial idea was just to transfer small amount of data over the airwaves. The ingenious integration ofthe idea with a cell phone made SMS possible. SMS has become an essential part of our daily life. Mobile Phone. Nowadays the mobile phone is so important to us that we cannot think of life without it. However, mobile phone is a relatively new invention. The first success came when American researchers Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel divided wireless communications into a series of cells, and then automatically switched callers as they moved so that each cell could be reused. This led to the development of cellular phones and made today’s mobile communications possible. On 17 June 1946 a driver in St Louis, Missouri, made the first mobile telephone call. Alton Dickieson, H.l. Romnesand, D. Mitchell had worked more than a decade to achieve this goal. By 1948. wireless telephone service was available in almost 100 cities. However, that “primitive” wireless network could not handle large numbers of calls. The technology was improved after 1965 and included a few more channels. But its capacity remained limited.
Cellular telephone service was developed in 1947 by D.H. Ring. The system included low-power transmitters which were situated throughout a city in a hexagonal grid. The call was automatically switched from one hexagon to another within a city. But there were no technology to implement it. Ericsson came up with an automatic mobile phone system, which was released in Sweden in 1956. It was known as MTA and did not require manual control. The drawback of this system was that the phones weighed 40 kgs. The cellular concept waited until the 1960s, when Richard Frenkiel and Joel Engel applied computers and electronics to make it work Modem mobile telephony appeared on 3 April 1973, when Dr Martin Cooper, the Director of Research and Development for Motorola Company, was walking along the streets of New York and talking on the first mobile telephone, a Motorola DynaTAC. But the mobile phones of that time were large and very expensive. Most people did not want to buy these phones for everyday use. In the 1980s, the cell phone was made smaller and fully automated systems were developed that made it easier to get a connection. Prices went down both for the phones and the service, and people used the mobile phones in their vehicles. The first commercial cellular system was opened in October 1983. However, only in the 1990s, developments in technology brought the power of instant communication to everybody. The large models of years ago have been replaced by ones no bigger than watches which work as mini PCs as well as phones. The birth of 3G (third generation) technologies allowed to use mobile Internet and to make high tech video calls. 4-G technology will mark the future of mobile telephones and will create the most sophisticated handsets and best services. Notes on the text 1 codec — кодек, кодер-декодер 16 юк аппаратуры цифровой передачи речевых сигиаигв по те гефинным каналом} 1 riming — расчет времени Answer the questions to the text. I. When were first USB fiash drives sold? 2. What is the size of USB memory today ? 3. What is being powered with lithium batteries ? 4. Did ancient people have any batteries? 5. When did MP3 Format first appear? 6. What does MP3 Format provide to us? 7. Where can GPS navigators be installed? 8. What is the best Internet programme? Do you agree? If not, what is the best Internet programme for you? 9. How many SMS are delivered every day in the whole world?
Text 12 Environmental Engineering Ever since people first recognized that their health and well-being were related to the quality of their environment, they have applied thoughtful principles to improve the quality of their environment. The Romans constructed aqueducts to prevent drought and to create a clean, healthful water supply for the cities. In the 15th century, Bavaria created laws that restricted the development and degradation of alpine country that constituted the region’s water supply Environmental engineering appeared as a separate environmental discipline during the middle of the 20th century in response to widespread public concern about pollution of the environment. Modern environmental engineering began in London when Joseph Bazalgette designed the first major sewerage system that reduced the watetborne diseases such as cholera. The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries made waterborne diseases very rare In many cases, as human civilization developed, actions that were to achieve benefits for people had damaged environment. One example is the application of DDT1 to control agricultural pests after World War II. The agricultural benefits were outstanding; crop yields increased and considerably reduced world hunger. But due to the impact of DDT numerous species became extinct. The story of DDT is considered the birth of the modern environmental movement and the development of the modern field of “environmental engineering”. Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to the environment. The main task of environmental engineering is to protect and preserve the environment and thus to protect human health. Environmental engineering also tries to make use of energy more efficient and to find new forms of energy. Besides, it iries io convert people io environmentally friendly energy and products. Environmental engineering involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal as well as knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of different construction projects. Environmental engineers develop solutions to environmental problems. They are concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues. They study and try to minimize the effects of acid rain, global warming, automobile emissions, and ozone depletion. They may also be involved in the protection of wildlife. Environmental engineers deal with water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues. They design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems. They
conduct research on the environmental impact of construction projects, analyze scientific data, and perform quality-control checks. Many environmental engineers work as consultants, they help their clients to follow environmental regulations and to clean up hazardous sites. There are several divisions in the field of environmental engineering: environmental impact assessment and mitigation, water supply and treatment, wastewater conveyance and treatment and air quality management. Environmental engineers and scientists use scientific and engineering principles to assess the potential impacts of a project, plans, programmes, policies upon the physical-chemical, biological, cultural, and socioeconomic conditions. If impacts are expected, they develop mitigation measures to limit or prevent such impacts. Engineers and scientists work to evaluate the water balance and determine the available water supply; they also develop systems to store and treat water for various uses. Water distribution systems are designed and built to provide adequate water pressure for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. They also design wastewater treatment technologies. They apply scientific and engineering principles to reduce air pollution to acceptable levels Note on the text 1 DDT — ДДТ (инсектицид) Answer the questions to the text. I. When did people begin to apply thoughtful principles to improve their environment? 2. What examples from the past time show that people cared about their environment? 3. When did the discipline of environmental engineering appear? 4. When did the modern environmental movement begin ? 5. What is environmental engineering ? 6. What is the main task of environmental engineering? 7. What does environmental engineering involve ? 8. What do environmental engineers do ? 9. What are the divisions of environmental engineering? Text 13 Ecological Crisis Generally, an ecological crisis occurs when the environment of a species or a population becomes unfavourable for the life of that species. It may happen when the environment quality becomes worse after a change in ecological factors (for example, an increase of temperature, less significant rainfalls). Overpopulation or poaching can cause ecological crisis too. 34B
Ecological crises may be more or less brutal (take a few months or a few million years). They may relate to one unique species or to many species. Also an ecological crisis may be local (as an oil spill) or global (a rise in the sea level due to global warming). According to its degree of endemism, a local crisis will have more or less significant consequences, from the death of many individuals to the total extinction of a species. Whatever its origin, disappearance of one or several species often will involve a rupture in the food chain, further impacting the survival of other species. In the case of a global crisis, the consequences can be much more significant; some extinction events showed the disappearance of more than 90% of existing species at that time. However, it should be noted that the disappearance of certain species, such as the dinosaurs, allowed the development and the diversification of the mammals. An ecological crisis thus paradoxically favoured biodiversity. Sometimes an ecological crisis can be a reversible phenomenon at the ecosystem scale. But more generally, the crisis impact will last. If an ecological crisis can cause extinction, it can also reduce the quality of life of the remaining individuals. Epidemic diseases, famines, reduction of air quality, food crises, reduction of living space, accumulation of toxic or non-degrada-ble wastes, threats to keystone species (great apes, panda, whales) are influencing the well-being of people. During the past decades, the increasing responsibility of humanity in some ecological crises has been clearly observed. Due to the development of technology and a rapidly increasing population, humans have great influence on their own environment. Text 14 Ecological Problems of Russia Russia is the largest country in the world with a territory of more than 17 million square kilometres. It covers 12.6% of the dry-land surface of the planet, and thus bears responsibility for the protection of a significant part of the world’s natural and biological life. Official data show that currently the ecological situation in Russia is generally poor, and in some places it is catastrophic. 14—15% of the Russian territory is classified as ecological “problem zones”. Satellite photographs show that forests are being cut down at an alarming rate in Russia. In the future, it is expected that the ecological situation will worsen, as the economic growth is achieved with the use of principally out-dated technologies and techniques. Negative ecological and economic factors can be
named among the causes of the worsening demographic situation in Russia. According to experts’ assessments, ecological factors are to a considerable extent responsible for these depressing demographic indicators. Ecological problems are extremely closely intertwined and are closely connected to global problems, such as: the greenhouse effect, global warming (causing the sea-level to rise by 1.2 mm per year), ozone layer depletion, and destruction of tree cover. Life expectancy has reached incredibly low levels: 57 years for men, and 70 years for women. In Russia, preservation of the environment is of crucial importance for the future of civilization. Text 15 Electric Power Generation Generators and motors are very closely related and many motors that contain permanent magnets can also act as generators. If you move a permanent magnet past a coil of wire that is part of an electric circuit, you will cause current to flow through that coil and circuit. That’s because a changing magnetic field, such as that near a moving magnet, is always accompanied in nature by an electric field While magnetic fields push on magnetic poles, electric fields push on electric charges. With a coil of wire near the moving magnet, the moving magnet’s electric field pushes charges through the coil and eventually through the entire circuit. A convenient arrangement for generating electricity endlessly is to mount a permanent magnet on a spindle and to place a coil of wire nearby. Then as the magnet spins, it will turn past the coil of wire and propel currents through that coil. If you take a common DC motor out of a toy and connect its two electrical terminals to a 1.5 V light bulb or a light emitting diode (try both directions with an LED because it can only carry current in one direction), you’ll probably be able to light that bulb or LED by spinning the motor’s shaft rapidly. A DC motor has a special switching system that converts the AC produced in the motor’s coils into DC for delivery to the motor’s terminals, but it's still a generator. So the easiest answer to your question is: “find a nice DC motor and turn its shaft” There is no fundamental limit to how much current a generator can handle, however, the characteristics of the generator’s wiring, its magnetic fields, and the machinery turning it all tend to limit its current capacity. A generator’s wires aren’t perfect and, as the current passing through the generator increases, its wires waste more and more power. Like any wiring, a generator’s wires convert electric power into thermal power in proportion to the square
of the current. Thus if you double the current in the generator, you quadruple the power loss. While this power loss and the resulting heat are trivial at low currents, they become serious problems at high currents. Increasing the current in the generator also affects its magnetic fields because currents are magnetic. At a low current, the current's magnetism can be ignored. But when a generator is handling a very large current, the magnetic fields associated with that current are no longer small perturbations on the generator’s normal magnetic fields and the generator may not perform properly any more. Finally, a generator’s job is to transfer energy from a mechanical system to the electric current passing through it. As the amount of current in the generator increases, the amount of work that the mechanical system provides must also increase — the generator becomes harder to turn. There will always be a limit to how much torque an engine or crank can exert on the generator to keep it spinning and thus there will be a limit to how much current the generator can handle. As for how the current varies with load: the more current the load permits to pass through it, the more current will pass through the generator. Assuming that the generator is well built and has very little electric resistance, the load will serve to limit the current. The generator will then deliver just as much current as the load will permit. If the load permits more current, the generator will deliver more. Asa result, the wires in the generator will waste more power as heat, the magnetic fields in the generator will become more complicated, and the device powering the generator will have to work harder to keep the generator turning. Text 16 Gas and Power Generation Natural gas is important as a major source for electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode. Environmentally, natural gas burns cleaner than other fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces fewer greenhouse gases. Foran equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal. Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is thus the cleanest source of power available using fossil fuels, and this technology is widely used wherever gas can be obtained at a reasonable cost. Fuel cell technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive. Also, natural gas is said to peak around the year 2030, 20 years after the peak of
oil. It is also projected that the world’s supply of natural gas should finish around the year 2085. Natural gas is commercially produced from oil field and natural gas fields. Gas produced from oil wells is called casinghead gas, or associated gas1. The largest two natural gas fields are probably South Pars Gas Field in Iran and Urengoy gas field in Russia, with reserves on the order of 1013 m3. Qatar also lias 25 trillion cubic metres of natural gas of the world’s proven supply), enough to last 250 years at current production levels. Town gas2 is a mixture of methane and other gases which can be used in a similar way to natural gas and can be produced by treating coal chemically. This is a historic technology still used as “best solution” in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices, depending upon infrastructure considerations. Notes on the text 1 casinghead (associated) gas — нефтяной (попутный) газ (поручаемый изкаа ректора нефти) 2 lawn gas— коммунальный (бытовой) газ. Text 17 History of Electricity Use Long before any knowledge of electricity existed people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BC referred to these fish as the “Thunderer of the Nile”, and described them as the “protectors” of all other fish. They were again reported millennia later by ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic naturalist and physicians. Several ancient writers attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and torpedo rays, and knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them. Possibly the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, and electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning (raad) applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat’s fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletos made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BC, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing. Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but later science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According io a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which
resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English physician William Gilbert made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber. He coined the New Latin word electricus(“of amber” or “like amber”, from i^leicTpov [etekfron], the Greek word for “amber”) to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words “electric” and “electricity”. In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752, he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of the hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature- in 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectricity, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which nerve cells passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta’s battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines previously used. The recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric and magnetic phenomena, is due to Andre-Marie Ampere in 1819—1820; Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in 1821, and George Ohm mathematically analysed the electrical circuit in 1827. In the early 19th century there had been rapid progress in electrical science, but in the late 19th century there was the greatest progress in electrical engineering. Electricity was turned from a scientific curiosity into an essential tool for modern life, becoming a driving force for the second industrial revolution. Text 18 More Facts about Electricity In order to understand how electricity moves, how electric charge moves from one atom io another, we need to know something about atoms. Everything in the universe is made of atoms — every star, every tree, every animal. The human body is made of atoms. Air and water are, too. Atoms are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are so small that millions of them would fit on the head of a pin. Atoms are made of even smaller particles. The centre ot an atom is called the nucleus. It is made of particles called protons and neutrons. The protons
and neutrons are very small, but electrons are much, much smaller. Electrons spin around the nucleus in shells a great distance from the nucleus. If the nucleus were the size of a tennis ball, the atom would be the size of the Empire State Building. Atoms are mostly empty space. If you could see an atom, it would look a little like a tiny centre of balls surrounded by giant invisible bubbles (or shells). The electrons would be on the surface of the bubbles, constantly spinning and moving to stay as far away from each other as possible. Electrons are held in their shells by an electrical force. The protons and electrons of an atom are attracted to each other. They both carry an electrical charge. An electrical charge is a force within the particle. Protons have a positive charge (+) and electrons have a negative charge (—). The positive charge of the protons is equal to the negative charge of the electrons. Opposite charges attract each other. When an atom is in balance, it has an equal number of protons and electrons. The neutrons carry no charge and their number can vary. The number of protons in an atom determines the kind of atom, or element, it is. An element is a substance in which all of the atoms are identical (the Periodic Table shows all the known elements). Every atom of hydrogen, for example, has one proton and one electron, with no neutrons. Every atom of carbon has six protons, six electrons, and six neutrons. The number of protons determines which element it is. Electrons usually remain a constant distance from the nucleus in precise shells. The shell closest to the nucleus can hold two electrons. The next shell can hold up to eight. The outer shells can hold even more. Some atoms with many protons can have as many as seven shells with electrons in them. The electrons in the shells closest to the nucleus have a strong force of attraction to the protons. Sometimes, the electrons in the outermost shells do not. These electrons can be pushed out of their orbits. Applying a force can make them move from one atom to another. These moving electrons are electricity. Electricity is an extremely flexible form of energy, and has been adapted to a huge number of uses. The invention of a practical incandescent light bulb in the 1870s made lighting one of the first widely available applications of electrical power. Although electrification brought with it its own dangers, it greatly reduced fire hazards within homes and factories. Electricity is a highly practical energy source for refrigeration and air conditioning. Electricity is used within telecommunications, and the electrical telegraph, demonstrated commercially in 1837 by Cooke and Wheatstone, was one of its earliest applications. With the construction of first intercontinental, and then transatlantic, telegraph systems in the 1860s, electricity had enabled communications across the globe. Though optical fibre and satellite com
munication technology are now used for communications systems, electricity can be expected to remain an essential part of the process. The effects of electromagnetism are most visibly employed in the electric motor, which provides a clean and efficient source of motive power. A stationary motor, such as a pulley, is easily provided with a supply of power. But a motor that moves with its application, such as an electric vehicle, has to eit her carry along a power source, such as a battery, or to collect current from a sliding contact, such as a pantograph1, placing restrictions on its range of performance. Electronic devices make use of the transistor, perhaps one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century, and a fundamental building block of all modern circuitry. A modern integrated circuit may contain several billion miniaturised transistors in a region only a few square centimetres. Note on the text 1 pantograph — пантограф, токоприемник Text 19 Geographical Challenges Facing Urban Transportation Cities are locations having a high level of accumulation and concentration of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that are supported by transport systems. The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas, when transport systems, for a variety of reasons, cannot satisfy the numerous requirements of urban mobility. Urban productivity is highly dependent on the efficiency of its transport system to move labour, consumersand freight between multiple origins and destinations. Some problems are ancient, like congestion (which plagued cities such as Rome), and others are new like urban freight distribution or environmental impacts, notably CO? emissions linked with the diffusion of the internal combustion engine. Among the most notable urban transport problems are: Traffic congestion and parking difficulties. Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban agglomerations. It is particularly linked with the diffusion of the automobile, which increases the demand for transport infrastructure that lias often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility. Public transport inadequacy. Many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over- or underused. During peak hours, crowdedness creates discomfort for users, while low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas. Difficulties for pedestrians. These difficulties are either the outcome of intense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians and vehicles are impaired, but
also because of a blatant lack of consideration for pedestrians in the physical design of facilities Loss of public space. The majority of roads are publicly owned and free of access. Increased traffic has adverse impacts on public activities which once crowded the streets such as markets, agoras, parades and processions, games, and community interactions. These have gradually disappeared to be replaced by automobiles. In many cases, these activities have shifted to shopping malls while in other cases they have been abandoned altogether. Traffic flows influence the life and interactions of residents and their usage of street space. More traffic impedes social interactions and street activities. People tend to walk and cycle less when traffic is high Environmental impacts and energy consumption. Pollution, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious impediment to the quality of life and even the health of urban populations. Further, energy consumption by uiban transportation has dramatically increased and so the dependency on petroleum. Accidents and safety. Growing traffic in urban areas is linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities, especially in developing countries. As traffic increases, people feel less safe to use the streets. Land consumption. Between 30 and 60*¥ of a metropolitan area may be devoted to transportation, an outcome of the over-reliance on some forms of urban transportation. Freight distribution. The materialization of the economy has produced growing quantities of freight moving within metropolitan areas. As freight traffic commonly shares infrastructures with passengers’ circulation, the mobility of freight in urban areas has become increasingly problematic. City logistics strategies can be established to mitigate this problem. Text 20 Unique Construction Techniques Some unique construction techniques have been around for thousands of years, while others are the offspring of the modern age. In some cases, like the rubber tire houses of the American Southwest, unorthodox building materials are necessitated by excess accumulations of non-degradable waste items. What is most fascinating about the subject of construction techniques, is that the modern methods can often be found in close proximity to the ancient techniques. I. Straw Bale Buildings. Making a dwelling from dried plant material is nothing new — just take a look at the sod houses of the prairie or the thatched roof cottages of England. However, using the tied up bales of straw (not to
be confused with hay) is a creative construction idea that has flourished in modem times. Each bale acts as a building block similar to a brick With a protective water barrier, the bales can be stacked like cement blocks or used as building units placed in between post and beam framing members. 2. Sculptured Adobe. The Pueblo Indians learned how to build with adobe bricks from the Spanish. As a result, these functional and economical type of dwellings can be found in many places of the Southwest. An adobe is nothing more than a mixture of mud and straw, placed in a rectangular mold and sun-dried with the wet adobe mixture serving as a mortar. Instead, of putting together a standard four-cornered structure, contemporary designers have taken to making circular and irregularly shaped buildings. The plastic nature ofthe materials lends itself very well to creating this type of structure. 3. Rubber Tire Homes. Excess non-degradable rubber tires have become a major environmental headache and in some cases a fire hazard. In drier regions, some enterprising builders and architects have found creative ways to fill each tire with rammed earth and then stack each unit in alternating rows, as if they were bricks. Buildings made in this way tend to have very thick walls that are covered with earth or coated with adobe or even concrete. When properly designed and constructed a rubber tire structure can make for a liveable home. 4. Carved Rock. Arid climates that support soft durable rock formations are ideal locations for hand-carved caves that can function as a year-round living space. Many of these st ructures date back for thousands of years, when they were constructed for basic shelter by older cultures. A visit to a locale, like southern Spain, will reveal that this construction technique has not died out, but is in fact thriving. In fact, cave homes in Spain have deeds, property rights and are often designed and completed by skilled craftsmen. Many people associate the construction industry with difficult and laborious jobs. In reality, there are a number of different types of careers available in this industry, ranging from white-collar management jobs to highly-skilled building trade positions. No matter what your skills or interests, you’re likely to find a career you’ll enjoy in this field. Text 21 Mechanisms The term “mechanism” is applied to the combination of geometrical bodies which constitute a machine or part of a machine. A mechanism may be defined as a combination of rigid or resistant bodies, formed and connected so that they move with definite relative motions with respect to one another.
Mechanisms are used to convert between one type of motion and another. Any machine can be looked on as a group of interconnected mechanisms which convert one type of motion to a variety of other motions. These changes may be to convert rotary motion to straight line motion or to convert reciprocal (back and forth) motion to intermittent motion. They may also transform a fixed type of motion, for example by magnifying a linear motion or by slowing down a rotary motion. In the course of our everyday lives we use mechanisms of various kinds. We turn keys in locks, flick switches, pull levers, press buttons, push pedals, drop coins in slots, rotate dials, and expect things to happen. We take it for granted that things will work, often without asking how or why they work. For most people, the insides of “machines” such as door locks, car engines, typewriters, sewing machines, lawn mowers and vacuum cleaners are something of a puzzle. The workings of machines which produce such products seem even more remote. Yet the growth of the industrialized society in which we now live was made possible by the invention and production of such devices which could either do tasks previously beyond our physical capabilities or could do them faster. Our bewilderment at the number and complexity of manufactured products is matched by our reliance on their effective functioning. The provision of necessities of life has become largely a mechanical operation. For example, without the combine harvester and the tractor and its implements, about 75% of the population of this country would still have to work on the land in order to provide sufficient food for us all. No matter what we do, we depend directly or indirectly on manufactured products — from engines of all kinds to a simple labour-saving device like a mechanical egg whisk, from bridges and tower blocks to tables and chairs. In this course we shall be looking at the common principles which govern the design of the engineering products to be found around us. Text 22 Early History of Computing The first use of the word “computer” was recorded tn 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onwards, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations. The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies — automated calculation and programmability — but no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like
some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC which descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946, the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the Moon, and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC. The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10—70 AD) built a mechanical theatre which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when. This is the essence of programmability In 1642, the Reneissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator, a device that could perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways; initially, it is in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage and then developed, leading to the development of mainframe computers in the 1960s, but also the microprocessor, which started the personal computer revolution, and which is now at the heart of all computer systems regardless of size or putpose, was invented serendipitously by Intel during the development of an electronic calculator, a direct descendant to the mechanical calculator. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability. In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer, his analytical engine. Limited finances and Babbage’s inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed; nevertheless his son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version ofthe analytical engine’s computing unit {the mill) in 1888. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906. This machine was given to the Science museum in South Kensington in 1910. In the late 1880s, Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine readable medium. Prior uses of machine readable media, above, had been for control, not data. “After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards...” To process these punched cards he invented the
tabulator and the keypunch machines. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith’s company, which later became the core of IBM. By the end of the 19th century, a number of ideas and technologies, that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers, had begun to appear: Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve), punched cards and tape, and the teleprinter. During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers. Text 23 The Personal Nature of Ergonomics Ergonomics derives from two Greek words: ergon, meaning “work”, and nomoi, meaning “natural laws”, to create a word that means “the science of work and a person’s relationship to that work”. The International Ergonomics Association has adopted this technical definition: ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. That is not the most efficient definition of what ergonomics is. Let us keep things simple. Ergonomics is the science of making things comfy. It also makes things efficient. And when you think about it, comfy just another way of making things efficient. However for simplicity, ergonomics makes things comfortable and efficient. At its simplest definition ergonomics literally means the science of work. So ergonomists, i. e. the practitioners of ergonomics, study work, how work is done and how to work better. It is the attempt to make work better that ergonomics becomes so useful. And that is also where making things comfortable and efficient comes into play. Ergonomics is commonly thought of in terms of products. But it can be equally useful in the design of services or processes. It is used in design in many complex ways. However, what you, or the user, is most concerned with is, “How can I use the product or service, will it meet my needs, and will I like using it?” Ergonomics helps define how it is used, how it meets your needs, and most importantly if you like it.
One of the aims of ergonomics is to make comfort for humans. Comfort is much more than a soft handle. Comfort is one of the greatest aspects of a design’s effectiveness. Comfort in the human-machine interface and the mental aspects of the product or service is a primary ergonomic design concern. Comfort in the human-machine interface is usually noticed first. Physical comfort in how an item feels is pleasing to the user. If you do not like to touch it, you won’t. If you do not touch it, you will not operate it. If you do not operate it, then it is useless. The utility of an item is the only true measure of the quality of its design. The job of any designer is to find innovative ways to increase the utility of a product. Making an item intuitive and comfortable to use will ensure its success in the marketplace. Physical comfort while using an item increases its utility The mental aspect of comfort in the human-machine interface is found in feedback. You have preconceived notions of certain things. A quality product should feel like it is made out of quality materials. If it is light weight and flimsy, you will not feel that comfortable using it. The look, feel, use and durability of a product help you make a mental determination about a product or service. Basically it lets you evaluate the quality of the item and compare that to the cost. Better ergonomics mean better quality which means you will be more comfortable with the value of the item. Text 24 Nanotechnology Nanotechnology first gained recognition after Nobel laureate, Richard Feynman, presented his talk, “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” to the American Physical Society in 1959 Activity surrounding nanotechnology began to slowly increase over the next few decades. In 1988, Eric Drexler taught the first course on nanotechnology. In that programme, he suggested the possibility of nanosized objects that were self-replicating. Slow growth in this area of scientific investigation continued. The next major milestone was when Rice University Professor Richard Smalley won the 1996 Nobel Prize for discovering a new form of carbon: a molecule of sixty carbon atoms (referred to as C60). Today C6B has become one of a growing number of building blocks for a new class of nanosized materials The advancements in nanotechnology really began to accelerate in the late 1990s. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials captured the thoughts and imagination of scientists. Nanomaterials are defined as those which have nanostructured components with at (less titan 100 nm). Materials with one dimension in the nanoscale are layers, such as thin films or surface coatings.
Materials that are nanoscale in two dimensions are nanowires and nanotubes. Materials that are nanoscale in three dimensions are particles quantum dots (tiny particles of semiconductor materials). Nanocrystalline materials, made up of nanometer-sized grains, also fall into this category. Research into nanomaterials spans a significant spectrum of areas. Advanced material companies are producing innovative products in areas such as coatings, industrial powders, chemicals, and carbon nanotubes. Today, real world application of nanotechnology exists in commercial business. About two dozen serious applications of nanomaterials and process have been fielded ranging from non-scuff floor tile and high strength brackets for running boards on vehicles to high temperature protective materials for spacecraft. While nanomaterials are a significant portion of today’s focus, several other areas are equally as promising. Nanotechnology has the potential to become a more significant revolutionary force for business than the industrial revolution or the information technology revolution. In fact, many believe that the combined impact of both the industrial and information revolution may approach the magnitude of change that could result from the commercialization of nanotechnology. Currently, nanotechnology is moving from the basic research stage of its evolution into the applied research stage of technology maturity. Today there are several nanotechnology companies already being traded on the public marketplace. As this technology evolves and matures, you can expect to see many more companies enter this space. Today's manufacturing methods are very crude at the molecular level. Casting, grinding, milling, and even lithography move atoms in mass. It is like trying to make things out of LEGO blocks with boxing gloves on your hands. Yes, you can push the LEGO blocks into great heaps and pile them up; but you cannot really snap them together the way you would like. Text 25 Engineering Solutions None of the modern challenges for engineering will be met if people do not find ways to overcome the economic and political barriers that block them. It is obvious that engineering solutions must always be designed with economic considerations. For example, despite environmental regulations, people prefer cheaper polluting technologies to more expensive, clean technologies. Engineers must also face political obstacles. In many parts of the world, political power that benefits from the old systems blocks new enterprises. New engineering projects always cost a lot and need public funding which requires both popular and political support.
Engineers must join tn with scientists and teachers co encourage science, technology, engineering and mathematics education at schools and to increase flow of technical information to the public. Public understanding of engineering will be important to support the calls for funding, as well as to increase the prospect for successful adoption of new technologies. Teachers must change their programmes and teaching styles to benefit from electronic methods of personalized learning. Doctors will have to change their methods to make use of health informatics systems and implement personalized medicine. Governmental, political, economic and social barriers will constantly arise to prevent the solutions of problems. And engineers will have to integrate their methods and solutions with the goals and desires of all society’s members. Perhaps the most difficult challenge of all will be to distribute the engineering achievements widely around the globe, to rich and poor alike. In the modern world, many of engineering accomplishments are distributed unevenly. At least a billion people do not have access to clean water. Countless millions have no medical care; sustainable supplies of food, water and energy; protection from human violence, natural disaster and disease; full access to the joys of learning, communication and entertainment. These are goals for all of the world’s people. So engineers must do their work with the ultimate goal of universal accessibility of their achievements. Indeed, a world that is divided by wealth and poverty, health and sickness, food and hunger, cannot long remain a stable place for human civilization. Due to the engineering accomplishments of the past, the world lias become smaller and more connected. The challenges that are facing engineering today concern the planet as a whole and the entire planet’s people. Solution of all modern problems must make the world a more sustainable, safe, healthy, and joyous place Text 26 Engineering Career Opportunities Engineers belong to the greatest profession in the world, responsible for almost everything that makes life worth living — from leisure activities to medical treatment, from mobile communications to modern transport systems. Within the wide boundaries of the engineering profession, there are thousands of challenging activities, in areas such as research, development, design, manufacture and operation of products and services. Activities which provide
intellectual challenges with diverse and varied tasks and meeting them will lead to economic and industrial development without polluting environment. Demand for good engineers is high in practically every country in the world. In the IT and electronics sectors, for example, there is always great demand in engineers. Unemployment amongst professional engineers is lower than for any other profession. Professional engineers also have a better chance of becoming a chief executive than any other professional. Engineering degrees can lead to a vast number of career opportunities, with graduates in demand in almost every sector of the economy. The word that characterizes a career in engineering best is variety; and electrical, civil, mechanical, chemical, software systems, information and manufacturing engineering offer a lot of job opportunities for new graduates. Specializations can range from Automation to Power Generation and from Communications to Manufacturing. Within each of these fields, there are opportunities for research, design, development and tests, as well as management, production, marketing and sales. The environment tn which engineering professionals work has never been more dynamic. New materials, technologies and processes are being developed all the time. Increasing globalization, new markets and changing employment conditions also mean that an engineering career is now a truly international one. There is a wide variety of undergraduate and postgraduate courses available worldwide. However, a degree is only the beginning of the formation of a professional engineer. In order to gain status of a professional engineer, graduates often have to work minimum two years after graduation and two or three years in a responsible position. Working in a major industry enables new graduates to develop experience of a wide range of jobs and acquire a broad understanding of engineering activity outside their own branch. Students who begin working during their university course give their academic studies an industrial perspective. Postgraduate training also offers graduates the chance to promote their careers. There is little doubt that the world of engineering offers exciting opportunities for both men and women. The industrial and economic success of every nation is based on its manufacturing and engineering potential, and the skills and ingenuity of its professional engineers. The ability to research, develop and apply new technologies is essential, particularly in today’s global markets. From space travel to household electrician, the role of the engineer is crucial. For anyone looking for a successful future with a wide variety of employment prospects, there has never been a more exciting time to start a career in engineering.
GAMES AND OTHER ACTIVITIES FOR FUN Unitl Game “English-Speaking Countries’'. What are these countries? Read the description of a country and unscramble the words in brackets. The winner is the one who is the first to finish (keys are on p. 383). 1. (GLADENN) is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. 2. (NLIADER) is an island to the northwest of continental Europe 3. (PURSYC) is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and a member state of the European Union. 4. (AALMT) is a southern European country consisting of an archipelago in the centre of the Mediterranean. 5. (AANCDA) is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories 6. (USTOH CARFA1) is a country located at the southern up of Africa. 7 (STEA RFAICA) is the easterly region of the African continent 8. (DUAN) is a country tn South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by geographical area, the second most populous country and the most populous democracy in the world. 9. (KS1APTNA) is a sovereign country tn South Asia. Strategically, it is situated at the crossroads of the important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. 10 (INAPSGERO) is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. 11. (1PES1NHIPPL) is a sovereign country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. 12. (WNE LEZNADA) is an island country located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. 13. (AAUR1LSTA) is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent and numerous islands.
• Cartoons ‘‘Languages”. Look at the cartoons. Tell other students what you think about them. Find out which are the most and least popular cartoons. Useful expressions for you: I don’t see the joke. What do you think of this one? This one’s really funny. It isn't funny at all. I think it’s wonderful / stupid. It makes / doesn’t make me laugh. we’re Icsminfiliow w sped! <сстч>£с." FRENCH-ENG LSH STUDENT EXCHANGE.
Unit 2 • Crossword Puzzle. Try the crossword about Britain (keys are on p. 384). ACROSS I. What many people in Britain read at breakfast 7. Tree very common in Scotland. 8. It can be Sterling, or measure of weight. 10. London railway called “tube”. 12. National Trust (initials'). If). Britain’s national symbolic animal. 17. Charles’s title; Andrew’s too. 19. The general name given to Britain’s health and social security system. DOWN I. Traditional unit of liquid, used for beer or milk. 2. Fish... chips. 3. Member of the nobility. 4. Famous ball game invented at an English school. 23. A member of the British aristocracy. 24. Traditional British summer sport. 27. Popular drink sold in pubs. 28. Pronoun. 29. Sport using horses and dogs; a very traditional English country sport. 30. The person who manages operations in the House of Commons. 5. Acronym of “ 1 owe you”. 6. Canadian dollar (abbreviation). 8. The Queen is head of state, but she lias no... 9. British flag (two words 5, 4)
11- The traditional drink of the Navy. 14. Ceremonial guard at the Tower of London. 15. Britain had great reserves of this black rock. 17. A tart upside down. 18. A taxi. 19. They come from Wales. 20. The Grand National and the Derby are both... 21. County. 25. Travelling salesman (abbreviation). 26. Female sheep. Unit3 • Education Word Search. In the word search there are 23 subjects studied at universities. They go in three directions: left to right, diagonally top left to bottom right, and top to bottom. Can you find them all? ARCH I T E G S В I О G N R О U S E X G I C S О P E I С I G С О X N U R L L L P E А А О M I H P S G X U T H S Y X X S Y I X M E D E С О N О M X S L A N G E С T V R E D L О G Y M C R M E D I A О A T X A R T M M I О X X H P A О N R X S U X L L E Y X T E E T О S X I C Y R U G S NO I S I R Y G L I С I N E L О I C S C G A G U A G E S W Y Of the subjects you found in the search, which do you find: — most interesting? — most boring? — most useful for you? — least useful for you? * Reading and Translating for Fun. Read the following information and translate the verses into Russian. Don’t forget about rhyme! Then compare with the translation in the keys p. 384. In Europe there is a very popular traditional student song, Gaudeamus Igitur. Students always sing it at different University functions, for example the opening of the academic year. Students traditionally stand while they sing it. Although the text has been translated into most of the languages of the world, students usually sing it in Latin. The short version is the following:
Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus Post jucundum juventutem Post molestam senectutem Nos habebit humus. Vivat academia' Vivant professores! Vivat membrum quodlibet Vivat membra quaelibet Semper sint in flore. Our life is brief. It will shortly end; Death comes quickly. Cruelly snatches us; No-one is spared Long live the university. Long live the teachers. Long live each male student, Long live each female student; May they always flourish! Unit 4 • Anagrams. Create a new word by using all the letters of the first word, e.g.: design > signed. The first and last letters have been done for you. The clues will help you (keys are on p. 384). arise 1 R........E course 2 S........E cleared 3 D...........E discover 4 D...........S backwards 5 D...........S introduces 6 R...........S description 7 P...........S electorship 8 H............S interlaced 9 C............L tiredness 10 R..........S handouts I IT..........D claimed 12 D..........L direct 13 C.......T thing 14 N.......T Clues I. increase; 2. origin; 3. state; 4. ends a marriage; 5. synonym of disadvantages; 6. opposite of increases (noun)', 7. synonym of forecasts; 8. kind of aircraft; 9. a document giving proof of qualifications; 10. people who live in a place; 11. a number; 12. a number system; 13. opposite of debit; 14. opposite of day. • Game. Right or Wrong? For every underlined word in the box (1—24) choose one of the two answers that you think is more appropriate and then move to the number given. All the words and phrases can be related to engineering. Start with number 1.
1 common... sense — 5 wisdom — 10 2 wrong! go to 7 3 right! water... systems deliver — 19 supply — 11 4 wrong! go to 17 5 right! engineering— attainment — 12 achievement — 20 6 wrong! go to3 7 right! ...system transport — 2 transportation — 13 8 wrong! go to 13 9 right! professional— qualities — 17 features — 21 10 wrong! goto 1 11 right! public... safety — 7 security — 15 12 wrong! go to 5 13 right! ..of engineering branches — 18 fines — 8 14 right! —conditioning system water — 16 air —9 15 wrong! go to 11 16 wrong! go to 14 17 right! —management high — 4 top — 24 18 right! computer-— design used — 22 aided — 14 19 wrong! go to3 20 right! analytical— skills - 3 qualities — 23 21 wrong! go to 9 22 wrong! goto 18 23 wrong! go to 20 24 right! Good for you! Unit5 • Game “Engineering Achievements”. What are these devices / appliances I apparatuses? Read the description and unscramble the words in brackets. The winner is the one who is the first to finish (keys are on p. 385). 1. (EALW) is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid. 2. (LNAEHD) is a part of a utensil, drawer, «?/<?., designed to be held in order to move, use, or pick up the object.
3. (GENIEN) is any machine designed to convert energy, especially heat energy, into mechanical work. 4. (VREEL) is a rigid bar used to transfer a force to a load and usually to provide a mechanical advantage. 5. (TCUIRIC) is a complete path through which an electric current can flow. 6. (VSlTLEElhJO) is the system or process of producing ona distant screen a series of transient visible images with an accompanying sound signal. 7. (IPHC) is a tiny piece of semiconductor material, such as silicon, processed to form a type of integrated circuit or component such as a transistor. 8. (HTEELPEON) is an electrical device for transmitting speech, consisting of a microphone and receiver. 9. (ERABYTT) is another name for accumulator. 10. (ECALB) is a wire or bundle of wires that conducts electricity. • Cartoons “Engineering and Science”. Look at the cartoons. Tell other students what you think about them. Find out which are the most and least popular cartoons. Useful expressions for you: I don’t see the joke. What do you think of this one? This one’s really funny. It isn't funny at all. I think it’s wonderful / stupid. It makes / doesn’t make me laugh.
DILBERT TALKS TO A CLASS ABOUT CAREER OPTIONS.
Across 2. The first brothers who flied. 6. His cotton gm was a revolution in 1794. 7. Henry Ford built the first one. 10 In 1973 Martin Cooper created this invention. 14 This invention revolutionized horse riding. 15. Garrett A. Morgan invented this for safe street traffic. Down 1. This spring is a famous toy. It flip-flops down stairs. 3. The key invention from Robert Goddard for the development of the space age. 4. Automotive tires invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839. 5. Alfred Nobel invented this. 8. Alexander Graham Bell’s most famous invention. 9. He is famous for the laws of physics. 11. The LJ.S. President who had a patent for riverboats. 12. The inventor of the phonograph, telegraph, light bulb, movie camera. 13. Alexander Popov invented this device. Units 1-6 Game. Divide into groups of 2—3 people. Play the game in groups. Take it in turns to throw the coin and answer the questions. Move one square if you have “Heads” and two squares when you have “Tails”. Answer the question in the square. Use the Key (printed upside down) to check yourself. If you were right, you can throw again when your turn is. If you were wrong, you move two squares back and throw again when your turn is. The winner is the first to answer the last question correctly. 1. Who first used the term “electricity”? 2. man-made synonym? 3. Translate: handshake 4. political parties in the USA (?) 5. Spain (noun) ...?... (adjective) 6. synthetic rubber, leather, artificial silk (inventor?) 7. split (twoforms} 8. names of three British inventors of steam engine 9- custom synonym? 10. more expensive antonym? 11. Translate: condensation chamber 12. water much? many? 13. Translate: DC 14. What is an “invention”? 15. states in the USA (how many)
t-ле fl л i i п п н О О V 3 JL V Я Н Я Я Я I X я ы 1 я 1 а ъ я Я S 9 V V S 3 я я z о а я ы я а я, э о я s о а я г о о л Я х S V VV Я Я 1 1 JL I Я Я а я а ы IAI я Я S Ы Я Я V 9 О О О I Н Я Я d IAI Z я э а я i о I S 3 О I V X Я N S IV 1 Я S I г я ('S8E "d uo мв <UIB uiaqj рцц по.С ubj uiojjoq oj doj рив ‘jq8u uiojjoq oj цэ| doj ХувиоЗвгр ‘jq8u °J IPI :suotj -ээлгр aaaqj щ o3 Xaqj, ’SIbuiiub jouijxa рив juaiuuoti.iua aqj qjrw pajaau -uoa spuoM Of эле ajaqj qajBas рлом aqj u[ ’цэлвад р.мэд щэшиолиид ZW 1. William Gilbert (1600); 2. artificial; 3. рукопожатие; 4. the Republican and the Democratic; 5. Spanish; 6. Alfred Nobel; 7. split, split; 8. Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen, James Watt; 9. tradition; 10. cheaper; 11. конденсационная камера; 12. much; 13. direct current — постоянный ток; 14. e.g.'. something that has been invented; 15.50; 16. puzzle; 17. cap; 18. James Watt; 19. to result in; 20. had to; 21. nobody; 11. few; 23. преданный вам; 24. e.g.-. somebody whose job involves designing and building engines, machines, roads, bridges, etc.; 15. Bachelor of Engineering — инженер бакалавр; 26. The UK is an island country, it includes Great Britain, the northeastern part of the island of Ireland, and many small islands close to continental Europe; 27. Germany; 28. e.g:. beliefs, normsand behaviour; 29. fission; 30. cell, accumulator. СЭЯ ^tutfuouSs AJajjeq of ^uoisnj ^uoissy ••• леэрпи imnqnasr jbij/A’S^ (unou) " i~' (Mtpafpo) ueuuar) ЯП aqj jo uoijisod leatqdejSosS -yz ЗиЯЯ :aje[suBJX 6„J39UI<hia„ uestjeq/tVfrz st пол AqryqnEj :3jb[subjl я iOIJJI] i«3J sjuapnjs (luifuoiut? Apoqatuos ’JZ ШЛО) JSBJ aqi ui „jsnui,, oz L.JOJ 6Щ nnsai oj ’6i „ijaModasjoq,, ииэ> aqj pajuaun oq/л -gi (JO/OUOpp) — Suijseiq в ц AjajsAiu ’9i
w • For every cartoon find the right sentence. There is one sentence too many Then comment on the most and least funny cartoons (keys are on p. 386). 1. "Where’s global warming when you really need it?” 2. “Save the environment. Please do not fly when you can walk.” 3. “The tree of life.” 4 “1 know! To keep the air clean, you guys can use my car to get to work!” 5. “There must be a source of energy down there.” 6. “Why China's carbon footprint is so large.” 7. “ 1 don’t understand why they make such a big deal about acid rain. Can't we just counteract it with alkaline rain?” 8. “The tree of knowledge discovers where paper comes from.” by 7 MKMtfa n
Unite • Translation Game. Divide into three groups. The first student in the group writes down the translation of the sentence below into Russian and gives it (the translation only) to the second student. He / she translates the sentence back into English and passes it (the translation only) to the next student and so on. The last student reads the last version in English to the group and the students compare it to the original sentence. Group 1 Nowadays companies offer the broadest spectrum of modern technologies for cleaner power generation. Group 2 Demand for higher efficiencies and lower emissions is driving the development of new power generation technologies. Group 3 Engineers make tremendous efforts to design and build equipment that can work with the least amount of fuel or electricity.
Game “Spot the Odd Word Out”. Find the odd word out in each group of words. Then give a reason why. The winner is the one who is the first to finish (keys are on p. 386). 1. power, development, motion, change. 2 light, heat, chemical reactions, sun 3. biomass, petroleum, natural gas, solar. 4. wood, atom, molecule, bond. 5. lightning, battery, circuit, accumulator. 6. solar heating, wind power, bioenergy, fossil fuels. 7. hydro, nuclear, tidal, fossil. 8. wind power, hydropower, geothermal, fossil. Unit9 • Game. “Who is the most talented speaker?” A student must speak on one of the subjects given for a minute (or 30 seconds). All the rest students listen carefully for two things: repetition or a long pause. The student who hears one of these things interrupts the speaker and continues to speak on the topic. He / she may also be interrupted by other students if they hear a pause or repetition. The student speaking for a minute (or 30 seconds) without interruption is a winner. “Modern life is impossible without electricity” “Bioenergy is the most promising fuel for future” “Fossil power plants will disappear tn ren years’ time" “Mankind should find more efficient power generation resources to preserve the environment” * Reading and Translating for Fun. Read the following poem and translate it into Russian. Don’t forget about rhyme! Electrical You provide the vital spark you are electrical like a copper’s torch in the dark. We may be poles apart but that’s the attraction negative and positive heart to heart. You're hard to resist and my resistance is low you’re irresistible you are electrical and you’ll be missed when you go. (John Hegley)
Unit 10 • Test your mechanical aptitude. Fill in the spaces with the words below and then choose the correct answer from the given alternatives. Check with the answers on p. 386. Question 1 wheel, or. that, motion, rotates, at. does, diagram Assume (1) X and Kin this (2) are gears. A gear is a toothed (3) ____or cylinder that meshes with another toothed component to transmit (4) _ or to change speed (5) _ direction. If drive wheel X (6)_clockwise (7)_a speed of 10 rpm, how does wheel У turn? a) anti c / w faster; b) c / w slower; с) c / w faster; d) anti c / w slower; e) c / w same. Question 2 rpm, gear, turns, constant (ёАпг If gear A'(8)_clockwise at a (9) speed of lOrpm. How (10)_gear У turn? a) anti c / w 10 rpm: b) c / w 10 rpm: с) c / w 5 rpm: d) anti c / w 5 (11) ____; e) c / w 20 rpm. • Crossword Puzzle “Parts of the Car”. There are some differences between British and American English with regard to parts of the car. Look at the pictures and information below. The pans of the car are identified with their British names.
1. Boot. 4. Power window. 7. Front and rear lights, indicators. 10. Moonroof. 13. Outside mirror. 2. Antenna. 5. Tyres. 8. Bonnet 11. Child safety lock. Rear window. Petrol tank lid. Windscreen and windscreen wipers. Door lock.
• Do you know the American equivalents of the car parts below? Complete the puzzle using the clues. A key word (number 10) will be revealed when you have completed the puzzle. What is its equivalent in British English? Clues 1. where you pm your luggage, shopping, etc. 2. where you put the fuel 3. the glass in front of you 4. the lights at the front of the car 5. windscreen wiper 6. tyre {pronounced the same as in British English but spelled differently) 7. these indicate if you are turning left or right 8. the engine is underneath this 9. the same as 1 Unit 11 • Translation Game. Divide into three groups. The first student in the group writes down the translation of the sentence below into Russian and gives it (the translation only) to the second student. He / she translates the sentence back into English and passes it (the translation only) to the next student and so on. The last student reads the last version in English to the group and the students compare it to the original sentence. Group 1 Ignoring ergonomics may lead to ineffective, inefficient, unsafe and commercially unsuccessful designs.
Group 2 Nanotechnology ts an important part of the future of computers, expected to have a profound impact on people around the globe. Group 3 The history of computers lias been a long and interesting one, stretching back more than half a century to the first primitive computing machines. Game. “Who is the most talented speaker?” A student must speak on one of the subjects given for a minute (or 30 seconds). AH the rest students listen carefully for two things: repetition or a long pause. The student who hears one of these things interrupts the speaker and continues to speak on the topic. He / she may also be interrupted by other students if they hear a pause or repetition. The student speaking for a minute (or 30 seconds) without interruption is a winner. “Nanotechnologies will be a powerful aspect of our future life” “In 20 years’ time people will travel in space” “People will depend on computers and robots more and more in the future” Unit 12 “If...” Game. Read the “If...” story beginning with “If people found the way to travel at speed of light...” and compose the similar one. The students in the class take it in turns to compose a story sentence by sentence. Begin with “If people created artificial intelligence...'’ or “Ifpeople created a human robot...” or continue the story below. If people found the way to travel at speed of light, they would explore our galaxy. If people explored our galaxy, they would probably find other planets with life on them. If people found other planets with life on them, some of them would go and live there. If people lived on other planets, there would be intergalactic tourism, commerce and communication. If there were intergalactic tourism, commerce and communication, there would be intergalactic pirates. If there were intergalactic pirates,... etc. Cartoons “Job Interviews”. Look at the cartoons. Tell other students what you think about them. Find out which are the most and least popular cartoons. Useful expressions for you: I don’t see the joke. What do you think of this one? This one’s really funny.
It isn't funny at all. I think it’s wonderful / stupid. It makes / doesn’t make me laugh. Units 7-12 • Game. Divide into groups of 2—3 people. Play the game in groups. Take it in turns to throw the coin and answer the questions. Move one square if you have ‘ Heads" and two squares when you have “Tails'’. Answer the question in the square. Use the Key (printed upside down) to check yourself. If you were right, you can throw again when your turn is. If you were wrong, you move two squares back and throw again when your turn is. The winner is the first to answer the last question correctly. I. to affect synonym (2)? 2. Translate-greenhouse effect 3. the Milky... (our galaxy) 4. interfere with? in? 5. American English — gasoline British English — ..?... 6. external antonym? 7. Translate: DNA 8 When was the 1st computer built? 9. to sort litter? rubbish?
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Unit 2. Crossword Unit 3. Education Word Search Architecture, Biology, Media. Art, Medicine, Economics, Languages, Geography, Classics, Geology, Maths. Computing, Law, Drama. Ecology. Music, Politics, Engineering, Physics, Agriculture, Sociology, Business, History Gaudeamus Igitur {in Russian) Жизнь наша коротка. Скоро она кончится. Смерть приходит быстро. Уносит нас безжалостно. Никому пощады не будет Да здравствует университет. Да здравствуют профессора! Да здравствует каждый студент. Да здравствуют все студенты. Да вечно они процветают! Unit 4. Anagrams 1. raise; 2. source; 3. declare; 4. divorces; 5. drawbacks; 6. reductions; 7. predictions; 8. helicopters; 9. credential; 10. residents; 11. thousand; 12. decimal; 13. credit; 14. night.
Unit 5. Engineering Achievements 1. valve 2. handle 3. engine 4. lever 5. circuit 6. television 7. chip 8. telephone 9. battery 10. cable Unit 6. Crossword Across Down 2. Wright 1. slinky 6 Whitney 3 rocket 7. automobile 4. Goodyear 8. cellphone 5. dynamite 14. saddle 8. telephone 15. lights 9. Newton II Lincoln 12 Edison 13 radio Unit 7. Environment Word Search acid oil air ozone atmosphere plant biodegradable pond coal pollution destroy rainbow extinct recycle forest resources fur seal greenhouse skin hunt spray insecticide waste layer whale lead wildlife mink wood
Cartoons LB 4. E 7. A 2. C 5. — 8. F 3. D 6. G Unit 8. Spot the Odd Word Out 1. development; the others all refer to energy 2. sun; the others are all forms of energy 3. solar; the only one that is renewable 4. wood; the rest refer to chemistry 5. lightning; the only example of natural source of electric energy 6. fossil fuels; all the rest are renewables 7. tidal; all the rest are non-renewables 8. fossil; the only one that is not “green" source of energy Unit 10. Mechanical Aptitude Test I. E2.A Crossword “Parts of the Car” I. trunk; 2. gas tank; 3. windshield; 4. headlights; 5. windshield wiper; 6. tire; 7. turn signals; 8. hood; 9. trunk; 10. rare light.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1 СПРАВОЧНИК ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЮ (WORD BUILDING) Эффективным средством расширения запаса слов в английском языке служит знание способов словообразования. Словообразование происходит следующим образом. 1. При помощи суффиксов Суффиксы Исходное слово Производное существительных -er; -or to teach — учить to work — работать to invent — изобретать teacher — учитель worker — рабочий inventor — изобретатель -1st art — искусство science — наука artist — художник scientist — ученый -ion; (-ation; -tion; -sion) to invite — приглашать to organize — организовывать to connect — соединять to express — выражать invitation — приглашение organization — организация connection — соединение expression — выражение -ment to agree — соглашаться to improve — улучшать agreement — соглашение improvement — улучшение -ing to begin — начинать to feel — чувствовать beginning — начало feeling — чувство -ness dark — темный kind — добрый darkness — темнота kindness — доброта -ship friend — друг leader — вождь, лидер friendship — дружба leadership — руководство -hood child — ребенок brother — брат childhood — детство brotherhood — братство ЗВ7
-апсе; -елее important — важный different — различный importance — важность difference — различие прилагательных -able: -ible to change — изменять (-СЯ) access — доступ changeable — изменчивый accessible — доступный -al; -ic; (-ical) culture — культура history — история cultural — культурный historic — historical — исторический -fill beauty — красота use — польза beautiful — красивый useful — полезный -less help — помощь home — дом helpless — беспомощный homeless — бездомный -OUS fame — слава, известность danger — опасность famous — известный dangerous — опасный -y sun — солнце health — здоровье sunny — солнечный healthy — здоровый глаголов -ate active — активный to activate — активизировать -en short — короткий to shorten — укоротить -fy (-ify) pure — чистый simple — простой to purify — очищать to simplify — упрощать -ize (-ise) modern — современный to modernize — модернизировать наречий -ly loud — громкий part — часть loudly — громко partly — частично 2. При помощи префиксов Префиксы Корневое слово Производное un- pleasant — приятный familiar — знакомый unpleasant — неприятный unfamiliar — незнакомый in- correct — правильный incorrect — неправильный
im- (il-, ir-) polite — вежливый literate — грамотный regular — регулярный impolite — невежливый illiterate — неграмотный irregular — нерегулярный dis- to appear — появляться to disappear — исчезать re- to read — читать to reread — перечитать pre- war — война, военный prewar — довоенный post- war — война, военный post-war — послевоенный sub- division — разделение subdivision — подразделение en- large — большой to enlarge — увеличивать 3. При помощи конверсии to answer — отвечать to walk — гулять to work — работать to order — приказывать to change — менять to free — освобождать to clean — чистить 4. Путем еловое южения bed + room black + board news + paper first + class rail + road gun + powder tram + way pipe + line high + way air + plane skate + board house + hold wind + mill clock + work answer — ответ walk — прогулка work — работа order — приказ change — изменение free — свободный clean — чистый bedroom — спальня blackboard — классная доска newspaper — газета first-class — первоклассный railroad — железная дорога gunpowder — порох tramway — трамвай pipeline — трубопровод highway — шоссе, автомагистраль airplane — самолет skateboard — роликовая доска household — домашнее хозяйство windmill — ветродвигатель, ветряная мельница clockwork — часовой механизм
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2 РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЕ ИНОСТРАННОГО ТЕКСТА Реферат служит для изложения основного содержания документа, статьи. Реферат не только раскрывает важные стороны содержания, но и показывает читателю, имеет ли для него смысл полностью или частично ознакомиться с данным источником информации в оригинале. Средний объем реферата не превышает 2000 печатных знаков. Реферат состоит из следующих элементов: 1) заглавие реферата, автор; 2) выходные данные; 3) краткое содержание реферата. Words and word combinations for summary. 1) The title of the paper is... 2) The paper is written by... 3) As the title implies the article describes... The subject matter of the text is... The paper gives a valuable information on... This paper discusses some problems relating to... The paper considers the problems of... 4) The paper begins with a short (discussion on..., describing of...) At the beginning the author (points out that..., speaks in detail...) 5) The author goes on saying that... Then follows a discussion on... Then the author goes on to the problem of... The next part of the text (presents, discusses, describes)... 6) The author concludes with the statement that... Finally the author gives much attention to... The final part reports the information on... 7) To my mind.. The article is of interest to... The article is of great help to... The paper gives a valuable information on...
АННОТИРОВАНИЕ ИНОСТРАННОГО ТЕКСТА Аннотация — предельно сжатая характеристика статьи или книги, которая передает содержание оригинала в виде перечня основных вопросов и иногда дает критическую оценку. Аннотация только сообщает о наличии материала на определенную тему и дает самое общее представление о его содержании. Аннотация дает только предварительное представление о незнакомой статье или книге Аннотация предназначена только для информации о существовании первичного источника определенного содержания и характера Существуют два типа аннотаций: справочные и рекомендательные. Справочные аннотации наиболее распространены в информационной деятельности и особенно при аннотировании публикаций на иностранном языке. Справочные аннотации предназначены для быстрого просмотра, поэтому объем их не должен превышать 500 печатных знаков. Нередко справочные аннотации состоят всего из нескольких предложений. Основным назначением рекомендательных аннотаций является оценка публикации, привлечение внимания читателя к ней, поэтому сжатость или краткость не имеет никакого значения. Алгоритм аннотирования 1) название работы (статьи, книги) на иностранном языке, фамилия и инициалы автора (если есть), перевод названия; 2) выходные данные журнала: название на иностранном языке, номер и год издания. место издания, том и количество страниц, количество рисунков, таблиц; 3) краткое изложение основных вопросов и проблем, затронутых в статье. Words and word combinations for abstract. This paper (article, book) has been written as... This book gives full information concerning the... The main problems discussed in... are... Special attention is paid to... The article is illustrated by... examples. The paper covers... pp.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 3 ТАБЛИЦА НЕПРАВИЛЬНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ Infinitive (первая форма глагола) Past Simple (вторая форма глагола) Past Participle (третья форма глагола) Перевод на русский язык abide abode; abided abode; abided пребывать; держаться arise arose arisen подняться; возникнуть awake awoke awaked; awoke будить; проснуться be was/were been быть beat beat beaten бить become became become становиться befall befell befallen случиться begin began begun начинать bend bent bent гнуть, изгибать bind bound bound связывать blow blew blown дуть, выдыхать break broke broken ломать breed bred bred выращивать bring brought brought приносить broadcast broadcast broadcast распространять; разбрасывать (семена) build built built строить burn burnt; burned burnt; burned жечь;гореть burst burst burst взрываться buy bought bought покупать cast cast cast кидать; лить металл catch caught caught ловить choose chose chosen выбирать come came come приходить cost cost cost стоить cut cut cut резать deal dealt dealt иметь дело
Infinitive (первая форма глагола) Past Simple (вторая форма глагола) Past Participle (третья форма глагола) Перевод на русский язык dig dug dug копать, рыть do did done делать draw drew drawn тянуть; рисовать dream dreamt; dreamed dreamt; dreamed грезить; мечтать drink drank drunk пить drive drove driven вести автомобиль, приводить в движение dwell dwelt dwelt обитать; задерживаться (на чем-л.) eat ate eaten есть пищу fall fell fallen падать feed fed fed кормить(ся), питать(ся) feel felt felt чувствовать fight fought fought сражаться find found found находить fit fit fit подходить по размеру fly flew flown летать forbid forbade forbidden запрещать forecast forecast; forecasted forecast; forecasted предсказывать forget forgot forgotten забывать forgive forgave forgiven прощать freeze froze frozen замерзать get got got получать give gave given давать go went gone идти grow grew grown расти hang hung hung висеть, вешать have had had иметь hear heard heard слышать hide hid hidden прятать(ся) hit hit hit ударять(ся)
Infinitive (первая форма глагола) Past Simple (вторая форма глагола) Past Participle (третья форма глагола) Перевод на русский язык hold held held держать hurt hurt hurt ранить, причинять боль input input; inputted input; inputted вводить данные (в машину) inset inset inset вставлять; вкладывать keep kept kept хранить know knew known знать lade laded laded; laden грузить lay laid laid класть lead led led вести (за собой) learn learnt; learned learnt; learned учить leave left left уезжать, уходить lend lent lent давать в долг lie lay lain лежать, ложиться light lit; lighted lit ; lighted освещать lose lost lost терять make made made делать mean meant meant иметь в виду meet met met встречать misgive misgave misgiven внушать опасение mistake mistook mistaken ошибаться outdo outdid outdone превосходить overdraw overdrew overdrawn превышать pay paid paid платить prove proved proved доказывать; оказаться put put put класть read [ri:d] read [red] read [red] читать rid rid; ridded rid; ridded избавлять; освобождать ride rode ridden ехать верхом или на велосипеде ring rang rung звонить rise rose risen подниматься
Infinitive (первая форма глагола) Past Simple (вторая форма глагола) Past Participle (третья форма глагола) Перевод на русский язык rive rived riven расщеплять run ran run бежать say said said говорить see saw seen видеть seek sought sought искать sell sold sold продавать send sent sent посылать set set set устанавливать sew sewed sewn; sewed шить shake shook shaken трясти shine shone shone светить shoot shot shot стрелять show showed shown показывать shrink shrank shrunk сжиматься shut shut shut закрывать sing sang sung петь sink sank sunk опускаться; погружаться; тонуть sit sat sat сидеть sleep slept slept спать slide slid slid скользить smell smelt; smelled smelt; smelled пахнуть; нюхать speak spoke spoken говорить speed sped;speeded sped;speeded ускорять; спешить spell spelt; spelled spell; spelled писать или читать по буквам spend spent spent тратить split split split расщеплять spread spread spread рас пространять stand stood stood стоять steal stole stolen красть sting stung stung жалить; жечь strike struck struck ударять; бить
Infinitive (первая форма глагола) Past Simple (вторая форма глагола) Past Participle (третья форма глагола) Перевод на русский язык strive strove striven стараться swear swore sworn КЛЯСТЬСЯ sweep swept swept мести, сметать swim swam swum плыть swing swung swung качаться take took taken брать teach taught taught обучать tear tore torn рвать tell told told рассказывать think thought thought думать throw threw thrown бросать, кидать undergo underwent undergone проходить; подвергаться understand understood understood понимать wake woke woken просыпаться; будить wear wore worn быть одетым (ео что-л.у, носить (одежду) win won won выигрывать, побеждать withdraw withdrew withdrawn взять назад; отозвать write wrote written писать
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