4И (Англ.) (075) Е31 6—6
LESSON ONE WELCOME TO THE 8th FORM! The school year has begun. Welcome to the 8th form! We hope you have not forgotten your English. Now tell your classmates about your summer holidays. Here are some questions that will help you: 1. Where were you this summer? (at a pioneer camp, in the country, on a collective farm...) 2. Had you any good friends there? 3. Did you stay in a beautiful place? 4. Was your house large or small? 5. Was there a garden round your house? 6. Did you work in the garden? 7. Was there a river or a lake near your house? 8. Did you learn to swim? 9. Can you swim well now? 10. Did you walk in the fields and in the forest? 11. Do you like to walk in the forest? 12. Did you go to any collective farms and help the farmers with their work? 13. Did you read any interesting books? В английском языке слово country имеет два значения: 1. The U.S.S.R. is a country. England is a country. 2. The house is in the country; it is not in town. 8
Town. Country. Translate into Russian (Переведите на русский язык): 1. What country are you from? 2. My grandfather has a nice little house in the country. 3. We shall go to the country this summer. 4. Our country is one of the largest countries in the world. Joke. Lady: Are these eggs good? Shopkeeper: Oh, yes, they are just from the country. Lady: Yes, but what country? a lady—дама a 'shopkeeper — лавочник TWO FRIENDS MEET AFTER THEIR HOLIDAYS STEVE: Hullo, Nick! It’s so nice to see you again. You have grown so big! Where were you this summer? NICK: I was in the country, not far from Moscow. Where were you? STEVE: I was at a pioneer camp near Leningrad. NICK: Did you like it there? 4
STEVE: Oh, I liked it very much. The place was beautiful. Our house stood on a hill, and there was a large forest where we liked to walk. Did you walk much this sum- mer? NICK: I did. And I liked to swim, too. There was a big river near our house, and a little green island in the middle of it. We often went there in a boat, my brother and I. And we had a small tent on the island — STEVE: Oh, that’s wonderful! ANN (comes up quickly to the two friends): Hullo, boys! What are you talking about here? All your friends are waiting for you in the school-yard. Come on! (As they are walking along, Steve tells them an English joke.) THE FIRST RAY “What time do you get up in summer?” a boy asked his friend. “When the first ray of the sun comes to my room,” he answered. 5
“Isn’t that very early?” said the boy. “No, my room faces west,” answered his friend. a ray—луч to face—выходить на ... TWO CLASSMATES ARE TALKING A: 'Are you a 'new _/pupiI? B: ~\Yes, I ^am. A: 'What’s your ""\name? B: (My 'name is) "^,Nina. A: And _7myname is Ann. 'What 'school 'were you 'at 'last "^.year? NINA: I 'lived in _7Riga and 'went to 'school ~\there. 'All my 'friends 'live in >Riga. ANN: I’m 'sure you’ll 'like our ^school and you’ll 'make 'many "^.friends here. NINA: ~\Thank you. ANN: 'Here is our "^classroom. Our 'form mistress is 'there al- "Veady. 'Come ~\in, please. classmate n form mistress n joke n wonderful a country n: in (to) the country make friends (puith somebody) welcome (to) ... Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words given in italics (Прочитайте следующие предложения и переведите выделенные слова). 1. When new pupils come to our school we say, “Welcome to our school!” 2. I am in the 8th “B” form. Jane and Alec are in the same form too. They are my classmates. 6
3. What’s a joke? —It's something we say that makes people laugh. 4. When I like a book very much I say, “This is a wonderful book!” When I see a beautiful picture I say, “The picture is wonderfull” When we think of what Gagarin, Titov and other cosmonauts1 did we say, “Oh, that’s wonder full” 5. We have many teachers, but only one of them is our form mistress. Nina Petrovna is our English teacher and she is our form mistress, too. She stays with us after school at our meetings; she helps us with our work. II. You know five tenses. Write out from the texts on pages 3—5 five sentences illustrating the use of these tenses (Вы знаете пять грамматических вре- мён. Выпишите из текстов на стр. 3—5 пять предложений с этими временами). III. Answer the questions, using (употребляя) the new words from the texts. Example (Пример): What do you think about Nina and Ann? I think they will make friends. 1. Why is Nina Petrovna always at your class meetings? 2. Why are the children laughing? What did Mike tell them? 3. What do we say to the new pupils who come to our school? 4. Where do many children go (to) in summer? 5. What do we say when we like a film very much? 6. Who does Nick often play chess with? IV. Translate into English: 1. Летом мы были в пионерлагере. 2. Мы ходили в колхоз и работали там. 3. Мы подружились с ребятами из колхоза. 4. Мы играли с ними в футбол и волейбол. 5. Возле нашего пионерлагеря было большое озеро. 6. Ты научился плавать? — Да.—Вот чудесно. V. Tell about your summer holidays. The questions on page 3 will help you. 1 cosmonaut ['kozmanozt]
LESSON TWO ENGLISH SCHOOLS DAN (a pupil of the 8th form, comes in with a hammer and nails and stops in front of the notice board1): This is a wonderful place for our notice. What’s the matter with Mike? Why isn’t be coming? (Mike comes in with the notice.) What happened to you? Why are you so late? MIKE: It was very difficult to write it in good English. Here it is. Is it all right? DAN (reads): 1 a notice ['noutis] board —доска объявлений 8
MIKE: How do you like it? I haven’t done it very well, I’m afraid. DAN: You are very good at things like that, I’ve told you so hundreds of times. And here is the place for it, on this board. Help me, please. MIKE: You’d better drive a nail in here, not there. Let me do that. DAN: Now everything is all right. * * * At 5 o’clock all the pupils came to the club. Inna, Nelly’s sister, came to the club too. Inna is a young teacher. She has been to England, and she can tell Nelly and her friends some interesting things about that country. The children asked her many questions about English schools. “English boys and girls begin going to a primary school1 when they are five years old,” said Inna. “They study there for six years. When they are eleven they may take an examination.1 2 The examin- ation is very difficult. Every child has to write answers to a lot of questions. Those who answer well, go to a grammar school;3 those who don’t, go to another kind of school—to a secondary modern school.4 There are different kinds of schools in England. The subjects5 which they study in one kind of school are different from those which they study in another. The grammar school is one from which 1 a 'primary school—начальная школа 2 to take an examination [ig,z3emizneijan] — держать экзамен. Имеет- ся в виду конкурсный (отборочный) экзамен, так называемый the eleven plus examination; дети сдают этот экзамен перед окончанием начальной шко- лы, обычно в возрасте И лет. 3 В Англии существуют различные типы школ, с разными программами. Одна из них —грамматическая школа. Эта школа имеет гуманитарное на- правление и наилучшим образом подготавливает учащихся к поступлению в университет. 4 a secondary modern school — реальная средняя школа, где осущест- вляется главным образом практическое обучение. Эта школа не имеет опре- делённой программы. 5 a subject ['sAbdgikt]— здесь предмет, изучаемый в школе 9
it is easier to go to a university.1 In modern schools children get a more practical education. In all schools children learn handicrafts. They find it very useful, because many of them go to work when they leave school.” “How old are they when they leave school?” asked Jane. Jane always wants to know everything. “They are fifteen or a little older,” Inna answered. “And they come to school when they are five!” said Alec. “Poor children! It’s a good thing we began when we were seven.” “When Alec is a father,” said Mike, “his children will not go to school before they are ten.” Everybody laughed, and Jane said’ “Let’s write a letter to some English boy or girl and ask them to tell us all about their school.” “Oh, that will be wonderful!” said Nelly. And the children decided to write to a schoolboy or schoolgirl in England. “I’m sure we’ll get an answer,” said Ann. answer n board n hammer n handicrafts n kind n New Words nail n talk n decide v leave v study v drive in (a nail) v different a useful a hundred num a little pron be good at... what is the matter (with) here it is (you) had better practical education Answer the questions: 1. What is this text about? 2. Who has been to England? 3. Can Inna tell Nelly and her friends any interesting things about that country? 1 a university [,ju:ni'va:siti] 10
4. How old are English children when they go to school for the first time? 5. Do English children get a practical education? 6. What did Nelly and her friends decide to do? Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words given in italics. 1. We went to school when we were seven. We’ZZ leave school when we are fourteen or fifteen. 2. The day was cold and wet, and the boys decided not to go to the country. 3. I got a letter yesterday and wrote an answer to it. II. Translate the following phrases (сочетания слов) and sentences. joke: a funny joke; a good joke; to see a joke; to make jokes. hundred: two hundred years ago; one hundred and twenty- five; a hundred children; hundreds of children. a little: a little water; a little later; to be a little tired. Wait a little. answer: a clever answer; to give an answer; to wait for an answer; an answer to a letter. leave: to leave the room; to leave school; to leave Mos- cow; to leave for Moscow. talk: an interesting talk; to have a talk with...; a talk on books; to give a talk. III. Суффикс прилагательных -ful A. Using the suffix -ful, form adjectives from the words (Образуйте с помощью суффикса -ful имена прилагательные от слов); fruit; hope These adjectives mean (имеют значение): плодотворный; полный надежд 11
В. Translate the following phrases without using a dictionary (He поль- зуясь словарём, переведите следующие сочетания слов): a forgetful boy a beautiful garden a playful child fruitful work C. Find in the text adjectives with the suffix -ful. IV. Make up sentences of the following type (Составьте предложения по образцу): Take a hammer and drive in the nail. Take a board your hat this letter a nail and write an answer. and make a shelf. and drive it into the wall. and put it on. V. Translate into English: 1. Постарайся помочь Коле. 2. Сделай новую полку для кухни, пожалуйста. 3. Не вбивай гвоздь в доску! Подожди немного, я дам тебе другой молоток. 4. Не бери ложку, возьми вилку. 5. Не давай, пожалуйста, Бобу нож. 6. Поищи красный карандаш. 7. Отнеси книгу маме. VI. A. Find in the text a sentence in which the Present Indefinite is used in the meaning of the Future, and give the rule (Найдите в тексте предложение, в котором Present Indefinite употреблено в значении будущего времени, и скажите правило). В. Translate the sentences into English: 1. Если вы пойдёте в лес, я тоже пойду с вами. 2. Когда мы приедем в деревню, бабушка нас встретит. 3. Я дам тебе марку, когда получу письмо из Англии. 4. Если дядя приедет, я покажу ему наш школьный сад. 12
VII. Fill in the blanks with the following words and phrases (Заполните пропуски словами и сочетаниями слов): to study, kind, useful, handicraft, practical education, to be good at, difficult, to leave, different, to make Soviet children get a-------. They have — lessons at school and try to be — at home. They — this bench at their handicraft lessons. Was it —? No, it wasn’t. They---------------- handicrafts. What — of tools have they? They have — kinds of tools. What will they do when they — school? They will work and —. VIII. Read the sentences and say what parts of speech the words in italics are. Give reasons for your answers (Прочитайте предложения и скажите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова. Докажите правиль- ность вашего ответа). 1. We work in the garden in summer. Our work is very interesting and not very difficult. 2. Nelly always answers her letters. The pupils’ answers were clever. 3. I like to walk in the forest. Let’s go for a walk. IX. Define the parts of speech as in the exercise above (По аналогии с пре- дыдущим определите части речи). Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. Please give me a glass of water. You must water the flowers in the morning, when it is not too hot. 2. Pete studies English at school. Tell us something about your studies. X. Translate the following sentences into English as in the examples given below (по данным образцам): Нине легко даётся английский язык, (способна к ... и т. д.) Nina is very good at her English. 1. Саше легко даётся русский язык. 2. Стива хороший спортсмен. 3. У Дани большие способности к ручному труду. 13
в. What a good shelf we have made! What a nice letter she has written! 1. Какую интересную книгу я прочитала! 2. Какую красивую коробку он сделал! 3. Что за смешной фильм мы видели! Shall I read this story in Russian or in English? — You had better read it in English. 1. Сделай-ка лучше уроки сейчас. 2. Тебе бы лучше не брать Боба с собой. 3. Нам бы лучше говорить по-английски на уроках. LET'S TALK A LITTLE I. Ask and answer. 1. 'Mike 'can’t 'come to "^school. 2. 'What’s the ~\matter with him? 1. He is 'busy at "^home. 1. My pen doesn’t write. 2............ ? 1.............. (сломанный — broken) 1. Her little brother is crying. 2............? 1............ 1. Nina can’t answer the teacher’s questions. 2..............? 1............. 14
II. Say in English: Give me the hammer, please.—Here it is. Give me some nails, please.—Here they are. ...—Пожалуйста; вот, возьми(те). 1. Дай мне, пожалуйста, те инструменты.— Вот они. 2. Дай мне, пожалуйста, ту доску.— Вот, возьми. 3. Не можешь ли ты дать мне свой карандаш? —Пожалуйста. 4. Дай мне эти книги.—Пожалуйста, возьми. Don't you know how to spell this word? — Of course I do. Doesn't he know how to drive a nail? — Of course he does. 1. Разве вы не знаете, как читается это слово? — Конечно знаем. 2. Неужели ты не знаешь, как помочь Пете? — Конечно знаю. С. — Когда я окончу школу, я поеду в колхоз. А где ты будешь работать? — А я решил работать на фабрике. Если ты по- едешь в колхоз, я буду приезжать к тебе (навещать тебя) летом. — Чудесно! Будем вместе выращивать овощи. III. Ask and answer. A. The pupils who are in the 8th form now will leave school after some months. When will the- pupils who are in the 2nd (7th, 1st, 4th, 3rd, 6th, 5th) form leave school? B. You have got a letter from your friend. What will you do? You must drive a nail into a board. What tool will you take to do this? Sasha always gets a ’five’ for his Russian. What can you say about him? Somebody asks you to give him a nail (some nails). What do you say? Your little sister is crying. What do you ask her? Nick has not done his lessons, but he wants to go for a walk. What will you tell him? 15
IV. Look at the picture. A. Make up a story. Mike will begin. 1. Mike: 1. We see a room in the picture. 2. There are many boys and girls in the room. 3. They’ve come to the English-speaking club. 16
2. 1 . We see a table. 2 3 3. 1. A young woman is standing at the table. ... 4. 1. The school-children are sitting ... 5. 1. In a corner of the room we see two boys. ... 6. I. Two boys are sitting behind the chess-players. ... 7. 1. Two girls are looking at the boys. ... B. What advice would you give to the boys who are playing chess, to the boys who are watching the game, to the girls who are laughing? Use the expression (Что вы посоветуете мальчикам, играющим в шахма- ты, мальчикам, которые следят за игрой, и девочкам, кото- рые смеются? Употребите выражение You had better or You had better not,) C. Describe (опишите) the picture. D. Here are three proverbs (пословицы). Say them in Russian and think which of them applies (подходит) to the picture. All cats are grey in the night. Four eyes see more than two. Everything is good in its season. V. Ask and answer. 1. Have you an English-speaking club at your school? 2. Does it help you to know English better? 3. Speak about your friends: a) Do they like to go to the club? b) Are all of them good listeners? [Compare (сравните): to write— writer; to listen— listener. 17
LESSON THREE PETE SPEAKS ENGLISH An Englishman came to the U.S.S.R. One morning in summer he came into the. garden and saw a schoolboy with a watering-can. The boy’s name was Pete. He was in the 5th form. He liked to speak English and often came to the English-speaking club. There he made friends with Dan, Mike, Nelly and other pupils of the 8th form. Now Pete was in the garden because he had to water the flowers. The Englishman wanted to speak with the boy and soon he began to ask him questions. ENGLISHMAN: Good morning. Do you speak English? PETE: Yes, I do—a little. ENGLISHMAN: What are you doing here so early? PETE: Our class looks after this garden, and my job is to water the flowers. We made these flowerbeds last week. 18
ENGLISHMAN: And where are your classmates? PETE: Some of them are in the vegetable garden. We grow vege- tables there, and now it’s time to weed them. ENGLISHMAN: Is it? And what else can you do with your hands? PETE: All kinds of things. We clean our classrooms. We can bind books, and we work with a hammer and nails. We’ve made different tools at school, and we use them now at our handi- craft lessons. ENGLISHMAN: Oh, you are really good children. So you are trying to be useful. PETE: Not only trying—we are useful! Every boy and girl is responsible for some kind of work. Our form master says that we really help our school. ENGLISHMAN: And what about your lessons? Have you time to study? PETE: We have time for everything; we even play football and other games in the evening. And we learn English in class and at our English-speaking club at school. ENGLISHMAN: Oh, now I understand why you speak English so well. You are a busy boy, I see. Please go on with your work. PETE: (begins to water the flowers near the bench on which the Englishman is sitting): Will you please sit on that bench over there? Englishman n flowerbed n form master n job n watering-can n — New Words bind v go on (with) v look after v water v weed v use v responsible (for) a really adv it’s time to ... what about ... Answer the questions: 1. What country did the Englishman come to? 2. Where did he come one day? 3. Did he see a schoolboy or a schoolgirl there? 4. What was the boy’s name? 5. Why was he in the garden? 6. Did Pete speak Russian or English to the Englishman? 7. Why did he speak English so well? 19
'SIX 'SERVING ЛМЕЫ by 'Rudyard ~\Kipling (1865—1936) I have 'six 'honest 'serving ~\men— They 'taught me 'all I ~^,knew. Their 'names are _/What and ^Why and _^When, And _7How and _/Where and ~\Who. I 'send them over 'land and _Jsea, I 'send them _/East and ~\West; But 'after they have ^worked for me, I 'give them 'all a ~\rest. I 'let them 'rest from 'nine till "Vive. For I am 'busy ~Vhen, As well as ^breakfast, ^lunch and _Деа, For they are 'hungry ~^,men. But 'different ^folk have 'different views, I 'know a 'person ~\small, She 'keeps 'ten 'million 'serving Jmen, Who 'get 'no 'rest at ~^,all! She 'sends them on her 'own affairs, From the 'second she 'opens her "\eyes— 'One 'million J'Hows, 'ten 'million J'Wheres, And 'seven 'million "\Whys! serving men—слуги taught — Past Indefinite from to teach — учить, обучать honest ['onist] — честный, здесь верный a rest—отдых; to rest — отдыхать as well as—так же как lunch — второй завтрак folk = people views [vju:z] — взгляды, мнения a person = a man, woman or child to keep—держать at all — совсем on her own affairs—по своим собственным делам a second —секунда, момент 20
* * * Есть у меня шестёрка слуг, Проворных, удалых. И всё, что вижу я вокруг,— Всё знаю я от них. Они по знаку моему Являются в нужде. Зовут их: Как и Почему, Кто, Что, Когда и Где. Я по морям и по лесам Гоняю верных слуг. Потом работаю я сам, А им даю досуг. Стихотворение Р. Киплинга Даю им отдых от забот,— Пускай не устают. Они прожорливый народ,— Пускай едят и пьют. Но у меня есть милый друг, Особа юных лет. Ей служат сотни тысяч слуг, — И всем покоя нет! Она гоняет, как собак, В ненастье, дождь и тьму Пять тысяч Где, семь тысяч Как, Сто тысяч Почему! (Перевод С. Я- Маршака) Answer the questions: 1. What is your name? 2. Have you a good friend? 3. Tell us how, when and where you made friends with him (her). Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words given in italics. 1. This man can’t speak Russian, he speaks only English. He comes from England. He is an Englishman. 2. Water these flowers! The ground is too dry. 3. My mother is very busy. I try to be useful at home. I look after my little sister and buy bread and vegetables. 4. I like our garden. There are many flowerbeds in it. Many wonderful flowers grow in these flowerbeds. 5. It’s eleven o’clock. It's time to go to bed. 6. When there is a lot of grass in the flowerbeds we weed them. 7. He loves books, and when they are old he binds them. 8. When we eat soup we use a spoon. When we eat meat we use a knife and fork. 9. Nina Petrovna is the form mistress of the 8th form, and Ivan Victorovich is the form master of the 5th form. II. Write out all the compound nouns (составные имена существительные) from the text. 21
III. Give definitions (дайте определения) of the following compound nouns. Translate them into Russian without using a dictionary. Examples: a 'watering-can—a can (жестяная банка) with which we water flowers —лейка a 'writing-table—a table at which we write— письменный стол a 'reading-lamp — a 'walking-stick— a 'reading-room— a 'skating-rink—a place ... IV. Give all the pronouns which you use when you speak about yourself; when you speak to somebody; when you speak about other people; when you speak about a thing or things (Напишите все местоимения, которые употребляются, когда: 1) говорят о себе; 2) обращаются к кому-либо; 3) говорят о других; 4) говорят о предмете или предметах). Example: I, me, my ... V. Fill in the blanks with the verbs (глаголами): to look after, to look at, to look for. Tom: Mother, ... Dolly! What is she doing? Mother: She is ... her kitten. ... her, I must leave the house for half an hour. 22
VI. Fill in the blanks with the words and phrases: job, classmate, different kinds, to be useful, watering-can, to be good at Last summer my — and I were at a pioneer camp. We had a lot of time for everything: for games, sports and work. My friend--------handicrafts. He made some — to water the vegetables and flowers. Every pioneer had his —. We did ------of work in the camp. We tried----------and do everything well. VII. Examine the italicized parts of the following sentences and say which interrogative word is used in each case (Сопоставьте выделенные части предложений с вопросительными словами, относящимися к ним). 1. Pete speaks English well. How does Pete speak English? 2. Pete speaks English well because he learns English in class and at the school club. Why does Pete speak English well? 3. The Englishman saw Pete in the school garden. Where did the Englishman see Pete? 4. Pete’s classmates made beautiful flowerbeds in the school garden. What did Pete’s classmates make in the school garden? 5. They made the flowerbeds last week. When did they make the flowerbeds? 6. They made the flowerbeds last week. Who made the flowerbeds last week? VIII. Ask questions on the italicized words. Make use of Exercise VII (В качестве образца используйте упражнение VII). 1. The school-children worked in the vegetable garden. 2. They worked in the vegetable garden in spring, summer and autumn. 3. They worked in the vegetable garden because they wanted to be useful. 4. Their form master came to the vegetable garden with them. 5. They have done their job very well. 6. They weeded the potatoes. 23
IX. Translate into Russian: 1. It’s time to go to the vegetable garden. Take your water- ing-cans! 2. We have very interesting handicraft lessons at our school. What about your school? Do you have them too? 3. Our form mistress gave us a very interesting job. “Go on with your job,” she said. X. Translate into English: А. А как у них с английским языком? А как твой товарищ? А как с вашей газетой? Пора вставать. Пора идти в школу. Пора начинать урок. В. Пора поливать цветы. Вот лейки. Кто следит за этой клумбой? Её пора выполоть. Коля занят, я знаю. А Миша? XI. Translate orally (устно) the sentences as in the example: f Сядьте, пожалуйста, на ту скамью. • Не сядете ли вы на ту скамью? k Не будете ли вы добры сесть на ту скамью? Will you please sit on that bench over there? 1. He дадите ли вы мне ваш молоток? 2. Не поможете ли вы мне выполоть клумбу? 3. Не пойдёте ли вы со мной на каток? 4. Принесите, пожалуйста, завтра мою книгу. 5. Напишите, пожалуйста, это слово на доске. XII. Pick out from the poem all the words which rhyme with the word men (Выберите из стихотворения все слова, которые рифмуются со словом теп). XIII. Write out from the poem all the words containing silent letters (Выпи- шите из стихотворения все слова с непроизносимыми буквами). XIV. Make up questions using the interrogative words from the poem. XV. Learn the poem by heart (наизусть). 24
LET'S TALK A LITTLE I. Ask and answer. A ------------------------------------------- ever ['eva]— когда-либо, когда-нибудь Have you ever been to London? Были ли вы когда-нибудь в Лондоне? 1. Have you ever spoken to any Englishmen? 2. If you meet one, will you try to speak to him? 3. Does your class look after a flower garden or a vegetable garden? 4. What is your job? 5. What will you do if your job is to look after flowers? 6. Will you weed the flowerbeds? 7. Where do we grow potatoes? 8. What do the children do to help the school library? Steve is a good jumper. He goes in for jumping. 1. Why is Nick a good runner? 2. Why is Nelly a good skater? 3. Why is Kate a good swimmer? 4. Why is Dan a good skier? C. 1. What sports do you go in for? 2. What sports do you go in for in summer? 3. What sports do you go in for in winter? 4. What games do you know that you can play in the house? 5. When do we use skates (skis, a ball)? What sport can you go in for if r you like to play with a ball? you live near a river or a lake? ) you like winter sports? I you like summer sports? 25
IL Speak about these pictures:
Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. Why did the boys give Jenkins the name of ‘Cherry Ripe’? 2. What had Cherry Ripe in his garden? 3. What did the boys decide to do once? 4. Who did the boys see when they got on Cherry Ripe’s wall? 5. What did Cherry Ripe and his friends do when they saw the boys in the garden? 6. What did the boys understand? 7. Where did Cherry Ripe take the boys? 8. What happened to them at school after the raid? CHERRY RIPE1 Part I This is a story about a very clever man, Jenkins. We have given him the name of ‘Cherry Ripe’ because he sells cherries. Cherry Ripe is a farmer. He lives near our school. When you leave the school garden, you come to a wood. It is not very large. Then comes a field, which is larger. After this large field there comes an old wall, and behind that wall is the orchard of Cherry Ripe. Now I’m going to tell you what happened last year. Cherry Ripe sold cherries, but he had apples and other kinds of fruit too, and grew potatoes and other vegetables. We often went there to look at his wonderful apples and cherries. I must say he didn’t like it. He ran after us, but he could not catch us, of course. He often laughed when he worked in his orchard with his daughters; he never laughed when he saw us. And when we gave him the name of ‘Cherry Ripe’, he liked us even less. Once—it was just the cherry season—we decided to make a raid1 2 on his cherries. I shan’t say much about what happened. All went well... But when we got on Cherry Ripe’s wall, who did we see? Cherry Ripe in a cherry-tree, and his daughters under itl They were at the other side of the orchard, and he couldn’t see us. “And if he sees us,” said Pedlar, “we shall have time to run away.” 1 «Вишня спелая»—По книге Е. Phillpotts “The Human Boy Again”. Leipzig, 1908. «Вишня спелая!»—так торговцы вишнями зазывают покупателей. 2 to make a raid—совершить набег 27
As Cherry Ripe was busy with cherries, we decided to go for his apples. I jumped down first, then Pedlar and Freckles jumped, and then Chilvers. He fell in the middle of a flowerbed and broke some flowers and wasn’t even sorry. We were busy with green apples when Chilvers shouted, “Run away!” But it was too late. We saw three men, and one of them was Cherry Ripe! They caught us all, and Cherry Ripe’s daughters saw this and laughed. And then we understood everything. That was a scarecrow in the tree and not Cherry Ripe. It had his hat on, and his daugh- ters laughed as they talked to that scarecrow! Cherry Ripe took us to our school and told the head-master about our raid. The head-master looked at us as if we were1 some ijew kind of animal and he did not know why we were in his room. And then he was angry. He was so angry that even Cherry Ripe was sorry for us. We got four on each hand1 2 and had to stay in the classroom when the lessons were over. (To be continued—Продолжение следует) Answer the questions: 1. Why didn’t Cherry Ripe like the boys? 2. Why was Chilvers not sorry when he fell in the middle of a flowerbed? 3. What kind of man was Cherry Ripe? Was he clever? Joke “What if we take him to our collective farm?” “What will he do there?” “We’ll put him up as a scarecrow in the vege- table garden.” 1 as if we were. . . — как будто мы были . .. 2 We got four on each hand — Каждый получил четыре удара линейкой по руке 28
LESSON FOUR Passive Voice ['paesiv 'vois] (Страдательный залог) Revision (Повторение): Past Indefinite Active Voice. New Material (Новый материал): Past Indefinite Passive Voice. I. Use the verbs given in brackets (в скобках) in the Past Indefinite Active Voice. 1. We—many useful things at our handicraft lessons last year, (make) 2. What —he—last Sunday? (do) 3. She —the room yesterday, (clean + not) II. Translate into English: 1. Кому ты послал вчера письмо? — Брату. 2. Когда ты купил коньки? — В прошлом году. 3. Ты взял вчера мою книгу?—Да. III. Give the Past Indefinite and Past Participle (причастие прошедшего времени) of the verbs: drive, plant, leave, catch, know, take, lose, buy, grow, make, send, write. IV. Read and translate the sentences. Explain how the Past Indefinite Passive is formed (Объясните, как образуется Past Indefinite Passive). A. The toy you see in the first picture was made at the last handicraft lesson. The tools you see in the second picture were made at school last year. 29
В. 1. Mike sent me a letter last summer. 2. Mother did not take her little sons for a walk yesterday. 3. When did you plant these trees? 1. Mike was sent to a pioneer camp last summer. 2. The boys were not taken for a walk yesterday. 3. When were these trees planted? V. Use the verbs given in brackets in the Past Indefinite Passive Voice. 1. This work—a week ago. (do) 2. New words—at the last lesson, (repeat) 3. The children—to the cinema last Sunday, (take) VI. Put into the negative and interrogative forms (Образуйте отрицательную и вопросительную формы): 1. The room was cleaned in the evening. 2. The book was bound yesterday. 3. Watering-cans were sold here last summer. VII. Translate into English: 1. Летом я встретил мно- гих старых друзей. 2. Я не купил вчера гвоз- дей. 3. Когда твой товарищ принёс тебе книгу? Их встретили в саду. (Дослов- но: Они были встречены в саду.) Гвозди не купили вовремя. (До- словно: Гвозди не были куп- лены вовремя.) Когда принесли эту книгу? (Дословно: Когда эта книга была принесена?) AT A CLASS MEETING The lessons were over, but the children did not go home. They had a meeting that day. It was their first class meeting that year. The form mistress said: “Boys and girls, today we shall discuss the question of our future class work. Let’s elect the monitor of the class.” Kate Petrova was elected monitor of the class. She went to the table. The form mistress sat down behind the children. 30
KATE: SASHA: MIKE: PUPILS: KATE: ALEC: MIKE: KATE: DAN: JANE: KATE: JANE: ANN: Today we must decide what we shall do for our school this year. Who will speak now? You, Sasha? As you know, we must collect scrap metal and paper.1 Somebody must be responsible for this job. Who shall we elect? Sasha can be respon- sible for it, I think. Of course, he’s just the boy for it! All right. Now, what else can we do for our school? We can do a lot of things. What if we bind books for our library? All the books were bound last year. Then we can mend our maps. We have not done that for two years now. Who will do it? Let’s ask Ann, Nina and Alec to do it. May I speak? Of course you may. We must read books, too, and discuss them at our meet- ings. I think Mike can be responsible for such meetings. And Nelly will teach us to love music. That will be won- derful! FORM MISTRESS: Гщ very glad that you can solve important problems. I see you can work well together and I’m sure you will do many good things this year. KATE: And now I’ll read you a letter from England. It was brought to our school yesterday. Here it is: Dear friends! I was very glad to get a letter from Russian children. I’ll try to answer all your questions. 1 scrap metal ['metlj and paper — металлолом и бумажная макулатура 31
My name is Lucy Grant. I live in London. I am thirteen years old. I have a brother who is two years older than I am. His name is Tom. I go to a comprehensive school.1 Our teachers say this is the best kind of school in England because all children can go to it and learn the same things there. Our school is a girls’ school. It is very big and has more than nine hundred girls in it. In my class there are 34 girls. We have lessons five days a week, from Monday to Friday. On Saturday and Sunday we have no lessons. We learn English, mathematics,1 2 French, German, history, geography,3 music and many other important things. I am sure we shall know a lot of things when we leave school. We have needlework too, and the older girls learn how to look after small children. My brother Tom, who goes to a boys’ school, has handicraft lessons. We have a lot of sports and games, too. And what about you? I have a very nice uniform4 and a school badge.5 Every school in London has its uniform and its badge. I like my school very much. I’ll be very glad if you write tome all about your school. I hope we shall make friends. All the best Lucy Grant. 1 a comprehensive [,kompri'hensiv] school—единая общедоступная сред- няя школа. В эту школу принимаются все дети с 11-летнего возраста, незави- симо от того, как они выдержали конкурсный отборочный экзамен перед окончанием начальной школы. В единой средней школе первые два года все дети учатся по единой программе и, таким образом, имеют одинаковые условия для развития своих способностей (чего нет в других типах англий- ских школ. См. примеч. 3, 4 на стр. 9). Такие школы возникли в Англии недавно и представляют собой прогрессивное явление. 2 mathematics [,mae0i'niatiks] 3 geography [dsi'ografi] 4 a uniform ['jtrnifozm]—здесь школьная форма 5 a badge [baeds] — значок 32
New Words French n future n German n history n monitor n needlework n collect v discuss v elect v mend v music n problem n solve v teach v important a such a just adv be glad Answer the questions: 1. What did the pupils read at the class meeting? 2. Who wrote the letter? 3. What is the girl’s name? 4. How old is she? 5. In what country does she live? 6. In what town does she live? 7. Has Lucy any brothers or sisters? 8. What is her brother’s name? 9. Which of the two is older? 10. Does Lucy go to school? 11. Is that a girls’ school or a boys’ school? 12. How many girls are there in Lucy’s school? 13. Do they have lessons every day? 14. What do they learn at school? 15. Do they have a lot of sports and games? 16. Do English children get a practical education? Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words given in italics. 1. When I get a letter, my brother always asks me to give him the stamp. He collects stamps of different coun- tries. 2. I must mend my coat: there is a hole in my pocket. 3. Our teachers teach us many useful things. 4. We are always glad to see our old friends. 5. I study English at school. My friend studies French at his school. My sister studies German. II. Translate the following phrases and sentences: job: a good job; a useful job; a hard job; this kind of job; to do a job. 33
music: beautiful music; wonderful music; to dance to the music; a music lesson. history: the history of England; English history; to study history; a book on history. needlework: to do (some) needlework; a needlework lesson. just: just sol; just listen; just think. It is just the thing I want. It is just nine o’clock. You are just in time. go on: to go on with one’s work. Go on reading. French: to speak French; to say something in French; the French language; French people. mend: to mend a dress; to mend stockings; to mend a bicycle. such: such games; such a clever boy!; at such an early hour; in such a place. III. Find in the text sentences with verbs in the Passive. IV. Make up sentences using the prepositions (предлоги) by or with. Read and translate these sentences. 1. The letter was written 2. The nails were driven in 3. The toys were made him a pen a hammer a boy school-children tools V. Use the Voice. verbs given in the margin (на полях) in the Active or Passive 1. a) Kate — monitor of the class. b) The pupils — the monitor in September. 2. a) My father — stamps when he was a boy. b) Many interesting books — in our school for the hospital last year. to elect to collect VI. Complete (закончите) the sentences as in the example: Nina: If I wrote a letter, then... Kate: Then the letter was written by you. Nina: If the pupils read the letter at the last meeting, then... Kate: 34
Alec: If we grew vegetables in the vegetable garden, then... Mike:........................ Steve: If I bound this book, then... Dan:....................... Ann: If she got books at (from) the library, then... Nelly:....................... VII. Arrange the words and phrases under the headings: a) work, b) leisure (Распределите слова и сочетания слов в 2 колонки по темам: а) труд, б) отдых). 1. to bind, to play, to clean, to weed, to dance, to water, to skate, to ski, to mend, to go for a walk, to teach. 2. a nail, a ball, a hammer, a holiday, a job, a club, a boat, a game. VIII. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions: about, into, without, at, for, on, in, out of, by. 1. I like to think — my first days — school. 2. I have read many stories — Turgenev. 3. The old woman opened the door and went out — the street. 4. Our class is responsible — this job. 5. Eliza could not live — her son. 6. I looked-------the window and saw Dan — the street. 7. London is — the Thames. IX. Fill in the blanks with the verbs and phrases: to elect, to solve, to make friends, to collect, to bind. 1. Our pioneers--------with the children of Form 1 and helped them with their work. 2. Sasha was responsible for the job. We — him at our pioneer meeting. 3. The pupils of Form 1 — books for their class library and we — those books. 4. You can — many problems if you work together. X. According to the examples given below, complete the sentences in section A and translate the sentences in section В (По данным образцам закон- чите предложения в разделе А и переведите на английский язык предложения в разделе В). 35
Let’s go into the classroom, it's just time to begin our meeting. Let’s elect Kate monitor, she's just the girl for it. A. 1. Let’s go and wash our hands, ... to have dinner. 2. Let Nina write the letter to Lucy Grant, ... for it. 3. Sasha will show you how to play chess, ... for it. 4. Take your watering-can and go to the garden, ... to water the flowers. В. 1. Идёмте в огород, сейчас самое время полоть картофель. 2. Попроси Сашу сделать полочку, он как раз тот мальчик, который с этим справится. 3. Купим Кате цветы, это как раз подарок для неё (тот по- дарок, который ей понравится). 4. Пойди и выполи клумбу, это как раз работа для тебя. XI. According to the example given below, complete the sentences in section A and translate the sentences in section B. Tomorrow is Kate’s birthday. What if we buy her an English book? A. 1. Look at these books! Что, если мы переплетём их? 2. Here is Steve! Что, если мы попросим его помочь нам? 3. Look at the map! Что, если мы её починим? В. 1. Что, если мы попросим классного руководителя обсу- дить с нами эту книгу? 2. Что, если мы напишем письмо какому-нибудь англий- скому школьнику? 3. Что, если мы споём эту песню по-английски? XII. Translate into English: Дорогой Стива! Мы все очень рады, что ты скоро придёшь в школу. Вчера мы получили письмо от английской школьницы. Её зовут Люси Грант. Ей 13 лет. Она живёт в Лондоне. 36
Её школа очень большая, но в этой школе учатся только де- вочки. Люси очень любит свою школу, и она написала нам о ней. У Люси есть брат. Он на 2 года старше её. Он учится в школе (ходит в школу) для мальчиков. Люси просит нас написать ей о нашей школе. Что, если мы с тобой (ты и я) напишем ей завтра? Всего наилучше го, Ник. (Think how to answer Lucy’s letter.) LET’S TALK A LITTLE I. Answer the questions. И you can answer, raise your hand. to raise — поднимать (руку, голову и tn. п.) А. 1. Do you always go home just after school? 2. Why do you sometimes stay at school? 3. When do you begin your class meetings? 4. What do you speak about at the first class meeting? 5. Who do you elect at the first class meeting? 6. Do you bind books for your school library? 7. Who is responsible for the job? 8. Can you say that you help your school? В. 1. Were you glad to get a letter from Lucy Grant? (Imag- ine—представьте себе — that Lucy’s letter was writ- ten to you.) 2. Was it interesting to read the letter? 3. Did you learn many new things from it? 4. What did you decide to do? 5. What is your name? 6. Where do you live? 7. How old are you? 8. Do boys and girls study together in the U.S.S.R.? 9. Is your school big? 10. Are there many children in it? 11. How many pupils are there in your class? How many boys, and how many girls? 12. What days of the week do you come to school? 13. What do you learn at school? 14. Do you get a practical education at school? 37
15. Do you try to be useful to your school? How do you help the school? 16. When do you have your autumn, winter and summer holidays? 17. Do you go in for sports? II. Make up short dialogues (['daialagz]—диалоги), like the following: — Please give me the hammer, Майк, дай мне, пожалуйста, Mike. молоток. — Sorry, what did you say? Прости, что ты сказал? Shall 1 give you the hammer? Дать тебе молоток? — Yes, please. Да, пожалуйста. (Sorry=I am sorry) 1 . Please open the window, Jane. (Jane opens the window.) 2......... (Steve shows Nick his stamps.) 3......... (Nelly sings them an English song.) 4 ...... (Nina tells Ann about Riga.) III. Learn and say. Nina: It’s time to begin the meeting! Who are we waiting for? Nate: We are waiting for our form mistress. She will come in a moment. Nina: Here she is. Let’s begin. Nate: Don’t you know that the form mistress will open the meeting? Nina: Of course I do. Look! She is coming to her table. * * * Steve: Sorry, I have been absent for two days. Who is our new monitor? Nick: Kate is. She was elected at the class meeting. Steve: I’m very glad. Kate is just the girl for it. Nick: You are right. Have you written anything for our wall newspaper, Steve? Steve: Of course I have. What if we read it together? 38
IV. Tell your classmates what you’ll write for your wall newspaper. Ques- tions A on page 37 will help you. V. Tell your classmates what you’ll write to Lucy Grant in answer to her letter. Questions В on page 37 will help you. Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. What did the boys decide to do? 2. How did they get the seeds? 3. What did the boys see in the garden when they got over the wall? 4. Where did the boys walk to? 5. Who jumped out from behind a tree? 6. Who did the boys see when they got on the wall? 7. Was the bull big or small? 8. What did Cherry Ripe tell the boys to do? 9. For how many hours did they work? 10. What did Cherry Ripe say about the bull? 11. What did Freckles tell Cherry Ripe about? 12. What kind of seed was it? CHERRY RIPE Part II We were so angry with Cherry Ripe that we decided to take revenge on him.1 A great idea came into my head. It was from a book—which shows that to read books is sometimes useful. “I’ve read about a kind of grass,” I said. “It grows so quickly that it chokes all vegetables. We shall get the seeds and throw them all over Cherry Ripe’s garden.” Batson, the boy who looked after the school garden, brought us a bag of that seed. On Saturday we got over the wall into Cherry Ripe’s garden. And there we suddenly saw a large board with these words on it: Danger! Beware of the Bull!1 2 1 to take revenge [n'vendj] on somebody—отомстить кому-либо 2 Danger! Beware of the Bull! [-jdemctja | bi'wea av Oa 'ibulj—Опасно! Берегись быка! 39
We were ready to get back over the wall, but then decided to wait and see. A bull made our task more difficult, of course, but more interesting too. And so we walked to the vegetable garden. “There is no bull, I’m sure,” said Freckles. “Cherry Ripe wrote these words on the board to make us go away.” We threw the seeds here and there. Suddenly Pedlar shouted, “He is coming!” and Cherry Ripe jumped out from behind a tree. We ran to the wall and got on it and wanted to jump down—but we didn’t. We saw the bull! He was there, on the other side of the wall. He was the big- gest bull I ever saw. And we stood on the wall, between him and Cherry Ripe. Here was a problem we had to solve! As we discussed it, Cherry Ripe came up to the wall. “Hullo, my good boys,” he said. “Do you like this nice little bull? Or do you want to come back to my vegetable garden and do some work for me there? We can go to your head-master or you can come down and weed my vegetable garden.” “Me? Work for a farmer?” said Freckles. “Never! I’ll go to the head-master.” But we didn’t think so. We jumped down and went to work. Freckles was very angry, but he went with us too. Cherry Ripe told us to weed the vegetable garden and to water the vegetables. We worked for two hours. “Now you may go,” said Cherry Ripe. But Pedlar said, “And what about the bull?” “Oh, the bull!” said Cherry Ripe. “Why, he is like a kitten! My youngest daughter plays with him.” Cherry Ripe put his hand on the bull’s head, and the bull almost purred.1 We even forgot that we were angry. But Freckles couldn’t forget it. “I’ll tell him about the seeds,” he said. “We’ll show him that schoolboys are cleverer than a farmer.” And he told him all about the seeds. “Well done!” said Cherry Ripe. “And where did you get the seeds from?” “That is our business,”1 2 answered Freckles. 1 to purr [рэ:] — мурлыкать 2 That is our business fbiznis].— Это наше дело. 40
“Well, I know,” said the old man. “You got them from my good friend Batson. He told me everything. The seed he gave you was lettuce1 seed! Good evening, my dear boys, and when you think of this day you may be glad that you’ve done some useful work for once in your lives!” Answer the questions: 1. Were the boys right when they decided to take revenge on Cherry Ripe? 2. Did they do what they wanted to? 3. Why was Freckles angry with his friends? 4. Jane says that she likes Cherry Ripe. Do you? CHERRY RIPE English Song Words by H. Herrick Music by C. Horn Full and fair ones, come—and---buy; Cher-ry ripe, cher-ry ripe, ripe, I------------cry, Full and fair ones, come and buy. to cry—кричать full— здесь сочный fair—здесь чудесный 1 lettuce ['letisj —салат 41
REVISION (ОБЗОРНЫЙ) LESSON I 1. 1. You want to drive a nail in, but your friend has taken the hammer and is working with it. What do you ask him, and what does he answer? 2. One day your friend doesn’t come to school. You go to see him, and find him in bed. What do you ask him? 3. You have a new boy in your class. You want to make friends with him. You want to know what books he has read and what sports he likes. Ask him about these things. 4. What do you do in class to show that you want to speak? 5. A pupil doesn’t listen to the teacher at the lesson. What do you say if you want to make him listen? 6. Lessons begin at nine o’clock. The children are playing in the school-yard. The monitor looks at her watch and sees that it is almost nine. What does she say? 7. Your brother is in the 11th form. Tell us what he can do after he leaves school. 2. THE HOLIDAYS ARE COMING Lessons are over, and the pupils leave their classrooms. As they walk home, they talk about different things. Ann and Nina are discussing an important question. It is this: are meetings at the English-speaking club useful? Nina thinks that it is more useful to read an English book at home than to listen to her classmates when they speak English. “They don’t speak English very well,” she says. Do you think she is right? * # * 42
And now look at those two boys and that girl. They are Kate, Dan and Sasha. DAN: I’m so glad we shall soon have our holidays. It’s the thirtieth of October already. KATE: You are always ready to have holidays, Dan. DAN: And what about you? You see we have worked so much these last two months! SASHA: Perhaps we have. We’ve learned some new things at school - in mathematics, in history, in handicrafts. KATE (looks at them and laughs): Oh, you boys! To listen to you, we are the best children on earth! * * * And who is the boy that is walking with Mike? He cannot be a pupil of the 8th form, he is too small. Well, it’s Pete! He is in the fifth form, but Mike and he are great friends. All the school knows about them. Even Dan’s brother Victor, a young factory worker, knows about Pete. He meets Pete just after the boy has said good-bye to Mike. VICTOR: Hullo, Pete! PETE: What did you say? VICTOR: What’s the matter with you? You hear nothing. PETE: I’m thinking about the meeting of our English-speaking club. Jane will speak about “Today and Yesterday”. VICTOR: Are you sure you’ll understand her? PETE: Of course I shall! I’ve even spoken with an Englishman. VICTOR: Have you! PETE: Yes. Once I came to the school garden to water the flowers: we had to look after some flowerbeds, you know. The Englishman came there too, and we spoke English. VICTOR: That was really wonderful! Did he understand you? PETE: Of course he did! * * * Now, do you want to know what Jane spoke about at the club meeting? This is what she said - you can read it here, every word of it. 43
3. TODAY AND YESTERDAY A. In the book “The Time Machine” by H. G. Wells, we read about a wonderful machine which could take people into the future and into the past. Imagine that you have got a kind of time machine, and that it has taken you into the past. Now you are in St. Petersburg.1 You come to the Pioneer Palace and want to get in, when - Halt! - the guard suddenly stops you at the door. You think it is joke, but it is not. You see, you were going to walk into the tsar’s palace! After the Great October Revolution this beautiful palace was given to Soviet children. Now every boy and girl may always go into its beautiful rooms and its green garden. B. People who come to Moscow can see many interesting things there. New houses, new streets and even whole new districts appear in different parts of the capital every year. Our people do all they can to make our towns and villages more beautiful and comfortable. After the Revolution many small places have grown into big towns. Some years will pass, and many new towns will appear on the map of our country. Child- ren who study geography will learn many things about which we don’t even think today. Imagine how much the Soviet people will do in the next few years! C. The people of our country have solved many important problems. They will solve many new problems in the future. After some years it will be difficult to recognize our old Mother Earth. Wonderful new machines will help people in their work. 1 2 1 St. Petersburg [S9nt'pi:t9zb9:g] - Санкт-Петербург 2 the tsar [za:] - царь 44
Deserts where nothing was grown yesterday, will become green fields and gardens. Many young men will repeat the exploits1 of Y. A. Gagarin and H. S. Titov. People will travel to other planets. They will find many new ways to make man’s life happy and beautiful. It will be the greatest peaceful revolution that people have ever known. an exploit ['ekspbit] - подвиг This is one of the songs the children sang at the English- speaking club meeting after Jane’s talk. JOE HILL American Union Song Words by II. Hayes Music by Earl Robinson Moderate 1 I dream’d I saw Joe Hill last night A - live as you or me. Says I,“But Joe, you’re ten years dead?°I nev-er died’,’says he. “I nev-er died” says be. 2. ‘In he. 1. I dream’d I saw Joe Hill last night Alive as you or me. Says I, “But Joe, you’re ten years dead!” “I never died,” says he. (Repeat) 2. “In Salt Lake, Joe,” says I to him, Him standing by my bed, “They framed you on a murder charge.” Says Joe, “But I ain’t dead.” (Repeat) 45
3. And, standing there as big as life, And smiling with his eyes, Joe says, ’’What they forgot to kill Went on to organize.” (Repeat) 4. “Joe Hill ain’t dead,” he says to me, “Joe Hill ain’t never died. Where working men are out on Joe Hill is at their side.” (Repeat) Says I — просторечие = I say I ain’t [eint] — просторечие = I am not Joe Hill ain’t dead = Joe Hill isn’t dead. Joe Hill ain’t never died = Joe Hill has never died. ДЖО ХИЛЛ 1. Приснился мне Джо Хилл, друзья, Совсем такой, как был. -Ведь ты же умер! - молвил я. - - Я жив, - сказал Джо Хилл. (2 раза) 2. - Но десять лет прошло со дня, Как ты в тюрьме казнён. - Не так легко казнить меня, - Смеясь, ответил он. (2 раза) 3. -Меня сгубить бы не могли Ни петля, ни ружьё. Союз рабочих всей земли - Бессмертие моё. (2 раза) 4. Ив час, когда рабочий класс Начнёт последний бой, С друзьями будет в этот час Джо Хилл, всегда живой. (2 раза) (Перевод С. Болотина) 46
5. IN THE EVENING N. M. Kolchitsky Speak about the picture. Here are some words to help you: пила — a saw тиски — a vice механизм —mechanism ['mekomzm] бутылка с клеем—a bottle of glue стружка—a shaving 47
LIST OF NEW WORDS (Lessons 1—4) answer n 2 better: (you) had better 2 bind v 3 board n 2 classmate n 1 collect v 4 country: in (to) the country 1 decide v 2 different a 2 discuss v 4 drive in (a nail) v 2 elect v 4 Englishman n 3 ever adv 3 E flowerbed n 3 form master n 3 form mistress n 1 French n 4 future n 4 German n 4 glad: be glad 4 go on (with) v 3 good: be good (at) 2 hammer n 2 handicrafts n 2 here it is 2 history n 4 hundred num 2 important a 4 job n 3 joke n 1 just adv 4 kind n 2 leave v 2 little: a little pron 2 look after v 3 make friends {with some- body) 1 matter: what is the matter (with)? 2 mend v 4 monitor n 4 music n 4 nail n 2 needlework n 4 practical education 2 problem n 4 raise v 4 E really adv 3 responsible a 3 solve v 4 study v 2 such a 4 talk n 2 teach v 4 time: it is time (to) 3 use v 3 useful a 2 water v 3 watering-can n 3 weed v 3 welcome (to) int 1 what about 3 wonderful a 1
LESSON FIVE Revision: Passive Voice New Material: Особенности употребления Passive Voice I. Translate into Russian: A. 1. The girls of our class were given many presents on the eighth of March. 2. We were told many interesting stories about dogs. 3. Ann was sent many telegrams on her birthday. B. The First of September Merry voices (весёлые голоса) were heard in the classrooms that day. Boys and girls were asked to speak about their holidays and to show their summer work. All the stories were interesting. When the lessons were over, the children went home. Some of the stories and jokes were later put in their wall newspaper. II. Translate into English: А. Вчера она послала два письма. В прошлом году её (меня) послали в Москву. На прошлой неделе ей прислали два письма. Мы рассказали им интересную историю. Нам рассказали интересную историю. История была рассказана по- английски. В. 1. Эти книги переплели в прошлом году. 2. Летом Аню отвезли (букв.: взяли) в деревню. 3. Этот рассказ читали в седьмом классе. 4. На уроке ручного труда нам показали много полезных инструментов. 5. Когда мы были маленькими (детьми), нас встречали после уроков. 49
THEY HELP AUNT HELEN Last Sunday Jane got up very early. “What was the matter?” you will ask. An old woman — everybody calls her Aunt Helen — was ill. Aunt Helen lives in the same house as Jane. As Aunt Helen has no family, nobody can look after her when she is ill. So Jane and her friends decided to help her. At nine in the morning, Jane, Nelly, Alec and Mike came into Aunt Helen’s room. They stayed with her till evening. Jane swept the floor and dusted the room, and Mike watered the flowers: Aunt Helen loves all kinds of flowers, and there are many of them in her room. And what about Alec and Nelly? They, too, were given jobs. Alec was sent to buy milk and butter and some vegetables, and when these things were brought, Nelly cooked a good dinner. Then Mike was told to lay the table. After dinner Nelly and the boys washed up and swept the floor again; and Jane sat down near Aunt Helen’s bed, opened a book and began to read. Jane is a good reader, and Aunt Helen is never too tired to listen to a good story. This is the story that Jane read to Aunt Helen: THE POOR MAN AND THE RICH MAN Once a poor man tied1 his horse to a tree and sat down to rest. It so happened that a rich man saw him and decided to rest too. So he began to tie his horse to the same tree. “Tie your horse to another tree!” shouted the poor man. “My horse is wild,1 2 it will kill3 your horse if you put them together.” “You had better not teach me what to do,” answered the rich man. “1’11 tie my horse where I like.” 1 to tie — привязывать 2 wild [waild] — дикий 3 to kill — убить 50
So he tied his horse to the same tree. Then he sat down and began to eat his dinner. Suddenly the horses began to fight. The two men jumped to their feet and ran up to them. But they were too late. The rich man looked at his horse and saw that the poor animal was dead.1 The rich man was very angry. “Look what your horse has done,” he shouted. “Now you will have to pay for my horse. I’ll make you pay for it!’* He took the poor man to the judge.1 2 “Oh, Judge,” he said, “this man’s horse has killed my horse. Make him stay here till he pays for my horse.” 1 dead [ded] — мёртвый, мёртв 2 a judge [dsAds] —судья 51
“Is that true?” asked the judge. “Did your horse really kill his horse?” But the poor man did not say a word. “Can’t you speak?” asked the judge. The poor man was asked many more questions, but he did not answer them. Then the judge said, “I can’t help you. The poor man cannot speak.” “Oh, Judge,” said the rich man, “this man can talk as well as you or me. He spoke to me very well an hour ago.” “Are you sure?” asked the judge. “What did he say?” “He said: ‘Don’t tie your horse to that tree because my horse is very wild.’ He told me to tie my horse to some other tree.” “Oh,” said the judge, “now I see. So you think that the man must pay for your horse. But why didn’t you do what you were told to do?” Then the judge asked the poor man, “Why didn’t you answer my questions?” “I wanted to make him tell you the truth,” said the poor man. “What a clever man he is,” thought the judge. So the poor man was allowed to go, and the rich man was not given a penny.1 1 a penny —пенни (английская мелкая монета) New Words truth n fight v true a allow v rest v till cj, prep call v shout v cook v sweep v be angry dust v rich a be ill Joke Teacher: Give the Passive of ‘John shot my dog’. Pupil: ‘My dog shot John’. to shoot (shot, shot) — застрелить 52
Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words given in italics. 1. The boy can’t go to school. He must stay in bed. He is ill. 2. I come to school at nine o’clock, and stay at school till three o’clock. 3. When the floor is not clean, we wash it or sweep it. 4. There are many forests in our country. Our country is rich in forests. 5. When you are tired, you must rest a little. 6. November is a summer month. That is not true. November is an autumn month. This is true. II. Find in the text sentences with the verb in the Passive. Pick out those sentences in which the use of the Passive differs from Russian (Выберите предложения, которые содержат особенности употребления Passive Voice в сравнении с русским языком). III. Translate into Russian: 1. Не was allowed to go to Moscow. 2. She was told to stay in bed. 3. They were taught music in the 5th form. IV. Translate into English: 1. Нас всегда учили говорить правду. 2. Мне разрешили пойти на каток. 3. Ему велели накрыть на стол. V. Put the following words in alphabetical order (Расставьте слова в ал- фавитном порядке): history, hundred, handicrafts, hammer, help, holidays, hole, hour, half VI. Fill in the blanks A. with the verbs: to cook, to sweep, to rest, to get up, to be ill, to dust, to tell (Passive), to allow + not (Passive) Alec —. He — to stay in bed and his classmates decided to look after him. When they came, Alec wanted —, but he — to do so. The children — the floor and — the books. Nick and Mike bought milk, meat, butter and vegetables, and as Alec’s mother was at work, the girls — a good dinner. When Alec’s mother came home, everything was ready, and she could — a little. 53
В. with the verbs: to look at or to see 1. This film is very interesting, you must — it. 2. Mike has come to town. Go and — him. 3. — your hands! They are dirty. 4. The man — his watch, but could not — anything because it was dark. VII. Look carefully at the use of the verbs say, speak, tell, talk in the text. Choose the correct verb from those given in brackets (Проследите упот- ребление глаголов say, speak, tell, talk в тексте. Выберите нужный глагол). 1. I can (say, speak, tell) English a little. 2. “Don’t (say, tell, talk) at your lessons,” (said, told) the teacher. 3. “Take this board,” the teacher (said, told) the pupil. 4. At the last lesson our teacher (spoke, said) about the history of Great Britain. 54
VIII. Ask questions and answer them as in the following example: 1. Our school year begins on the 1st of September. Is this true or not? 2. Yes, it’s true. 1. Our holidays begin on the 1st of September. Is this true or not? 2. No, it isn’t true. 1 . Nails are driven in with a hammer.........? 2........ 1. The floor is swept with a watering-can........? 2........ 1. A horse is a bird........? 2........ 1 . Potatoes are grown in the vegetable garden.........? 2 IX. Translate the sentences according to the examples: Он велел (мне) пойти туда. Не told те to go there. Он сказал нам, чтобы мы не делали этого. Не told us not to do it Don’t forget to put the indirect object (косвенное дополнение) after the verb to tell. 1. Папа велел принести гвозди и инструменты. 2. Классный руководитель сказал, чтобы он полил клумбу в саду. 3. Доктор сказал ей, чтобы она не ездила на юг, но она туда поехала. 4. Мама велела починить полку, а мы забыли об этом. 'What a 'nice picture it is! 'What 'happy children they are! 1. Какой он умный человек! 2. Что за интересная книга! 3. Какой чудесный сад! 4. Какие смешные котята! 5. Какие вы хорошие друзья! 55
X. Translate into Russian according to the example: Go on reading! Продолжайте читать (чтение)! Stop talking! Перестаньте разговаривать! (Прекратите разговоры!) Go on asking questions, please! Stop laughing! Go on dancing, please! Stop shouting! XI. Translate the following sentences: Продолжайте писать! Прекратите беготню! Продолжайте петь! Продолжайте полоть! Перестаньте прыгать! Перестаньте плакать! XII. Find in the text the sentences corresponding to the Russian sentences in the sections below (А, В, C). What special features of the English lan- guage do you see in the sentences? (Найдите в тексте предложения, соответствующие русским предложениям в разделах А, В, С. Какие особенности английского языка вы видите в этих предложениях?) А. 1. Моя лошадь дикая, она убьёт твою лошадь, если ты поставишь их рядом. 2. Не отпускай его до тех пор, пока он не заплатит мне за мою лошадь. В. 1. Я заставлю тебя заплатить за неё (за лошадь). 2. «Я хотел заставить его рассказать тебе правду»,— сказал бедняк. С. 1. Теперь ты должен будешь заплатить за мою лошадь. XIII. Retell (перескажите) the story. The following plan and key words (ключевые слова) will help you. 1. The poor man and his horse. (to tie, to sit down) 2. The rich man and his horse. (to see, to decide, to begin) 3. The poor man and the rich man. (to shout, to tie + not, to be wild, to kill, to listen-]-not, to tie, to sit down, to begin) 4. The poor man’s horse and the rich man’s horse. (to fight, to jump up, to run up, to be late, to be dead) 5. The rich man. (to be angry, to pay for, to take) 56
6. The poor man. (to ask questions, to say -f- not) 7. The truth. (to make him tell the truth) 8. The judge and the poor man. (to understand, to think) 9. The poor man and the rich man. (to allow, to give + not) LET’S TALK A LITTLE I. Learn and say. Mike: Aunt Helen was very glad to see us, I think. Alec: Was she? To tell you the truth, I thought she was very tired. There were four of us! Mike: No, she wasn’t. She asked us to come again. Alec: Did she really? Then let’s go together. * * * Kate: Ann, I’m so glad you’ve come. I have a lot of work to do. What if you help me? Ann: Of course I shall. Kate: You see, Mother and Father have gone to our vegetable garden and I have to do a lot of things at home. Ann: What shall I do? I can cook the dinner and sweep the floor. Kate: Ann dear, will you look after my little sister? Can you take her out for a walk? Ann: Of course I can. And when I come back, 1 hope I shall be useful to you. Kate: Thank you, dear. П. Answer the questions. If you can answer, raise your hand. 1. Have you much work to do at home? 2. Have you ever helped any old woman or any old man? 3. Can you sweep the floor? 4. Who sweeps the floor in your classroom? 5. Do you help your mother? 6. What do you do at home? 7. Do you help your parents to buy food? 8. Who buys bread (butter, milk, meat, fruit, vegetables) for your family? 9. Can you cook a good dinner? 10. Do you find it difficult? 57
11. Do you know how to lay the table? 12. Who washes up at your house? 13. How often do you water the flowers at home? 14. Have you any flowers in your classroom? 15. Who waters them? 16. What Russian book tells us about the children who were always ready to help people? 17. Who wrote the book? 18. Have you read the book? 19. Do you like it? III. Look at the pictures and tell the story. THEY CAN DO ALL KINDS OF WORK 58
Past Indefinite Tense. IV. Tell the story in the Proverb. It is better to do well than to say well. V. Learn this poem: “'What are you doing, Joe?” said I. “^Oh, ^nothing, sir,” was Joe’s reply. “And _/you then, Tom? ^Pray, 'let me ^know.” “I’m ^busy, sir, I’m 'helping ^Joe.” a re'ply = an answer Pray, let me know. = Tell me, please, I want to know. 59
LESSON SIX WE STAND FOR PEACE Of course, all of you can sew a little, and do something with a needle and thread. You are great friends with your scissors, too. But can you make a dress? The work is hard and you must do it carefully. “That is a girls’ job,” the boys will say. To make dresses is of course not interesting for boys, but there are tasks that are interesting for all of you. You can ask Dan about it if you want to. He will tell you how their class was asked to embroider1 the state emblem1 2 of the Soviet Union for the Day of the Constitution. It was done this way: Sasha drew the state emblem and the girls began to work. Dan, Mike and Alec decided to help them. It was very good to work together, to talk and some- times to sing all the English and Russian songs they knew. One day Mike asked: “Do you remember the history of our state emblem? It was even told at the XXII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.” 3 1 to embroider [im'braids] - вышивать 2 a state emblem - государственный герб (a state - государство; an emblem - эмблема) 3 the XXII (twenty-second) 'Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union - XXII съезд Коммунистической партии Советского Союза 60
It happened in the early days of the Great October Revolu- tion. That was a hard time for our country. The Soviet people had to fight against the enemies1 of the young Soviet State. In those days, some artists were asked to draw a design1 2 for the state emblem of the Land of Socialism.3 The artists worked hard, and the designs were soon ready. One of them was really very fine. It showed the world with a hammer and sickle4 on it, with ears of wheat5 round it, and in the middle a sword.6 The design was shown to Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. He looked at it carefully and said, “Why the sword? The sword is an emblem of war,7 and we stand for peace for all the peoples of the world. Of course, we are fighting, but we are fighting against the enemies of Socialism. The sword cannot be our emblem.” With these words Lenin took a pencil and crossed out8 the sword. More than forty years have passed, and the Soviet coun- try has grown into a powerful state. The emblem of this powerful state is the emblem of peace. We stand for peace and friendship for everybody in the whole world, and one of the first decrees9 of our state was the Decree on Peace. artist n constitution n friendship n needle n peace n ----- New scissors n pl task n thread n way n Words draw v sew v fine a powerful a whole a carefully adv hard adv against prep make a dress 1 an enemy ['enimi] — враг 2 a design [di'zain] - эскиз 3 the Land of Socialism ['soufslizm] - страна социализма 4 a sickle - серп 5 ears of wheat [wi:t] - колосья пшеницы 6 a sword [so:d] - меч 7 war [wd:] - война 8 to cross out - вычеркнуть 9 a de cree — декрет 61
Answer the questions: 1. What does the text tell us about? 2. When were the artists asked to draw a design for the state emblem? 3. Was that a hard time for our country? 4. What did the Soviet people have to do? 5. Who was the best design shown to? 6. What did Vladimir Ilyich do? 7. Why did he cross out the sword? 8. What is the Soviet state emblem like? 9. What kind of state has our country grown into? 10. Do we stand for peace and friendship for all the peoples of the world? THE SWORD AND THE ЛSICKLE by 'William^Blake (1757—1827) The 'sword 'sang on the 'barren ^heath, The ./sickle in the 'fruitful ^field. The 'sword he 'sang a 'song of^death, But 'could 'not 'make the 'sickle ^yield. the barren heath [hi:©] - опустошённая земля fruitful — плодоносный the sword he sang... - а меч - он пел... death [de6] - смерть to yield [ji:ld] - уступать, сдаваться МЕЧ И СЕРП стихотворение Вильяма Блейка Меч - о смерти в ратном поле, Серп о жизни говорил. Но своей жестокой воле Меч серпа не покорил. (Перевод С. Я. Маршака) 62
Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words in italics. 1. Sasha always draws pictures for our wall newspaper. He draws very well. 2. Mike is very good at chess. Come to our club tomorrow! He will play against three other chess-players. 3. Repin and Levitan were great Russian artists. 4. ‘Fine’ is almost the same as ‘beautiful’. 5. It rained the whole day yesterday, and we could not go* for a walk. II. Translate the following phrases and sentences: 1. ill: to be very ill; to fall ill. 2. truth: to tell the truth; to speak the truth; the truth is that...; the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. 3. call: to call somebody out of the room; to call things by their names. Everybody calls him Bob; to call a meeting. 4. till: till five o’clock; till late in the evening; till late at night; till he comes home. We laughed till we cried. 5. rich: a rich country; rich colours. Our country is rich in forests. 6. draw: to draw pictures; to draw well, beautifully, won- derfully; to draw in pencil, in chalk. 7. hard: to work hard; to try hard; to fight hard. It snows hard in February. 8. way: on his way home; on his way to England; a long way from here; it’s a long way to go. Get out of the way!; to make one’s way; in this (that) way; in differ- ent ways; in some way or other; the best way of doing it. 9. true: a true artist; true friends; a story true to life. 10. whole: the whole family; the whole day; in the whole world; to tell the whole story. 11. carefully: to do everything carefully; to look at some- thing carefully; to read carefully; to listen carefully; to cross the street carefully. The coats were carefully mended. III. Remember that the word people has two meanings (два значения): 1. people__люди —имеет только одну форму и значение множ, числа (как и в русском языке) 2. people—народ —имеет форму и единств., и множ.числа (peoples — народы) 63
Translate into Russian: 1. It was the first of May, and there were many people in the street. 2. Many peoples live in the U.S.S.R. 3. The peoples of the U.S.S.R. stand for peace and friend- ship for everybody in the whole world. 4. The Soviet people have many friends all over the world. 5. Many people work at this big factory. IV. A. Find in the text and in the poem adjectives with the suffix which you learnt in Lesson 2. Form the adjective мирный with one of the new words from Lesson 6. B. Using the suffix -ful, form adjectives from the words: truth, hope, forget Translate them into Russian. C. Find in the text an adverb, formed from an adjective in -fill (Найдите в тексте наречие, образованное от прилагательного с суффиксом -ful). Point out (выделите) the suffix of the adjective and of the adverb. V. Find in the text two nouns with mark the stresses (Выпишите их the suffix ~(t)ion. Write them out and и поставьте ударения). VI. You know the verb to sew. Can you guess the English for швейная машина? Exercise III on page 22 will help you. VII. Give the opposites (слова, противоположные по значению) of the words and phrases: to be ill, old (2), little (2), to laugh, good VIII. Insert the definite or indefinite article where necessary (Вставьте, где необходимо, определённый или неопределённый артикль). Nina: I’ve bought — needles and — pins, Mother. Mother: How good of you, dear. Give me — pin, please. Nina: Here it is. Mother: Thank you. Now put — new needles in — box. And where are — my scissors? I can’t find them. Give me — Kate’s scissors, please. Nina: Here they are. Where is — second sock, Mother? Which do you think is — best needle to mend it with? 64
IX. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions: to, at, of, with, about, against. 1. What is the matter — you? 2. This girl is very good — needlework. 3. What — your clothes? Have you mended them? 4. Go on — your homework and don’t listen — these stories. 5. How nice — you to help me. 6. We stand for peace; we are — war. X. Using the scheme below, make up questions referring to each part of the sentence (Поставьте вопросы ко всем членам предложения по таблице). His sister reads English in the books evening. What What What books When XI. Translate into English, using the verbs: to teach, to study, to learn 1. Я решила обучить английскому языку моего маленького брата. 2. Мы изучаем историю музыки. 3. Наших девочек обучали шитью. 4. Мы учим песни в английском клубе. XII. Write down all the verbs you know which may be used when speaking of a) school work; b) work in the school garden; c) needlework; d) house- work. XIII. Fill in the blanks with the words: to teach, a needle or scissors, to sew, needlework, hard My little sister Ada couldn’t —. Mother was afraid to give her------. But Ada is a clever girl, and Mother began — her —. Ada worked —, and now she often helps her mother. 65
XIV. Translate into English: A. 1. В День Конституции мы всегда думаем о людях, которые сражались за счастливое будущее всех де- тей. 2. СССР — могущественная страна. 3. Мы стоим за мир и дружбу во всём мире. В. 1. Что ты ищешь? —Мне велели принести ножницы. 2. Нам велели класть иголки в коробку. 3. Нам показали, как шить платья. 4. Летом пол подметали утром и вечером. XV. Learn the last paragraph (абзац) of the text by heart. LET’S TALK A LITTLE 1. Ask and answer. How many English lessons have you a week? We have three English lessons a week. 1. Сколько раз в неделю у вас русский язык? ......................... в неделю. 2. Сколько раз в неделю у вас история (уроки истории)? ............................в неделю. 3. Как часто вы ходите в кино? ............................в месяц. 4. Как часто у вас каникулы? ............................в год. 5. Как часто вы моете руки? ............................в день. В. 1. Have you needlework lessons at your school? 2. In what form do the girls of your school begin needle- work? 3. How many needlework lessons have they a week? 4. Can you use a needle? Do you find it useful? 5. Must we look after our clothes ca efully? 6. If you look after your clothes carefully, will it help your mother? 7. Are there any pupils in your class who do not look after their clothes carefully? 66
II. See how many things in the picture you can name in English. PICTURE PUZZLE (загадка) III. Make up sentences. The twenty-third of Feb- ruary The seventh of November The fifth of December The eighth of March The first of January International [jnto'naeJ- nol] Women’s Day. Soviet Army Day. the New Year Holiday. the Day of the Constitu- tion. the Great October Holi- day. There are two holidays which you won’t find here. What are they? IV. Ask and answer. A. Ask your classmates the dates of our holidays — like this: When is Soviet Army Day? B. a) What does the Soviet Constitution say about the rights (права) of the Soviet people? b) What is the task of Soviet school-children? (Remember the words of V. I. Lenin.) c) What can our young people do when they leave school? Can they work? Can they go on studying? V. Say all you can about the Day of the Constitution. 67
VI. Puzzles. HEAD AND EYE There is one that has a head without an eye, And there is one that has an eye without a head; You may find the answer if you try; And when all is said, Half the answer hangs upon a thread. (э;рээи pun uid) to hang (hung, hung) — висеть upon = on WHAT IS IT? An eye that cannot see. A nail that is a part of the finger (палец). Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. Who lived in one of the little houses in London? 2. Why was Maggie’s mother against Mr. Hunter? 3. What did Mr. Hunter do in his room? 4. What did he say again and again? 5. What happened one morning? 6. Who did Maggie run to? 7. What did Maggie and the detective see when they came into Mr. Hunter’s room? 8. What did the detective ask Mr. Hunter? 9. What did Mr. Hunter tell them about his work? 10. What did Mr. Hunter say when he could not catch a glass? 68
THE ABSENCE OF MR. GLASS1 In one of the little houses in London, there lived a woman with her daughter. The daughter’s name was Maggie. They had a lodg- er, who was a very nice young man. His name was Mr. Hunter. Mr. Hunter and Maggie loved one another. But Maggie’s mother was against their love because Mr. Hunter was a very strange man. He was not poor, but nobody knew where he got his money from. Every day he did something strange in his room. Sometimes he spoke to somebody whom he called Mr. Glass. Mr. Glass was always angry. Maggie’s mother thought that they spoke about money because Mr. Hunter said again and again: “One, two, three, Mr. Glass”, or “No, Mr. Glass.” One morning Mr. Hunter did not come down to breakfast. “Mr. Hunter! Mr. Hunter!” called Maggie. “Please open the door! It’s me.” There was no answer. Maggie knew that Mr. Hunter never left home at such an early hour. She tried to open the door, but could not. “Mr. Glass has done something to him,” she thought. And she ran to the famous detective, Mr. Hood. Maggie told him the whole story, and soon they were in her house. Mr. Hood opened the door with a kitchen knife and they came into the room. Different things lay on the floor and on the table: scissors, apples, nails. There were two glasses on the table, and a third one lay on the floor. Near it there was a long knife and a big hat. In the corner lay Mr. Hunter. He was tied up with ropes.1 2 His brown eyes were alive and he looked from one face to another. Mr. Hood looked carefully at Mr. Hunter. Then he took the hat and put it on the young man’s head. It was too large for him. “What’s the matter?” said Mr. Hunter. “It must be Mr. Glass’s hat,” said the detective, “but where is Mr. Glass? Did you kill him with this knife?” 1 «Отсутствие мистера Гласса». По мотивам одноимённого рассказа Че- стертона. 2 Не was tied up with ropes.—Он был связан верёвками. 69
“I don’t know any Mr. Glass,” said Mr. Hunter, “and I didn’t kill anybody.” Suddenly he laughed. “Oh, I see what has happened,” he said. “You don’t know what my work is. I was going to tell you the truth, Maggie, before our marriage,1 but I think it is time to tell it now. 1 work at the circus1 2 3 and do tricks there. I can speak with different voices —that’s why you thought there was another man in the room. This hat helps me to do my tricks. I throw those glasses into the air one after another and catch them. Sometimes 1 miss8 one of them. Then I say, ‘Missed a glass.’ I say ‘missed a glass’ and not ‘Mr. Glass’!” “And who tied you with these ropes?” asked Maggie’s mother. “I did,” was the answer. “I can tie and take off these ropes when I want to. It’s my new trick.” He took off the ropes and jumped to his feet. “It’s late now,” he said. “What about a good dinner, my friends?” Answer the questions: 1. Who is the hero (['hiarou] — герой) of the story? 2. Why did Maggie and her mother think that there was another man in the room and that his name was Mr. Glass? 3. What was Mr. Hunter’s work? 1 marriage ['masndj] — брак, женитьба 8 the circus [zsa:kas]—цирк 3 to miss—здесь упустить, не поймать
LESSON SEVEN ENGLISH WRITERS It is late in the evening, but the pupils of the 8th form are at school. They had a meeting of their English-speaking club. Mike gave a talk on Dickens; Jane spoke about Shakespeare, and Nina about Byron and Shelley. Now they are talking about different books and authors. NICK: What an interesting talk you gave, Mike. You know so much about Dickens. I really enjoyed it. MIKE: Dickens is my favourite English writer. When I learn English well I shall read all Dickens’ novels in English. NICK: Who told you so much about Dickens* life? MIKE: My father did; and I have read much about him, too. ANN: I liked Jane’s talk very much. Wasn’t it very good? Now all of us know “Hamlet”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “Othello”1 and “King Lear”. JANE: How glad I am that we can read these plays in Russian. My mother studies Shakespeare, and she says it is very difficult to read his plays in English. NINA: I collect books by English authors. I am going to study English literature in future. DAN: And I want to be an engineer. NINA: Have you read anything by Byron or by Shelley? DAN: I’ve read some poems by both of them. NINA: Byron and Shelley are very famous in England. Every- body knows them in the U.S.S.R., too. I have known English since I was seven, so I can read Byron and Shelley in English. KATE: Oh, it’s half past seven, and we’ve been here since 5 o’clock. It’s time to go. Come on! Ф * ЯС This is what Ann, Nick and their classmates learned from their friends’ talk on English authors. 1 ['roumrou and 'dsuljat]; [o'0elou] 71
English writers stand high in world literature. Shakespeare, Swift, Byron, Dickens and many others are dear to all those who love literature. Have you ever heard of a boy who hasn’t travelled together with Gulliver or lived on a small island in the sea with Robinson Crusoe? Both young and old enjoy works by English authors which tell us about life and man. They teach the reader to love man, to struggle for all that is good and great, and to fight against all that is bad and low. We can say that the best works of English writers are, and will always be, a great school of life for those who read them. Shakespeare was one of the greatest writers that ever put pen to paper.1 People in all countries enjoy his plays. We can say this, too, about the works of Byron and Shelley, two great English poets. They loved freedom, and they tell their readers how people have fought for it. In their works we read about a happy future, when people will live in peace and friendship all over the earth. Among the books we read and enjoy there are many English novels. One of the first novels in the history of literature was written in England in 1719; it was “Robinson Crusoe” by Defoe. Some years passed, and Swift wrote his famous “Gulliver’s Travels”.1 2 In the middle of the century, Fielding became one of the greatest English writers. At the beginning of the XIX century, the world heard about Walter Scott, who wrote historical novels. Today people often call Walter Scott the father of the historical novel. Among the nineteenth century authors Dickens and Thackeray were, perhaps, the greatest. In their novels, Dickens and Thackeray described English life in those days and told people the truth about it. Next to these great names stand the names of the three Eng- lish women-writers: Jane Austen and the two sisters — Charlotte and Emily Bronte. As you see, England has had many great writers. Poems and novels by English writers are translated3 into Russian, French, German and other languages. 1 that ever put pen to paper—кто когда-либо брался за перо 2 «Путешествия Гулливера» 3 are translated — переводятся 72
William Shakespeare ['wiljam 'Jeikspia] (1564—1616) Вильям Шекспир Daniel Defoe ['daenjal da'fou] (1660? — 1731) Даниель Дефо Henry Fielding ['henn 'fizldig] (1707—1754) Генри Филдинг Walter Scott ['wozlta 'skot] (1771 — 1832) Вальтер Скотт
Percy Bysshe Shelley l'pa:si 'biJi 'Jeli] (1792—1822) Перси Биши Шелли George Gordon Byron ['dgoidg 'go:dn 'baiaran] (1788—1824) Джордж Гордон Байрон William Makepeace Thackeray ['wiljam 'meikpi:s 'Озекэп] (1811 — 1863) Вильям Мейкпис Теккерей Charles Dickens ['tjalz 'dikinz] (1812—1870) Чарлз Диккенс
New Words author n beginning n century n freedom n literature n novel n play n poem n poet n work n become v describe v enjoy v learn v struggle v translate v both a, pron famous a favourite a historical a among prep since cj, prep both... and cj give a talk He Knows Shakespeare (A joke) “I have read two plays by Shakespeare.” “What were they, please?” “Romeo” and “Juliet”. Answer the questions: 1. Who is this text about? 2. Do English writers stand high in world literature? 3. What do works by English authors tell us about? 4. What do they teach their readers? 5. What can we say about the best works of English writers? 6. Who was one of the greatest English authors in world literature? 7. What are the names of two great English poets? 8. Did Byron and Shelley love freedom? 9. What do they tell their readers? 10. Where was one of the first novels in the history of literature written? 11. What novel was it? 12. When was it written? 13. What other English writers wrote novels? Ask questions about the rest of the text beginning with the words (Задайте вопросы по остальной части текста начиная со слов) At the beginning of the XIX century... 75
Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words given in italics. 1. Dickens was the author of “Oliver Twist”. Pushkin was the author of “Dubrovsky”. 2. “Anna Karenina” by L. Tolstoy is a novel. “Fathers and Sons” by Turgenev is a novel, too. “Romeo and Juliet” by Shakespeare is not a novel, it is a play. 3. Pushkin was a poet. Lermontov was a poet, too. They were both poets. 4. Both Pushkin and Lermontov were poets. 5. A century is a hundred years. We live in the XX century. 6. Monday is the first day of the week. It is the beginning of the week. II. Translate the following phrases and sentences: 1. beginning: at the beginning of June; from the beginning of the story. At the beginning he knew very little, but then... 2. enjoy: to enjoy a fine poem; to enjoy a good joke. The music was wonderful, I enjoyed it very much; to enjoy swimming in the river on a hot summer day. Did you enjoy going to the country? 3. work: a fine work; Shelley’s works; the works of Shake- speare; one of his best works; the most important of all his works. 4. learn: to learn German; to learn to swim; to learn one’s lessons; to learn the truth; to learn about something. He learned it from his friend. III. A. Find in the text nouns with the suffix -er. B. Remember the English for учитель, рабочий. Divide the words into stem and suffix (Разберите слова по составу). С. Without using a dictionary, translate the following nouns which have the suffix -er: speaker, talker The picture on page 54 will help you. 76
D. Look at the pictures below and choose a suitable (подходящее) noun for each of them: singer, book-seller, dancer, swimmer E. Using the suffix -er, form nouns from the verbs: to travel, to skate, to ski, to help, to jump, to listen, to play, to run, to walk F. Translate the following nouns into Russian. Pick out those nouns which have the suffix -er: winter, reader, pioneer, writer, supper, teacher, water, worker, summer, October G. Give the best translation of the following sentence: He is a doer, not a talker. IV. A. Using the suffix -ing, form nouns from the verbs: to meet, to spell, to say These nouns mean: собрание, митинг; написание по буквам, правописание; поговорка В. Translate into Russian without using a dictionary: watering, fighting, sweeping, finding, waiting V. Use a large English-Russian dictionary to translate the verbs from which the following nouns are formed, note the suffix -(at)ion (Используя большой англо-русский словарь, определите значения слов, от кото- рых при помощи суффикса -(at) ion образованы существительные): demonstration, dictation, plantation 77
VI. Using the suffix -ion, form nouns from the verbs: translate, collect, elect Translate these nouns into Russian. VII. Look carefully at the pictures below and explain (объясните) the use of the prepositions between and among. (Compare with the Russian prep- ositions между and среди.) Nina is standing between the trees. Pete is standing among the trees. Mike is sitting between Pete and Sasha. The form mistress is among her pupils. Translate into English, using between or among: 1. Наша кошка любит спать среди книг. 2. Среди старых тетрадей мы нашли открытку с видом Лон- дона (a picture of London). 78
3. Между окном и дверью стоял стол. 4. Из (среди) произведений Э. Казакевича мне больше всего нравится повесть (story) «Звезда». VIII. Translate the following phrases, paying attention (обращая внимание) to the meaning of the words in italics. 1. a great writer; a great friend. 2. it’s time to go; what time is it?; for the first time. 3. to lose the way, on the way, the way to do it. IX. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the conjunction (союз) both ... and. 1. Gorky wrote both plays and novels. 2. Mike reads Dickens both in Russian and in English. 3. Both Shelley and Byron were great English poets. 4. Both Pushkin and Lermontov lived in the XIX century. X. Fill in the blanks with the words: future, to fight, freedom, beginning, works, famous, to enj'oy Pushkin lived at the — of the XIX century. He was one of the most — Russian writers. He was always with those who — for the freedom of the people. Pushkin was a great poet, and his — show that he loved — and thought about a happy — for the peoples of Russia. We — Pushkin’s fine poems. XI. Assign the following works to their correct author (Рядом с названием произведения (или произведений) поставьте фамилию автора). Use the words was (were) written by. Works: Authors: “The Black Arrow (стрела)” “The Invisible Man” “Jane Eyre” “Hamlet” “Twelfth Night” “Gulliver’s Travels” “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” “Romeo and Juliet” “Othello” “Tom Sawyer” “King Lear” “Three Men in a Boat” David Copperfield” “Robinson Crusoe” “The Absence of Mr. Glass” Charlotte Bronte H. G. Wells Jerome K. Jerome Mark Twain Dickens Shakespeare Stevenson Swift Defoe Chesterton Beecher-Stowe 79
XII. Translate into English, A. using the preposition of: 1. «Оливер Твист» (“Oliver Twist”)—одна из моих люби- мых книг. 2. Байрон и Шелли — великие английские поэты XIX столетия. 3. Многие из наших учеников читают английские книги. В. using the words from the text: 1. Русские писатели занимают выдающееся место (stand high) в мировой литературе. 2. Белинский (Belinsky) пишет, что Ломоносов (Lomono- sov)— родоначальник (отец) русской литературы. 3. Известный русский поэт Жуковский (Zhukovsky) пе- ревёл много произведений Байрона. 4. Горький говорит, что Фонвизин (Fonvizin) — родона- чальник реалистической комедии (realistic comedy) в России (in Russia). 5. Фонвизин описал жизнь русских людей XVIII века. LET’S TALK A LITTLE I. Ask and answer. A. What^ WhcZ is your favourite author? poet? poem? novel? play? film? artist? sport? B. In what century did Shakespeare (Defoe and Swift, Walter Scott, Byron and Shelley, Dickens and Thackeray) live? C. 1. Are books your great friends? 2. Why are they your great friends? Do they help you to know things better? Do you enjoy reading? 3. What great Russian writer called books our best friends? 80
4. What do we call people who like books and read much? 5. Are there many great readers in your class? 6. Do you collect books? 7. What books do you collect? 8. Do you love literature? 9. Do your classmates give talks on books and writers? 10. Is it useful to give talks and to listen to them? 11. Who is your favourite Russian writer (poet)? 12. What is your favourite novel (poem)? 13. What English writers do you know? 14. Do you enjoy their books? 15. Who is your favourite English writer (poet)? 16. What is your favourite English novel (poem)? 17. What plays by Shakespeare do you know? 18. Which of them have you read? 19. Which of them do you find most interesting? 20. Which do you think is better: to read English authors in Russian or in English? 21. What books by English authors have you read? 22. Have you read them in English or in Russian? 23. Have you ever read any English author in English? 24. What must you do to read English authors in English? II. Say in English: My 'favourite 'Russian Jbook is “The 'School” by Ar'kadi Gai^dar; and 'what is "\yours? (а твоя?) 1. Моя любимая книга «Чапаев» Фурманова; а твоя? 2. Моя любимая газета «Комсомольская правда»; а твоя? 3. Моя любимая газета «Пионерская правда»; а твоя? 4. Мой любимый фильм «Ленин в Октябре»; а твой? 5. Мои любимые фильмы «Серёжа» и «Волга-Волга»; а твои? Where When In what language can I get did you read the poem “Ruslan and Ludmila”? that funny story? this historical novel? “Tom Sawyer”? Shakespeare’s famous play “Romeo and Juliet”? 81
с. Why do you enjoy How do you like Dickens’ stories and novels? “Huckleberry Finn” by Mark Twain? “The Two Captains” by Kaverin? “The Time Machine” by Wells? Go on asking questions. You can find the authors’ names and the names of their books on page 79, Ex. XI. III. Each of you must say three sentences. Example: a) about Mike. (He is a great reader.) 1. Mike reads a lot. 2. He likes to read. 3. He says that books are his best friends. b) about books. (They are our best friends.) 1. ... (to teach) .... 2. ... (to learn) .... 3. ... (to love) .... c) about S. Y. Marshak. (We enjoy S. Y. Marshak’s translations.) 1. ... (to be a fine poet). 2. ... (to translate into Russian). 3. ... (to help to understand) .... d) about Gaidar. (Gaidar is the favourite writer of Soviet children.) 1. ... (to write for children). 2. ... (to love children .... 3. ... (to help to live) ... , ... , .... e) about N. Ostrovsky. (N. Ostrovsky lives in his novels.) 1. ... (to describe the life) .... 2. ... (to teach to fight) .... 3. ... (to give one’s life for) .... f) about Mayakovsky’s works. 1. ... both plays and poems. 2. ... (to be interesting). 3. ... (to be wonderful). 82
IV. As you know, xMike, Nina, Dan and their classmates like to talk about writers and their works. Let’s try to do the same. Speak about А. Гайдар. «Школа». M. Ю. Лермонтов. Стихотворения и поэмы. Mark Twain. “Tom Sawyer.” A. H. Островский. Пьесы. Jerome К. Jerome. “Three Men in a Boat.” Лев Толстой. «Война и мир». А. Р. Chekhov. Stories. Translated by C. Garnett.1 Байрон. Избранные (selected) произведения. Перевод С. Маршака. Begin your questions Use the verbs with Don’t forget to use the words Where? to write fine favourite When? to live writer historical In what century? to translate author interesting In what language? to read poet funny Why? to like work wonderful How? to enjoy poem great What? to describe story reader Who? to be novel to learn Play to know famous 1 C. Garnett—Констанция Гарнет, англичанка, известная переводчица произведений Толстого, Чехова, Тургенева и др. русских писателей. 83
V. WHAT ARE THESE BOOKS? VI. A. Give a little talk on books. (Questions 1—12 on pages 80—81 will help you.) B. Give a little talk on English books and writers. (Questions 13—24 on page 81 will help you.) Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. What was the name of the old king of Britain? 2. What did King Lear decide to do? 3. How did Cordelia answer her father’s question? 4. What happened to Cordelia? 5. What happened to King Lear? 6. Who did he have with him on the terrible night of the storm? 7. What did Cordelia do when she was told the truth about her father? 8. What happened to King Lear when he saw his youngest daughter dead? 9. What were Kent’s last words? 84
KING LEAR (“King Lear” is one of Shakespeare’s best plays.) Many centuries ago there lived an old king of Britain. His name was Lear. He had three daughters - Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. Cordelia was his favourite child. As Lear was very old, he decided to divide his kingdom among his three daughters. “I want to divide my kingdom among you,” he said. “The one who loves me most, will have the largest part.” “1 love you more than anything in the whole world,” said Goneril. “1 love you more than my life or my freedom,” said Regan. “And what do you say Cordelia?” asked the King. Cordelia raised her head. “Father,” she said, “I love you no more than a daughter can love her father.” King Lear was very angry. “Leave me!” he said. “I don’t want to see you ever again.” He divided his kingdom between Regan and Goneril, and Cordelia was given nothing. After some time she left Britain and became the wife of the French king, who loved her more than words can tell. King Lear decided to stay with Goneril. But Gonenl, who was now rich and powerful, did not want to have the old King near her. Lear went to Regan. But Regan said: “I am not so rich as Goneril, and I can’t invite you to stay at my house. You had better go back to Goneril.” Now King Lear had no home and no daughters. He was as poor as the poorest man in Britain. One night a terrible storm broke out.1 It rained hard, and the moon and the stars were behind the clouds. It was cold, wet, and dark in the fields. King Lear had only two friends with him. One was his fool* 2 and the other a knight.3 The knight’s name was Kent. The fool tried to help the old King, but he could only make jokes and sing songs. a terrible [’teribl] storm broke out - разразилась страшная гроза 2 a fool - здесь шут. В пьесах Шекспира шут часто является вырази- телем народной мудрости и бывает умнее и честнее богатых вельмож. 3 a knight [nait] - рыцарь 85
Here is one of songs, which was translated by our poet S. Marshak. 'That, Jsir, which 'serves and 'seeks for Jgain, And 'follows but for jTorm, Will Jpack when it be'gins to .7rain, And 'leave thee in the ^storm. But T will ^tarry; the 'fool will Jstay, And 'let the 'wise 'man ,7fly: The 'knave 'turns 'fool that 'runs ajway; The jTool ho ^knave, pef^dy.* (Act Two, Scene Four) Кто служит только для того, Чтоб извлекать доходы, Тебя оставит одного Во время непогоды. Но шут с тобой - твой верный шут. Служил он не для денег. Он жалкий шут, Но он не плут, Дурак, но не мошенник! (Акт второй, сцена четвёртая) 86
King Lear was very ill, and Kent decided to send a man to Cordelia. When Cordelia was told the truth about her father, she came to Britain with many soldiers. King Lear was very happy to see his dearest daughter near him. But Goneril and Regan sent out their soldiers, and Lear and Cordelia fell into their hands. Goneril and Regan hated Cordelia, and they told their soldiers to kill her. When old Lear saw her as she lay dead at his feet, his heart broke, and he died. Regan and Goneril enjoyed their victory. But there was no friendship between them. They hated each other no less than they hated their youngest sister. Goneril killed Regan, but soon died too. Kent could not live without King Lear, and he said he must go after his master. His words were: “I have a journey, sir, Уехать вскоре shortly to go. должен я от вас: Му master calls me, Я слышу короля I must not say no.” призывный глас. Answer the questions: 1. Was King Lear right or not when he decided to divide his kingdom among his daughters? (Did it make Britain more powerful?) 2. What made Lear divide his kingdom between Regan and Goneril? 3. Who understood everything very well and tried to explain (объяснить) it to King Lear? 4. What shows that Cordelia really loved her father? 5. What proverb can you use when you speak about King Lear’s daughters? * perdy - ей-богу (от французского per Dieii) 87
REVISION LESSON II A HAPPY NEW YEAR TO YOU! ALEC: What are you doing? NELLY: Making toys for our New Year tree. Don’t you know that we have decided to make all the toys and not buy anything? ALEC: I was ill last week and came to school only this morning. NELLY: Oh, it’s true, I forgot that. Do you want to help us? ALEE: But I can’t do handicrafts. KATE: Oh, there is a good saying: If at first you don’t succeed,1 try, try, try again. ALEC (laughs)'. All right, I’ll try to do something, dear Monitor. ANN (runs in)\ Kate, look, here is a text for our wall newspaper. It’s about the New Year Holiday. KATE: Thank you, Ann. JANE: Well, let’s go on with our toys. And as we work I’ll teach you a very interesting game. 1 to succeed [sak'skd] - удаваться; достигать цели 88
* * * Here is the game which Jane and her classmates played. JANE: Let’s tell jokes and short stories which were never told or written before. We’ll be their authors. I think it’ll be funny and interesting. We’ll speak English. Each story must have from 6 to 10 sentences. The first player will say one sentence, the second will repeat that sentence and say one sentence more. The third will repeat the first two sentences and say one more. We’ll go on telling a story in this way till we have 6 or 10 sentences. After that we’ll think of a new story or a joke. Let’s use the words that we learned in Lessons 1—7. Ann, begin, please. ANN: ‘My little brother tries to be useful at home.’ Sasha, go on, please. SASHA (repeats the sentence and says one more sentence)! ‘Once he saw a book on the table.’ Dan, go on, please. DAN: ‘... The book was open.’ Kate, go on, please. KATE: ‘... and he saw a very beautiful picture in it.’ Nick, go on, please. NICK: ‘.. .The picture showed a flowerbed with wonderful flowers.’ Jane, go on, please. JANE: ‘... He took his little watering-can and began to water the flowerbed in the picture.’ Steve, go on, please. STEVE: ‘... He even wanted to weed it.’ Nelly, go on, please. NELLY: ‘... So he took his mother’s scissors and made some holes in the picture.’ 2. A. Now you know how to do it. Try to tell some stories, too. a) About a boy who can write poems, who translates English poems into Russian, and who is now famous for it in his school. b) About a girl who likes needlework very much, who sews well and can make dresses, and who has made a dress for her mother. c) About an Englishman who came to the U.S.S.R., who did not know Russian, who could not find the way to the post-office and was shown it by some school-children. 89
Look at these pictures and make up a short story. Here are some words to describe the pictures: горшок с цветами (цветочный горшок) — a flowerpot подоконник — a window-sill вырвать (цветок) — to pull up лужа — a puddle отрезать —to cut off 90
3. DIFFERENT KINDS OF CALENDAR A. The 31st of December is the last day of the year. On this day we see the old year out and the new year in.1 At night, when the clock in the Kremlin tower strikes twelve, all the Soviet people raise their glasses and say to one another: “A Happy New Year to you!” More than two centuries ago friends did not meal on the last night of December to see the New Year in. The 31st day of the month was spent by the Russian people in the same way as any other winter day. The 1st of January was not a holiday at that time. The first day of the year was the 1st of September. So it went on till 1699, when Peter the Great put an end to the old tradition. In 1699, the 31st of December was pronounced the last day of the year. It was the last day of the year in Europe.* 2 The first day of January, seventeen hundred (1700) was the beginning of the new Russian calendar. B. In different countries, at different times, we can see differ- ent kinds of calendar. About fifty centuries ago, in Egypt,3 the first night of the year was the night in July when the brightest star Sirius 4 was seen in the sky again after a two months’ interval. In old China,5 the calendar had both years and cycles of years. Sixty years made one cycle, and every year had its name. So the first year of a cycle was called the Year of the Tree and the Mouse; the seventh was the Year of Metal and the Horse; and the tenth, the twenty-second and some others were the Years of the Hen. Now imagine that a man was born 6 in the Year of the Hen. There were five years of the Hen in a cycle: how could people know in what year the man was born? So the people of China don’t use their old calendar today. to see the old year out - провожать старый год; to see the new year in - встречать новый год 2 Europe ['jusrsp] - Европа 3 Egypt ['izd^ipt] - Египет 4 Sirius ['suras] - Сириус (звезда) 5 China ['tjains] - Китай 6 to be born - родиться 91
C. In the days of the French Revolution of 1789- 1794, a new calendar was introduced in France.1 The year 1792 when France became a republic 1 2 was called the First year of Free- dom, and the 22nd of September was called the first day of the year. But after a few years the whole country returned to the old calendar. Today in almost all countries the 1st of January is the begin- ning of the year. This day is a holiday. On the 31st of December people get together to wish one another a happy New Year. Of course every man has different hopes and wishes. But there is one hope which is dear to all the people of our country, and this is the hope for peace and friendship among all the honest people on earth. This hope is always in our hearts when we hear the Kremlin clock strike 3 twelve and say to one another: -1 wish you a Happy New Year! -Same to you!.. 1 France - Франция 2 a republic [п'рлЬйк] - республика 3 we hear the Kremlin clock strike ... — мы слышим, как Кремлёвские куранты бьют ... A HAPPY NEW YEAR! Two thousand millions live on earth. (Why not? There’s room to spare!) And though our views on this and that May differ here and there, We share the joys of honest work, We love the same blue sky In London, Moscow and New York- So raise your glasses high! a thousand ['Gauzond] - тысяча There’s room to spare! - Ведь места хватит всем! though [бои] - хотя views [vju:z] - взгляды, точка зрения to share - разделять joy — радость honest ['anist] - честный 92
5. JINGLE, BELLS American Folksong O’er the field we go, Laugh-ing alt the way.— fun it is to ride and sing A slelgh-ing song to-night. .J1 "»b". •v 0 0 P ft* В в Г1 яЛТ1'TT'...................1 Oh! what fun it is to ride In a one-horse о —pen sleigh! — Jin—gle, bells! Jin—gle, bells! .......... '7 J> j——т J> ? ; ^4=i P p p p P p ~и p P P p f i Jin—gle, jin—gle, jin— gle, jin — gle, J’in-gle alt the way, Oh! what fun It is to ride Ih a one-horse o—pen sleigh!— Dashing thro’ the snow, In a one-horse open sleigh O’er the field we go, Laughing all the way. Bells on bobtail ring, Making spirits bright; What fun it is to ride and sing, A sleighing song tonight. 93
Chorus: Jingle, bells! Jingle, bells! Jingle all the way. Oh! what fun it is to ride In a one-horse open sleigh. (2) to jingle ['dsmgl] — звенеть to dash — мчаться, нестись thro’ = through [0ru:] — через sleigh [slei]—сани o’er = over spirits—настроение bobtail ['bobteilj—лошадь с обрезанным хвостом to ride — ехать; скользить; нестись tonight = this evening chorus ['koras] — припев, хор FIRST PRONOUNCEMENT OF THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT (DECREE ON PEACE) Nikolai Oseneu 94
Speak about the picture. Here are some words to help you: провозглашать—to pronounce [pra'nauns] декрет—a de'cree объявление—an announcement [a'naunsmant] правительство—the Government ['gAvanmant] матрос—a sailor винтовка — a rifle ['raifl] улыбаться — to smile LIST OF NEW WORDS (Lessons 5—7) against prep 6 allow v 5 among prep 7 angry: be angry 5 artist n 6 author n 7 become v 7 beginning n 7 both a, pron 7 both ... and cj 7 call v 5 carefully adv 6 century n 7 constitution n 6 cook v 5 describe v 7 draw v 6 dress: make a dress 6 dust и 5 enjoy v 7 famous a 7 favourite a 7 fight v 5 fine a 6 freedom n 7 friendship n 6 hard adv 6 historical a 7 ill: be ill 5 learn v 7 literature n 7 needle n 6 novel n 7 peace n 6 play n 7 poem n 7 poet n 7 powerful a 6 rest v 5 rich a 5 scissors n pl 6 sew v 6 shout v 5 since prep, cj 7 struggle v 7 sweep v 5 talk: give a talk 7 task n 6 thread n 6 till prep, cj 5 translate v 7 true a 5 truth n 5 way n 6 whole a 6 work n 7
LESSON EIGHT NELLY SINGS OVER THE RADIO Dan’s mother is at home. She has just finished sweeping the floor and is carefully dusting the books on the shelf. Dan runs into the room. Nina, Ann, Jane and Alec come in after him. DAN: ANN: NINA: JANE: ALEC: Hullo, Mother. Good afternoon, Olga Petrovna. DAN’S MOTHER: Good afternoon, children. Glad to see you. DAN (he can't wait to tell his mother the great news): You know, Mother, Nelly is going to sing over the radio today! I’ve invited them all to hear her. DAN’S MOTHER: How nice of you, Dan. Sit down, girls. Alec, there’s one more chair at the table. (They all sit down.) Is Nelly such a good singer? JANE: Oh, she is really wonderful! We all love to listen to her. And today she will sing over the radio, and the whole town will listen in! NINA (looks at the radio set): What a fine radio set you’ve got! I’ve never seen such a fine one in my life. DAN: It’s one of the best, but not one of the newest. It was bought some years ago. ALEC: Radio is one of the most useful things in the world. I’m sorry my mother doesn’t understand that. ANN: Oh, but, Alec, how can you? You must be more polite when you speak of your mother. 96
DAN’S MOTHER: And what does your mother think about radio, Alec? ALEC: Well —she doesn’t allow me to listen in! She always turns off the radio when there is some funny story or some good music. JANE: Yes—because you turn it on when you are doing your les- sons. DAN: Stop talking, both of you! Let’s turn on the radio, it’s almost time to. NINA: You won’t hear Nelly yet — it’s too early. ANN: But what a fine poem they are reading now! Just listen! WINTER by Percy Bysshe Shelley It was a winter such as when birds die In the deep forests; and the fishes lie Stiffened in the translucent ice, which makes Even the mud and slime of the warm lakes A wrinkled clod as hard as brick; and when, Among their children, comfortable men Gather about great fires, and yet feel cold: Alas then for the homeless beggar old! to die — умирать deep—глубокий fish — рыба stiffened—окоченевший, застывший translucent [traenz'ljuzsont] — прозрачный mud and slime—грязь и ил a wrinkled ['rigkid] clod—сбитый, сморщившийся ком as hard as brick—твёрдый, как кирпич comfortable ['kAmfatabl] men — здесь люди, живущие в доволь- стве и уюте to gather ['дзедэ]—собираться about—здесь вокруг fire—огонь, пламя; здесь пламя в печи, камине and yet feel cold — и всё же мёрзнут, букв.', чувствуют холод alas [a'Ia:s] — увы! здесь восклицание, выражающее: «горе тому, кто...» the homeless beggar—бездомный нищий 97
ЗИМА Была зима — такая, что с ветвей Комочком белым падал воробей. Закованные в ледяные глыбы, В речных глубинах задыхались рыбы. И до сих пор не замерзавший ил В озёрах тёплых, сморщившись, застыл. В такую ночь в печах пылало пламя, Хозяин с домочадцами, с друзьями Сидел и слушал, как трещит мороз... Но горе было тем, кто гол и бос! (Перевод С. Маршака) news п radio: radio set п finish v New Words invite v listen in v turn off v turn on v polite a yet adv over the radio And this is the song that was sung by Nelly: THE CHILDREN OF FAR DISTANT LANDS 1. The children of far distant lands With joyous song we greet; Hold out to us your friendly hands Our circle to complete. Around the world so very wide Our circle it shall be; Good will and friendship need no tide Or ship to cross the sea. 2. Then, boys and girls, as in our play Around the world we go, With happy hearts we’ll try today Each other’s land to know. And when our time for playing flies, And when our childhood ends, May we, then grown so old and wise, Be firm and loyal friends. 98
English traditional melody arranged by Vaughan Williams 1. The child-ren of far dist—ant lands With Joy—ous song we greet: Hold out to us your friend-ly hands Our cir—cle io com—plete. A — round the world so ve—ry wide Our cir—cle it shall be; Good. will and friendship need no tide Or ship to cross the sea. distant = far away lands = countries joyous f'djoias]— радостный, веселый to greet—приветствовать hold out to us—протяните нам a circle f'sa:kl]—круг, хоровод to complete [kam'pliit]—завершить, сделать полным, закончить around—вокруг wide—широкий good will—добрая воля need no tide or ship to cross the sea—не нуждаются ни в попутном ветре (букв,: течении), ни в корабле, чтобы пересечь море heart [hctt]—сердце each other’s land—страна каждого из нас to Пу—летать, пролетать; проноситься childhood — the time of life when one is a child to end = to finish wise = very clever May we be firm and loyal ['loial] friends. — Да будем мы верными и преданными друзьями. 99
Answer the questions: to hear something on the radio -слышать что-либо по радио 1. Who is at home? 2. What has Mother just finished doing? 3. What is she doing now? 4. Who runs into the room? 5. Why did Dan invite Nina and the others to his home? 6. Is Dan’s mother glad to see the children? 7. Does Nelly sing well? 8. Do the children love to listen to her? 9. Has Dan a good radio set? 10. When was it bought? 11. Does Alec’s mother always allow him to listen to the radio? 12. Why not? 13. Which is better —to do homework and then to listen to the radio, or to do both things at the same time? 14. What did the children hear on the radio that evening? 15. What song was sung by Nelly? 16. Do you like the song? Запомните, что английское слово news — новость, новости — существительное в единственном числе. The news is very interesting. {Эта новость (известие) очень интересная(-ое). Эти новости (известия) очень интересные. What’s the news? Что нового? (Какие новости?) Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words in italics. 1. We invited Nelly’s sister Inna to our English-speaking club. She gave a talk there about English schools. 2. This boy is very polite. He never forgets to say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’. 3. We begin our lessons at 9 o’clock. We finish them at 2 o’clock. II. Name the tenses of the verbs used in the first two sentences of the text. Explain why these tenses are used. 100
III. You have learnt five tenses; three of them you have found in the first two sentences of the text. Now find in the text sentences with verbs in the other two tenses (Вами изучено пять грамматических времён. Три из них вы нашли в первых двух предложениях текста. Отыщите в тексте предложения с глаголами в двух других временах). IV. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the words in italics. A. 1. Pete ran into the room, took the watering-can and ran out. 2. Dan ran up to his mother and told her the news. 3. Little Bob ran away again just before dinner. В. 1. Alec was not allowed to turn on the radio till his homework was finished. 2. When our mother is tired we turn off the radio and stop listening in. V. Translate into English as in the example below: 1. Нелли такая хорошая певица! Nelly is such a good singer! 2. Это такая интересная книга! It is such an interesting book! I. Он такой хороший ученик! 2. Это такой хороший приёмник! 3. Она такая умная девочка! 4. Это такое смешное стихотворение! VI. Fill in the blanks with the words and phrases: radio set, to turn off, over the radio, to finish, to turn on, to invite, to listen to the radio, whole. In the evening the — family likes —. As Victor, Dan’s brother, has a very good —, they — their friends when there is something interesting to hear. Victor does not allow any- body — or — the radio. Mother likes to listen in when chil- dren sing—. She allows Dan to listen to the radio after he —- his lessons. VII. Translate the following text: Нину часто приглашали выступать (говорить) по радио. Сегодня она будет читать очень интересный рассказ. В этом рассказе автор описывает жизнь мальчиков в английском интернате (boarding-school). Весь класс придёт в клуб, мы включим радио и будем слушать. Ребята принесут письмо Люси Грант, и мы поговорим о жизни английских школь- ников. VIII. Learn the poem "Winter” by heart 101
LET’S TALK A LITTLE I. Answer the questions. If you can answer, raise your hand. 1. Have you a radio set at home? 2. Is it a good one? 3. When was it bought? 4. Do your parents allow you to turn on the radio when you are doing your lessons? 5. At what time do you turn off your radio set? 6. Do you like to listen to the radio? 7. Do you listen to the latest news on the radio? 8. I think we can say that radio is one of the most useful things in the world. What do you think? 9. Have you ever spoken over the radio? 10. What did you speak about? 11. Have you ever listened to your friends on the radio? 12. What did they speak about and when was it? 13. What do you like to hear on the radio? II. Ask and answer. At what time do you does he (she) do they get up? go to bed? go to school? come home from school (work)? turn on (off) the radio? begin your (his, her) lessons (work)? finish your (his, her) lessons (work)? III. Talk about January, February and March. January February March Mon. 5 12 19 26 2 9 16 23 2 9 16 23 30 Tues. 6 13 20 27 3 10 17 24 3 10 17 24 31 Wedn. 7 14 21 28 4 11 18 25 4 11 18 25 Thurs. 1 8 15 22 29 5 12 19 26 5 12 19 26 Frid. 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 6 13 20 27 Sat. 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 7 14 21 28 Sun. 4 11 18 25 1 8 15 22 1 8 15 22 29 102
Say which of these months is the longest, the shortest, the warmest, the darkest, the coldest; say which of them has more days; which of them has more Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays. IV. A. Study the programme and say what you will listen to. programme ['prougraem] — программа RADIO PROGRAMME FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE Monday. 12th January, 10.00, My favourite book. 16.05, Let’s talk about music. 16.35, Gaidar, “School”. 17.05, Eve- rybody has his task. Tuesday. 13th January, 10.00, “This book is about a poet”. 11.10, Music by Beethoven. 11.30, The children’s newspaper “Pionerskaya Pravda”. 14.35, Children sing. 16.05, Let’s learn a new song. Wednesday. 14th January, 10.00, New novels and poems by Soviet authors. 10.20, The children’s newspaper “Lenin- skaya Iskra”. 16.05, What do you think about the man of the future? Thursday. 15th January, 10.00, Music for children. 16.05, Young Michurinites. 16.30, Your classmates talk. 17.05, Music from children’s films. Friday. 16th January, 10.00, A music hour for little chil- dren. 11.10, Our radio library. 11.30, Different tools and how to use them. 16.05, Sports news. 16.40, For peace, freedom and friendship. 17.05, Krupskaya, “About Children”. Saturday. 17th January, 10.00, Pioneers’ news. 11.10, The children’s newspaper “Leninskaya Iskra”. 14.05, Our country stands for peace. 14.30, Literature for children. 15.05, Tvar- dovsky, “Vasili Terkin”. Sunday. 18th January, 10.00, “Pionerskaya Zorka”. 13.05, Study languages. B. Make your classmates answer your questions: What’s on the radio at. . . o’clock? What will they listen to? At what time will they turn on (off) the radio? What do they like to listen to? C. Ask them some other questions (as many as you can). 103
V. A. Describe the pictures below: 104
Some words to describe the pictures: метла — a broom выть—to howl затыкать уши—to stop one’s ears просыпаться—to wake up (woke, woken) B. Let’s discuss the story. Draw your own conclusions (Сделайте собственные выводы). Use the words: to forget to leave home to work to turn off to turn on to shout to rest the radio difficult
LESSON NINE ROBERT WOOD: A Wizard of the Laboratory1 At last he decided to “There is nothing pleasant in life,” Dan thought one day. He was alone,1 2 and the weather was bad. The television programme was not interesting that afternoon. Dan tried not to look at the new TV set which he liked so much. He had no homework because it was Satur- day. He had nothing to do. ring up Mike. Mike, too, was alone. He invited Dan to come and read with him a very interesting book which was praised by their physics3 teacher. Soon the boys were together and began to read. * * * Eighty years ago, in a town in America, a small boy watered his flowers with ... red ink! He repeated this many times; but the white flowers did not become red. That was one of the first experiments4 which were made by the future scientist Robert Wood. Robert Wood was a strange child: everybody said so. Little children like toys, but Rob liked machines. When he was eight or nine years old, he was taken to a big factory and shown differ- ent machines there: after that he liked to be at the factory better than anywhere else. He made friends with the workers who always 1 a wizard of the laboratory ['wizad av da la'baratan]—чародей лабора- тории: прозвище, которое получил выдающийся американский физик Роберт Вуд (1868— 1955) за свои замечательные опыты и изобретения в области фи- зики, астрофизики и других наук. (См. Д. Сибрук, «Роберт Вуд—современ- ный чародей физической лаборатории». Перевод с английского. Госфизмат- издат, М., 1960.) 2 a'lone—один 3 physics ['fiziks]—физика 4 an experiment [iks'perimant] 106
had a kind word to greet the little boy. Rob often helped them with their tasks. He almost cried when his parents left the town and went to live in another place. Rob’s father was a doctor, scientist and traveller. He told the boy many stories about different countries. Once he bought him a microscope1 and explained to him how to use it. Rob spent hours over it. He began to study chemistry1 2 and to make all kinds of experiments. “One day this boy will blow us up or set the house on fire,”3 his parents said. They were really afraid of Rob’s experiments. On the 4th of July —it was a great holiday in America—Rob and two of his friends went to a big town to see the fireworks.4 It was so wonderful that the boys decided to have fireworks in their town, too. “We’ll go into the square,” Rob said. “It’s just the place for such a thing.” .. .Night came. The small town was going to sleep. There were few people in the streets. Suddenly a terrible explosion shook the houses5 round the square. The street lamps were put out,6 and darkness fell over the square and the streets round it. So finished their fireworks... Some moments later Rob came home. “What a terrible ex- plosion!” said his mother. But Rob said nothing. Years passed. Robert Wood became a famous scientist. Now he worked at physics and astronomy.7 He travelled much and went in for sports, but he never stopped working hard. He was the author of more than 250 (two hundred and fifty) works. His experiments and his works helped the scientists of different countries to solve important problems both in science and technology.8 Wood was good at everything he did, and could always find the best way to solve the most difficult problem. 1 a microscope ['maikraskoup] 2 chemistry ['kemistri] — химия 3 to blow up—взорвать; to set on fire — поджечь, вызвать пожар 4 'fireworks—фейерверк 5 a terrible explosion [iks'plousn] shook the houses—страшный взрыв потряс дома 6 were put out — здесь погасли 7 astronomy [as'tronarm] 8 technology [tek'noladsi]—техника, технические науки 107
* * * This, and much more, Dan and Mike learned from the book on Robert Wood. Dan ran home. He was happy. Life was pleasant and interest- ing again! New Words ------------------ darkness n---------------------------------------------weather n explain v mk n . greet v science n lew a nraiQP n scientist n kind a p. scieiiusi n J , ring up v television (TV): pleasant a °d £ television set n strange a ‘ A Good Pupil (A joke) Teacher: Can you tell me anything about the great scientists of the 17th century? Pupil: Yes, I can. They are all dead. are dead [dedj—умерли Answer the questions: 1. Who is this text about? 2. Where did Robert Wood live? 3. When did Robert Wood begin his experiments? 4. Was he a strange child? 5. Why did everybody say so? 6. What was his first experiment? 7. When was he taken to a big factory? 8. What was he shown there? 9. Did he like to be at the factory better than anywhere else? 10. Who did he make friends with? 11. What did he do at the factory? 12. Was he glad and happy when his parents went to live in another place? 13. Who told Rob many interesting and useful stories? 14. Did Robert go on with his experiments? 15. What did Robert Wood become? 16. Did he always stay in his home town? 17. And what about sports? Did he like sports? 18. What can you say about Robert Wood’s works? 108
Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words in italics. 1. It is very pleasant to swim in a river or a lake on a hot summer day. 2. When it rains the whole day, we say — the weather is bad. When it is dry and warm, and the sun is bright in the sky, we say — the weather is fine. 3. Misha answered the questions very well, and the teacher praised him. 4. We use chalk when we write on the blackboard. We use pen and ink when we write in our note-books. We use blue ink, and our teacher uses red ink. 5. Lomonosov was a great scientist of the XVIII century; I. P. Pavlov was a great scientist of the XX century. 6. When Y. Gagarin came to Moscow, a lot of people came out into the streets to greet him. 7. When we don’t understand something, the teacher explains it to us. 8. There are many people in the streets in the day-time, but there are few people in the streets at night. 9. Darkness fell quickly, and they could not see where to go. П. A. Contrast the use of (Сравните употребление): many and much, few and little. We say: many hours, but much time. many pens, but much ink. many rivers, but much water. few hours, but little time. few pens, but little ink. few rivers, but little water. B. Fill in the blanks with the words: many, much, few, little 1. I have — friends at school. 2. There is — snow in the streets. 3. I have not — work to do this evening. 4. There were — beautiful flowers in the flowerbed. 5. I’ve read — poems by this author. 6. I don’t take — sugar in my tea. C. Translate the sentences: 1. Летом дети пьют много молока. 2. Осенью мы едим много яблок. 3. В этой комнате мало окон и мало воздуха. 109
III. A. Using the suffix -ness, form nouns from the following adjectives: bright, quick, like, kind, ill These nouns mean: яркость; быстрота; сходство, подобие; доброта, доброе дело; болезнь В. Translate the words without using a dictionary: cleverness, happiness, readiness, cleanness, whiteness C. Using the suffix -ness, give the English for: чернота; темнота; холод; величие; вежливость D. Find in the text a noun with the suffix -ness. IV. Translate into Russian. Note the difference in meaning. This kind of man... This kind man... V. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the words in italics. 1. a) He always learned the new words which were explained at the English lessons. b) We learned many interesting things from our English pen-friend’s last letter. a) “What kind of work can you do?” the Englishman asked Pete. b) Is “Oliver Twist” one of Dickens’ works? 2. a) Do you like to play chess? b) Do you like this play? 3. a) What kind of games do you play? b) What a kind woman Aunt Helen is! VI. Translate the sentences as in the example: 1. Я видел этот фильм по телевизору. I saw this film on television (on TV). 2. Этот фильм показывали по телевизору. This film was shown on television (on TV). 1. Что вчера показывали по телевизору? 2. Мы слышали этот рассказ по телевизору. 3. Ты видел эту пьесу по телевизору? 4. Приходите к нам. Мы вместе посмотрим по телевизору детскую программу. ПО
VII. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions or adverbs: to, off, with, on, at, for, of. - six or seven o’clock we turn - our TV set. “What is - today?” my little brother Bob likes to ask me. Mother doesn’t allow Bob to see all the programme, and he is sometimes angry - us. -course he likes to see the children’s prog- ramme, but that is not enough - him. As you know, Bob is a little boy and he goes - bed - nine o' clock. When the programme is over and we turn - the TV set, little Bob is already asleep. VIII. Fill in the blanks with the words and phrases: A. hard, history, century, problem, scientist, language, father, to be good at. The - of Russian science begins with the name of one of the greatest - of the world, M. V. Lomonosov. We call Lomonosov the - of Russian science. He - everything he did. He knew many -. He travelled much, but never stopped working -. Lomonosov lived and worked in the eighteenth -, but even now, in the twen- tieth century, his works help us to solve different - in many sciences. B. to explain, to discuss, to teach, to translate, to study, to elect, to solve. I. P. Pavlov was a famous Russian scientist. His works - into many languages and helped many scientists - important problems. Pavlov - member of many Academies (членом многих академий) in different countries. He made all kinds of experiments to help doctors and scientists - problems of life and health ([helO] - здоро- вье). Pavlov was always ready - to young scientists everything he was asked about and - different questions with them. Pavlov - young scientists to be useful to their country. C. scientist, to explain, pleasant, television, to praise, to discuss, radio. We spent a - evening at our school yesterday. A radio engineer came to talk to us. We spoke about - and - sets, about great Russian - and their works. Many interesting problems -. The engineer - to us many useful things. Dan showed him his pocket radio set, and the engineer - him for his cleverness. ill
IX. Read and translate the text. Pick out of the text all the words which you have learnt in this school year. All of us know the name of К. E. Tsiolkovsky. He did a lot of experiments to make a rocket for space travel (для межпланет- ных путешествий). All his life he tried to solve this important problem. The Soviet people are very sorry that К. E. Tsiolkovsky is not with us now. Soviet scientists found the way to send a space ship (космический корабль) with a man into space. Who doesn’t know the date of the 12th of April, 1961, and the name of the first spaceman (космонавт)? The name of Yuri Gagarin is famous all over the world now. On the 14th of April, 1961, people of fourteen countries, who turned on their television sets, could see the meeting in Red Square, where the Soviet people greeted the great hero (['hiarou] - герой) of their country, the world’s first spaceman Yuri Gagarin. He was met with music, songs and flowers. Many people gave him presents. Millions of children, boys and girls, decided to become spacemen. Thanks to (благодаря) the work of our scientisfs, engineers and workers, Y. Gagarin could see 6the way to the stars’ and come back to the earth. Time will pass, but we shall never forget the name of Yuri Gagarin and that day of the 12th of April, 1961. The 12th of April, 1961 has become a famous date which people will always remember. X. Translate the following sentences using the new words from the text. 1. Советские учёные занимают выдающееся место (stand high) в мировой науке. 2. Нам часто показывали интересные фильмы о жизни и работе наших учёных. 3. И радио, и телевидение объясняют нам много. 4. Мы обсуждаем все новости в классе. Когда мы чего- нибудь не понимаем, учитель объясняет нам это. 5. Даня сделал очень хороший доклад, и его похвалили (за это). XI. Form as many words as possible from letters of the word politeness (Составьте как можно больше слов из букв слова politeness). [It is possible to form 33 words.] 112
LET'S TALK A LITTLE I. Answer the questions. И you can answer, raise your hand. 1. Do you like to look at television? 2. Have you a television set at home? 3. Can you turn it on and off? 4. Do your parents allow you to do that? 5. Do you invite your friends to see the television pro- grammes? 6. Do you see only the children’s programmes? 7. Do your parents allow you to see all the films on TV? 8. Do they allow you to see the television programme if your homework is not finished? 9. Which do you like better, television or radio? 10. Are the children’s programmes in your town interesting? 11. Do the people on television teach you to be good and polite? 12. Do they tell you funny stories? 13. What else do they show you on TV? 14. In Moscow they give English lessons on television. Do they do the same in your town? 15. Do people use television in science? 16. Do the TV programmes tell you about great people and great scientists? 17. Did you see how Yuri Gagarin was greeted by the people of Moscow? 18. Do the TV programmes tell you about books and writers? 19. Do they help you to know things better? 20. Do you like to read books on (about) scientists? 21. Have you ever heard about Robert Wood? 22. What is the name of the great Russian scientist of the XVIII century? 23. What great scientist lived and worked in Koltushi near Leningrad? 24. What great scientist lived and worked in Kaluga? 25. Can you say that Darwin’s works helped the scientists of different countries to solve important problems? 26. What can you say about Mendeleyev’s works? 27. What other great scientists do you know? II. Ask your friend: A. 1. to turn off the radio; 2. to turn on the TV set; 3. to tell you what’s on today. 113
В. 1. to tell you the name of some great Russian scientist; 2. to tell you in what century he lived; 3. to tell you something about his work. C. 1. to ring up Mike; 2. to invite him to come to the country with you; 3. to ring you up again and to tell you Mike’s answer. D. 1. to give you some ink; 2. to explain the task to you; 3. to help you to translate the text. HI. What questions will you ask to get the following answers? 1. It’s not easy to work with a needle and thread when it is dark. 2. The weather was fine yesterday. 3. They will spend the whole day in the country. 4. The teacher explained to us some new words in English. 5. The children were praised for their work. 6. I have few books by English authors. 7. I have never spoken over the radio. 8. I turn off the television set at ten o’clock. 9. We shall discuss the book about that great scientist. 10. What if we buy Nina an interesting English book? IV. A. Study the programme and say what you will see on television (what they will show on television). TELEVISION PROGRAMME FOR CHILDREN 1st February, 18.30, Historical places of our town. A collective farmer becomes a scientist (The story of a young girl). 2nd February, 19.10, We learn handicrafts at school. Let’s travel into the XXI century (Science in the future). 3rd February, 18.30, Jokes and funny stories. Welcome to our town. 4th February, 18.30, Talk: Our favourite artists. Talk: We are working for a happy future. 5th February, 18.30, Learn to sew (An hour of needlework). There are many use- ful things around (вокруг) you. Learn to use them! 6th Feb- ruary, 18.00, We get a practical education at our school (The pioneers of School 157 describe their life at school). Pioneers solve important problems. 7th February, 13.00, We make friends with German pioneers. 13.30, Learn to dance. B. Make your classmates answer your questions: What’s on on the 1st (2nd,...) of February? What will they see on television on the 2nd (3rd,...) of February? 114
At what time will they turn on (off) the TV set? What do they like to see on television? C. Ask them some other questions (as many as you can). V. Jokes that were shown on television on the 3rd of February. Speak about them. sir—сэр, господин “Good morning, sir!” “Good morning.” “How do you like the weather today?” “Oh, it’s fine!” “And why are you swimming with your hat and your suit on?” “Sorry, sir! You are swimming, but I — I’m drowning.” to drown [draun]—тонуть 115
в. a boxer—боксёр a racing driver —мотогонщик С. Think of a funny story and draw the pictures. It’ll be very good for your wall newspaper. VI. A. Learn and say. Too Polite (A Joke) Mr. Ал Excuse me, sir. Mr. Вл Of course I do. Mr. Ал Thank you, sir. Do you know the time? excuse [iks'kjicz] me — извините, простите 116
В. Answer the questions: 1. What did Mr.A. want to know? 2. Had he a watch? 3. Why do you think that he had no watch? 4. Did Mr.B. answer Mr.A.’s question? 5. Did Mr.A. get the answer he wanted? 6. What question will you ask if you want to know the time? Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. Whose son was John Harmon? 2. What did old Harmon tell his daughter to do? 3. What happened to John Harmon when he was fourteen years old? 4. Who was old Harmon’s house and money left to? 5. Who did John Harmon have to marry if he wanted to get his father’s money? 6. What was the end of the story? (What did Mortimer say?) 7. Who remembered John Harmon? OUR MUTUAL FRIEND1 (After Charles Dickens) Part 1 The story of John Harmon. One evening some friends gathered in the house of their friend, in London. “My dear Mortimer,” said one of the women to a young lawyer. “You must tell us the story of John Harmon.” All eyes were turned on Mortimer, and everybody said, “Please tell us all you know about John Harmon.” “Well,” said Mortimer, “John Harmon was the son of a rich man. The rich man had a daughter too. He chose a husband for her, but the girl said, ‘I love another man.’ Her father was very angry. He told her to leave his house and never come back again. The man she loved was poor, but she married him. Some years later she died. Her husband died soon after her.” “And what about John Harmon? What happened to him?” 1 “Our Mutual ['mjtrtfualj Friend” —«Наш общий друг», no роману Чарлза Диккенса. 117
“When the girl left her father’s house, John Harmon was four- teen years old. He took his sister’s side, and his father told him to go away too. The boy left the country and nothing was heard about him for more than ten years. Some days ago we found him.” “Found him?” “Yes. His father, old Harmon, died. The house was left to his old servant and all his money to his son. So we tried to find the young man and at last we found him. But he can get the money only if he marries Bella Wilfer. This girl was chosen by old Har- mon when she and John Harmon were small children. If John doesn’t marry her, the money goes to the same old servant. At this moment John Harmon is on his way to London.” Suddenly a servant came in and said something to Mortimer. Mortimer got up from his chair. “Here is the end of the story!” he said. “Harmon has married another girl!” said one of the men. “He doesn’t want to marry!” said another. “No, no, you won’t guess,” said Mortimer. “John Harmon was drowned!”1 ... For more than a month the whole town talked only about John Harmon. Many people said, “Somebody has murdered him.” The newspapers said: “His lawyer will pay the man who explains what has really happened.” But nobody came fo the money, and at last people forgot all about John Harmon. There were only two families who remembered him. One was the family of Reginald Wilfer, Bella’s father. The other was the family of Mr. Boffin, the servant of old Harmon. Now Mr. Boffin and his wife had John Harmon’s money, but they were not happy. “Poor boy!” they said. “We have waited for him for so many years! What is money to us when John has met his end in the dark, cold water of the Thames?” (To be continued) Answer the questions: 1. What do you think about old Harmon? 2. Why did the family of Reginald Wilfer remember John Harmon? 3. Why were the Boffins not happy when they became rich? 1 was drowned [draund] —утонул 118
LESSON TEN THEY LIKE THE THEATRE JANE (comes into the classroom in the morning): Good morning, ANN MIKE (who are already in the classroom): Good morning, Jane. DAN ANN: Where were you yesterday? I rang you up, but couldn’t find you at home. JANE: I was at the theatre. We saw “Swan Lake” by Tchaikovsky.1 ANN: How did you get tickets? It’s very difficult to get tickets for “Swan Lake". JANE: My father bought them for me as a birthday present. I enjoyed it very much, both the music and the dancing. DAN: I can’t say that I like music. I like literature. JANE: But I like music very much. DAN: Music won’t help me in my future work. I like only plays and novels. They are interesting. They teach us something useful. MIKE: No, you are not right here, Dan. Music plays a great part in people’s lives. Don’t you like “Yevgeni Onegin” by Tchaikovsky? DAN: I like some parts of it. ANN: What if we go and listen to this opera together and then discuss it? Nelly will explain it to us, she knows “Yev- geni Onegin” almost by heart. MIKE: And what about the old theatres? We know so little about them. What if we ask Jane’s mother to tell us about Shakespeare’s theatre? She works at the theatre museum and studies Shakespeare. * * * No sooner said than done. Next day Jane’s mother was invited to the English-speaking club. This is what she told the children about Shakespeare’s theatre. 1 “Swan Lake” ['swan'leik] by Tchaikovsky—балет Чайковского «Лебединое озеро» 119
“Shakespeare wrote most of his plays for the Globe Theatre.1 Here you see the picture. It shows the Globe Theatre; and in the corner there is a plan: if you look at it carefully, you’ll see what the theatre of the XVI century was like. In the middle, there was a kind of house. There the actors dressed and kept the things which were used in the performance. In front of it there was a platform.8 This platform, together with the balcony1 2 3 over it, was the stage on which the actors played. They came out of the house to the stage through4 two large doors. In front of the stage was a large yard. Round the yard there were three balconies, one over the other. Both these balconies and the yard were for the people who came to see the performance. The yard and the greater part of the stage were open to the sky. The actors were often very good. They could play, sing and dance. Women’s parts were played by boys or young men. An actor often played two or three parts in one performance. Music was very important. 1 the Globe Theatre—театр «Глобус». Так назывался театр, в котором Шекспир был актёром и для которого он написал большую часть своих пьес. 2 a 'platform—платформа, помост 3 a balcony ['baelkani] 4 through [6ru:J — через 120
The performance began at three o’clock. From its beginning till it was over, people could see a flag over the theatre. The people of London loved their theatre very much. Everybody went to the theatre in London—both young and old, rich and poor. Those who could not pay much for their tickets stood in the yard. If they were tired they could sit on the ground. Rich men and their wives sat in the balconies, and aristocrats1 were allowed to sit on the stage. People had no newspapers, no radio or television in those days. That is why the theatre played a great part in their lives. The performance gave them great enjoyment, but they came to the theatre not only for pleasure, they came to hear the news, to learn something of the history of England or of some other country. They were taught the great science of life there.” New Words enjoyment n museum n actor n keep v performance n theatre n opera n pleasure n stage n part n by heart Answer the questions: 1. Who was invited to the school English-speaking club? 2. What did the children want to hear from Jane’s mother? 3. Why did the children invite Jane’s mother and not Dan’s father? 4. Was it interesting to listen to her? 5. What did she show the children? 6. Did the picture explain everything about the theatre in Shakespeare’s day? 7. Was it like the theatre today? 8. What about the actors of those days? What could they do? 9. Who played women’s parts? 10. What was very important in the performances of those days? 11. When did the performance begin? 1 aristocrat ['seristokrset] 121
12. Who went to the theatre in London? 13. Why did the theatre in those days play such a great part in people’s lives? 14. Was it only pleasure for them? What else did they come to the theatre for? Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words in italics. 1. We must learn this poem by heart for the next lesson. 2. An actor is a man who works in the theatre. 3. Gorky’s “Mother” was on yesterday. It was a wonderful performance. 4. The part of Pavel in Gorky’s “Mother” was played by my favourite actor. II. A. Using the suffix -ment, form nouns from the words: pay, enjoy These nouns mean: плата, удовольствие В. Using the same suffix, form nouns from the verbs: to punish—наказывать; to judge—судить (о чём-либо) Translate these nouns. Check your translation with the help of a dictionary (Проверьте правильность перевода с помощью словаря). С. Say from what verbs the following nouns are formed: agreement—соглашение; movement—движение Check your answer with the help of a large dictionary. D. Find in the text a noun with the suffix -ment. III. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the words in italics. 1. The first time I heard about Shakespeare’s theatre was two years ago. I forgot about the time, it was already ten o’clock. 2. We like to sit near the stage. He draws like a true artist. 3. I’ve read the first part of the novel. Who will play the part of Tom Sawyer? IV. Make up questions to be answered by the words in italics (Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам). 1. Dan’s brother mended the television set. 2. Mike explained everything to Pete. 122
3. They loved their theatre very much. 4. The actors often discussed the plays. 5. The actors sang and danced. 6. Bob was allowed to see the film in the evening. 7. Jane’s mother works at the theatre museum. V. Translate the sentences as in the examples: A. А что, если мы пригласим маму Жени? What if we invite Jane’s mother? 1. А что, если мы обсудим эту пьесу? 2. А что, если он не достанет билета? 3. А что, если вы выучите это стихотворение наизусть? 4. А что, если ты позвонишь мне вечером? 5. А что, если мы объясним тебе это задание? В. Нелли умеет и петь и танцевать. Nelly can both sing and dance. 1. Мы умеем и читать и писать по-английски. 2. Сегодня мы должны и выполоть и полить клумбу. 3. Как дети, так и их родители любят ходить в Дет- ский театр. VI. Fill in the blanks with the words: A. to describe, theatre, truth, famous, enjoyment, part Bernard Shaw was a — English writer. He played a great — in the history of the English — . It gives great — to see his plays and to listen to his clever jokes. He — English people and tells us the — about their life. B. performance, to show, play, form mistress, actor, to keep, theatre, dancer, part, to explain, by heart Lucy Grant sent us an interesting — about the life of English school-children, and we decided to give a — at our club. We invited some — from the Children’s — to help us. They — everything to us. Now everybody has his or her — in the play and must learn it — . Ann is a good — and she will dance. Nelly will sing. The girls have made a beautiful dress for Ann and she — it at home. Our — says that if the — is good, they — it on television. 123
VII. Ask and answer. 'What do we 'call ^ people who 'work at a factory? — We 'call them "X workers. 1. What do we call people who write books? 2. What do we call people who work in the theatre? 3. What do we call people who sing at the theatre? 4. What do we call people who dance at the theatre? B. 'What’s a teacher? — A 'teacher is a 'man ('woman) who teaches. 1. What’s an actor? 2. What’s a dancer? 3. What’s a singer? 4. What’s a writer (an author)? 'What’s a library? — It’s a J place where we 'get books. 1. What’s a cinema? 2. What’s a skating-rink? 3. What’s a theatre? VIII. Translate into English: — Я люблю ходить в театр. Вчера я был в театре. Очень трудно было достать билеты. — Что вы смотрели? — «Двенадцатую ночь» Шекспира. Я получил большое удовольствие (Пьеса доставила мне большое удоволь- ствие). Роль Мальволио (Malvolio) играл мой любимый актёр. LET’S TALK A LITTLE I. Answer the questions. If you can answer, raise your hand. 1. Do you like to go to the theatre? 2. Do your classmates like to go to the theatre? 3. Do you often go to the theatre together? 4. Which do you like better, the cinema or the theatre? 5. Do you enjoy music? 6. What famous dancers do you know? 7. What famous opera singers do you know? 8. What operas do you like best? 124
9. Who wrote the music to Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet”? 10. Who wrote the music to “Cinderella” ([,smda'rela] — «Золушка»)? 11. What films were made of Shakespeare’s plays? 12. Have you seen the films “Twelfth Night” and “Othello”? 13. Does music play a great part in your life? 14. Does the theatre give you pleasure? 15. Does it help you to know and to understand things better? 16. Is it useful and interesting to discuss performances and films which you’ve seen? 17. Have you ever seen any plays by Shakespeare? 18. What plays did you see? 19. Where did you see them? 20. Have you ever heard anything about Shakespeare’s theatre? 21. Did you like the text about Shakespeare’s theatre? 22. Did it tell you anything new and interesting? II. Ask and answer. 'Where do we J go if we 'want to 'get a book? — We 'go to the library. 1. Where do we go if we want to see a film? 2. Where do we go if we want to listen to an opera? 3. Where do we go if we want to see a play? в. opera do you want to see (to listen to)? What film do you like best? vv 11 а 1 perform- did you see last time? ance are you going to see? III. Learn and say. Dan: Did you enjoy the performance yesterday? Alec: I liked some parts of it. Dan: What if we discuss the play in class? Alec: I think it will be interesting. IV. Say in English: Аня: Что ты сейчас читаешь? Нина: Я читаю «Тома Сойера» по-английски. Ты читала эту книгу? 125
Аня: Да, читала, только по-русски, и видела пьесу. Нина: А что ты читаешь? Аня: Я читаю «Двенадцатую ночь» Шекспира. Нина: Я видела эту пьесу в моём любимом театре. V. The performances which we saw at our club. A. TOM AND BECKY IN THE CAVE Look at this picture. Do you remember the story and the author’s name? You read the story when you were in the seventh form. Speak about everything you see on the stage. 126
в. OUR FAMOUS SINGER AND DANCER Some words to describe the pictures: серьги—ear-rings коса — a plait [plaet] цыганский костюм —a gipsy (gypsy) costume бубен — a tambourine ['taembarirn] маска—a mask парик —a wig 127
BOY AGAINST BEAR Discuss the jokes you have seen on the stage. Then tell the stories in the Past Indefinite Tense. OUR FAMOUS SINGER AND DANCER (B) Begin with the words: “Yesterday I was at our club. Some children gave a perform- ance there. I liked two jokes very much...” You can finish the story in this way: “When the girl stopped dancing and singing, she raised her hand to her head and...” 128
BOY AGAINST BEAR (Q “We saw a boy who fought with a bear...” VI. WHAT IS ON TODAY? At the October Cinema you can see: March 1 Monday March 2 Tuesday FIVE DAYS—FIVE NIGHTS ADMIRAL USHAKOV March 3 Wednesday THEY WERE NINETEEN YEARS OLD March 4 Thursday OUR FAVOURITE SONG March 5 Friday DUBROVSKY March 6 Saturday LENIN IN OCTOBER March 7 Sunday TWELFTH NIGHT Ask your a) when the film you like is on; friends: b) what’s on at the cinema on the day you have no work; c) which of the films they are going to see. Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. Who was Mr. Wilfer? 2. What was the name of the gentleman who took a room in his house? 3. What did Bella say to her father about Mr. Rokesmith? 4. What did her father say to her? 5. What did Mr. and Mrs. Boffin decide to do for Bella? 6. Who stopped Mr. Boffin in the street the next morning? 7. What did the young man want from Mr. Boffin? (What did he tell him?) 8. What was Mr. Boffin’s answer? 129
OUR MUTUAL FRIEND Part II Which shows how Mr. Wilfer got his supper and how Mr. Boffin got a secretary. Reginald Wilfer was a shy little man. Every day he walked to the City1 and back to his home in another part of London where he lived with his wife and daughter. He was the poorest of all the clerks in the City. So he was very glad when one evening a gentleman took a room in their poor house. The gentleman’s name was Mr. John Rokesmith. He was twenty-eight or thirty years old, handsome and a little sad. He looked at Bella as he came in, and after that he did not raise his eyes from the ground. “Pa,” said Bella when Mr. Rokesmith left them, “I am sure he is a very bad man. He can’t look anybody in the face.” “My dear,” said her father, “he is very shy, he is afraid of young girls like you.” “Afraid! Do you really think so?” said Bella. “Mr. Rokesmith has paid me part of the money, and now we can have something nice for supper,” said Mr. Wilfer, and soon the whole family sat down to supper. At the same time, two other people in another house had their supper too. They were Mr. and Mrs. Boffin—old Harmon’s servant and his wife. “I am not glad that we are so rich now,” Mrs. Boffin said. “Think of the poor boy who was going to become rich and to marry a beautiful girl. Now he is dead. And that beautiful girl, that poor little Bella Wilfer — is she happy? I think we must do something for her —invite her to stay with us, perhaps—” “I never thought of that!” said Mr. Boffin, who liked his wife’s plan very much. On the next morning he went for a walk. Suddenly a young gentleman stopped him. “Mr. Boffin?” said the gentleman. 1 the City ['siti]—деловая часть Лондона (Сити) 130
“Hul-lo!” said Mr. Boffin. “You know me! But I don’t know you, I am sure.” “No, you don’t,” answered the gentleman. “But you—but your strange story has made you famous.” “What do you want from me, then?” asked Mr. Boffin. “I’m afraid you’ll be astonished, but I hear you are a good and kind man, and your wife is as good and kind as you are. So you won’t think that I am going to do something bad against you. Mr. Boffin, you have become rich. Your life will change now. Perhaps you will live in a larger house, you will meet many people, you will have to write and answer many letters. If you take me as your secretary—” “As what?!” said Mr. Boffin, who heard this word for the first time in his life. “As your secretary,” answered the gentleman. “I’ll try to be useful to you. My name is John Rokesmith, and I live at Mr. Wilfer’s—” “Father of Miss Bella Wilfer?” said the old man in astonish- ment. “Yes—of course. Mr. Wilfer has a daughter, and her name is Bella.” “It’s all so very strange!” said Mr. Boffin. “Well, come to my house in a week’s time, and I’ll give you an answer. I must first speak with Mrs. Boffin. And now, good morning to you, sir.” And the old man walked away. “A secretary!” he thought. “How strange!” (To be continued) Answer the questions: 1. What do you know about Mr. Wilfer and his family? 2. Describe Mr. Rokesmith. 3. What did Bella think about him, and why? 4. What do you think of Mr. Boffin? 5. What made Mr. Boffin famous?
LESSON ELEVEN MIKE SPEAKS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF “THE PICKWICK PAPERS” MIKE: Have you read “Pickwick”? NINA: It’s one of my favourite novels. MIKE: Do you know the story of how Dickens wrote it? NINA: rm afraid I don’t. Do you? PETE: Of course he does. Come and listen to his talk at the English-speaking club tomorrow. Then you’ll know. Af five o’clock many pupils gathered at the club, and Mike began: “If you like books, read the novel about the adventures of Mr. Pickwick and his friends. It is called “The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club”.1 Dickens began to write when he was very young. “The Pick- wick Papers” was his first novel. The history of the novel is very interesting. One day Dickens was asked to write a text to some funny pictures. The pictures showed some Englishmen who belonged1 2 to a sports club. They liked to travel and went in for different kinds of sports. Dickens began to write. In the beginning it was just a funny story, but very soon the readers saw how it grew into a fine novel. When the first part of the novel was ready, the artist suddenly died.3 It was difficult to find another artist, but at last such a man was found. The man who finished the pictures was H. Browne, a young artist, who was known by the name of ‘Phiz’. “The Pickwick Papers” made Dickens famous. Both the author and the artist were praised, and the book was much discussed. 1 «Посмертные записки Пиквикского клуба» (posthumous ['postjumas] — посмертный) 2 to be'long—принадлежать 8 to die — умереть 132
The readers found the book very interesting, and always laughed when they thought of Mr. Pickwick’s adventures. People gathered in the streets to talk about the novel. There were few people who did not take part in the discussion of the book. I have read in a book on Dickens about a man who was very ill. When the next part of “The Pickwick Papers” was finished, he laughed because he was very glad to have read the book before he died. “The Pickwick Papers” is one of the best works in the history of English literature. It was translated into many languages. To use W. M. Thackeray’s words, everybody who is older than six can enjoy Mr. Pickwick’s story.” ------- New Words ---------- adventure n gather v discussion n take part (in) Rebus ['ri:bas] (After W. M. Thackeray) I am first in the last, in the lost I am found; In the flower you’ll see me, but not on the ground; In the lily and lilac and lotus I’m hid; Not seen in the eye, I am known to its lid. Deep hid in the violet’s bosom I dip; Indeed, I’m the very first thing on your lip. What am I? (viunsvcjwv огоюргшгнг) veyfig vn-£i) lily ['lili], lilac, lotus — names of flowers: лилия, сирень, лотос hid = hidden: Past Participle of the verb to hide — прятать(ся), скры- ваться) lid — веко (глаза) Deep hid in the violet’s bosom ['buzam] I dip = Я прячусь глубоко в сердце фиалки indeed == really the very first thing—самое первое lip—здесь — lips—губы, уста 133
Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words in italics. 1. Have you read “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain? 2. We went to the museum yesterday. All the pupils gathered in the school-yard at 10 o’clock, and we went to the mu- seum together. 3. The best actors took part in the performance. II. Translate the following phrases and sentences: 1. weather: fine weather; in cold weather. What is the weath- er like today? 2. ink: blue (red, black) ink; to write in ink. There is no ink in my pen. 3. strange: a strange story. I’ve worked for many hours, but strange to say, I am not tired. To lose one’s way in a strange place. The boy had no parents and lived among people who were strange to him. 4. spend: to spend holidays in the country. She spent a whole hour at the post-office. He spent all the money he had. 5. keep: to keep books on a shelf; to keep a dog; to keep the room clean. Keep your feet warm. Don’t keep me waiting. To keep early hours; to keep late hours. 6. part: Only (a) part of his story is true. A minute is the sixtieth part of an hour. In this part of the country; to play a great part in the history of the country. He played his part well. To take part in the discussion of a performance. III. Find in the text sentences with verbs in the Passive. IV. Examine the words in italics and say if there is any connection between them (Обратите внимание на выделенные слова и скажите, есть ли между ними какая-либо связь). А. 1. Jane has got some news for her classmates. 2. They will have a new form master. 3. Sasha will help his classmates with their wall news- paper. 134
В. 1. A funny story grew into a novel. 2. The history of this novel is very interesting. 3. The novel is not historical. V. A. Remember the impersonal constructions with the pronoun it as subject (Вспомните безличные предложения с местоимением it в качестве подлежащего). It is cold. —Холодно. It was hot. —Было жарко. It will be hot. — Будет жарко. В. Find in the text an equivalent (эквивалент, соответствующая конст- рукция) to the Russian phrase: Было трудно ... C. Translate into English: Интересно. Было важно. Это очень странно. Будет приятно. Верно. Пора. VI. Translate the sentences using the example as a guide: I’ve got some news for you. У меня есть новость для вас. А. 1. I’ve got some ink. Here it is. 2. We’ve got a telephone at home. You can ring me up. 3. Nick has got a new radio set. Let’s go and look at it. 4. I’ve got two new stamps! Who wants to look at them? В. 1. У меня есть подарок для мамы. Пойдём (Come with те), я покажу его тебе. 2. Пойди и спроси Петю. У него есть телевизионная программа на эту неделю. 3. У меня есть иголка с ниткой. Возьми её и почини платье. 135
VII. Translate the sentences as in the example: Это действительно прекрасно! That’s really fine! Это было действительно прекрасно! That was really fine! Это будет действительно прекрасно! That will be really fine! 1. Это было действительно трудно. 2. Это действительно важно. 3. Это действительно приятно. 4. Это было действительно интересно. 5. Это будет действительно смешно! VIII. Fill in the blanks with the words: funny, famous, play, century, discussion, pleasure, per- formance, actor, to draw, theatre, part, to take part, adventure, to describe Gogol was a — Russian writer of the nineteenth — . Gogol — life as he saw it. In his — “The Inspector General” («Ревизор») Gogol — a picture of the life of a little Russian town. We saw the play at the —. It was a very good —. We liked the — who played the — of Khlestakov (Хлестаков). It was such a — to listen to the story about his —. The play is so clever and — at the same time! All my classmates — in the — of the performance. IX. Speak about Dickens and his novel “The Pickwick Papers”. Here is the plan: 1. Dickens and “The Pickwick Papers”. (to begin, to be very young, to be one’s first novel) 2. The history of the novel. (to be very interesting, to ask) 3. A funny story —a fine novel. (to begin, to grow) 4. The artists. (to be ready, to die (умереть), to be difficult, to finish) 136
5. “The Pickwick Papers” and Dickens, (to make, to praise, to discuss) 6. The readers and the book. (to find, to laugh, to think, to gather) 7. “The Pickwick Papers”. (to be one of the best works, to translate) LET'S TALK A LITTLE I. Answer the questions: A. 1. Have you read “The Pickwick Papers”? 2. Did you read it in Russian or in English? 3. Have you read any books by Dickens? 4. What book(s) by Dickens have you read? 5. Did you like it (them)? 6. What is your favourite book? 7. Do you find the history of “The Pickwick Papers” interesting? В. 1. Is it hard or not to come to a new class for the first time? 2. How will you meet your new classmates? (Will you greet them? Will you be polite?) 3. Must we help those who come to our class for the first time? 4. Must we make friends with them? 5. Are you glad when your new classmates can do something useful? 6. Are there any pupils in your class who like to make others laugh? 7. Do they always say funny things? 8. What is the best way to stop their jokes if you don’t like them? II. Say in English: number ['плтЬэ] — номер 137
I live at number 10, High Street» flat 25. А. Два мальчика встречаются в лагере. А.: Где ты живёшь? В.: Я живу в Ленинграде, а где ты живёшь? А.: Я живу в Москве. На какой улице ты живёшь? В.: Я живу на улице Горького, дом 5, квартира 6, а ты? А.: Я живу на улице Герцена, дом 31, квартира 7. В. Ask your friends to tell you where they live. III. Speak about your life. Here are some questions that will help you. 1. What’s your name, please? 2. How old are you? 3. Where do you live? What is the number of your house and your flat? 4. What is your father’s work? 5. What does your mother do? 6. Speak about your sisters and brothers, please (if you have any). 7. Where do you study? 8. What is the number of your school? 9. What form are you in? 10. Who is your monitor? 11. How many pupils are there in your class? 12. Are you often on duty? 13. What must a pupil on duty do? 14. Is your school far from your house? 15. When does school begin? 16. What do you study at school? 17. What languages do you learn? 18. What is your favourite subject (предмет)? 19. How many English lessons have you a week? 20. Do you read much? 21. Who are your favourite Russian (or English) authors? 22. Do you ever go to the theatre (or the cinema)? 23. Does it give you pleasure to read a good book or to see a good performance? 24. Which do you like better, plays or operas? 25. Do you play games? 138
IV. Make a dialogue out of the Learn and say it. story “The Poor Man and the Rich Man”. Poor man: ... Rich man: ... Judge: ... V. Ask and answer. difficult pleasant interesting polite useful important wonderful to discuss a new play? to listen to some music? to know how to make a dress? to take part in a discussion of a his- torical novel? to see a new film on television? to sit on a chair when an old man or woman is standing? to know what the weather will be like? to know what is on television on Saturday evening? to go in for sports (to play games)? to make a dress? to go to the museum? to walk in fine weather? VI. Speak about this picture. 139
The following questions and words will help you: 1. Do you often go to the theatre? 2. Have you seen many plays? 3. Is this picture from a play? 4. What play is it from? (The author of the play is S. Marshak.) мачеха — a 'step-mother подснежник—a snowdrop корзинка —a basket VIL PROBLEM 140
In a family there are two little boys. They are twins (близнецы). They are only one year old. Their names are Bob and Sam. One day... Finish the story. The pictures will help you. Some words to describe the pictures: быть похожими—to be alike кроватка —a cot 141
Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. What kind of life did Bella live at the Boffins? 2. Who did she see in Mr. Boffin’s room one morning? 3. What did Rokesmith tell Bella? 4. What did he think when he saw that Bella smiled proudly? 5. What did Bella guess that made her angry? 6. What did Mr. Boffin say about the old house? 7. Where did the Boffins go to live? 8. What did the secretary ask Bella one day? OUR MUTUAL FRIEND Part III In which Bella was taught what to do. Bella Wilfer was invited to stay with Mrs. and Mr. Boffin. She lived a happy life now. Her new friends were very kind to her. She always had everything she asked for, and she never thought about her poor home. One morning, when she looked into Mr. Boffin’s room, she came face to face with Mr. Rokesmith. “Oh, it’s you!” she said. “How did you get here, sir?” “I am Mr. Boffin’s secretary,” explained Mr. Rokesmith. “Then, are you always going to be here?” she asked coldly. “Always? No. Very often? Yes,” he answered. “But you will see little of me because I shall always be busy. You will have a differ- ent kind of life. I kilow from Mr. Boffin that you were going to marry a rich man, and that you lost him when he was on his way to London. It was hard, of course. But Mr. and Mrs. Boffin are such nice, kind people. They will help you to become rich.” As he said this, Rokesmith looked at Bella and saw that she smiled proudly. “So young and beautiful, and yet so cold and heartless,” he thought. The secretary began to work. He kept things in good order, and Mr. Boffin was as happy as a child. He praised his secretary to his wife and to Bella. “You don’t know how clever our Mutual Friend is!” he said,— that was what he called Rokesmith now. 142
“He will never be my friend,” Bella thought. She guessed that the Secretary loved her, and she was angry. “What right has he to love me? I shall never marry him. I don’t want to be poor again. I must have money and I shall marry money.” As she thought this she became even more angry—she could not explain why. She went to her room and cried. “We are going to have a new house,” said Mr. Boffin to his Secretary. “You will help me to buy it.” “I’ll do everything you tell me, Mr. Boffin.” “But don’t think we’ll sell the old house,” said Mr. Boffin. “We’ll leave everything as it was in the days of old Mr. Harmon. Here his son and his daughter played when they were little. Poor children, poor children!” There was something strange in the Secretary’s face as he listened to these words. But he said nothing. Some weeks passed, and the Boffins went to live in the new house. The Secretary, too, was given a room there. But he lived at Mr. Wilfer’s and came to the Boffins every morning. “You never give me any message to take to your father’s home, Miss Wilfer,” he said one day. “I shall be happy to carry it.” Bella blushed and said, “I am going to see them tomorrow. But you—I’ll ask you not to say such things to me, sir! What right have you to tell me what I must do?” The next day she went home. (To be continued) Answer the questions: 1. Did Bella like Mr. Rokesmith? What makes you think so? 2. Why was Bella angry when she guessed that Rokesmith loved her? 3. What do you think of Bella? 4. Why did the Boffins not sell the old house? 5. Do you like Mr. and Mrs. Boffin? Why?
REVISION LESSON III 1. Make up sentences: 1 think radio literature music history poems science theatre television talks discussions is are useful, wonderful, important, interesting, pleasant, fine. Give reasons for your opinions (мнения) using the words below. radio television theatre literature music science talks discussions to solve problems to help to teach to listen to... to learn to fight, to struggle to describe to discuss to enjoy, to give pleasure to take part to play a great part to tell the truth about... 2. ON MUSEUMS (Victor and Dan at home) VICTOR: What are those pictures? DAN: We are going to have a museum collected pictures of famous writers, collect pictures of famous scientists, museum. Will you come and see it? VICTOR: Why not? Of course I shall. at our school. We’ve and now our task is to Then we shall open our 144
* * * (At the School Museum) KATE: What time is it, girls? ANN: It’s almost four. In an hour we shall open our museum. Are you afraid? KATE: Just a little. A lot of people will come. Some have already gathered in the teachers’ room. NELLY: And you will have to greet all of them! KATE: It’s always very difficult at the beginning. NINA: All beginnings are hard. Well - say, “Welcome to our museum, dear friends,” and then things will go all right. * * * (In another room at the school. Some boys are discussing something. Victor comes in.) VICTOR: Hullo. I’m not late, I hope. ALEC: Late? You’ve come a little too early! NICK: Are you Dan’s brother? VICTOR: Yes. Where is he? He left home without eating his dinner today. SASHA: Perhaps he couldn’t eat. He and some pupils from the other classes have to explain the pictures in Room One. That’s not easy. STEVE: Dan is responsible for Room One, you know. VICTOR: Oh, is he? But I’m sure he knows his part of the talk almost by heart. How many rooms have you got here? NICK: Two rooms, one for science and one for literature. * * * (Half an hour late. There are many people present: teachers, pupils and their parents.) ONE OF THE PARENTS: This museum is a very useful thing. ANOTHER PARENT: You are right. When the children make a museum like this they learn a lot. A TEACHER: Pupils from many different forms took part in the work. A lot of them have become good friends now. 145
JANE (to all present)'. Dear friends! We hope you’ll enjoy the pictu- res we have collected in these two rooms. Now we invite you to listen to Mike Litvinov. He will give a talk on the British Museum. The authors of this talk are the pupils of the eighth form and our English pen-friend, Lucy Grant. ALL TOGETHER: That’s very interesting! Let’s hear it. Come on... 3. THE BRITISH MUSEUM Every year many hundreds of people come to the British Museum in London. It was opened in 1759, and today it has become one of the richest and most famous museums in the world. Let us go in and look at some of the collections. As we walk from one room to another, many new worlds pass before our eyes. We see Britain as it was in the early days of its history. We learn about things which were used centuries ago. The Past tells its secrets to those who study it carefully . There are rooms in which you can see works of art of different times and countries. All these collections show the greatness of man, who worked and struggled for centuries till he could make more and more things which were both useful and beautiful. The British Museum is famous for its zoological and botanical collections, too. Many scientists come to study these collections. We have spent the whole day at the Museum, but we have not yet seen its Reading-Room.1 It is a large round hall for 500 readers. More than five million books in different languages take up more than eighty miles of shelves. Many great men have studied in the famous Reading-Room. Both Marx and Lenin spent much of their time at the British Museum. The list of books V. I. Lenin read there, and his letter to the Director of the Museum, belong to its collection of his- torical papers. It’s time to go. We leave the large halls where the Past tells its silent story, and walk out into the street. 1 Reading-Room - See ex. Ill on page 22. 146
the British Museum - Британский Музей the past - прошлое a secret ['skkrit] - секрет, тайна art - искусство zoological [,zou3'bd3ikel] — зоологический botanical [bo'taenikol] - ботанический round - круглый a hall - зал a mile - миля (английская мера длины = 1609 м) to be'long - принадлежать papers - здесь документы silent - молчаливый, безмолвный LIST OF NEW WORDS (Lessons 8-11) actor n 10 pleasure n 10 adventure n 11 polite n 8 darkness n 9 praise v 9 discussion n 11 programme n 8 E enjoyment я 10 radio n\ explain v 9 over the radio 8 few a 9 on the radio 8 E finish v 8 radio: radio set n gather v 11 ring up v 9 greet v 9 science n 9 heart: by heart 10 scientist n 9 ink n 9 sir n 9 E invite v 8 spend v 9 keep v 10 stage n 10 kind a 9 strange n 9 listen in v 8 take part 11 museum n 10 television (TV): news n 8 television set n ' number n 11 E theatre n 10 opera n 10 turn off v 8 part n 10 turn on v 8 performance n 10 weather n 9 pleasant n 9 yet adv 8 147
LESSON TWELVE THE POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF THE PICKWICK CLUB MR. PICKWICK’S FIRST ADVENTURE Breakfast was soon over, and Mr. The bright sun began to shine on the morning of the thirteenth of May, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven, when Mr. Pickwick rose1 from his bed like another sun, opened his window and looked out at the world before him. Gos- well Street 1 2 was at his feet, Goswell Street was on his right hand, Gomvell Street was on his left, Goswell Street lay in front of him. “Such,” thought Mr. Pick- wick, “are the poor lives of the people who see only those things that lie before them. I cannot look at Goswell Street all my life. I must study other countries too.” Pickwick, with his telescope3 in his hand and his famous note-book in his pocket, went out, ready for adventures. 1 to rise (rose, risen) - подниматься 2 Goswell Street — название улицы 3 a telescope ['teliskoup] - здесь подзорная труба 148
He took a cab,1 and they started. The driver,1 2 with a number on his coat, was like one of those strange, old things which people often see at a historical museum. “How old is that horse, my friend?” asked Mr. Pickwick. “Forty-two,” answered the driver, who did not like to answer questions. “What!” said Mr. Pickwick. The driver repeated his answer, and Mr. Pickwick wrote it down in his note-book. “And how much time can he run in this way?” asked Mr. Pick- wick. He was very glad to speak with a man who could tell him such remarkable things. “Two or three weeks,” answered the driver. “Weeks!” repeated Mr. Pickwick—and he took out his note- book again. “We never take him out of the cab,” explained the driver. “He is too old, he always falls when we take him out of the cab. But when we keep him in it, he can’t fall. And then, there are these two large wheels:3 they run straight after him, and he must go on because he can’t stop running.” Mr. Pickwick carefully wrote down every word. He found it all very interesting and important. They went as far. as the Golden Cross, 4 where they were met by Mr. Pickwick’s friends—Mr. Tupman, Mr. Snodgrass and Mr. Winkle. Everything went well; but when Mr. Pickwick wanted to pay the driver, the man suddenly threw the money on the ground. “I’ll show you how to report on5 a poor man!” In a moment a lot of people gathered round them. “What’s the matter? Why is he angry?” asked the people. “I didn’t want to report on you!” said Mr. Pickwick. “And why did you write down every word I said?” shouted the driver. Suddenly he jumped at Mr. Pickwick, then at Mr. Tupman, then at Mr. Snodgrass, then at Mr. Winkle, and then at Mr. Pick- wick again. 1 a cab—извозчичий (двухколёсный) экипаж 2 a driver—кучер; извозчик 8 a wheel [wi:l]—колесо 4 the Golden Cross—Золотой крест (название гостиницы) 6 to report on ...—доносить на... 149
“Help! Help!” shouted Mr. Winkle, as he fell down on the ground. “Where is the policeman?”1 shouted Mr. Snodgrass. At this moment a young man came to help them. He took Mr. Pickwick and his friends away from the angry driver. * * * “What a funny story!” said Ann when Mike stopped reading “Why did you stop? Go on!” “Look at the clock,” was the answer. “We had better start if we want to go sightseeing today.” 1 policeman [pa'liismon] 150
Nina ran up to the window and looked out. “How fine the weather is today!” she said. “It’s not windy, and the sun is shining. I have not seen such a sunny morning here since I came from Riga!” “It’s just the day for a pleasant walk,” said Alec. “I’m glad we decided to go sightseeing today. I’m sure we’ll see a lot of remark- able things—” “And have a lot of wonderful adventures!” said Pete, who was there, too, of course. “But I hope our adventures won’t be such as the first adven- ture of Mr. Pickwick!” said Nina. She looked at her friends. “How kind of you to take me round the town. I don’t know Leningrad very well yet.” “Come on, come on!” shouted Mike. “Perhaps some famous author will write some day: ‘The bright sun began to shine on the morning of the thirteenth of April, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-two, when Nina and her friends—’” They laughed, and left the room one after another. write down v shine v start v left a New Words remarkable a right a sunny a windy a straight adv thousand num go sightseeing Joke When you are going to fight, always count a hundred before you hit the other fellow — and if he is bigger than you, count a thousand. to count—считать to hit — ударить a fellow—малый, парень Exercises I. Read the following sentences and translate the words in italics. 1. When the sky is blue and the sun is shining, we say ‘The weather is fine’. 2. Ten times one hundred is one thousand. 151
3. When we are eating meat, we have the knife in the right hand and the fork in the left hand. 4. The teacher wrote a new word on the blackboard, and we wrote it down in our note-books. 5. When the sun is shining, we say ‘The day is sunny’. II. A. Using the suffix -y, form adjectives from the nouns: air, stone, ink, sleep, hand These adjectives mean: наполненный воздухом; каменистый, каменный; покрытый (или измазанный) чернилами, чернильный; сонный; удобный, портативный В. Translate the words without using a dictionary: grassy, salty, flowery, icy C. Give the English for the following adjectives (adding the suffix -y to the stems you know): пыльный; дождливый; снежный; водяной, водянистый D. Find in the text adjectives with the suffix -y. E. Take off the suffix from the adjective funny and translate the word thus formed. Check your translation with the help of a large dictionary. III. Insert the definite or indefinite article where necessary. Look at — house! This is — house where Nick’s cousin lives. He has — father, — mother, two brothers and — sister. They live near — Novgorod. His sister is — worker. — house they live in is one of — finest houses in — street. There is — small garden in front of — house. It is very pleasant to sit in — garden on — sunny day. IV. Make up sentences using the following words: 1. much, enjoyed, very, the, they, performance 2. friendship, stand, for, whole, we, the, world, peace, for, and 152
3. was, book, not, last, the, year, translated 4. the, in, the, stands, the, of, room, corner, radio set 5. Moscow, famous, in, gathered, scientists, many V. Translate the sentences as in the example: Можно мне записать новые слова? May I write down the new words? —Конечно, можно. —Of course you may. 1. Можно ему записать стихотворение? — Конечно, можно. 2. Можно нам записать всё по-английски? — Конечно, можно. 3. Можно им записать имена этих писателей? — Конечно, можно. VI. Fill in the blanks with the words: part, town, beautiful, capital, fine, Square, museum, theatre, historical Have you ever been to Moscow? Moscow is the—of the U.S.S.R. Moscow is a large, old—; it is more than 800 years old. Forty or fifty years ago many streets in Moscow were short, many houses were small. Now Moscow is very—. There are —houses there. The streets are long, many of them with trees on both sides. Among the—places in Moscow are the Kremlin (Кремль), Red—and others. There are—, — and cinemas in all parts of Moscow. There are many buses and trolley-buses in the streets. When people go from one—of the town to another, they take the underground (метро). VII. Translate into English: Я живу в городе на берегу Волги (on the Volga). Наш город не очень большой, но (он) очень красивый. В городе много садов и парков. Летом мы любим гулять у реки. В нашем городе есть и большие и маленькие улицы. На улицах много деревьев и цветов. На улицах много трамваев и автобусов. В нашем городе много школ, кино, театров и музеев. Я очень люблю свой город. 153
LET’S TALK A LITTLE I. Answer the questions: A. 1, Did you like to go sightseeing when you were in Leningrad? 2. Is Leningrad really a beautiful town? 3. What historical places do you know in Leningrad? 4. Where was V. I. Lenin in the first days of the Great October Revolution? 5. Have you heard about the white nights in Lenin- grad? 6. What poet described them, and in what poem? В. 1. What town do you live in? 2. How old is your town? 3. Are there many historical places in your town? 4. Which of them are near your house? 5. What great (famous) scientists (writers, poets, artists, actors, workers) live and work in your town now (lived and worked in it in other centuries)? 6. Are there many theatres (cinemas, libraries, museums, factories and schools) in your town? 7. And what about parks and gardens? 8. Do your pioneers look after the parks and gar- dens? 9. What do you do there? 10. Do you find your task important? 11. Which street do you like best in your town? 12. Is there a river in your town? 13. How many bridges cross the river? 14. Is the river beautiful? 15. Are there any skating-rinks in your town? 16. Are there many new houses in it? 17. Are there any radio and television sets in the houses of your town? 18. Do you help to make your town more beautiful? 19. Are there any pupils among you who collect pictures of your town? 20. Has any author described your town? 21. What town is famous for its white nights? 22. Do you find it a pleasure to walk round a town which you don’t know? 23. In what weather is it better to go sightseeing? 24. Is it useful to have a map of the town when you go sightseeing? 154
II. Invite your friend •.. A. Learn and say: Nick: Good afternoon, Sasha. Where are you going? Let’s go to the cinema. Sasha: The day is so fine and sunny. Let’s go to the park. Nick: You are right. The weather is wonderful. Sasha: Come on, then! B. Say in English: Катя: Какая прекрасная погода! Женя: Пойдём погуляем. Катя: Давай поедем за город. Женя: Не забудь, что Нелли нас ждёт. Катя: Пригласим её поехать с нами. III. Ask the way ... A. Learn the dialogues: excuse [iks'kju:z] me — извините, простите 1. Expense me. 'Can you 'show me the'way to the 'near- est _Jbookshop? 2. Of "^.course I can. 'Go 'straight ~\on, 'then 'turn to the J left, and you’ll 'see the 'shop in front of you. 1. 'Thank you 'very much. * * * 1. Ex^cuse me, 'is this the 'right 'way to the ^theatre? 2. ~\No, it isn’t. 'Turn to the fright, 'then 'go as 'far as the square, and you’ll 'soon 'see the theatre. 1. Thank you. I 'think I’ll ~\find it. * * * 1. Expense me, 'which is the 'nearest 'way to the His- 'torical Mu~\seum? 2. 'Go a'long 'Lenin Street, 'then 'cross the J bridge, and you’ll 'see the Historical Mu'seum 'straight in front of you. 1. 'Thank you 'very ~tmuch. 155
В. a) Ask your classmates the way; b) Explain to your classmates the way: to the Lenin Museum, to the town park, to the post-office, to the town library, to the town hospital, to the nearest collective farm. C. Say in English: 1. Простите, как мне пройти на улицу Горького? 2. Перейдите через улицу и идите прямо до реки. Затем перейди- те мост и сверните направо. 1. Это далеко отсюда? 2. Нет, недалеко. 1. Благодарю вас. * * * 1. Завтра мы пойдём в Истори- ческий музей. Как ближе все- го туда пройти? 2. Иди по Парковой улице до площади, затем поверни на- лево. Ты увидишь большой белый дом. 1. Это и есть музей? 2. Да. Я хорошо знаю это место, потому что мы были там на прошлой неделе. 1. Спасибо. Думаю, что я найду дорогу. IV. Exercises on the text. 1. Say what things Mr. Pickwick had with him. 2. Describe the driver, please. 3. Say everything you can about the horse.
V. Make a dialogue from the text “The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club”. Learn and say it. Mr. Pickwick: ... Driver: ... Note: Let a third pupil say the words of the people, of Mr. Winkle and Mr. Snodgrass. VI. Look at the pictures on pages 156 and 157 and say: 1. What towns do you see in these pictures? 2. What is the name of the town in the left hand pictures? 3. What is the name of the town in the pictures on the right? 4. Give a name to every picture. Here is a list of names that will help you: 1. The Admiralty ['aedmiraltij. 2. The Bolshoi Theatre. 3. The Exhibition of the Econo- mic Achievements Leksi'biJ'n ov 3i i:ka'nomik a'tji:vmants] of the U.S.S.R. 4. The Field of Mars [maz], 5. The Kremlin ['kremlin]. 6. The Luzhniki Stadium ['lug- mki 'steidiam]. 7. The Peter and Paul Fortress. 8. Red Square. 9. Smolny. 10. The Summer Gardens. 11. The University. 12. The Winter Palace ['paslis].
VII. STORY WITHOUT WORDS1 1 Темы рисунков заимствованы у X. Бидструпа. «Время радости и ве- селья». Чехословакия. Прага. Братислава. Профсоюзное изд-во. 1959 г. 158
Look at the pictures and tell the story. Here are some words to help you: стирать — to do the washing гладить (утюгом) — to iron ['aian] украшать ёлку—to decorate ['dekareit] a New Year tree кресло—an arm-chair у елки стоят ., .-—round the tree are standing ... 159
Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. What question did Rokesmith ask himself? 2. What did he have to do as soon as he came to England? 3. What did he want to see first? 4. To whom did he tell his story on board the ship? 5. Where did Radfoot take John Harmon? 6. What happened to Harmon when he drank a cup of hot tea? 7. Where was John Harmon when he came to? 8. What did he say to the people in the house where he stayed for some days? 9. Whose body was found in the Thames one night? 10. How did Harmon explain all that? 11. What did Harmon think was better for everybody? 12. What did Bella say to Rokesmith when he came to her? 13. What did Bella answer when Rokesmith said to her, “I always think of you with the warmest love”? OUR MUTUAL FRIEND Part IV In which John Harmon dies a second time. It was night, but Mr. Rokesmith could not sleep. “She doesn’t love me, and never will,” he thought. “A secretary is no better than a dog to her. Shall I tell her the truth and so make her love me?” His thoughts took him back to a dark night a year ago. He saw himself on board the ship,1 on his way to England. “I had to get my father’s money and to marry a girl I didn’ know. She didn’t know me, but she was going to become my wife only because I was rich. Could I love her? I was not sure. I wanted first to see what kind of girl she was. On board the ship there was a man, his name was Radfoot. We became friends. I told him my story. When we came to London, 1 on board the ship—на борту корабля 160
he invited me to the house of one of his friends. ‘Nobody must know that you’ve come back before you see Bella Wilfer,’ he said. The night was dark and wet. Radfoot took me to a house near the Thames. ‘You are wet,’ he said, ‘take off your clothes and put on these.’ I did as I was told. Then I was given a cup of hot tea. As I drank it my head became heavy, and a strange darkness gathered round me. Suddenly Radfoot jumped at me, and we began to fight. I fell... I saw many other men in the room. They fought with a man who was dressed in my clothes and had my bag in his hand. Then I was thrown into the water, and my last thought was, ‘This is John Harmon in the river! John Harmon, struggle for your life!’ Was I much time in the water? I don’t know. When I came to,1 I was on the bank of the river. I got to a small house and stayed there for some days. I said to the people there, ‘My name is John Rokesmith.’ I was tired and wanted to rest. One day a man asked me, ‘Have you read the newspaper this morning? The body of a young man was found in the Thames last night. They say it’s John Harmon’s.’ I went to see the body. It was Radfoot’s! He had on my clothes... And then I understood everything. I said to myself, ‘He was murdered by some people who wanted to get the money for which he was going to murder me. Those people threw both of us into the river.’” “The problem now is, shall I tell the truth? If I do, I’ll have my father’s money, and I’ll marry the beautiful girl I love. But she does not love me, and nobody will be happy. If I don’t—the money will stay where it is now, and my dear old friends will live in happiness and make Bella happy. Yes, it will be better for everybody if John Harmon is dead and buried.”2 ... That evening the Secretary was asked to come to Miss Wilfer. Bella sat on a sofa. She was very, very beautiful. “There is something I want to tell you,” she began. “You think that now that I am rich I forget my old home. You must not think this about me, sir!” “You don’t know how well I think about you, Miss Wilfer,” said Mr. Rokesmith. “I always think of you with the warmest love.” 1 I came to—я пришёл в себя г is dead and buried ['bend]—мёртв и погребён (умер и похоронен) 161
“I do not want your love!” John Hannon was almost ready to tell her that he could make her rich. But John Rokesmith did not say any more than “I am sorry” and left the room. All that night he carefully threw earth over John Harmon’s body; and when morning came, John Harmon lay buried under a high mountain. (To be continued) A. Answer the questions: 1. Who was John Rokesmith? 2. What really happened to John Harmon? 3. Why did Harmon decide not to tell the truth? 4. What do you think of John Harmon? B. Explain (in Russian) the meaning of the final paragraph (Объясните (по-русски) значение заключительного абзаца): All that night he carefully threw earth... C. Examine Parts II and III again and say whether anything in them helps you to guess the truth (Просмотрите ещё раз части II и III и скажите, нет ли в них моментов, которые наталкивают на мысль о том, что случилось на самом деле).
LESSON THIRTEEN APRIL DAYS SASHA (opens the door of the classroom)'. Hullo! (Comes in.) Nobody here! Oh, the lazybones!1 I’ll draw some pictures before they come. STEVE (comes in): Hullo, Sasha. I’ve got a fine picture of Lenin. ANN (comes in): Don’t be angry with me. I am very sorry to be late, but 1 had to make Nick write about his excursion to Gorky.1 2 He never does anything in time. SASHA: We’ll have to speak about this at our next meeting. He is always busy when he has to do something for his class. STEVE: It’s time to begin. Here are the pictures I have collected. KATE (runs in): I’ve found a nice story. It is “Lenin’s Cherry Orchard”.3 Perhaps it will be useful to you. 1 lazybones ['leizibounz] - лентяй, лентяи (букв/. «ленивые кости») 2 Gorky ['go:ki] - Горки, место под Москвой, где Ленин жил и работал в последние годы жизни. 3 a cherry orchard - вишнёвый сад (a cherry - вишня, an orchard - фруктовый сад) 163
ANN: Oh, we’ll put it here, in the middle. STEVE: And where shall we put the newspaper? SASHA: I think this board will be very good. But we must have some nails and a hammer. I’ll go and get them. (He goes out. The children go on working at the newspaper. Sasha comes back with a hammer and nails.) I see you’ve almost finished the newspaper. I like it very much. ANN: Let’s read the story which Kate brought. LENIN’S CHERRY ORCHARD In the village of Gorky near Moscow there is a white house which stands in an old park. Here Vladimir Ilyich Lenin lived and worked the last years of his life. Now the house is a famous museum. Every year thousands of people go on excursions there to see how Lenin lived. They see the house and Lenin’s favourite orchard, which was planted under his windows in 1923. In the little town of Glukhov near Moscow there is a large factory. A long time ago the workers of that factory had a meet- 164
ing. They discussed only one question. They decided to send some workers to Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, who lived in the village of Gorky after his illness. Some of the best workers were elected. The workers were told to ask Lenin not to work too hard. They were afraid for his health.1 “What shall we take to Ilyich?” the workers thought. They discussed this important question for a long time. “He is not a man who takes presents,” said an old man. “We must give him something that he can’t refuse.” 1 2 “Let us give him an orchard," one of the workers said. "Vladi- mir Ilyich likes trees and flowers very much, and now that he is ill he must have something like that. Let us plant a cherry orchard under his windows. When the trees grow, it will be plea- sant for him to look at them.” The workers decided to do this. They took eighteen young cherry-trees and started for Gorky. They were met by Maria Ilyinichna, Lenin’s sister. She in- vited them into one of the rooms and asked them to wait there. When Vladimir Ilyich heard about the workers, he came out to see them. At the beginning of their conversation Lenin asked them about their factory and their life. “Vladimir Ilyich,” the workers said, “we want to hear how you are.” They talked for some time and then Kuznetsov, one of the workers, said: “We have brought you a present, Vladimir Ilyich." Lenin became angry when he heard the word ‘present’. “We’ve brought you a cherry orchard,” Kuznetsov explained. “We must plant the trees now or they will die.” 3 The men planted the trees near the house. They spent the whole day at Gorky. In the evening they left for Glukhov. When they came home they told the whole story to their friends. Many years have passed. The trees have grown large and beautiful. Pioneers look after the orchard which was planted by their grandmothers and grandfathers, and which gave so much pleasure to Lenin. 1 health [hel6] - здоровье 2 to refuse [iTfju:z] - отказаться 3 to die - здесь погибать 165
Some years ago, on the 22nd of April, the pioneers planted eighteen new cherry-trees. So this tradition is handed down1 from father to son. conversation n excursion n village n Exercises I. Read the sentences and translate the words in italics: 1. Since 1917 many villages have grown into towns. 2. When people are talking we say - they are having a con- versation. 3. Let’s go on an excursion to the Historical Museum. IL Pick out of the text below all the words you have learnt this year. Vladimir Ilyich’s mother, Maria Alexandrovna, was the daughter of a doctor. When she was a young girl she lived for many years in a village. She was very musical (музыкальная) and knew three lan- guages - French, German and English. She spent much time with her children. She taught them languages and music. Maria Alexandrovna explained to her children everything that was difficult for them. III. Translate into English. ОТЕЦ ВЛАДИМИРА ИЛЬИЧА Отец Владимира Ильича, Илья Николаевич, был учителем. Он преподавал в Пензе (Penza) и Нижнем Новгороде (Nizhni Novgorod), затем в Симбирске (Simbirsk). Илья Николаевич всегда старался сделать свои уроки интерес- ными. Ученики очень любили его. Он объяснял детям всё, что им было трудно. Больше всего он помогал бедным детям. Илья Николаевич много думал о сельских школах (country schools). «Одна из важнейших задач - открыть больше таких школ», - го- ворил он. «Мы должны решить эту важную проблему и помочь детям в деревне». Илья Николаевич много работал, но всегда находил время для своих детей. Он учил их играть в шахматы и другие игры, расска- зывал им интересные истории, вместе с Марией Александровной подбирал им книги для чтения. 1 this tradition is handed down...—эта традиция передаётся... 166
IV. Retell the story “Lenin’s Cherry Orchard”. A. with the help of the following questions: 1. Where did Vladimir Ilyich Lenin live and work the last years of his life? 2. Tell about the house in Gorky as it is today. 3. Who brought the trees for the orchard to Vladimir Ilyich? 4. When did it happen? 5. What did the workers of the factory decide at their meeting? 6. Who was elected to go to Gorky? 7. What were the workers told to ask Vladimir Ilyich? 8. What else did the workers decide to do for Vladimir Ilyich? 9. Did Vladimir Ilyich like to take presents? 10. What did the workers take with them when they start- ed for Gorky? 11. Who met the workers at Gorky? 12. What did Lenin ask the workers about at the beginning of their conversation? 13. Why did Lenin become angry? 14. Was Lenin angry when he heard about the cherry orchard? What do you think? 15. Where did the workers plant the trees? 16. How much time did they spend at Gorky? 17. Did the orchard give much pleasure to Lenin? 18. Have many years passed since that time? 19. What can you say about the orchard as it is today? B. with the help of the following key words and phrases: a) there is to stand to live to work to go on excursions to see to plant b) there is to have a meeting to decide to elect to tell c) to decide to give a to bring to become angry present (of) to take e) to explain to start to plant to meet to spend to invite to leave to ask to come to tell d) to hear to come out f) to pass to ask to grow to talk to look after to say to plant 167
V. I. Lenin in 1887, when he was in the 8th form. Drawing of the artist Nikolai Zhukov. LET'S TALK A LITTLE I. Answer the questions: A. 1. Where did Lenin live when he was a boy? 2. What is the name of this town now? 3. Was the Ulyanov family large? 4. How many brothers and sisters had Lenin? 5. Where was Lenin in the first days of the Great October Revolution? 6. How many years have passed since the Great October Revolution? 7. Has the U.S.S.R. become a powerful country? 8. What does our country stand for? 9. Did Lenin teach us to struggle for peace and friendship among all peoples? В. 1. Have you a class wall newspaper? 2. Who is responsible for it? 3. How many times a month does the paper come out? 4. Who draws pictures for your wall newspaper? 5. Does he (or she) draw well? 6. Do many of your classmates write for the newspaper? 7. Do you write about the great men and women of your country in your wall newspaper? 8. Do you put any jokes or funny stories and pictures in your wall newspaper? 9. Is your wall newspaper interesting? 168
10. Is it your job to make it interesting? 11. Does the newspaper play a great part in your school life? 12. Does the newspaper help you to make better those who are bad friends and bad pupils? 13. Does it teach you many good and useful things? 14. Describe the last number of your wall newspaper — speak about the stories, poems, pictures, and jokes that were in it. II. Ask and answer. (What you can say to one another when you work together at your wall newspaper and want to be polite.) 1. 'May I ’have your (this) J1 pen, please? Дай [те] мне твою [вашу] (эту) ручку. (Разреши [те] мне взять твою [вашу] (эту) ручку.) 2. 'Here you аге. Ask your friend to allow you to take some ink, the scissors, his (her) pencil, that (his, her) board, nail, hammer or some other thing. III. Talk with one another. If you want to speak, raise your right hand. 1. What is the date today? 2. It is the twenty-second of April. 1. Thank you. What do you know about this date? 2. Today is Lenin’s birthday. 1. Where did Vladimir Ilyich live when he was a boy? 2...................... 1. Where did he spend the last years of his life? 2...................... 1........................ 2 . 1 went on an excursion to Ulyanovsk last summer. 1........................ 2 . Yes, I did and I saw many historical places there. B. Speak about the greatest historical date and the greatest holiday in our country—the Great October Holiday. C. Speak about other olidays and important dates that we have in January, February, March, May and December. 169
IV. STORY WITHOUT WORDS i 1 Темы рисунков заимствованы у X. Бидструпа. «Игра». Чехословакия. Прага. Братислава. Профсоюзное изд-во. 1959 г. 170
Look at the pictures and tell the story. Here are some words to help you: скучать—to be bored [bo:d] железная дорога— a railway быть в восторге — to be de'lighted (with) самолёт — a plane пила—a saw удивляться, поражаться — to be as'tonished 171
Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. What answer did Mrs. Boffin give to Bella’s question? 2. What did Mr. Boffin say to Bella about money? 3. Who was Mr. Boffin rude to? 4. Who began to hate money? 5. What did Mr. Boffin say to the Secretary one afternoon in front of (в присутствии) Mrs. Boffin and Bella? 6. Who said, “... he wants to put her money into his pocket”? 7. What did Rokesmith say before he left Mr. Boffin’s room? 8. What did Bella tell Mr. Boffin? 9. What did she say to John Rokesmith? 10. What did she do after that? OUR MUTUAL FRIEND Part V In which all say good-bye to one another. Some days later Bella sat with a book in Mrs. Boffin’s room. Suddenly Mrs. Boffin ran in, her face was almost white. “What’s the matter, dear Mrs. Boffin?” Bella asked as she helped her to the sofa. “Nothing — it’s nothing,” said Mrs. Boffin. “I saw somebody — but I am all right now.” The next morning Mr. Boffin was very angry. “My Secretary throws my money to the winds,” he said. “I must watch him more carefully. Money is everything in life. Don’t forget that, dear Bella, and you’ll always be rich.” Now, Bella thought so too, but she did not like Mr. Boffin’s words. “He is not the kind old man he has always been,” she thought. Now he often spoke of money. He was rude to his Secretary, so rude that once the Secretary left the table before dinner was half over. Bella began to hate money, which could 172
spoil even such a kind man as Mr. Boffin. Every time Mr. Boffin spoke about a rich husband for her she was both angry and ashamed. One afternoon she was asked to Mr. Boffin’s room. Mrs. Boffin sat on the sofa, and Mr. Boffin walked about the room. He was very angry. “Don’t be afraid, Bella dear,” he said. “I am not angry with you.” Then he sent for Mr. Rokesmith. “How dare you, sir,” he began when the Secretary came in, “how dare you forget your place in my house and tell this young lady that you love her? This young lady will never marry you! This young lady is waiting for a rich husband, and what are you, sir? A poor dog, that’s what you are!” “Oh, Mr. Boffin!” cried Bella, and she turned her face away, “Dear Mrs. Boffin, please say something!” “Mrs. Boffin, sit still,” said Mr. Boffin. “Oh, this Rokesmith! Do you think he really loves Miss Wilfer? No, no! He knows that I am going to make this young lady rich — of course he wants to put her money into his pocket.” “It is not true!” said the Secretary, with a white face. “You may say what you like,” answered Mr. Boffin. “But I am as clever as you, and I understand your plans. Now go! We don’t want you in this house.” “I’ve stayed here,” said the Secretary, “because I wanted to be near Miss Wilfer. I love her, and I am not ashamed of my love. Her money is nothing to me. Rich or poor, I shall always love her, and when I leave this house I’ll leave everything fine and beautiful that I have known in life. Good-bye, Mrs. Boffin; you have always been kind to me. Miss Wilfer, good-bye!” “Oh, Mr. Rokesmith!” cried Bella suddenly. “Oh, Mr. Roke- smith, forgive me if you can!” And then, she turned to Mr. Boffin, who was going to say something. “Don’t speak to me!” she said. “I hate you! Your money has changed you to stone! When I came here I loved you, but now I hate you. I hate being rich! Don’t give me money — I want no money! Mr. Rokesmith, my heart almost broke1 when I listened to this man. Forgive me, and forget the girl who has been so heartless and who is ashamed of it now.” 1 my heart almost broke—сердце моё чуть не разбилось 173
Rokesmith kissed her hand and left the room. “He has gone!” cried Bella. “The best man I ever saw!” After some moments she said, “1 must go home. You have been very kind to me, but I can’t stay here now.” And before Mrs. and Mr. Boffin could say a word, she kissed them and ran out of the room. (To be continued) Answer the questions: 1. Why was Bella not so happy as before? 2. Was Bella really as cold and heartless as Rokesmith thought she was? Explain your answer. 3. Why did she leave Mr. Boffin’s house?
LESSON FOURTEEN AND THE LAST UNCLE JOHN’S PRESENT Is it interesting to have an uncle who comes from India?1 Steve thinks it is. Steve’s uncle helped our friends in India to build a new big factory. Today he is coming back to the U.S.S.R. And of course he will come to see Steve and Steve’s father and mother. Now he has come. Steve has invited his friends, and his uncle tells them many interesting stories about India and his journey home. He had to travel by sea, by train and by air before he came to Leningrad. He brought Steve interesting presents. One of them was the book “Three Man on the Bummel” 1 2 by Jerome K. Jerome. Steve and his friends read the book together and enjoyed it very much. Let us enjoy some of it too: HOW WE TRIED TO BUY SHOES Three Englishmen wanted to spend some weeks in Germany. 3 As they didn’t know a word of German, they decided to buy an English- German conversation book and try it at a London shoe shop. They wanted to see if they could4 really use such a book in Germany. “Let’s go to London early on Wednesday morning,” said George, “and spend an hour or two in shoe shops. We’ll use our conversation book and try to buy shoes. Then we can be sure that the German people will understand us if we talk to them in such a way.” We thought it a fine plan and decided to go with George. On the next morning we came to London and stopped at a little shoe shop. Near the door, on the floor, and on the shelves there were 1 India ['indjd] 3 “Three Men on the Bummel ['buml]”—в русском переводе «Трое на велосипедах» 3 Germany ['djaimam] — the country where the German people live 4 if they could...—здесь смогут ли они... 175
boxes of boots and shoes. We saw shoes of different kinds every- where—both for men and for women, black and brown, large and small. The man who kept the shop was just going to open another box of shoes. George raised his hat and said, “Good morning.” He hoped, in answer to his politeness, to hear the polite “Welcome to our shop” as this was the answer in the conversation book. But the man didn’t even look at us. He went on with his work. Then George said, in the words of the book: “Mr. X., whom I hope you know, has told me about your remarkable shop.” To these words the conversation book gave this answer: “Mr. X. is a very fine young man. I’ve known him for years, and I’ll be happy to be useful to his friends.” But what the man said was this: “Don’t know him; never heard of him.” That was a nice beginning. George looked into the book and began again: “They say you have boots to sell.” For the first time the man raised his eyes and looked at us. “And what do you think I keep all these boots here for—to eat them?” He was one of those men who become more and more angry as they go on talking. “What do you think I am doing here?” he shouted. “Collecting boots? What do you think I have this shop for—to enjoy it? Do you think I love all these boots so much that I can’t live with- out them? Aren’t there enough of them? What do you think this is—a museum of boots? Have you ever heard of a man who has a shoe shop and doesn’t sell boots? What do you think I am? An idiot?”1 “We had better leave,” said Harris, and started for the door. But at that moment George suddenly found an answer in the book, the cleverest answer he could find at the moment: “I’ll come again when you have some more boots to show me. Till then, good-bye.” Some hours later, when we were already at home, we discussed the whole story. “Now I see,” said George, “that a conversation book is useless to those who don’t know the language!” And with the words “A pleasant journey to you!” (these words were used in the book), he threw it out of the window. 1 idiot ['idiot] 176
------- New Words ------------------ useless a journey n build v by air (sea, train) Exercises I. A. Using the suffix -less, form adjectives from the words: father, work, friend, fruit, number, rest These adjectives mean: без отца; безработный; одинокий, не имеющий друзей; бесплодный; бесчисленный; беспокойный, неугомонный В. Translate into Russian without using a dictionary: waterless, nameless, motherless, powerless, sleepless (night), thankless C. Give the English for the following adjectives (Add the suffix -less to the stems you know): безветренный, безжизненный, беспомощный, безнадёжный D. What does Jerome K. Jerome mean when he says in one of his books: “We were a catless family”? E. Find in the text an adjective with the suffix -less; give the opposite of this word. IL Translate the following phrases and sentences: 1. start: to start on a journey; to start for Moscow; to start out early in the morning; to start working. 2. thousand: one thousand two hundred and thirty-seven; four thousand people; thousands of people; one man in a thousand. 3. village: a small village; many villages; from village to village; to go to the country and live in a village. We went to the country and stopped at a. little village. 4. journey: a long journey; a journey from England to the U.S.S.R.; a hard journey; a wonderful, pleasant journey; to make a journey; to go on a journey. 177
III. Arrange the following nouns and adjectives in pairs (Подберите к каж- дому имени существительному соответствующее имя прилагательное). The pictures below will help you. Adjectives: dirty, sleepy, Nouns: day, soup, hand, child. inky, salty, icy, windy, rainy, shoes, weather, path (дорожка), IV. What parts of speech are the following words? Point out the suffixes. Beautiful, beginning, carefully, cleverest, constitution, dark- ness, enjoyment, meeting, nineteenth, politeness, powerful, 178
reader, really, seventy, sunny, teacher, useless, windy, conversation, kindness. V. Ask questions to be answered by the words in italics. Use: how much, how many, how often, how much time, how long. 1. Three Englishmen decided to go to London. 2. They bought three tickets. 3. They paid some shillings (шиллинги) for them. 4. They wanted to stay in London for an hour or two. 5. They spent an hour in shoe shops. 6. They went to London every Sunday. VI. Fill in the blanks with the words: journey, village, remarkable, to spend, to travel, useful, by sea, by air. One of the pleasantest things in the world is to travel. We may—by train,—or—. When you travel you can see many — things and enjoy everything that is beautiful.— some time in a new town or—, or to go on a nice—for a week or two is always pleasant and—. VII. Translate into English: А. Аня: Мальчики! Девочки! He уходите! Послушайте ме- ня! Стива отвечает (ответственный) за стенную га- зету, но он сейчас болен. Мы никого не будем выбирать. Саша хорошо рисует, он нарисует картинки. Ник и Нина напи- шут рассказы. Ты, Нина, опишешь нашу экскур- сию в музей, а ты, Ник, опишешь две-три из чу- десных картин, которые мы там видели. Наш из- вестный поэт Майк (Не сердись, Майк, это только шутка!) напишет стихотворение. Ты, Алик, прине- си фотографии (pictures), которые ты собрал. У кого есть шутки или смешные картинки, при- несите их. Мы их тоже поместим в газете. Я уверена, что газета будет хорошей. В. Прошлым летом Инна, сестра Нелли, много путешество- вала. Несколько дней тому назад её пригласили в ан- глийский клуб и попросили описать путешествие в Ан- глию. «Я провела в Лондоне 10 дней»,—сказала Инна. «Я осмотрела достопримечательности города, ездила на 179
экскурсии за город». Инна рассказала одноклассникам Нелли много интересного (many interesting things) и показала много снимков Лондона. Вот они, посмотрите на них. Темза около древнего замка Тауэр. Большой Бен, Вестминстер. Мост Тауэр. Трафальгарская площадь. Вид на Парламент через Темзу. 180 Вид на Британский музей с южной стороны.
VIII. Revision exercise on prepositions. 1. Where? 181
2. When? In summer. In the morning. At 7 o’clock. On Sunday.
3. with for about °f A. Make up a story using the prepositions in group 1. (to climb [klaim] — лазать, лезть) В. Translate into English using the prepositions in group 2: 1. Я встаю в семь часов и ложусь спать в одиннадцать. 2. Я делаю зарядку утром. 3. Мы ухаживаем за цветами весной и летом. 4. Он катается на лыжах по воскресеньям. С. Give one phrase with a preposition for each picture in group 3. 183
LET’S TALK A LITTLE Русско-английский разговорник English-Russian Conversation Book Is the theatre far from here? No, It isn't.Go as far as the square, ttai turn, to the right, and yotfn see the theatre. I. Answer the questions: Долекр ли отсюда театр? Нет, недалеко. Ыдите до площади, Подерните направо и увидите театр. 1. Have you a Russian-English conversation book? 2. Is it difficult to use it? 3. Can you use it if you don’t know English? 4. Can it help you if you know English a little? 5. When do we use a Russian-English conversation book? 6. Who uses an English-Russian conversation book and when? 7. Is it pleasant to be useful to the people who come to our country and don’t know Russian? 8. Have your ever spoken to an Englishman (or English- woman)? 9. Have you ever used a conversation book? 10. Did the Englishman (Englishwoman) understand you? 11. Was it difficult for you to speak English? 12. Did you enjoy the conversation? 13. Is it useful or useless to know languages? II. Ask and answer. 1. Have you ever travelled by boat? (Да.) When did you travel by boat? (Прошлым летом.) Who did you travel with? (С классным руководителем и соучениками.) 2. Have you ever travelled by air? (Да.) Who was with you? (Мой отец.) Were you afraid to be in the air? (Сначала — At first — да, а потом я даже мог читать.) 3. When did you travel by sea? (Прошлым летом.) What was the weather like? (Погода была прекрасная. Было очень тепло.) Did you like the journey? (Да.) What did you do in the summer? (Мы плавали, играли в теннис, читали, пели, танцевали.) 184
III. Learn and say. 1. A: Excuse me. Where can I buy a map of your town? B: Go straight on as far as the corner of the street. There you’ll see a man who is selling newspapers. Ask him; I’m sure he has some maps of the town. A: Thank you very much. 2. A: Can’t you take me round the town tomorrow, Uncle Jim? B: Of course I can. Do you want to go sightseeing? A: I want to see the most interesting places in your town. B: All right. I’ll finish work at two o’clock, and we’ll start at three. IV. Let’s think and talk about the way you’ll spend your summer holidays. A. Ask and answer. 1. Where will you spend your summer holidays? Some of us I My best friend(s) and I My schoolmates 2. Who will teach stay travel go will shall on a short (long) excursion to... to the town (village) of... in my town (village). on a journey. to the country. you, and what will you study (learn)? I We Our teachers will shall study learn teach us to know and to under- stand many things (much). many interesting, import- ant and useful things in a (new, our) town(s) and its (their) museums. the history of the (my, our) town (village) to which we come. the (my, our) town (village). 185
3. What is interesting, important and useful? interesting important useful to go sightseeing when we come to a new town (village). to study everything new that we see. to know the history of our town. to know its historical places. to know everything about the town (village) where (in which) we live. to have a map of a town when we go sightseeing. to describe everything we see (saw). to learn everything about the famous people (actors, workers, scientists, artists) who live and work in the town now (lived and worked in it in other centuries). What can you say about the town (village) you live in (will go to)? The town (village) I live in we shall go to is famous for its historical places. large (not large). an old (new) town (vil- lage). far from (near) the sea. to the east (west, north, south) of the... sea (the ... lake...). 5. What is there near the (your) town (village)? The ... river The ... sea The ... lake The town of ... The village of... Mountains to the east lie to the west of the (our) lies to the north town (village), to the south 186
6. What is there in the (your) town (village)? There is There are a river many new houses many green gardens a large square a (many) fine park(s) some (many, few) theatres and cinemas some (many, few) museums and other interesting places (a) good skating-rink(s) some (many, few) historical places some (many, few) factories, hospitals, schools and shops some (many, few) hills high mountains some (many) fine bridges in (near, round) the (our) town (village). 7. Do you like (love) your town (village)? What do you (other people) do for it? We The people Our children Our pioneers like (love) try look after help those to make it more beautiful. who look after its parks and gardens. our town (village) very much. its large squares. its fine bridges. its parks and gardens. its new houses with large clean yards. 8. How can one get to the (your) town (village)? You can get to the (our) town village by sea. by air. by train. 9. What do people (you) say to those who come to see your town (village)? 187
В. Give short talks about your town (village, journey, excursion). Don’t forget to use the words: a) difficult, pleasant, funny, windy, sunny, rainy. b) adventures, tent, weather, pleasure, flowerbeds, boat. c) to walk, to sleep, to rest, to meet, to enjoy, to discuss, to collect, to shine, to build, to gather. d) in the morning, in the evening, in the day-time, at night, in winter (summer, spring, autumn). v. Joke Describe the picture. The text of Lesson 14 and these words will help you: продавец—a shop assistant книга жалоб—the com'plaints book привязанная к ошейнику — fixed to the dog’s collar свирепый, злой (о собаке) — fierce [has] посадить собаку на цепь—to chain up a dog 188
Text to be Read at Home Find the answers to these questions: 1. Who did Mr. Wilfer see before him when he finished his work? 2. Who came in a little later? 3. What did Rokesmith ask Bella? 4. What happened some days later? 5. How did Rokesmith and Bella live? 6. What did Rokesmith say to Bella one day? 7. Where did they stop? 8. Who came out to greet them? 9. What was Bella told? 10. What did Bella do when she heard the story? 11. What did they talk all together about? OUR MUTUAL FRIEND Part VI and the Last Mr. Wilfer finished his work and was ready to go home when he saw his daughter Bella before him. “I am so glad to see you, my dear,” he began. Suddenly he saw that she had her old dress on, and he did not say another word. Bella tried hard to explain to him why she was there, when suddenly he said, “Look, here is Mr. Rokesmith!” and Rokesmith came in. He ran up to Bella and caught her in his arms.1 “My dear, dear girl! My brave, kind girl!” And then: “I’ve found you at last. My sun, my life! Do you love me?” “Yes, I love you,” said Bella, and her face shone with happi- ness. Mr. Wilfer sat still and looked at them with big eyes. “We must tell dear Pa!” said Bella. And so they told him all about Mr. Boffin. Some days later Bella and Rokesmith were married. At the beginning Bella’s mother and sisters did not want to hear about ‘that poor dog Rokesmith’, and cried over ‘poor Bella’, and were angry with poor little Pa, who was brave enough to say: “Bella is really happy!” But then things went better. Mr. Rokesmith worked in the City, and Bella tried to make their poor home nice and pleasant for him. When John Rokesmith asked her some- 1 caught her in his arms—заключил её в объятья 189
times, “Do you want to be rich?” she answered, “How can you ask me such a question, John dear? Am I not rich?” Some years passed. They had a little daughter. Then, one day, Rokesmith said to Bella, “Now we can buy a larger house. I’ve found a good house, and we’ll go and see it tomorrow.” The next day they went to see the new house. Bella was aston- ished when they stopped before the old house of Mr. and Mrs. Boffin. “Oh, John!” she cried, “don’t you see where we are?” “Yes, dear, I do. It’s all right. Come on, now we shall walk in.” The door was opened by a servant. No questions were asked. Suddenly Bella saw Mr. and Mrs. Boffin. They came out to greet them. Their eyes shone, they were happy. “Welcome to your old home!” they said. What happened then, no pen can describe. At last Bella was told the whole story. It was this: One day Mrs. Boffin saw the Secretary when he was alone and very sad. Suddenly she understood — it was John Harmon! She told Mr. Boffin about it, and they were all very happy. But then John decided to go far away because a young lady, who wanted to become rich, hated him (here Bella blushed and turned her face away). “Now, wait a little,” Mr. Boffin said to John. “I’ll show you that the young lady is good and kind, and will love you.” (“Was I not right?”) Bella took Mr. Boffin’s hand. “Thank you, dear, dear Mr. Bof- fin!” she said. “Now I understand. You saw what a bad girl I was, and you decided to teach me a lesson. Thank you, my dear, kind friend!” Mr. Boffin laughed, and everybody laughed, and they all looked at Bella, who was very beautiful at that moment. And so they sat all together and talked about the past, and even more about the future. Answer the questions: 1. What shows that Bella really loved John Rokesmith? 2. Why was Bella’s mother angry with Bella? Was she right? 3. What can you say about the life of Bella and her husband? 4. What lesson did Mr. Boffin teach Bella? 5. Which of the characters (['kaenktaz]—персонажи) do you like best? Why? 6. Do you like the story “Our Mutual Friend”? Why?
REVISION LESSON IV 1. Let’s repeat what we have learned this year! Give short talks or make up dialogues on: 1) your family; 2) your school life (your handicraft lessons, your needlework lessons, your meetings, your wall newspaper, your friend- ship with English school-children, your work in the school garden and on the collective farm); 3) your work at home (how you help your parents); 4) what do you do when you are not working; 5) books and authors; 6) great scientists; 7) your town (village); 8) sports and games; 9) excursions and journeys; 10) historical dates and holidays. THEY TALK OF THE FUTURE JANE: Do you know what I am thinking about? We shall soon leave school. What shall we do after that? KATE: Well, I know—I’ll be a doctor. I want to help people who are ill. JANE: And I am going to be a teacher: I love children so much. DAN: And Nick wants to become a worker at a factory. He is very good at handicrafts. He wants to leave school this year. STEVE: I, too, shall be a worker. I want to build houses. NELLY: I’m so sorry that our boys will leave us. STEVE: I don’t want to leave our class, but I want to work very much. We shall always be good friends, be sure of that. MIKE: And what do you want to be in future, Nell? Perhaps you will be a singer? NELLY: I’ll try to. But I must learn so much before I become a singer. KATE: And what about you, Sasha? SASHA: I like to draw very much. Perhaps I’ll be an artist. KATE: Of course Mike will study history, or he will be a poet. 191
MIKE: I am not sure that I’ll be a poet, but I am sure I’ll study history, because I like it most of all. I want to study French and German too. PETE: Let me say a word. I’ll not leave school for three years yet, but I’ve decided that I shall plant trees or work on a collective farm and live in a village. I like nature,1 and I’ll be glad to live in the country. NICK (runs in): I’ve got some news for all of you. Here is a letter from Lucy Grant! NELLY: Let’s read it. 3. Dear friends, You ask me where I am going to spend my summer holidays. It is really a problem which I cannot yet solve. My mother’s plan is to go to Southend-on-Sea. Have you ever heard about this place? It is famous for its pier, which is one of the longest piers in the world. It takes you a whole hour to walk out to the end. Of course it is interesting to stay at such a place. But to tell you the truth, I like to go sightseeing. There are so many wonder- ful places in England! I’ve read very much about England, but as I’ve often been ill I have not seen as much as the other girls in my form. I’ve read that in the south-east of England the country is flat, and in the north-west there are hills and mountains. But I have never seen that. I know that there are many large rivers in Eng- land, but I’ve seen only the Thames and two or three other rivers. Of course the Thames is one of the largest English rivers, and there are many historical places on both sides of it. Once we went up the Thames in a boat, like Jerome and his friends—you have read about their adventures in that funny book “Three Men in a Boat”. But I’d like to see some other rivers too. There are many lakes in Great Britain. The largest of them is in the north of Ireland, but England has many lakes, too. We even call one part of England the Lake District. This was the favourite place of some English poets of the 19th century. They lived and wrote their poems there; so they were called ‘the Lake School’. 1 nature ['neitjaj—природа 192
I have learned some of their works by heart. I’d like to see the beautiful places which they described in those poems. My brother Tom and his classmates want to go to the High- lands this summer. This is that part of Scotland which was de- scribed by Robert Burns: “My heart’s in the Highlands, my heart is not here — ” Do you remember this fine poem? It was translat- ed by your poet S. Marshak, Jane told me. Walter Scott, too, described the Highlands in some of his novels. I’d like to go to the Highlands, but Tom says his friends don’t want girls on such an excursion. How silly of them! But boys are often silly, even when they are older than girls. Just as I am writing this letter and thinking about summer, London is drowned in fog. I am sure you have heard about the London fog. Dickens described it in his novel “Bleak House”: “Fog everywhere. Fog up the river ... Fog down the river ...” Sometimes the fog is so thick that people can’t see one another in the street, and cars and buses have to stop running. Mother doesn’t allow us to leave home in such weather. My letter has grown so long, I must finish it here. I hope you’ll write to let me know how you are and what you are doing. All the best, Lucy Grant. Southend-on-Sea ['sauOend on 'si:]—английский курорт на побережье a pier [рю] — пирс it takes you—нужно, нужен... (вам понадобится, потребуется) an end—конец flat—плоский, ровный the Thames [temz]—р. Темза I*d like—мне хотелось бы Ireland ['aiolondj—Ирландия the Lake District — Озёрный край the Lake School—< Озёрная школа the Highlands—горная Шотландия Scotland — Шотландия Robert Burns — Роберт Бёрнс (1759—1796). Замечательный поэт Шотлан- дии. Известен советским читателям по переводам С. Я. Маршака. a heart [hctt] — сердце silly—глупый is drowned [draund] in fog—тонет в тумане (fog—туман) “Bleak House”—«Холодный дом» thick—здесь густой 193
4. HOME, SWEET HOME English Song Words by J. Howard Payne Music by Sir Henry Bishop ||.,J,.. 1’Mid plea —sures and pal —a-ces though I may roam, Be it ev--------------------er so hum---------------ble, there’s 194
1. ’Mid pleasures and palaces though I may roam, Be it ever so humble, there’s no place like home. A charm from the sky seems to hallow us there, Which, seek thro’ the world, is ne’er met with elsewhere. Chorus: Home, home, sweet, sweet home! There’s no place like home, There’s no place like home. 2. An exile from home, splendour dazzles in vain, О give me my lowly thatched cottage again! The birds singing gaily, that came at my call, Give me them with the peace of mind dearer than all. Chorus. 1. Можно бродить среди удовольствий и дворцов, Но нет милее места,— каким бы скромным оно ни было,— чем родной дом. Кажется, нас ласкает там само небо, Какого ты нигде больше не увидишь, хотя бы ты обошёл весь свет. Припев: Дом, милый дом! Нет на земле места милей родного дома, Нет на земле места милей родного дома. 2. Изгнанника из родного дома не ослепит никакая роскошь. О, дайте мне мой скромный домик под соломенной крышей И птиц, с радостной песней летящих на мой зов! Дайте мне их и душевный покой, который дороже всего на свете. Припев.
5. Speak about the picture. LIST OF NEW WORDS (Lessons 12—14) build о 14 by air (sea, train) 14 conversation n 13 excursion n 13 excuse v 12 E go sightseeing 12 journey n 14 left a 12 remarkable a 12 right a 12 shine v 12 start v 12 straight (on) adv 12 sunny a 12 thousand num 12 useless a 14 village n 13 windy a 12 write down v 12
ГРАММАТИКА 1. Past Indefinite Passive Voice (Страдательный (пассивный) залог в прошедшем времени) Вспомогательный глагол Past Participle to be в личной форме + (причастие прош. вр.) в Past Indefinite смыслового глагола Утвердительная форма The dog was left in the garden in summer. Летом собаку оставляли в саду. Отрицательная форма The dog was not left in the garden in summer. Вопросительная форма Was the dog left in the garden in summer? Употребление Passive Voice употребляется в тех случаях, когда нас инте- ресует не лицо или предмет, совершающие действие, а лицо или предмет, над которыми совершается действие. Именно поэтому слово, обозначающее лицо или предмет, над которым совершается действие, является подлежащим пассивного оборота. 197
В английском языке пассивный оборот имеет более широкое употребление, чем в русском языке. Так, в английском языке подлежащим пассивного оборота может быть не только а) слово, обозначающее лицо или предмет, над которым совер- шается действие (прямое дополнение соответствующего активного оборота), но и б) слово, обозначающее лицо или предмет, на которое направ- лено действие (косвенное дополнение соответствующего активного оборота): a) An interesting story They told us an was us. interesting story. b) We were told an interesting story. The teacher gave the pupils a new text. a) A new text was given to the pupils. b) The pupils were given a new text. Перевод на русский язык Английские страдательные обороты переводятся на русский язык тремя способами: 1) при помощи вспомогательного глагола быть и краткого страдательного причастия: The letter was sent on Monday.— было послано; 2) местоименным глаголом, оканчивающимся на -сь (-ся): Books were kept in the library.— хранились; 3) глаголом в действительном залоге, в 3-м лице множествен- ного числа, с неопределённо-личным значением: The pupils were given a new text.— Ученикам дали новый текст. 198
Употребление предлогов by и with Предлог by употребляется, когда речь идёт о лице, совершив- шем действие. Предлог with употребляется, когда речь идёт о предмете, по- средством которого совершено действие. The nail was driven in with a hammer. Гвоздь вбили (Гвоздь был вбит) молотксш. Was the nail driven in by Alec or by Misha? Гвоздь вбил Алик или Миша? (Гвоздь был вбит Аликом или Мишей?) 2. Степени сравнения прилагательных Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная а) односложные и некоторые двусложные long big early longer bigger earlier longest biggest earliest б) часть двусложных и все многосложные useful interesting more useful more interesting most useful most interesting в) особая группа good bad many, much little better worse more less best worst most least 199
3. Местоимения Личные местоимения в именит, падеже Личные местоимения в объектном падеже Притяжательные местоимения Личные и притяжательные 1-e ед.ч. лицо МН.Ч. 2-е л. 3-е лицо ед. число МН.Ч. I we you he she it they me us you him her it them my our your his her its their Some, any, по Утвердительное предложение сложные местоимения, от них образованные Вопросительное Отрицательное предложение предложение They see some boy who is running along the street. They see something on the desk. They see somebody in the room. Do they see any boy? Do they see anything on the desk? Do they see anybody in the room? They see no boy. They do not see any boy. They see nothing on the desk. They do not see anything on the desk. They see nobody in the room. They do not see anybody in the room. 200
4. Числительные Количественные Порядковые 1 — 2 — 20 3 — 13 30 4 — 14 40 5 — 15 50 6 — 16 60 7 — 17 70 8 - 18 80 9 — 19 90 10 — 11 — 12 — 100 — 1000 — one two — twenty three — thirteen — thirty four — fourteen — forty five — fifteen — fifty six — sixteen — sixty seven — seventeen — seventy eight — eighteen — eighty nine — nineteen — ninety ten eleven twelve a (one) hundred a (one) thousand 1st — first 2nd — second 20th — twentieth 3rd — third 13th — thirteenth 30th — thirtieth 4th — fourth 14th — fourteenth 40th — fortieth 5th — fifth 15th — fifteenth 50th — fiftieth 6th — sixth 16th — sixteenth 60th — sixtieth 7th — seventh 17 th — seventeenth 70th — seventieth 8 th — eighth 18th — eighteenth 80th — eightieth 9th — ninth 19th — nineteenth 90th — ninetieth 10th — tenth Uth — eleventh 12 th — twelfth 100th — hundredth 1000th — thousandth 23 — twenty-three 223 — two hundred and twenty-three 2223 — two thousand two hundred and twenty- three 23rd — twenty-third 223rd — two hundred and twenty-third 2223rd — two thousand two hundred and twenty-third 201
5. Образование причастий Present Participle (Причастие настоящего времени) Infinitive без to + ing (неопределённая форма глагола) work—working use—using describe—describing begin — begi nning stop —stopping play—playing cry—crying lie — lying Past Participle (Причастие прошедшего времени) «правильных» глаголов Infinitive без to + ed work—worked [t] use—used [d] describe—described [d] skate—skated [id] stop—stopped ft] play—played [d] cry—cried [d] 6. Суффиксы а) имён существительных -er—worker, writer -ing—meeting, beginning -ness—politeness, darkness -ment—enjoyment, payment -(t)ion—constitution, collection б) имён прилагательных -fill—useful, careful -less—useless, restless -y—windy, funny в) наречий -ly — carefully, easily г) имён числительных -teen —-thirteen, fourteen -ty — thirty, forty -th—fourth, sixth 202
7. Таблица «неправильных» глаголов, встречающихся в учебниках V—VIII классов Infinitive Past Ir idefinite Past Participle be [bi:] was [woz] were [wo:] been [bi:n] become [ЬГкдт] became [bi'keim] become begin [bi'gin] began [bi'gaen] begun [Ы'длп] bind [bamd] bound [baund] bound bring [brig] brought [brs:t] brought buy [bai] bought [bo:t] bought catch [kaetj*] caught [ko:t] caught come [клт] came [keim] come cut [kAt] cut cut dig [dig] dug [dAg] dug do [du:] did [did] done [dAn] draw [dro:] drew [dru:J drawn [dro:n] drink [drigk] drank [draegk] drunk [drAgk] drive [draiv] drove [drouv] driven ['dnvn] eat [i:t] ate [et] eaten ['i:tn] fall [fo:l] fell [fel ] fallen ['fo:lsn] fight [fait] fought fo:t] fought find [famd] found [ ‘aund] found forget [fa'get] forgot [fs'got] forgotten [fa'gotn] get [get] got [got] got give [giv] gave [geiv] given ['givn] go [gou] went [went] gone [gon] grow [grou] grew [gru:] grown [groun] have [haev] had [had] had hear [his] heard [hs:d] heard keep [ki:p] kept [kept] kept know [nou] knew [nju:] known [noun] lay [lei] laid [leid] laid learn [la:n] learned, learnt [ls:nd, ls:nt] learned, learnt leave [li:v] left [left] left lend [lend] lent [lent] lent let [let] let let lie [lai] lay [lei 1 lain [lein] lose [lu:z] lost [lost] lost make [meik] made [meid] made meet [mi:t] met [met] met pay [pei] paid [peid] paid 203
Infinitive Past Indefinite put [put] put read [ri:d] read [red] ring [nol rang [raeg] run [глп] ran [raen] say [sei] said [sed] see [si:] saw [so:] sell [sei] sold [sould] send [send] sent [sent] sew [sou] sewed [soud] shine [Jam] shone [Jon] show [Jou] showed [Joud] sing [sig] sang [saerj] sit [sit] sat [saet] sleep [sli:p] slept [slept] speak [spi:k] spell [spel] spoke [spouk] spelled, spelt [speld, spelt] spend [spend] spent [spent] stand [staend] stood [stud] sweep [swkpj swept [swept] swim [swim] swam [swaem] take [teik] took [tuk] teach [ti:tj*] taught [tod] tell [tel] told [tould] think [0igk] thought [0o:t] throw [0rou] threw [0ru:] understand understood [,Ando'staend] [.Ando'stud] write [rait] wrote [rout] Past Participle put read [red] rung [Глд] run [глп] said seen [si:n] sold sent sewed, sewn [soun] shone showed, shown [Joun] sung [SAQ] sat slept spoken ['spoukn] spelled, spelt spent stood swept swum [swaib] taken ['teiknj taught told thought thrown [Qroun] understood written ['ntn] 204
8. Таблица временных форм английского глагола (изъявительное наклонение, действительный залог, утвердительная, вопросительная и отрицательная формы) Indefinite Continuous Perfect Present Не writes letters every week. Does he write letters every week? He does not write letters every week. Past Future He wrote this letter yesterday. Did he write this letter yesterday? He did not write this letter yesterday He will write the letter tomorrow. Will he write the let- ter tomorrow? He will not write the letter tomorrow. Основные случаи употребления Действие относится лишь к настоящему, прошед- шему или будущему вре- мени, без уточнения усло- вий или характера про- текания действия. Не is writing a letter now. Is he writing a letter now? He is not writing a letter now. He has written the letter. Has he written the letter? He has not written 8 the letter. Действие происходит в определённый момент на- стоящего времени (длит- ся какой-то промежуток в настоящем времени). Действие началось до на- стоящего момента. К оп- ределённому моменту в настоящем времени оно уже закончилось.
АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ Словарь включает все новые слова и выражения, введённые в учебнике для VIII класса, а также слова и выражения из учебников для V, VI и VII классов, составляющие словарь-минимум этих лет обучения. Слова и выражения, данные с цифрой урока, в котором они встречаются впервые, составляют словарный минимум данного года обучения. Новые слова, не входящие в словарный минимум, даются по-разному в зависимости от цели, которой должен служить тот или иной текст. Слова из стихотворений, песен, шуток, загадок и обзорных уроков III и IV даны в самом уроке при тексте. Слова из обзорных уроков I и II и из текстов для синтетического чтения внесены в словарь с соответствующей пометой: R (Обзорный урок), S (Синтетическое чтение). СОКРАЩЕНИЯ а— adjective ['ac^iktiv] — прилагательное adv — adverb [zaedva:b]— наречие cj—conjunction [ksn'dgAijkJn]—союз int — interjection [.mts'dsek Jn] — междометие n—noun [naun]—существительное num—numeral [znju:msrsl]—числительное pl—plural ['plusral]—множественное число pr n—proper noun ['props 'naun]—собственное имя prep—preposition [,preps'zijn] — предлог pron—pronoun ['prounaun]—местоимение v—verb [vs:b]—глагол
к about [a'baut] prep о (об), по, насчёт, относительно; adv R II около, при- близительно absent ['absant] а: be absent отсут- ствовать actor ['akta] n 10 актёр, артист (драматического театра) adventure [ad'ventj’a] п И приклю- чение afraid [a'freid] a\ be afraid бояться after ['ctfta] prep после, за; cj после того как; adv позднее, затем, спу- стя afternoon ['afta'nan] п время после полудня good afternoon добрый день in the afternoon днём again [a'gem, a'gan] adv снова, опять against [a'geinst] prep 6 против ago [a'gou] adv тому назад air [ea] n воздух by air 14 по воздуху, на самолёте (самолётом) alive [a'laiv] a S живой all [э:1] pron весь, вся, всё, все, вся- кий all right хорошо; разг, ладно; всё в порядке allow [a'lau] v 5 разрешать, позво- лять almost ['odmoust] adv почти; едва... не, чуть ... не along [a'log] prep вдоль, по already [o:l'redi] adv уже always ['o:lwiz] adv всегда among [э'тлд] prep 7 среди and (send, and] cj и, a angry ['зеддп] a: be angry 5 сер- диться animal ['animal] n животное another [э'плЭэ] pron другой; еще один answer ['ansa] v отвечать; n 2 от- вет any ['em] pron какой-нибудь, сколь- ко-нибудь; R II любой anybody ['enibodi] pron кто-нибудь, кто-либо anything ['eniOig] pron что-нибудь, что-либо anywhere ['eniwea] adv где-нибудь, где-либо appear [a'pia] v R I появляться apple ['apl] n яблоко April ['eipnl] n апрель arm [ctm] n рука (pm кисти до пле- ча) artist ['atist] n 6 художник as [az, az] cj, adv так как; когда, в то время как; как, в качестве as ... as так же ... как; такой же ... как as far as до (какого-либо места) ashamed [a'Jeimd] а: be ashamed S стыдиться ask [ask] v спрашивать, просить asleep [a'slizp] a: be asleep спать astonished [as'tonijt]: be astonished S удивляться astonishment [as'tomjmant] n S удив- ление, изумление at [set, st] prep у, на, в, при, за at a table за столом at 5 o’clock в пять часов at last наконец at night ночью ate [et] см. eat August ['o:gast] n август aunt [ant] n тётя author [zo:0a] n 7 автор, писатель autumn [zo:tam] n осень in autumn осенью away [o'wei] adv прочь, вон go away уходить, уезжать run away убегать В back [bsek] adv назад, обратно be back возвращаться bad [bad] а плохой, дурной 207
bag [baeg] n портфель, саквояж, сумка ball [Ьэ:1] n мяч bank [baerjk] n S берег (реки} be [bi:] (was/were, been) v быть, существовать, находиться, являть- ся, представлять собой; вспомогат. глагол для образования Present Continuous и Present и Past Indef- inite Passive Voice bear [Ьеэ] n медведь beautiful ['bjirtoful] а красивый, пре- красный became [bi'keim] cm. become because [bi'koz] cj потому что, так как become [Ы'клт] (became, become) v 7 становиться, стать bed [bed] n кровать, постель be in bed лежать в постели been [btn] см. be before [bi'fo:] prep перед, до; cj прежде чем, до того как, перед тем как; adv прежде, раньше began [bi'gaen] см. begin begin [bi'gin] (began, begun) v на- чинаться) beginning [bi'gmig] n 7 начало at the beginning вначале, сначала at the beginning of ... в начале... begun [Ы'ддп] cm. begin behind [bi'hamd] adv, prep позади, сзади, за, после bell [bel] n звонок; колокольчик bench [bentf] n скамейка best [best] (превосходная степень от good, well) а наилучший; adv луч- ше всего all the best 4 всего хорошего better ['beta] (сравнительная степень от good, well) а лучший, лучше; adv лучше you had better... 2 вы (вам) бы лучше... between [bi'twcn] prep между bicycle ['baisikl] n велосипед big [big] а большой, крупный; взрос- лый bind [bamd] (bound, bound) v 3 пе- реплетать (книги) bird [bard] n птица birthday ['ba:9dei] n цепь рождения black [Ызек] а чёрный blackboard ['blakbord] n классная доска blouse [blauz] n блузка blue [bin:] а голубой, синий blush [blAj] v S краснеть (от смуще- ния, стыда) board1 [bo:d] n 2 доска board2 [ba:d] n: on board the ship S на борту корабля boat [bout] n лодка by boat по реке body ['badi] n тело book [buk] n книга boot [but] n сапог, ботинок both [bouO] a, pron 7 оба, обе both ... and 7 и ... и, как ... так и bought [bo:t] см. buy bound [baund] см. bind box [boks] n коробка, ящик boy [boi] n мальчик, юноша brave [breiv] a S храбрый, смелый bread [bred] n хлеб break [breik] (broke, broken) v S ло- маться), разбивать(ся) breakfast ['brekfast] n завтрак have breakfast завтракать bridge [bridg] n мост bright [brait] а светлый, ясный, яр- кий, блестящий bring [brig] (brought, brought) v приносить, привозить, приводить Britain ['britn]: Great Britain ['greit 'bntn] pr n Великобритания broke [brouk] cm. break broken ['broukn] cm. break brother ['ЬгдЭэ] n брат brought [bro:t] cm. bring brown [braun] а коричневый build [bild] (built, built) v 14 строить 208
built [bilt] см. build bull [bulj n S бык bury ['ben] v S хоронить bus [bAs] n автобус busy [Zbizi] а занятой, деятельный; занятый but [bAt] с] но, а, однако butter f'bAta] n масло buy [bai] (bought, bought) v поку- пать by [bai] prep соответствует русскому творительному или родительному падежу by air (boat, sea, train) 14 на са- молёте (по реке, на лодке; морем, на пароходе; поездом, на поезде) С calendar ['kaelinds] л R II кален- дарь call [ko:l] v 5 называть; звать; со- зывать came [keim] см. come camp [kaemp] n лагерь pioneer camp пионерский лагерь can [kaen] (could) v могу, можешь, может, можем, можете, могут; умею, умеешь, умеет и т. д. capital ['kaepitl] п столица car [kct] п автомобиль carefully ['keafuli] adv 6 тщательно, внимательно; осторожно cat [kaet] п кот, кошка catch [kaetf] (caught, caught) v ло- вить, поймать, схватить caught [ko:t] см. catch century ['sentjun] n 7 столетие, век chair [tfea] n стул chalk [tfo:k] n мел change [tfeindj] v обменивать(ся), (из)менять(ся); переодевать(ся) cherry ['tfen] n S вишня chess [yes] n шахматы play chess играть в шахматы chess-player ['yes,pleia] n шахматист child [yaild] (pl children) n ребе- нок, дитя children f'yildran] (pl от child) n дети, ребята choke [tfouk] v S душить choose [yirz] (chose, chosen) v S выбирать cinema ['sinima] n кино class [klcts] n класс (группа уча- щихся в школе) classmate ['klasmeit] п 1 товарищ, подруга (по классу в школе) classroom ['klctsrum] п класс (класс- ная комната) clean [klizn] а чистый; v чистить clerk [klork] п S клерк, чиновник, конторский служащий clever ['kleva] а умный, ловкий clock [klok] п часы (настольные, стенные, башенные) clothes [kloudz] п pl одежда cloud [klaud] п облако, туча club [к1дЬ] п клуб English-speaking club английский клуб coat [kout] п куртка; пиджак; пальто cold [kould] а холодный be cold замёрзнуть coldly ['kouldli] adv холодно collect [ka'lekt] и 4 собирать, кол- лекционировать collection [ko'lekjn] n коллекция collective farm [ka'lektiv 'fam] n колхоз colour ['кд1э] n цвет; окраска; краска come [клш] (came, come) v прихо- дить, приезжать come back возвращаться come down сходить, спускаться come in (into) входить (в) come on! пойдём! come out (of) выходить (из) come up (to) подходить (к) comfortable ['kAmfstsbl] a R I удоб- ный, комфортабельный constitution ['konsti'tjirjn] n 6 кон- ституция the Day of the Constitution День Конституции 209
continue [kan'tinju:] о: to be continued S продолжение следует conversation [,konva' sei Jan] n 13 раз- говор, беседа conversation book разговорник cook [kuk] v 5 приготовлять пищу, готовить (обед) corner ['ko:na] n угол could [kud] cm. cati country ('kAntriJ n страна; 1 сель- ская местность, деревня (как про- тивоположность городу) in the country за городом, в де- ревне to the country за город course [ko:s] т of course конечно cousin ['kAzn] n двоюродный брат, двоюродная сестра cried [kraid] см. cry cross [kros] v пересекать, переходить (улицу) cry [krai] (cried, cried) о плакать; S кричать; воскликнуть cup [клр] n чашка cut [kAt] (cut, cut) v резать, разре- зать, порезать cycle ['saikl] n R II цикл D dance [dans] v танцевать, плясать dancer ['dansa] n танцор, танцовщи- ца, балерина dare [dea] t> S сметь, осмелиться dark [dak] а темный darkness ['daknis] n 9 темнота, тьма date [deit] n дата, число daughter ['do:ta] n дочь day [dei] n день, сутки day-time ['deitaim] n: in the day-time днём dead [ded] a S мёртвый, мёртв dear [dia] а дорогой, милый December [di'semba] n декабрь decide [di'sard] v 2 решать demonstration [,deman'streijn] n де- монстрация describe [dis'kraib] v 7 описывать, изображать desert ['dezat] n R I пустыня desk [desk] n парта; письменный стол detective [di'tektiv] n S сыщик did [did] CM. do die [dai] v S умирать, умереть different fdifrant] a 2 различный, разный difficult ['difikalt] а трудный dig [dig] (dig, dug) v рыть, копать, раскапывать dinner ['dma] n обед cook dinner 5 готовить обед have dinner обедать dirty ['da:ti] а грязный discuss [dis'kAs] v 4 обсуждать discussion [dis'kAjn] n 11 обсужде- ние, дискуссия district ['distnkt] n R I район divide [di'vaid] v S разделять, де- лить (на части) do [du:] (did, done) v делать, испол- нять, выполнять; вспомогательный глагол для образования вопросит, и отрицат. форм Present и Past Indefinite do homework (lessons) делать домаш- нее задание (уроки) doctor ['dokta] п доктор, врач dog [dog] п собака dominoes ['dommouz] п pl домино done [dAn] см. do door [do:] n дверь down [daun] adv вниз drank [draegk] cm. drink draw [dro:] (drew, drawn) v 6 рисо- вать, чертить drawn [dro:n] cm. draw dress [dres] v одевать(ся); n платье make a dress 6 шить платье drew [dru:] cm. draw drink [dngk] (drank, drunk) v пить drive in [draiv] (drove, driven) v 2 вбивать, забивать (гвоздь) driven ['drivn] см. drive 210
drove [drouv] см. drive drunk [drAi)k] cm. drink dry [drai] а сухой dug [dAg] cm. dig dust [dAst] v 5 вытирать, стирать пыль, очищать от пыли (тряпкой, щёткой) duty ['dju:ti] п: be on duty дежурить, быть дежурным Е each [i:tf] pron S, R II каждый each other S друг друга early ado рано; а ранний earth (the) [э:0] n земля, земной шар east (the) [i:st] n восток in the east на востоке to the east (of) к востоку (от) easy [Zi:zi] а лёгкий eat [izt] (ate, eaten) v есть, кушать eaten ['i:tn] cm. eat egg [eg] n яйцо eight [eit] num восемь elect [i'lekt] v 4 выбирать, избирать eleven [1'levn] num одиннадцать else [els] adv ещё (с неопределёнными и вопросительными местоимения- ми) end [end] n S конец engineer [^endji'nia] n инженер England ['iijgland] pr n Англия English ['igglij] а английский; n анг- лийский язык say it In English скажи это по- английски speak English говорить по-англий- ски Englishman ['ngglijmanj n 3 англи- чанин Englishwoman f'irjgliJ,wuman] n анг- личанка enjoy [m'dsoi] и 7 наслаждаться enjoyment [in'dgoimant] n 10 наслаж- дение, удовольствие enough [i'naf] adv довольно, доста- точно even ['i:vn] adv даже evening ['hvnig] n вечер in the evening вечером ever ['eva] ado 3 E когда-нибудь; когда-либо every ['evn] а каждый everybody ['evribodi] pron каждый, всякий, все everything ['evriOng] pron всё everywhere ['evnwea] adv везде excursion [iks'kaifan] n 13 экскурсия excuse [iks'kju:z] v 12 E извинять exercise ['eksasaiz] n : morning exer- cises утренняя зарядка explain [iks'plein] v 9 объяснять eye [ai] n глаз F face [feis] n лицо factory ['faektan] n фабрика fall [fo:l] (fell, fallen) v падать, упасть fallen ['fo:lan] cm. fall family ['faemili] n семья famous ['feimas] a 7 известный, зна- менитый far [fa] а далёкий; adv далеко as far as до (какого-либо места) farmer ['fame] n фермер, крестьянин collective farmer колхозник father ['fada] n отец; родоначальник favourite ['feivant] a 7 любимый, из- любленный February ('februan] n февраль feet [fi:t] (pl от foot) n ноги fell [fel] cm. fall few [fju:] a 9 мало (об исчисляемых существительных) a few R II несколько field [fi:ld] n поле fifty ['fifti] num пятьдесят fight [fait] (fought, fought) v 5 драть- ся, сражаться, бороться 211
film [film] n фильм find [faind] (found, found) о находить fine [fain] a 6 красивый, прекрасный, великолепный; хороший, чудесный (о погоде) finish ['finij] v 8 кончать(ся) first [fs:st] пит первый; adv сначала; прежде всего at first R II вначале, сначала five [faiv] num пять flag [flag] n флаг flat [flget] n квартира floor [Пэ:] n пол flower ['flauo] n цветок flowerbed ['flauabed] n 3 клумба food [fu:d] n пища, еда foot [fut] (pl feet) n нога (ступня) football ['futbo:l] n футбол, футболь- ный мяч football-player ['futbo:l,pleio] n фут- болист for [fo:, fa] prep для, ради; за, в, на; в течение; вместо for Mother для (ради) матери for the next lesson к следующему Уроку for two days в течение двух дней forest ['fonst] п лес forget [fa'get] (forgot, forgotten) v за- бывать forgive [fa'giv] (forgave, forgiven) v S прощать forgot [fa'got] cm. forget forgotten [fa'gotn] cm. forget fork [fo:k] n вилка form [fo:m] n форма; класс (ступень обучения в школе) form master ['fo:m,mctsta] п 3 клас- сный руководитель form mistress ('fo:m,mistris] п 1 клас- сная руководительница fought [fo:t] см. fight found [faund] см. find four [fo:] num четыре freedom ['fri:dam] n 7 свобода French [frentj] a 4 французский; n французский язык Friday f'fraidi] n пятница friend [frend] n друг, подруга, то- варищ friendship ['frendJip] n 6 дружба from [from, from] prep от, из, с (по- верхности) front [fr Ant] n: in front (of) prep перед, впереди; S при, в присут- ствии fruit [fru:t] n фрукты, плоды funny [Чаш] а смешной, забавный future ['fju:tjo] n 4 будущее G game [geim] n игра play games играть в игры, зани- маться спортом garden ['go:dn] п сад gate [geit] п ворота, калитка gather ['дзебэ] и 11 собирать(ся) gave [geiv] см. give gentleman ['dsentlman] n S джентль- мен, господин geography [dji'ografi] n R I география German ['dgazman] a 4 немецкий; n о немецкий язык get [get] (got, got) v получать, до- ставать; добираться, достигать get together R II собираться get up вставать, подниматься girl [дэ:1] n девочка, девушка give [giv] (gave, given) о (от)давать, дарить given ['givn] cm. give glad [glad] a: be glad 4 радоваться (I am) glad to see you рад вас видеть glass [glfl:s] n стакан; бокал go [gou] (went, gone) v ходить, идти, ехать go for a walk пойти погулять go in for sports заниматься спортом go on (with) 3 продолжать 212
go sightseeing ['saitsi:qj] 12 осматри- вать достопримечательности горо- да и т. п. go to bed ложиться спать go to see навещать кого-либо, пойти к кому-либо going ['goungj: be going (to) намере- ваться, собираться (сделать что- либо) gone [доп] см. go good [gud] (better, best) а хороший, добрый, полезный be good (at) 2 быть способным к чему-либо, искусным в чём-либо и т. п. good morning доброе утро; здрав- ствуйте good-bye ['gud'bai] int до свидания, прощай (те) got [got] см. get grandfather ['grand,f ада] n дедушка, дед grandmother ['дгап,тдда] n бабушка granny ['gram] n умении. от grand- mother grass [gras] n трава great [greit] а великий, большой the Great October Revolution Вели- кая Октябрьская революция Great Britain ['greit'britn] pr n Вели- кобритания green [grtn] а зелёный greet [gret] v 9 приветствовать grew [gru:] cm. grow grey [grei] а серый ground [graund] n земля, почва; мест- ность grow [grou] (grew, grown) v расти; произрастать; вырастать; увеличи- ваться (в объёме, росте); выращи- вать, культивировать grown [groun] см. grow guard [gad] n R I часовой guess [ges] v отгадывать, догады- ваться H had [haed, had] cm. have half [haf] n половина halt [ha:lt] int R I стой! hammer ['haema] n 2 молоток, молот hand [haend] n рука (кисть) handicrafts ['handicrafts] n pl 2 руч- ной труд handsome ['haensam] a S красивый happen ['haepan] v происходить, слу- чаться happiness ['haepmis] n S счастье happy ['haepi] а счастливый a happy New Year to you! с Новым годом! hard [had] а тяжёлый; adv 6 усердно hat [haet] n шляпа hate [heit] v S ненавидеть have [hav, hav] (had, had) v иметь have breakfast (dinner, supper) зав- тракать (обедать, ужинать) have got (разг.) = have have... on быть одетым в ... have to = must head [hed] n голова head-master ['hed'masta] n S дирек- тор hear [hia] (heard, heard) v слышать heard [ha:d] cm. hear heart [hat] n R II сердце by heart 10 наизусть heartless ['haths] a S бессердечный help [help] v помогать hen [hen] n R II курица here [hia] adv здесь, тут, вот here it is (here they are) 2 вот; вот он (она, оно, они) here you аге вот; возьми (те); пожа- луйста high [hai] а высокий (о горе, здании, заборе и т. п,9 но не о людях и не о деревьях); adv высоко hill [hil] п холм, гора (небольшая) historical [his'tonkl] а 7 исторический history ['histan] п 4 история 213
hockey ['hoki] n хоккей hole [houl] n отверстие, дыра, яма holiday ['holidi] n праздник; канику- лы (часто во множ, числе) home [houm] п дом; ado домой at home дома homework ['houmwaik] п домашнее задание honest ['onist] a R II честный hope [houp] и надеяться; п R II на- дежда horse [hois] п лошадь hospital ['hospitl] п больница, госпи- таль hot [hot] а горячий, жаркий hour ['аиэ] п час (60 минут) house [haus] п дом how [hau] adv как, каким образом how are you? как вы поживаете?, как вы себя чувствуете? how do you do? здравствуйте! how long как долго, сколько (о времени) ч (об исчисляв- how many | мых существа- Сколько I (о неисчисляе- how much I мых существи- тельных) how often как часто, сколько раз how old are you? сколько вам лет? hullo [hA'Iou] int алло, привет hundred ['hAndrid] num 2 сто; n сот- ня husband ['hAzband] n муж I ice [ais] n лёд idea [ai'dia] n S мысль, идея if [if] cj если ill [il] a: be ill 5 быть больным, бо- леть imagine [fmaedsm] v R 1 воображать, представлять себе important [im'poitant] a 4 важный (no значению) in [in] prep в, на (где?)\ в, через (когдсР) in a moment в одно мгновенье, не- медленно in two days через два дня ink [igk] п 9 чернила in ink чернилами interesting ['mtnstiij] а интересный interval ['intaval] п R II перерыв, интервал into ['mtu, 'into] prep в, внутрь (Kt/da?) introduce [,mtra'dju:s] v R II вво- дить invite [m'vait] о 8 приглашать island ['ailand] n остров J January ['dgaenjuan] n январь job [dpb] n 3 работа, труд, занятие; дело; задание joke [dgouk] п 1 шутка journey ['dgaim] п 14 путешествие July [dju:zlai] п июль jump [dsAmp] о прыгать; п пры- жок jump at . •. наброситься на ... jump down спрыгнуть, соскочить jump up вскакивать (с места) June [dsu:n] п июнь just [dgAst] adv только что; 4 как раз, именно; всего лишь, только, просто К keep [ki:p] (kept, kept) v 10 дер- жать; хранить, сохранять kept [kept] см. keep kill [kil] v S убивать kind1 * ill [kamd] n 2 род, сорт, разно- видность all kinds of всевозможные of a different kind (или a different kind of ... другой, иной what kind of ••.? какого рода?; что за ...?; какой? kind 2 [kamd] а 9 добрый, мягкий 214
king [kig] n S король kingdom ['kigdam] n S королевство kiss [kis] v S целовать kitchen ['krtfm] n кухня kitten ['kitn] n котёнок knew [nju:] cm. know knife [naif] (pl knives) n нож, ножик know [nou] (knew, known) v знать known [noun] cm. know Kremlin (the) ['kremlin] n R II Кремль L laid [leid] cm. lay1 lain [lem] cm. lie lake [leik] n озеро lamp [Ismp] n лампа language ['laeggwidg] n язык, речь large [ladg] а большой, крупный last1 [last] а последний; прошлый last summer прошлым летом last year в прошлом году last2 [last] v продолжаться, длиться last8 [last] n: at last наконец late [leit] а поздний; adv поздно be late (for) опаздывать it is late поздно laugh [laf] v смеяться laugh at ... смеяться над ... lawyer ['lo:ja] n S юрист lay1 [lei] (laid, laid) v: lay the table накрывать на стол lay2 [lei] cjc.lie leaf [li:f] (pl leaves) n лист (расте- ния) learn [b:n] (learned, learned или learnt, learnt) v выучить, учить, учиться; 7 узнавать leave [li:v] (left, left) v 2 оставлять; уходить, уезжать leave for уходить, уезжать куда- либо leave school окончить школу, уйти из школы leaves [li:vz] pl от leaf left1 [left] см. leave left2 [left] a 12 левый on the left слева to the left налево leg [leg] n нога (от ступни до бедра или вся нога) lesson ['lesn] п урок let [let]: let’s talk давай(те) пого- ворим let him ... пусть он ... let us know дай(те) нам знать letter ['lets] n письмо library ['laibran] n библиотека lie [lai] (lay, lain) v лежать; нахо- диться; быть расположенным life [laif] n жизнь like1 [laik] v любить I like мне нравится like2 [laik] а похожий; подобный; prep подобно, как listen (to) ['lisn] v слушать listen in 8 слушать радио literature ['litaratjo] n 7 литература little ['litl] а маленький; adv немного, мало (о неисчисляемых существи- тельных) a little 2 немного live [liv] v жить lodger ['lodgo] п S жилец London ['1 Andon] pr n Лондон long [lag] а длинный, долгий look [luk] v смотреть; выглядеть look after ... 3 ухаживать, при- сматривать (за) look for ... искать lose [lirz] (lost, lost) v терять, ли- шаться lose the way потерять дорогу, за- блудиться lost [lost] см. lose lot [lot] n: a lot (of) масса, мно- жество, много love [Iav] v любить; n S любовь low [lou] а низкий M machine [ma'Ji:n] n машина, ста- нок made [meid] cm. make 215
make [meik] (made, made) v делать, производить; заставлять make a dress 6 (с)шить платье make friends (with) 1 подружить* СЯ (c) man [man] (pl men) а мужчина, человек many ['mem] (more, most) а многие, много (об исчисляемых существи- тельных)' п многие тар [тавр] п карта (геогр.) March [matf] п март marry ['таен] v S выйти замуж, же- ниться master ['mctsta] п S хозяин, госпо- дин mathematics [,mae0i'niaetiks] п R I математика matter ['mate] п: what is the matter (with)? 2 в чём дело? may [mei] (might) v могу, можешь, может, можем, можете, могут, можно May [mei] п май meat [mi:t] п мясо meet [mi:t] (met, met) о встречать- ся) meeting ['mi:tig] n собрание, митинг men [men] pl от man mend [mend] v 4 исправлять, чи- нить; штопать, латать; ремонтиро- вать message ['mesidg] п S поручение, послание carry a message передать поруче- ние met [met] см. meet metal ['metl] n R II металл middle ['midi] n середина in the middle (of) в середине; по- среди milk [milk] n молоко million [*miljan] n миллион Miss [mis] n S мисс (употребляется перед фамилией или именем девушки или незамужней женщины) moment ['moumant] п миг, момент in a moment в один миг, через мгновенье, через минуту Monday ['mAndi] п понедельник money ['тлш] п деньги monitor ['monita] п 4 староста (клас- са) month [тлпО] п месяц moon (the) [mu:n] п луна тоге [то:] (сравнительная степень от much и many) adv больше, бо- лее morning ['тэ:шд] п утро in the morning утром Moscow ['maskou] pr n Москва most [moust] (превосходная степень от much и many) а наибольший; adv больше всего, наиболее; п большинство, бблыпая часть mother ['шдЗэ] п мать, мама mountain ['mauntm] п гора mouse [maus] n R II мышь mouth [mauO] n рот Mr. ['mista] n S господин, мистер (письменное сокращение от mis- ter) Mrs. ['misiz] n S (письменное сокра- щение от mistress, ставится перед фамилией замужней женщины) much [mAtf] (more, most) а много (о неисчисляемых существитель- ных)\ adv очень, гораздо; п мно- гое murder ['ma:da] о S убивать museum [mju/ziam] п 10 музей music ['mjirzik] п 4 музыка must [mAst] v должен, должна, должно, должны myself [mai'self] pron S себе, себя N nail [neil] n 2 гвоздь name [neim] n имя what is your name? как вас (тебя) зовут? near [ша] prep близко (от), около 216
needle ['ni:dl] n 6 игла, иголка needlework ['ni:dlwa:k] n 4 шитьё, рукоделие never ['neva] adv никогда new [nju:] а новый news [nju:z] n 8 известие, известия; новость, новости newspaper ['nju:speipa] n газета next [nekst] a cmjiymvA, будущий nice [nais] а хороший, приятный, милый night [nait] n ночь, вечер at night ночью nine [nam] num девять no1 [non] adv нет no2 [non] pron никакой, никакие nobody ['noubodi] pron никто north (the) [no:6] n север not [not] adv не note-book ['noutbuk] n тетрадь, за- писная книжка nothing ('nAOigl pron ничто, ни- чего novel ['novi] n 7 роман (литератур- ный жанр) November [no'vemba] n ноябрь now [nau] adv теперь, сейчас, тот- час же number ['плтЬа] п 11 Е номер О o’clock [a'klok]: at seven o’clock в семь часов October [ok'touba] n октябрь of [ov, av] prep от, из, о; соответст- вует функции русского родитель- ного падежа off [o:f, of] adv прочь, долой take off снимать (одежду) turn off выключать (радио) often ['ofn] adv часто oh [ou] int o! old [ould] а старый he is two years older than 1 am он на два года старше меня how old аге you? сколько вам лет? I ат 16 years old мне 16 лет on [on] prep на (поверхности); в, по (о днях недели) on Sunday в воскресенье on Sundays по воскресеньям on television по телевидению, по телевизору (передавать, показы- вать, смотреть) on the radio 8 Е по радио (слы- шать) once [WAns] adv однажды, один раз; когда-то one1 [wah] пит один one2 [wah] pron один, некий one another друг друга употр. также во избежание повто- рения ранее упомянутого существи- тельного; употр. в оборотах, соот- ветствующих русскому обобщённо- личному обороту only ['ounli] adv только, лишь open ['oupn] v открывать; a R II от- крытый opera ['эрэгэ] п 10 опера or [о:] cj или; иначе, а то orchard ['o:tjad] п S фруктовый сад order ['o:da] п S порядок other ['аЗэ] pron другой, иной out [aut] adv из, вон, вне, наружу go out выходить out of ('aut av] prep из over 1 ['ouva] prep через, по, над over the radio 8 по радио (высту- пать) over there там, вон там over 2 ['ouva] adv : be over кончать- ся, оканчиваться lessons are over уроки окончи- лись P paid [peid] cm, pay palace ['pslis] n R I дворец parents ['pearants] n pl родители 217
park [рак] n парк part1 [pat] n часть part2 [pat] n 10 роль play a part (of) играть роль pass [pas] v проходить past1 [past] n R I прошлое past2 [past] prep после pay [pei] (paid, paid) v платить peace [pi:s] n 6 мир peaceful ['pi:sful] a R I мирный pen [pen] n ручка, перо (которым пишут ) pencil ['pensl] n карандаш pen-friend ['penfrend] n друг по пе- реписке people [zpi:pl] n люди, народ performance [pa'formons] n 10 спек- такль, представление perhaps [pa'haeps] adv может быть, возможно picture ['piktjs] n картина, рисунок, иллюстрация, фотография piece [pi:s] n кусок, кусочек pin [pm] n булавка pioneer [.paia'nio] n пионер place [pleis] n место plan [plaen] n план planet ['plaemt] n R I планета plant [plant] v сажать (растения) plate [pleit] n тарелка play [plei] v играть; n 7 пьеса player ['plera] n игрок, играющий pleasant ['pleznt] a 9 приятный please [pli:z] пожалуйста pleasure ['plega] n 10 удовольствие pocket ['pokit] n карман poem ['pouim] n 7 стихотворение, поэма poet ['point] n 7 поэт polite [pa'lait] a 8 вежливый politeness [pa'laitms] n вежливость poor [риэ] а бедный, жалкий, скуд- ный the poor бедные, бедняки post-office ['poustpfis] n почта potato [pa'teitou] (pl potatoes) n картошка powerful ['pauaful] а б могучий, мо- гущественный, сильный practical education ['praktikal .edju'keijan] 2 трудовое обучение, воспитание praise [preiz] v 9 хвалить, восхва- лять present ['preznt] n подарок problem ['ргэЫэш] n 4 проблема, вопрос; задача programme ['prougraem] л 8 E про- грамма pronounce [pra'nauns] v R II про- возглашать proudly ['praudli] adv S гордо pupil [zpju:pl] n ученик, ученица put [put] (put, put) v класть, поло- жить, поместить put on надевать (одежду) Q question ['kwestjan] n вопрос quickly ['kwikli] adv быстро R race [reis] n состязание в беге, гонки radio ['reidiou] n: over the radio 8 по радио (выступать) on the radio 8 E по радио (слы- шать) radio set ['reidiou .set] n 8 радио- приёмник rain [rem] n дождь; v проливаться дождём it rains (it is raining) идёт ДОЖДЬ raise [reiz] v 4 E поднимать ran [raen] cm. run rang [raelj] cm. ring read [ri:d] (read, read) v читать read [red] cm. read [ri:d] reader f'rkda] n читатель ready ['redi] а готовый be ready быть готовым 218
really ['nali] adv 3 действительно, в (на) самом деле recognize ['rekagnaiz] v R I узнавать, признавать red [red] а красный remarkable [n'mctkabl] a 12 замеча- тельный remember [n'memba] v помнить, не забывать repeat [ri'pi:t] и повторять responsible [ns'ponsibl] a 3 ответ- ственный be responsible (for) быть ответ- ственным, отвечать (за) rest [rest] v 5 отдыхать return [n'ta:n] v R II возвращаться returns [n'ta:nz] n pl: many happy returns of the day поздравляю с днём рождения revolution [yreva'lu:Jn] n революция the Great October Revolution Вели- кая Октябрьская революция rich [ritj*] a 5 богатый the rich богатые, богачи right1 [rait] n S право right2 [rait] а правильный, верный; именно тот, который нужен all right хорошо, ладно, правильно right3 [rait] a: be right быть правым right4 [rait] а 12 правый (в проти- воположность левому) ring [nrj] (rang, rung) v звонить, звенеть ring up 9 звонить по телефону river ['rivaj n река room [ru:m] n комната rope [roup] n S верёвка round [raund] prep вокруг round the corner за углом rude [ru:d] a S грубый run [глп] (ran, run) v бегать, бежать run away убегать run out выбегать rung [гдд] см. ring runner ['глпа] n бегун Russian ['гл/п] а русский; n русский язык S said [sed] cm. say salt [so: It] n соль same (the) [seim] pron, а тот же самый, один и тот же; одинаковый, такой же same to you R II и вам того же (ответное пожелание) sang [saerj] см. sing sat [saet] см. sit Saturday ['saetadi] n суббота saw [so:] cm. see say [sei] (said, said) и говорить, сказать saying ['seng] n R II поговорка scarecrow ['skeakrou] n S пугало school [sku:l] n школа; занятия в школе after school после занятий at school в школе school garden (при)школьный сад school-yard школьный двор schoolboy ['sku:lb3i] п школьник school-children ['sku:lt Jildran] n школьники schoolgirl ['sku:lga:l] n школьница science ['saians] n 9 наука scientist ['saiantist] n 9 учёный scissors ['sizaz] n pl 6 ножницы sea [si:] n море by sea морем, на пароходе season ['si:zn] n время года, сезон second ['cekand] num второй secretary ['sekntan] n S секретарь see [si:] (saw, seen) v видеть seed [si:d] (pl seed, seeds) n S семя, зерно seen [si:n] cm, see sell [sei] (sold, sold) о продавать send [send] (sent, sent) v посылать, отсылать sent [sent] cm. send sentence ['sentans] n R II предложе- ние September [sap'temba] n сентябрь servant ['sa;vant] n S слуга 219
seven ['sevn] num семь sew [sou] (sewed, sewed/sewn) v 6 шить sewed [soud] cm, sew sewn [soun] cm. sew shelf [J*elf] (pZ shelves) n полка shine [Jam] (shone, shone) v 12 све- тить, сиять ship [Jip] n корабль shirt [Jat] n рубашка shoe [Ju] n туфля, полуботинок, башмак shone [Jon] см. shine shop [Jop] n магазин, лавка short [Jo:t] а короткий, краткий shout [Jaut] v 5 (за)кричать show [Jou] (showed, shown) v пока- зывать showed [Joud] cm. show shown [Joun] cm. show shy [Jai] a S робкий, застенчивый side [said] n сторона, бок, край sightseeing ['saitsing]: go sightseeing 12 осматривать достопримечатель- ности since [sins] prep, cj с (такого-то вре- мени); co времени, после; с тех пор как sing [sig] (sang, sung) v петь singer ['sigga] n певец, певица sir [so:] n 9 E cap sister ['sista] n сестра sit [sit] (sat, sat) v сидеть sit still! сиди смирно! six [siks] num шесть skate [skeit] и кататься на коньках skater ['skeita] n конькобежец skates [skeits] n pl коньки skating-rink ['skeitigngk] n каток ski [ski:] u ходить на лыжах skier ['ski:a] n лыжник skis [ski:z] n pl лыжи sky [skai] n небо sleep [sli:p] (slept, slept) v спать slept [slept] см. sleep small [smo:l] а маленький smile [small] v S улыбаться snow [snou] n снег; v снежить it snows (it is snowing) идёт снег so [sou] adv, cj так, таким образом, также, тоже; итак; и, поэтому sock [sok] п носок sold [sould] см. sell soldier ['souldsa] n солдат solve [solv] v 4 разрешать (проблему) some [sAm] pron несколько, сколько- нибудь; некоторые; какой-нибудь, какой-то somebody ['sAmbodi] pron кто-нибудь, кто-то something ['sAm0ig] pron что-нибудь, что-то sometimes ['sAmtaimz] adv иногда son [sah] n сын song [sog] n песня soon [sun] adv скоро, вскоре sorry ['son] a: be sorry (for) (co)- жалеть (1 am) sorry простите, извините I am sorry мне жаль soup [sup] n суп south (the) [sau0] n юг in the south на юге Soviet ['souviet] а советский speak [spi:k] (spoke, spoken) v го- ворить, разговаривать spell [spel] (spelt, spelt) v произно- сить (слово) по буквам, писать по буквам spelt [spelt] см. spell spend [spend] (spent, spent) v 9 про- водить (время) spent [spent] cm. spend spoil [spoil] v S портить spoke [spouk] cm. speak spoken ['spoukn] ем. speak spoon [spun] n ложка sports [sports] n pl спорт go in for sports заниматься спор- том spring [sprig] n весна in spring весной square [skweo] n площадь Red Square Красная площадь stage [steidg] n 10 сцена 220
stamp [staemp] n марка (почтовая) stand [stand] (stood, stood) v стоять stand for ... стоять за что-либо, поддерживать star [st a] n звезда start [stat] v 12 отправляться, на- чинать start for направляться к, отправ- ляться, уезжать куда-либо stay [stei] v оставаться, побыть stay with... гостить у кого-либо stick [stik] п палка stocking ['stokig] п чулок stone [stoun] п камень stood [stud] см. stand stop [stop] v останавливать(ся), пре- кращаться), переставать story ['sto:ri] п рассказ, история straignt [streit] adv 12 прямо go straight on идти прямо strange [streinds] a 9 странный street [stri:t] n улица in the street на улице strike [straik] (struck, struck) v R II бить (о часах) struggle ['strAgl] v 7 бороться study ['stAdi] v 2 изучать; занимать- ся, учиться such [sAtf] a 4 такой, такие suddenly ['sAdnli] adv вдруг, вне- запно sugar ['fuga] n сахар suit [sju:t] n костюм summer ['елта] n лето in summer летом sun (the) [sah] n солнце Sunday ['sAndi] n воскресенье sung [saq] cm. sing sunny ['sahi] a 12 солнечный supper ['sApa] n ужин have supper ужинать sure [Jua] a: be sure быть уверен- ным swam [swaem] cm. swim sweep [swi:p] (swept, swept) v 5 подметать swept [swept] cm. sweep swim [swim] (swam, swum) v пла- вать swimmer J'swima] n пловец swum [swAm] cm. swim T table ['teibl] n стол at table за столом (за едой) lay the table накрывать на стол take [teik] (took, taken) v брать, взять take a bus сесть в автобус, ехать автобусом take off снимать (одежду) take part 11 принимать участие taken ['teikn] см. fake talk [ta:k] v разговаривать, беседо- вать, говорить; п 2 разговор, бе- седа, сообщение give a talk 7 сделать сообщение task [task] п 6 задание, задача taught [tort] см. teach tea [ti:J n чай have tea пить чай teach [ti:tfl (taught, taught) v 4 учить, обучать teacher ['tirtfa] n учитель(ница) telegram ['teligraem] n телеграмма telephone f'telifoun] n телефон; v звонить по телефону television [,teli'vi3n] (TV) n 9 теле- видение television (TV) set [^teh'vijn ,set] n 9 телевизор tell [tel] (told, told) v рассказывать, говорить, сказать, велеть ten [ten] num десять tennis ['terns] n теннис tent [tent] n палатка text [tekst] n текст than [daen, den] cj чем (при сравне- нии) thank [6зег)к] v благодарить thank you спасибо, благодарю вас that1 [daet] (pl those) pron тот, та, то; этот, эта, это that 2 [dad, dat] cj что theatre [ 'Oieta] n 10 театр 221
then [0en] adv тогда, затем, потом there [беэ] adv там, туда over there (вон) там there is (there are) имеется, есть, находится и т. д. these [0i:z] мн. ч. от this thing [Oiij] п вещь, предмет think [Oirjk] (thought, thought) v ду- мать, считать third [0a d] num третий thirteen ['0a'ti:n] num тринадцать this [dis] (pl these) pron этот, эта, это those [douz] мн. ч. от that1 thought1 [0at] cm. think thought 2 [03:t] n S мысль дума thousand ['0auzand] num 12 тысяча thread [0red] n 6 нитка three [0ri:] num три threw [0rir] cm. throw throw [0rou] (threw, thrown) v бро- сать кидать thrown [0roun] cm. throw Thursday ['Oazdi] n четверг ticket ['tikit] n билет tie (up) [tai] и S связывать, завя- зывать till [til] prep, cj 5 до; до тех пор пока time [taim] п время; раз in time вовремя it is time 3 пора, время tired ['taiad] а усталый, уставший be tired уставать to1 [tu, to] prep к, в, на (куда?)-, соответствует функции русского дательного падежа to 2 [tu, to] частица инфинитива today [ta'dei] adv сегодня; в настоя- щее время; сейчас together [te'geda] adv вместе told [tould] см. tell tomorrow [ta'morou] adv завтра too1 [tu:] adv тоже, также too2 [tu:] adv слишком took [tuk] cm. take tool [ttcl] n инструмент tower [Чаиэ] n R II башня town [taun] n город in town в городе 1 (когда имеется to town в город ) в виду самый городу центр, в противоположность окраинам и пригороду) toy [toi] п игрушка tradition [tra'difan] и R II традиция train [trein] n поезд go by train ехать поездом tram [traem] n трамвай translate [traens'leit] v 7 переводить (с одного языка на другой) travel ['travl] v путешествовать; n путешествие traveller ['traevla] n путешественник tree [tri:] n дерево trick [tnk] n S трюк, фокус trousers ['trauzaz] n pl брюки true [trir] a 5 верный, правильный, истинный; настоящий, преданный it is true (это) верно, правда truth [tru:0] п 5 правда speak the truth ъ говорить, ска- tell the truth j зать правду try [trar] v стараться, пытаться, про- бовать Tuesday ['tjiczdi] n вторник turn [tan] поворачивать(ся) turn off 8 выключать (радио, теле- визор) turn on 8 включать (радио, теле- визор) twelve [twelv] num двенадцать twenty ['twenti] num двадцать two [tu:] num два U uncle ['лдк1] n дядя under ['дпбэ] prep под understand [,Anda'sta£nd] (understood, understood), о понимать understood [,Anda'stud] cm. under- stand unhappy [An'haepi] а несчастный up [лр] adv вверх, вверху, наверху get up вставать, подниматься 222
use [ju:z] v 3 употреблять, использо- вать, пользоваться useful ['ju:sful] a 2 полезный be useful быть полезным, прино- сить пользу useless ['ju:slis] a 14 бесполезный, ненужный U.S.S.R. (the) ['ju:'es'es'ct] pr n СССР vegetable ['vedgitabl] n овощ very ['ven] adv очень very much очень (с глаголами) victory f'viktari] n S победа village ['vilidj] n 13 деревня, село voice [vais] n S голос volley-ball ['vohbazl] n волейбол W wait (for) [weit] v ждать, ожидать кого-либо walk [wo:k] v ходить, идти, гулять; n прогулка go for a walk пойти погулять wall [worl] n стена want [wont] v хотеть, желать I want я хочу, мне нужно warm [wo:m] а тёплый was [waz, waz] cm. be wash [woj] v мыть(ся) wash up мыть посуду watch1 [waif] n часы (наручные или карманные) watch2 [wof] v S следить, наблю- дать water ['wa:ta] n вода; v 3 поливать watering-can ['wo:tangksen] n 3 лей- ка way [wei] n 6 дорога, путь; образ (действия), способ on the way back на обратном пути on the way home по пути домой weather ['weda] n 9 погода Wednesday ['wenzdi] n среда weed [wild] v 3 полоть week [wi:k] n неделя welcome (to) ['welkam] int 1 добро пожаловать! well1 [wel] (better, best) adv хорошо be well быть здоровым, чувство- вать себя хорошо as well as так же как well2 [wel] int ну, ладно, хорошо, что же (выражает удивление, со- гласие, ожидание и т. д.) went [went] см. go were [wa:, wa] см. be west (the) [west] n запад wet [wet] а мокрый, влажный, сы- рой what [wot] pron что, какой what about you? 3 а вы (ты)? what’s on? что в программе? что идёт (в театре, в кино)? when [wen] adv, cj когда where [wea] adv, cj где, куда which [witf] pron который (из), ка- кой white [wait] а белый who [hu:] pron кто, который; кого, кому (разг.) whole [houl] а 6 весь, целый whom [hu:m] pron кого, кому whose [hu:z] pron чей, чья, чьё, чьи why [wai] adv, cj почему wife [waif] (pl wives) n жена wind [wind] n ветер window ['wmdou] n окно windy ['windi] a 12 ветреный winter ['wmta] n зима in winter зимой wish [wij] v R II желать; n R II желание with [wiB] prep с, вместе с; соот- ветствует функции русского тво- рительного падежа without [wi'Haut] prep без witness f'witnis] v R I быть свиде- телем чего-либо, видеть woman ['wuman] (pl women) n жен- щина women ['wimm] мн. ч. от woman 223
wonderful ['wAndaful] a 1 чудесный, удивительный word [wa:d] n слово work [wa:k] v работать; n работа; 7 произведение worker ['wa:ka] n рабочий, работник world [wa:ld] n мир, вселенная write [rait] (wrote, written) v пи- сать write down 12 записывать writer ['raita] n писатель written ['ntn] cm. write wrote [rout] cm. write Y yard [jctd] n двор year [jia, ja:] n год a happy New Year to you! с Новым годом! she is fourteen years old ей 14 лет yellow ['jelou] а жёлтый yes [jes] adv да yesterday ['jestadi] ado вчера yet [jet] adv 8 всё ещё, ещё не; всё же young []ЛГ)1 а молодой, юный
РУССКО-АНГЛИЙСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ А a and, but август August автобус bus автомобиль саг автор author английский, английский язык English говорить по-английски speak Eng- lish скажи это по-английски say this (it) in English англичанин Englishman Англия England апрель April артист actor Б бабушка grandmother бегать, бежать run (ran, run) беготня: прекратите беготню stop running бедный poor без without белый white беседовать talk библиотека library билет ticket благодарю вас thank you близко near как ближе всего туда пройти? which is the nearest way to...? болеть, быть больным be ill болтать talk большой big, large бороться struggle, fight (fought, fought) бояться be afraid брат brother брать take (took, taken) бросать throw (threw, thrown) будущее future булавка pin был(и) was (were) В в 1. предлог места (где?) in. at в саду in the garden в школе at school 2. предлог места (куда?) in, into, to войти в комнату come into the room положить в ящик put in(to) the box ходить в школу go to school пойти в театр go to the theatre 3. предлог времени (когда?) in, on, at зимой in winter в понедельник on Monday в шесть часов at six o’clock важный (no значению) important вам (to) you вам (тебе) бы лучше you had better вас you 225
ваш your вбивать drive in, into (drove, driven) вежливый polite век, столетие century велеть tell (told, told) ему велели he was told великий great верно, правда it is true весна spring весной in spring весь whole, all вечер evening вечером in the evening вещь thing взять take (took, taken) видеть see (saw, seen) вилка fork включать (радио, телевизор) turn on (the radio, the television set) вместе together вовремя in time воздух air возле near волейбол volley-ball восемнадцать eighteen воскресенье Sunday в воскресенье on Sunday прошлое воскресенье last Sunday вот . .. here is..here are... вот: возьмите; пожалуйста here you are вот он (она, оно) here it is вот они here they are вот чудесно! that’s wonderful! время time самое время (сделать что-л.) it is just the time to... все all всегда always всего наилучшего all the best вставать stand up (stood, stood); get (got got) встречать(ся) meet (met, met) вторник Tuesday входить come in, into вчера yesterday вы you 226 выбирать, избирать elect выбираться, вылезать и т. п. get out of..., from (got, got) выходить из go out of; leave (left, left) выключать (радио, телевизор) turn off выступать по радио speak (sing) over the radio выполоть weed выращивать grow (grew, grown) вытирать пыль dust выучить learn (learned, learned или learnt, learnt) Г газета newspaper стенгазета wall newspaper гвоздь nail где where говорить, сказать speak (spoke, spoken); say (said, said); tell (told, told) говорить, сказать правду speak, tell the truth говорить по-английски speak Eng- lish год year в прошлом году last year город town за город to the country за городом in the country готовить обед cook dinner гулять walk пойти погулять go for a walk Д да yes давай(те) let us, let’s давать give (gave, given) даваться: ему легко даётся ,.. he is good at ... даже even далеко far два two
двенадцать twelve дверь door девочка girl действительно really декабрь December делать do (did, done); make (made, made) делать зарядку do morning exercises делать уроки do lessons, homework дело: в чём дело (что случилось)? what is the matter? день day День Конституции the Day of the Constitution день рождения birthday с днём рождения! happy birthday!; many happy returns of the day! деревня (сельская местность) coun- try; (селение) village в деревне (за городом) in the country в деревню (за город) to the country дерево tree десять ten дети children детский театр Children’s Theatre диван sofa длинный long для for до (определённого места) as far as; to до (определённого времени) till добро пожаловать! welcome (to)! добрый kind дойти до go, come as far as... доклад, сообщение talk сделать сообщение give a talk доктор doctor должен (должна, должны) must, have to дом house, home домой home дома at home домино dominoes играть в домино play dominoes дорога way дорогой dear доска board классная доска blackboard достать get (got, got) достопримечательности: осматривать достопримечательности города go sightseeing доходить до go, come as far as друг friend другие other другой another, the other дружба friendship думать think (thought, thought) дырка hole дядя uncle E её her, it его him, it ездить go (went, gone) ей (to) her ей 13 лет she is thirteen ёлка: новогодняя ёлка New Year tree ему (to) him если if что если... what if... есть, кушать eat (ate, eaten) есть, имеется there is (are) Ж жарко it is hot ждать wait (for) женщина woman жизнь life жить live 3 за for, after, behind заблудиться lose one’s way забывать forget (forgot, forgotten) завтра tomorrow 227
задание task, job задача problem, task закончить finish замечательный remarkable заниматься, изучать study усердно заниматься learn hard; work hard (at) занятой: быть занятым busy: be busy записать write down (wrote, written) затем then, after that звать call её зовут (её имя) her name is звезда star звонить по телефону ring up (rang, rung) здравствуй! good morning! hullo! how do you do? зима winter зимой in winter знать know (knew, known) И и and и ... и both ... and иголка, игла needle игла с ниткой a needle and thread игра (также спортивная) game играть play играть в футбол (волейбол, шах- маты и т, д.) play football (volley- ball, chess) игрушка toy идти go (went, gone) идём(те) come with me, let us go, come on из from, out of из, среди among известный, знаменитый famous изучать study изучать языки study, learn lan- guages им (to) them именно, как раз just иметь have, have got у неё есть she has, she has got инструмент (рабочий) tool интересный interesting искать look for исторический historical история history, story их (кого?) them их (чей, чья, чьё, чьи?) their июль July июнь June К каждый every как how а как насчёт... and what about... как мило с твоей (вашей) стороны! how nice of you! как часто how often какой, который which какой-нибудь any, some какой-то some как раз just как ... так и both ... and карандаш pencil каникулы holiday(s) карта (геогр.) тар картина picture картофель potatoes кататься на коньках skate каток skating-rink квартира flat кино cinema класс class; form; classroom классный руководитель form master классная руководительница form mistress класть put (put, put) клуб club английский клуб English-speaking club клумба flowerbed книга book когда when колхоз collective farm комната room конечно of course конституция constitution 228
кончать школу leave school коньки skates коробка box короткий short котёнок kitten который who, which, that кошка cat красивый fine, beautiful красный red кровать bed кто who кто-нибудь anybody, somebody кто-то somebody куда where купить buy (bought, bought) кусок piece кухня kitchen JI легко даваться be good at; come easily to лейка watering-can лес forest лет: ей 13 лет she is thirteen лето summer летом in summer прошлым летом last summer литература literature ложиться спать go to bed ложка spoon лошадь horse лучше: тебе (вам) бы лучше you had better любимый favourite любить love, like люди people M магазин shop май May маленький small, little мало few, little, a little мальчик boy мама mother марка stamp март March масло butter машина machine швейная машина sewing machine между between меня me место place месяц month мило: как мило с твоей стороны! how nice of you! мир1 (в противоположность войне) peace мир2, вселенная world во всём мире all over the world; in the whole world мировой world (world literature) мне (to) me многие many много many, much много интересного many interest- ing things многое much могущественный powerful мой my можно: можно мне... may I... молоко milk молоток hammer мост bridge мочь: могу (можешь, может и т. д. сап музей museum музыка music мы we мыть wash мыть посуду wash up Н на on; at, to надеяться hope наизусть by heart найти find (found, found) накрывать на стол lay the table налево to the left нам (to) us написать write (wrote, written) направо to the right 229
нарисовать draw (drew, drawn) народ people нас us наслаждаться enjoy находить find (found, found) наука science научить teach (taught, taught) научиться learn (learned, learned или learnt, learnt) начало beginning начинать begin (began, begun) наш our неделя week на прошлой неделе last week немного a little; not much несколько some, few несчастный unhappy нет no никогда never никто nobody нитка thread но but новость news новый new нож knife ножницы scissors номер number носки socks ночь night ноябрь November нравиться: мне нравится I like нужно: мне нужно I must; I have to; 1 want О о, об about, of обсуждать discuss обучать teach (taught, taught) объяснять explain овощи vegetables огород vegetable garden одевать(ся) dress одежда clothes один one; alone один из ... one of ... один и тот же день the same day одиннадцать eleven одноклассник classmate, schoolmate озеро lake окончить школу leave school окно window октябрь October он he она she они they оно it опера opera описывать describe опаздывать be late (for) осень autumn осенью in autumn осматривать достопримечательности города go sightseeing оставаться дома stay at home от from ответ answer ответственный: быть ответственным (за) be responsible (for) отец father открывать open относить take to (took, taken) отсюда from here очень very, very much очень (сильно) любить like very much; love П папа father парк park переводить translate перед in front of; before переходить через улицу (мост) cross a street (a bridge) переплетать (книги) bind (bound, bound) переставать stop песня song петь sing (sang, sung) пещера cave пионерлагерь pioneer camp писатель writer, author 230
писать write (wrote, written) письмо letter пить drink (drank, drunk) плавать swim (swam, swum) плакать cry платье dress (с)шить платье make a dress плохой bad площадь square no along, about, over, on по воскресеньям on Sundays (разбросать) по саду over the garden по стране about the country по улице along the street повернуть(ся) turn поговорить speak (spoke, spoken) погода weather погулять: пойти погулять go for a walk под under подарок present подбирать, выбирать choose (chose, chosen) подбирал им книги для чтения chose books for them to read подметать sweep (swept, swept) поднимать (руку, голову) raise подобно кому-либо, как like подождать wait (for) подойти (к) come up (to) подружиться make friends (with) подумать think (thought, thought) поезд train поехать go (went, gone) пожалуйста please; here you are; here it is позволять allow позвонить (no телефону) ring up (rang, rung) поздно it is late поискать look for пойти go (went, gone) пойдём (пошли)! come on! come with me! let’s go! показать show (showed, shown) покупать buy (bought, bought) пол floor полезный useful поливать water полка shelf книжная полка bookshelf положить put (put, put) полоть weed получать get (got, got) поместить put (put, put) помогать, помочь help понедельник Monday понимать understand (understood, understood) по правде говоря to tell (you) the truth попросить ask пора it’s time после after послушать listen посмотреть look, see постараться try постель: в постели in bed посылать send (sent, sent) потерять lose (lost, lost) потом then, after that потому что because похвалить praise почему why починить mend поэт poet правда truth говорить правду tell the truth, speak the truth прекрасный fine, beautiful преподавать teach (taught, taught) приветствовать greet привозить bring (brought, brought) приглашать invite приезжать come (came, come) приезжать в гости (навещать) come to see приёмник radio set приносить bring (brought, brought) приходить come (came, come) приходить к кому-либо come to see приходите к нам (в гости) come to our place (house) 231
приятный pleasant проблема problem проводить (время) spend (spent, spent) программа programme прогулка walk продолжать go on произведение work пройти: как пройти...? which is the way to .. .? can you show me the way to ...? просить, попросить ask простите excuse me, (I am) sorry прочитать read (read, read) прошлый last прыгать jump прямо straight идите прямо go straight on путешествие journey, travel путешествовать travel пьеса play пятница Friday P работа work, job работать work рабочий worker радио radio выступать по радио speak (sing) over the radio (у)слышать по радио hear on the radio радоваться be glad раз time в следующий раз next time два раза (дважды) twice один раз once три раза three times разве: разве ты не знаешь... don’t you know... разговаривать speak, talk различный (разный) different разрешать allow разрешить проблему solve a problem рассказ story рассказывать tell (told, told) ребёнок child ребята, дети children река river решать, решить decide рисовать draw (drew, drawn) родина my (his, her, our, your, their) country родители parents родоначальник father роль part играть роль play a part рубашка shirt рука hand русский, русский язык Russian по-русски in Russian ручной труд handicrafts урок ручного труда a handicraft lesson С с with сад garden садиться sit down (sat, sat) свой my, his, her, its, our, your, their сделать make (made, made); do (did, done) сегодня today седьмой the seventh сейчас now семь seven семья family сентябрь September сердиться be angry сестра sister сидеть sit (sat, sat) сказать tell (told, told); say (said, said) сказать правду tell the truth скамейка bench сколько how many, how much сколько раз (как часто) how often скоро soon следующий next слишком too слово word 232
случаться happen слушать listen слушать радио listen to the radio; listen in слышать hear (heard, heard) смешной funny смеяться laugh смотреть look смочь: смогу I can сначала at first, at the beginning снимок (фотография) picture снять (платье, шляпу и т. п.) take off (took, taken) собака dog собираться) gather советский Soviet совсем quite спасибо thank you большое спасибо thank you very much спать sleep (slept, slept) спеть sing (sang, sung) спорт sport(s), games спортсмен: он хороший спортсмен he is good at games способный: быть способным к чему- нибудь be good at спрашивать ask сражаться fight (fought, fought) сражаться за... fight for... среда Wednesday среди among СССР the U.S.S.R. стакан glass стакан воды a glass of water стараться try староста monitor старушка old woman старше: он старше её he is older than she старый old стать, становиться become (became, become) стена wall стенная газета wall newspaper стенка (ящика и m. n.) wall стихотворение poem стол table за столом at the table стоять stand (stood, stood) стоять за stand for страна country странный strange стул chair суббота Saturday сумка, портфель bag, schoolbag сцена stage счастливый happy T та that так so такой such; like that там there; over there танцевать dance твой your те those театр theatre тебе (to) you тебя you телевизор: по телевизору television (TV) set: on television (TV) телефон telephone темно it is dark теннис tennis играть в теннис play tennis теперь now тёплый warm товарищ friend тоже, также too только, лишь only; just тому назад ago тот that трамвай tram трудный difficult трудно it is difficult труд: ручной труд handicrafts урок ручного труда a handicraft lesson туда there ты you 233
У X уверенный: быть уверенным sure: be sure увидеть see (saw, seen) угол corner удовольствие pleasure, enjoyment Пьеса доставила мне большое удо- вольствие. I enjoyed the performance very much. The play gave me great pleasure. уже already узнавать что-либо learn (learned, learned или learnt, learnt) улица street на какой улице ты живёшь? what street do you live in? уметь: я умею I can умный clever урок lesson на уроке in class; at a (the) lesson после уроков after school усердно hard уставать be tired утро morning утром in the morning утром и вечером every morning and evening ухаживать за кем-либо или чем- либо look after уходить go away; leave (left, left) ученик pupil учёный scientist учитель teacher учить (обучать) teach (taught, taught) учить (заучивать, выучить) learn (learned, learned или learnt, learnt) учиться learn, study учиться в школе go to school Ф фабрика factory фильм film фотография picture фрукты fruit футбол football хлеб bread ходить go (went, gone) холодный cold холодно it is cold хороший good, fine (о погоде, о ве- щах) всего хорошего all the best хорошо well хотеть want художник artist Ц цветок flower цвет (краска) colour Ч часто often часы (стенные) clock чашка сир человек man чем than чёрный black четверг Thursday чинить mend читать read (read, read) что that, what что за what a... what kind of... что идёт (в кино, в театре)? what is on? что-нибудь anything, something что-то something чудесный, удивительный wonderful (вот, это) чудесно! that’s wonder- ful! чулки stockings Ш шахматы chess играть в шахматы play chess шесть six шить sew (с)шить платье make a dress шитьё needlework 234
школа school школа для девочек (мальчиков) a girls’ (boys’) school школьники school-children школьник schoolboy школьница schoolgirl шляпа hat шутка joke Э экскурсия excursion эти these это(т) this, that Ю юг South Я я I яблоко apple язык language английский язык English, the Eng- lish language русский язык Russian, the Russian language
CONTENTS LESSON 1. Welcome to the 8th Form!.......................................... 3 Joke.............................................................. 4 Two Friends Meet after Their Holidays. The First Ray (a joke) 4 Two Classmates are Talking.................................... . 6 Exercises......................................................... 6 2. English Schools .................................................. 8 Exercises.........................................................11 Let’s Talk a Little...............................................14 3. Pete Speaks English...............................................18 Six Serving Men (a poem by R. Kipling)............................20 Exercises................................................. . . . 21 Let’s Talk a Little . •...................................25 Cherry Ripe. Part I (text to be read at home).....................27 4. At a Class Meeting................................................30 Ex ercises.......................................................33 Le t’s Talk a Little..............................................37 Ch erry Ripe. Part II [text to be read at home)..................39 Ch erry Ripe (an English song).................................. 41 Revision Lesson I • • • •..................................................42 1) . 42 2) The Holidays are Coming .......................................42 3) Today and Yesterday.......................................... 44 4) Joe Hill (an American union song)............................ 45 5) In the Evening (a picture by N. M. Kolchitsky) ................47 List of New Words (Lessons 1—4) . • • . ...................................48 236
5. They Help Aunt Helen. The Poor Man and the Rich Man ... 50 Joke........................... .............................52 Exercises.....................................................53 Let’s Talk a Little...........................................57 6. We Stand for Peace ..........................................60 The Sword and the Sickle (a poem by William Blake)..........62 Exercises ....................................................63 Let’s Talk a Little...........................................66 The Absence of Mr. Glass (text to be read at home)............69 7. English Writers ..............................................71 He Knows Shakespeare (a joke)................................75 Exercises .................................................. 76 Let’s Talk a Little...........................................80 King Lear (text to be read at home)...........................85 Revision Lesson // . . ................................................88 1) A Happy New Year to You!...................................88 2) 89 3) Different Kinds of Calendar................................91 4) A Happy New Year! (a poem) ............... 92 5) Jingle, Bells (an American folk-song)......................93 6) First Pronouncement of the Soviet Government (Decree on Peace) (a picture by Nikolai Osenev).............94 List of New Words (Lessons 5—7)........................................95 8. Nelly Sings over the Radio....................................96 Winter (a poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley).......................97 The Children of Far Distant Lands (an English song)..........98 Exercises ...................................................100 Let’s Talk a Little..........................................102 9. Robert Wood: A Wizard of the Laboratory......................106 A Good Pupil (a joke).......................................108 Exercises . . ............................................ 109 Let’s Talk a Little.........................................113 Our Mutual Friend. Part I (after Charles Dickens; text to be read at home) .............................................117 237
10. They Like the Theatre.........................................119 Exercises....................................................122 Let’s Talk a Little.................................*.............124 Our Mutual Friend. Part II (text to be read at home) . . • . 130 11. Mike Speaks about the History of “The Pickwick Papers*’ ... 132 Exercises......................................... •.............134 Let’s Talk a Little...............................................137 Our Mutual Friend. Part III (text to be read at home) • • • • 142 Revision Lesson III..........................................................144 1) 144 2) On Museums....................................................144 3) The British Museum............................................146 List of New Words (Lessons 8 — 11) .......................................• 147 12. The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club ........................148 loke............................................................ 151 Exercises.........................................................151 Let’s Talk a Little...............................................154 Our Mutual Friend. Part IV (text to be read at home) .... 160 13. April Days. Lenin’s Cherry Orchard ................................163 Exercises.......................................................166 Let’s Talk a Little...............................................168 Our Mutual Friend. Part V (text to be read at home).............172 14. Uncle John’s Present. How We Tried to Buy Shoes ..............175 Exercises.........................................................177 Let’s Talk a Little...............................................184 Our Mutual Friend. Part VI (text to be read at home) .... 189 Revision Lesson IV ...... .................................................191 1) 191 2) They Talk of the Future.......................................191 3) A Letter from Lucy Grant ...............................192 4) Home, Sweet Home (an English song)..........................194 5) A picture ............................................. .... 196 List of New Words (Lessons 12—14) . . . . ........................ e ... 196 238
ГРАММАТИКА 1. Past Indefinite Passive Voice (Lessons 4, 5).............197 2. Степени сравнения прилагательных.........................199 3. Местоимения Личные и притяжательные.....................................200 Some, any, по и сложные местоимения, от них образованные 200 4. Числительные.............................................201 5. Образование причастий. Present Participle. Past Participle . . 202 6. Суффиксы а) имён существительных, б) имён прилагательных, в) наречий, г) имён числительных............................202 7. Таблица «неправильных» глаголов, встречающихся в учебниках V—VIII классов .............................................203 8. Таблица временных форм английского глагола............ 205 Англо-русский словарь............................................206 Русско-английский словарь........................................225
Наталия Александровна Егунова, Евгения Георгиевна Прохорова, Мария Яковлевна Рывкина Учебник английского языка для VIII класса Редактор И. Л. Андреева Художественный редактор А. В. Сафонов Технический редактор И. В. Квасницкая Корректор К. П. Лосева Сдано в набор 26/VIII 1967 г. Подписано к печати 7/1 1969 г. 6OX9O’/i6- Бумага тип. № 2. Печ. л. 15. Уч.-изд. л. 13,24. Тираж 900 тыс. экз. Заказ № 1942. Издательство «Просвещение» Комитета по печати при Совете Министров РСФСР. Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Сматрицировано в Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени Первой Образцовой типографии имени А. А. Жданова Главполиграфпрома Комитета по печати при Совете Министров СССР. Москва, Ж-54, Валовая, 28. Цена без переплета 17 к., переплет 8 к. Отпечатано в типографии издательства «Уральский рабочий», Свердловск, проспект Ленина, 49. Заказ № 64.