Автор: Lisa Darrand  

Теги: english   pedagogy  

ISBN: 978-1-292-30095-5

Год: 2020

Текст
                    CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
4
What is High Note?
4
What is the High Note methodology?
4
Key concepts behind High Note
6
Course components
8
High Note unit walkthrough
10
High Note videos
16
Teaching pathways
17
How to teach for exams with High Note
18
How to flip the classroom with High Note
19
STUDENT’S BOOK PAGES WITH TEACHER’S NOTES
20
Contents
20
01 Get the message
22
02 Looking ahead
36
03 Influences
52
04 Inside story
66
05 Making sense of the senses
82
06 Where we live
96
07 Is it fair?
112
08 Digital perspectives
126
09 Highs and lows
142
10 Culture vulture
156
Culture Spot
172
Literature Spot
176
Watch and Reflect
180
Grammar Reference and Practice
190
Use of English
199
Communication
202
CULTURE NOTES
205
STUDENT’S BOOK AUDIO SCRIPT
215
STUDENT’S BOOK VIDEO SCRIPT
238
WORKBOOK ANSWER KEY
247
WORKBOOK AUDIO SCRIPT
261
CLASS DEBATES
268
GRAMMAR VIDEOS – EXTRA ACTIVITIES
270
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES
274


WHAT IS HIGH NOTE? High Note is a dynamic and intensive five-level course for upper secondary students, ranging from A2 to C1 level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and from 30 to 85 on the Global Scale of English (GSE). The course aims to bridge the gap between school reality and young adult life. It has been designed to inspire and challenge modern teenagers so that they can fulfil their ambitious goals: pass school-leaving and external exams, communicate fluently and accurately in English in a variety of situations, become successful university students and increase their employability perspectives. This is achieved by equipping learners with a combination of language skills and life competencies as well as systematically building their confidence when speaking English. Not only does High Note present new vocabulary and grammar, practise receptive and productive skills and acquaint students with typical exam tasks but it also teaches practical, everyday life skills that students will find useful both now and in the future. A specially prepared Life Skills development programme develops the types of skills that are needed at school, at university and at the future workplace: • academic and career-related skills (e.g. giving persuasive presentations, debating, managing an online image, planning a future career), • social skills (e.g. making the most of volunteering, understanding how the media works, identifying fake news) and • personal development skills (e.g. time management, building resilience, setting SMART goals). Throughout the course, students are also encouraged to think critically, use their creativity, assimilate new information and points of view, express and defend their opinions, develop research techniques, work alone and with others and reflect on their own learning. Additionally, High Note deepens students’ understanding of important social issues and increases their cultural awareness, which helps them become fully rounded citizens of the global community. The High Note syllabus is based on a combination of school curricula, school-leaving and external exam requirements and the Global Scale of English. This ensures comprehensive language coverage and the right balance of general English, exam and life skills. Students will be learning the right language and getting the right kind of practice to help them excel in their exams and communicate with confidence. Although the course has been designed for use in state sector schools, it is also suitable for use in private language schools, and the activities will work well with both smaller and larger groups. It offers a lot of flexibility of use as it contains a wealth of materials to provide extra support or further challenge for students, and extra ideas and resources for teachers to allow them to tailor their teaching package to their classroom. WHAT IS THE HIGH NOTE METHODOLOGY? High Note is the direct result of extensive research and analysis of learners’ needs and wants. This research has shown that the learning objectives of many students aged 15–19 are increasingly ambitious. The course addresses these needs by building on four notions: inspiration, intensity, interaction and independence. INTRODUCTION INSPIRATION The course material has been carefully prepared to appeal to students’ interests, inspire discussion and engage them in learning English both inside and outside the classroom. Relevant The lessons in High Note are relevant to students in that they connect to their experiences. The reading and listening texts cover topics that learners at this age are naturally interested in and talk about in their everyday lives, such as technology, media, travel, relationships and sport, but also psychology, culture and future careers. New vocabulary and grammar are practised through questions about the students’ own lives and experiences, which makes lessons more personal and memorable. Authentic Wherever possible, reading and listening texts come from authentic sources. Authentic Documentary Videos tell the stories of real people and present real places and events. Grammar Videos – ‘vox pop’ interviews with real people filmed on the streets of London – introduce students to authentic accents and real experiences and stories. All of this encourages authentic language learning. Purposeful Each lesson in High Note has a clear purpose, whether it is vocabulary and grammar presentation and practice, general language skills development or exam practice. Every unit begins with a list of unit objectives to help students understand the learning goals. There is also a clear can-do statement at the foot of each lesson so that students and teachers know exactly what they are doing, and which students can tick when they feel they have achieved the lesson aim. The purposefulness of the material is enhanced by the practical Life Skills lessons, which help practise new competencies through engaging content and in a practical, discussion-driven way. Absorbing The texts in High Note are thought-provoking and information-rich. They enhance students’ knowledge of the world and allow them to further investigate the themes they find interesting. Also, well-known topics are presented from unusual angles with the intention of sparking off natural opinion sharing, agreement and disagreement. Students’ knowledge of British culture and other English-speaking countries is systematically developed throughout the course through a variety of curious cultural facts in the main units, as well as in the Culture Spot and Literature Spot sections at the back of the Student’s Book. Well-balanced High Note is a course which is well-balanced on many different levels and helps students engage more with the material. In terms of topics, there is a balance of light, humorous issues and more serious themes. In terms of lessons, there is a harmonious topic flow from one lesson to another. Exam training is also seamlessly woven into the course: students increase their exam readiness through step-by-step activities and task-based exam tips. Finally, video clips are naturally integrated into the lessons, and the course components complement one another. INTRODUCTION 4
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTENSITY High Note challenges students both at a cognitive and linguistic level. The reading and listening texts push them to think critically and to raise their cultural and social awareness. The intensive grammar syllabus and wide vocabulary coverage encourage them to explore the language, understand how it works and improve accuracy. The video material, audio recordings and numerous speaking activities, (discussions, debates and role-plays), naturally foster fluency: students become immersed in the language and learn to talk at length in a variety of personalised and meaningful contexts. INTERACTION When students are involved in the course material, the progress of their learning is quicker. In High Note, learners are encouraged to interact with the course and actively participate in every stage of the learning process. Grammar • Students analyse examples of language and arrive at the grammar rules themselves; the guided inductive approach helps them understand and remember the rules better. • Watch out! boxes draw students’ attention to areas of special difficulty and help pre-empt common errors. Vocabulary • New lexis is presented and activated in most lessons, with the main lexical set of the unit in a separate Vocabulary lesson. It is then recycled, consolidated and practised in the following lessons. • There are references to the language students have already come across in the course, which are called Think Back. This activates the knowledge students have already acquired. • The Remember More section activates the words from the word list through a series of exercises. Additionally, the Active Vocabulary boxes provide practical tips on how to activate the students’ memory when learning new words. • Vocabulary Extension sections in the Workbook introduce more words and phrases, focusing on such areas as phrasal verbs, collocations and wordbuilding. Skills strategies • Active Reading and Active Listening boxes contain crucial general reading and listening skills strategies, such as predicting, understanding the main idea, finding specific information, dealing with new words or making inferences. These boxes also include critical thinking skills like distinguishing facts from opinions, identifying the author’s opinion or recognising bias. Students can experience the strategy by completing exercises that accompany it. • Active Writing boxes in the Workbook highlight the crucial stages in the process of writing a specific type of text. Pronunciation Active Pronunciation boxes in the Listening sections in the Workbook help students perceive the interdependencies between sounds and give tips on how to pronounce particular sounds correctly. INDEPENDENCE High Note reinforces students’ independence by making them responsible for their own learning. In the context of language learning, independent learners are those who are able to recognise their learning needs, locate relevant information about language and develop relevant language skills on their own or with other learners. This results in increased recognition of strengths, weaknesses and progress, greater levels of confidence, more motivation, better management of learning and improved performance. High Note supports independent learning in a variety of different sections and exercises in the book. Clear learning goals and models for success The goals at the beginning of each unit describe what the student will be able or better able to do at the end of the lesson. Skills strategies Active Reading and Active Listening boxes contain concise descriptions of the most important skills strategies, which students can actively practise through a series of exercises and use in the future. Exam strategies Strategy boxes contain useful tips on how to deal with most typical exam tasks. Active Writing boxes in the Workbook These contain a series of scaffolded tasks designed to develop the skills students need to write a given text type. Project work The Life Skills projects help students develop creative and collaboration skills and make decisions about the learning process and how to complete the project. Resources for self-study Resources such as word lists with the Remember More section at the end of each unit, the Grammar Reference and Practice section at the back of the Student’s Book, the Workbook, Online Practice and extra digital activities reinforce active consolidation of the material from the main units. Self-assessment sections in the Workbook These provide an opportunity for students to assess their progress and reflect on their learning. 5
INTRODUCTION KEY CONCEPTS BEHIND HIGH NOTE 21ST-CENTURY EDUCATION In today’s world of an ever-increasing flow of information and a rapidly changing workplace, an education based on learning facts at a one-size-fits-all pace does not seem to work anymore. These days, learners can find answers to any questions they might have in just a few seconds and can teach themselves about any topic they are interested in. They do not need school to do what they can do themselves. What they do need, however, is guidance in how to use the available information in smart and efficient ways and the development of social and professional skills that are needed to succeed in the modern world. The aim of 21st-century education is, therefore, to equip students with those skills and help them grow in confidence to practise them both at and beyond school. 21st-century students We believe that today’s students are sophisticated, intelligent and independent. They multitask very capably and usually know a lot about other cultures. They are comfortable with global and intercultural communication, and feel at ease with using different types of technology. They typically have a point of view and are not afraid of expressing themselves. They are also comfortable with change and keen to keep their interests and abilities up to date. In terms of their future career, they would like to find a job that reflects their interests and offers flexibility (e.g . living and working anywhere in the world, choosing their own hours and office space, working with peers across the globe). All these characteristics and skills provide a unique opportunity for teaching English. When students realise their needs and interests are met and feel inspired by the course, the learning process can be quick and extremely rewarding. 21st-century teachers Modern teachers are forward-thinking leaders who are ready to address their students’ needs. With such a widespread access to information and resources of all kinds, it may often be the case that students will know more than teachers in some areas. Most likely, they will also be a step ahead of teachers in using technology. This means that the teacher’s role is likely to shift from an all-knowing expert to that of a guide or a mentor who supports students in the learning process, challenges them and motivates them. 21st-century skills and High Note High Note provides students not just with English language skills, grammar and vocabulary, but also develops the key skills needed in the global 21st-century community. Learning and Innovation Skills (the five Cs) Communication and collaboration: These skills are practised throughout the entire course. The large number of discussions and role plays entail natural communication and collaboration among students. Additionally, the Life Skills projects require students to decide on their roles in a team and take responsibility for their work. Creativity: This skill is developed through a range of thought-provoking questions students need to answer and a variety of authentic problems and tasks they need to solve, e.g. in the Life Skills projects. Cultural awareness: Students have numerous opportunities to discuss various culture-related issues (Reflect: Culture exercises). Documentary Videos cover a range of cultural topics and Grammar Videos expose students to a wide variety of native and foreign accents, which will develop their sensitivity to other cultures and their listening skills. At the back of the Student’s Book, students will also find Culture Spot lessons, which provide a wider perspective of cultural aspects linked to the unit topics and enable learners to compare cultural aspects of the English-speaking world with their own. The Literature Spot lessons, in turn, familiarise students with well-known literary works that have made an impact on popular culture. Critical thinking: Problem solving and reasoning skills are developed throughout the course, especially via the reading and listening activities. Students are encouraged to differentiate facts from opinions, critically assess different viewpoints, look at problems from various perspectives, assimilate new information and points of view, as well as express and defend their own opinions. Digital Literacy The content, as well as the means of delivery of High Note, are rooted in today’s digital environment and reflect the way today’s teenagers already manage their lives: the topics cover up-to-date technology and media, the Life Skills projects encourage the use of digital tools, and the digital components of the course increase students’ engagement with the course material. Life and Career Skills High Note offers a specially prepared Life Skills development programme which focuses on three key educational paths: academic and career-related skills (e.g. giving successful presentations, debating, using online resources for school projects, planning a future career), social skills (e.g . working in a team, making the most of volunteering) and personal development skills (e.g. time management, building resilience). The programme is introduced through the Life Skills lessons at the end of every second unit. They offer engaging content and practise new competencies in an active, discussion-driven way. The Life Skills projects at the end of each Life Skills lesson involve research, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity. THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK FOR LANGUAGES The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR) is a guideline published in 2001 by the Council of Europe which describes what language learners can do at different stages of their learning. In 2017, the CEFR Companion Volume with New Descriptors was published, which complements the original publication. The document enriches the existing list of descriptors and gives a lot of focus to cross-linguistic mediation and plurilingual/pluricultural competence. The term mediation is understood as mediating communication, a text and concepts. It combines reception, production and interaction and is a common part of everyday language use. It makes communication possible between people who, for whatever reason, are unable to communicate successfully with each other: they may speak different languages and require a translation, they may not have the same subject knowledge information and need an explanation or simplification, they may not be of the same 6
INTRODUCTION KEY CONCEPTS BEHIND HIGH NOTE opinion and need someone to identify common ground. Mediation can also involve written texts – with the reader summarising, paraphrasing or interpreting the information for a different audience. High Note contains numerous mediation activities. They include open reading and listening comprehension tasks, transformation tasks, gapped summaries, rewriting texts in a different register, picture description, speculating or drawing conclusions. There are also tasks which cater for mediating concepts and communication such as communicative pairwork or groupwork tasks, projects or problem-solving activities. THE GLOBAL SCALE OF ENGLISH The Global Scale of English (GSE) is a standardised, granular scale that measures English language proficiency. Using the Global Scale of English, students and teachers can now answer three questions accurately: Exactly how good is my English? What progress have I made towards my learning goal? What do I need to do next if I want to improve? Unlike some other frameworks that measure English proficiency in broad bands, the Global Scale of English identifies what a learner can do at each point on a scale from 10 to 90, across each of the four skills (listening, reading, speaking and writing) as well as the enabling skills of grammar and vocabulary. This allows learners and teachers to understand a learner’s exact level of proficiency, what progress they have made and what they need to learn next. The Global Scale of English is designed to motivate learners by making it easier to demonstrate granular progress in their language ability. Teachers can use their knowledge of their students’ GSE levels to choose course materials that are precisely matched to ability and learning goals. The Global Scale of English serves as a standard against which English language courses and assessments worldwide can be benchmarked, offering a truly global and shared understanding of language proficiency levels. Visit www.english.com/gse for more information about the Global Scale of English. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING With the GSE as the solid framework for syllabus design and assessment, High Note offers a uniquely sound and comprehensive Assessment for Learning package. Any test can be used either as an assessment of learning or an assessment for learning. Assessment of learning usually takes place after the learning has happened and provides information about what the student has achieved by giving them a mark or grade. You can also use tests as assessment for learning by providing specific feedback on students’ strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions for improvement as part of the continual learning process. It is the combination of both types of assessment which can provide a powerful tool for helping your students’ progress. Assessment for Learning is embedded throughout the High Note materials: in the Student’s Book, Workbook, Online Practice and Assessment Package. Student’s Book Every unit begins with a list of unit objectives to help students understand the learning goals. There is also a clear can-do statement as the end line of each lesson so that students and teachers know exactly what they are doing. Students can tick the can-do box when they feel they have achieved the lesson aim. Every unit has a Revision section which includes exam training. Its goal is to provide examples of and practice in the specific tasks students are likely to face in test situations, focussing particularly on the relevant Cambridge English and Pearson Test of English General exams. Workbook Every unit contains a Self-assessment page where students assess how well they did in each lesson: in which areas they feel confident and where they feel they need more practice. This encourages students to reflect on their learning and helps them become independent learners. The Self-assessment page is followed by a Self-check page where students can do activities checking their knowledge of vocabulary and grammar from the unit with an additional focus on Use of English. The key to these exercises is at the end of the Workbook so that students can check their answers. Assessment Package There are downloadable tests in A and B versions. The Assessment Package includes: • Placement test • Grammar quizzes • Vocabulary quizzes • Unit tests: – Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English – Dictation, Listening, Reading and Communication – Writing • Cumulative review tests: Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English • Exam Speaking tests Each test is provided in a Word format, so it can be easily modified if needed. The full Assessment Package is provided through an access code in the Teacher’s Book. Extra digital activities and Online Practice (interactive workbook) By doing digital exercises, students can check their readiness for class tests and monitor their progress. For most exercises, wrong answer feedback and correct answers are provided. When teachers set up classes and assign activities, the gradebook function collects students’ results so that it is possible to diagnose and adjust one’s teaching to the performance of each individual or class. 7
INTRODUCTION COURSE COMPONENTS WORKBOOK • Mirrors the Student’s Book unit structure • Additional grammar, vocabulary and skills practice to reinforce material in the Student’s Book • New reading and listening texts • Vocabulary extension in the Reading and Listening lessons • Pronunciation programme • Self-Checks after each unit • Self-Assessment sections after each unit • Lists of phrasal verbs and dependent prepositions STUDENT’S BOOK with ONLINE PRACTICE This version of the Student’s Book contains everything described above (Student’s Book, extra digital activities and resources, Pearson Practice English app) PLUS: • Interactive Workbook with instant feedback • Gradebook to review students’ performance • 10 topic-based units divided into seven main teaching lessons • 5 Life Skills sections at the end of every second unit which teach competencies indispensable to success in 21st century society • Flexible order of lessons apart from the first spread (Grammar and Vocabulary) and the last spread (Writing) • Clear lesson objectives (‘I can...’) based on the Global Scale of English (GSE) • Video in every unit (grammar, documentary) • Revision for every unit: practice of language and skills in an exam task format • Word list at the end of each unit with exercises activating key vocabulary and tips on how to learn new words • Grammar Reference and Practice: detailed explanations of all the grammar topics covered in the units with examples and exercises. • Use of English: more exam-orientated practice of the language • 2 Culture Spots • 2 Literature Spots • Watch and Reflect: worksheets for the Documentary Videos STUDENT’S BOOK na miarę nowej szkoły PEARSON ENGLISH PORTAL DLA NAUCZYCIELA Indywidualny kod dostępu do Pearson English Portal znajduje się w książce nauczyciela. Z oprogramowania można korzystać online lub pobrać je na komputer i uruchamiać bez dostępu do Internetu. Wejdź na stronę pearson.pl/pep i już dziś zobacz, jakie możliwości daje Pearson English Portal! ONLINE PRACTICE DLA UCZNIA Online Practice to cyfrowe wsparcie dla ucznia, które obejmuje:  dostęp do materiału audio i wideo do kursu,  Grammar Checkpoints, czyli dodatkowe interaktywne ćwiczenia utrwalające zagadnienia gramatyczne z rozdziału,  Vocabulary Checkpoints, czyli powtórka słownictwa w wygodnej interaktywnej formie,  Unit Checkpoints, czyli zestawy interaktywnych zadań dających okazję do przećwiczenia zagadnień gramatycznych, leksykalnych i komunikacyjnych przed sprawdzianem. Lubisz korzystać z rozwiązań cyfrowych? Cyfryzację klasy zostawiasz uczniom? Utwórz klasę w ramach Online Practice, podaj uczniom jej numer ID i śledź ichpostępy z pomocą szczegółowego zestawienia Gradebook. Z Online Practice zapewniasz im pakiet dodatkowych interaktywnych ćwiczeń do samodzielnej powtórki, a Ty prowadzisz lekcje tak, jak lubisz! HIT! 25 • Grammar and Vocabulary Checkpoints to help students check their readiness for class tests and monitor their progress • Reading, Listening and Use of English banks of texts and exercises • All audio and video resources Access code to EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES • Student’s Book audio • Workbook audio • Video Access code to PEARSON PRACTICE ENGLISH APP 1 Inpairs,discussthequestions.Thenreadthearticle andcheckwhichformsofcommunication... • makeiteasiertostayintouchnowadays? • usedtobeagoodwaytoquicklyspreadthemessage thatanenemywascoming? • can carryamessageoveralongdistance? • canbeusedtoconveyashortandsimplemessage? • couldbeagoodwaytomakecontactifyouwerestuck on adesertisland? Sincethedawnof timepeople Sincethedawnoftimepeople1havebeenusing have been using different waysof communicating at a distance. different waysofcommunicating at a distance. Inancient times, they used smokesignalsandafter writing developed,they Inancienttimes,theyusedsmokesignalsandafter writing developed,they In ancient times, they used smoke signals and after writing developed, they2 invented more ingenious methods of delivering messages;for example,sending amessagein abottle.It is ingeniousmethodsof delivering messages;for example, sending a messagein abottle.It is ingenious methods of delivering messages; for example, sending a message in a bottle. It is believedthisfirstbeganthousandsof yearsago.At the turnof thetwentieth century,bottles believedthisfirstbeganthousands of yearsago. At the turn of thetwentieth century,bottles believedthisfirstbeganthousandsof yearsago.At the turnof thetwentieth century,bottles were found whichhad beensentbypeoplewho werefoundwhichhadbeensentbypeoplewho 3weretravelling were travelling on board the Titanic. onboardtheTitanic. Happier storieshave also cometolight.In1956,AkeViking,a Swede,tossed aletterinto Happierstorieshavealsocometolight.In1956,AkeViking,a Swede,tossed aletterinto Happierstorieshave also cometolight.In1956,AkeViking,a Swede,tossed aletterinto thesea, hoping it would reachhisfuturewife.Two yearslaterhereceived a letter from thesea,hopingitwouldreachhisfuturewife.Two yearslaterhereceived a letter from the sea, hoping it would reach his future wife. Two years later he received a letter from aSiciliangirl,Paolina,who aSiciliangirl,Paolina,who 4had foundhisbottle and soon after theyweremarried! hisbottleandsoonafter theyweremarried! Romantic, ifnot exactlyenvironmentallyfriendly! Romantic, ifnot exactly environmentallyfriendly! The invention ofthetelegraphin1837spedupcommunicationdramatically. The inventionofthetelegraphin1837sped up communicationdramatically. The invention of the telegraph in 1837 sped up communication dramatically. Afamousstorytellsofhowa murderer,JohnTawell,wascaught afterhehad Afamousstorytellsofhowa murderer,JohnTawell,wascaught afterhehad A famous story tells of how a murderer, John Tawell, was caught after he had escaped onthetraintoLondon.Atelegramwassent to theLondonpolice, escapedonthetraintoLondon.Atelegramwassent to theLondonpolice, escaped onthetraintoLondon.Atelegramwassent to theLondonpolice, and they5werewaiting werewaiting werewaitingforhimwhenhearrived there.Hiscapturewashailed forhimwhenhearrived there.Hiscapture washailed as a miracle ofscience! asamiracleof science! Sincetheinventionof the Internet, theworld Sincetheinventionof the Internet, theworld 6hasbecome hasbecomeadifferent place. People place. People place. People place.People 77arestillsending arestillsending are still sending messages, apparently up to 60 messages, apparently up to 60 messages,apparentlyupto 60 messages, apparently up to 60 billion aday,and itusually billionaday,and itusually8takesonlysecondstodeliver onlysecondstodeliver them. But them. But 9are we now forgetting are we now forgetting how to communicate how to communicate face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some face-to-face?Withouta doubt therearesome face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some challenges,butthere are alsoexamplesofwhenthe challenges,butthere are alsoexamplesofwhenthe challenges, but there are also examples of when the Internet Internet10haschanged changedsomeone’s lifeforthebetter. someone’slifeforthebetter. Lookat TaraTaylor’scase,a mother who Lookat TaraTaylor’scase,a mother who11lives livesin the USA: whensheuploaded aphotoofherdaughterto USA:whensheuploaded aphotoofherdaughterto USA: whensheuploaded aphotoofherdaughterto Facebook,a facefriend spotted aproblemwithone Facebook,a facefriend spotted aproblemwithone Facebook, a facefriend spotted a problem with one of the child’seyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It ofthechild’seyes, soTara took herto the doctor. It of the child’seyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It turned out that thegirlhad araredisease,but her turned out that thegirlhad araredisease,but her turned out that the girl had a rare disease, but her sight wassaved! sight wassaved! Thestoryofcommunicationis,inmanyways, Thestoryofcommunicationis,inmanyways, The story of communication is, in many ways, thestoryofthehumanrace:we’ve alwayssharedknowledge and built relationships,whatevermeansof communicationweuse. 2 Makemorecollocationswiththenounsmessage, contact,touch,usingtheverbsfromthebox. deliver establish lose maintain passon 1 / / contact 2 / a/themessage 3 touch 3 Discussinpairs.Howcanameansofcommunication changesomeone’slife?Findexamplesinthetext. Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... 4 1A GRAMMAR ANDVOCABULARY VOCABULARY Collocationswithcontact,messageandtouch,phrasalverbs, phrasesforbreakingtheice,communicationidioms,emotionadjectives GRAMMAR Presentandpasttenses, questiontags,echoquestions UseofEnglish>page191 SPEAKING Expressingemotions WRITING Aninformal email VIDEO Gramma r Do cu ment ary Get the message 01 7 Matchthesentencehalves.Inpairs,discussthereasonsfor youranswers. 1 Thephoneisringing . Thephone rings . a allthetimenowthatwerunabusiness b andIcan’tfindwhereI’veputit 2 I’vebeencallingMike .I’vecalledMike . a alldaytoday b acoupleoftimestoday 3 It’sgetting . It gets . a easierandeasiertostayintouchwithpeople b lessdifficulteverytimeIwriteanessay 4 Iwaswatchingafilm .Iwatchedafilm . a whenthelightssuddenlywentout b whenIgothomefromschool 5 Shehassentmealotofemailsrecently, . Shesent melong emailseveryday . a whileshewastravellingabroad b soImightgetonetoday 6 WhenIlookedatmyphone,themessagearrived . WhenIlookedatmyphone,themessagehadarrived, . a butIdidn’t noticeitbuzzingearlier b atexactlythesamemoment 7 What doyouthink . W hat areyouthinking ? a ofmyphone b about 8 1.2 Completethetextwiththecorrectformsofthe verbs inbrackets.Sometimesmorethanoneformispossible. Listenandcheck. Present and past tenses 4 StudytheGrammarbox and matchthe underlinedphrases1–11inthearticlewith themeanings a–k. Presentandpasttenses WeusethePresentSimplefor: a □routinesandhabits b □factsandthingsthat aregenerallytrue WeusethePresentContinuousfor: c □thingshappeningnoworaroundnow d □situations whicharechangingduringthe presenttime WeusethePastSimplefor: e □actionsthatstartedandfinishedat a specifictimeinthepast WeusethePastContinuousfor: f □actionsinprogressat a specifictimein thepast g □alongactivityinterruptedbyashortone WeusethePresentPerfectSimplefor: h □actionsandstateswhichbeganinthe pastandcontinueuntilnow i □finishedactionsinthepast when we don’t say exactly whentheyhappened WeusethePresentPerfectContinuousfor: j □anactioninprogress orrepeated over aperiodoftimeupuntilnow WeusethePastPerfectfor: k □anactioninthepastthatwascompleted before anotheractionortimeinthepast GrammarReference andPractice>page172 5 Matchtimeexpressionsbelowwith thetensesinExercise4.Findmoretime expressionsinthearticle. atthemoment atthetime currently earliertoday eversince everysooften for fromtimetotime inrecentyears nowadays onceinawhile recently rightnow since thedaybeforeyesterday thesedays 6 ReadWatch out! and explainthedifference inmeaningbetween sentencesa andb. WATCHOUT! Somestateverbscanbeusedincontinuous formtoexpress adifferent meaning or atemporaryaction. 1 a Shehaslotsof onlinefriends. bWe’rehavingareallygoodtimeinGreece. 2 a Markappearstoknowalotaboutapps. bLyndais appearing asCinderellainthe newschoolplaynextweek. In1992,NeilPapworth, asoftwareengineer anddeveloper, 1 (send)thefirsttext message, whichsaidsimply, ‘HappyChristmas’. Atthattime, he 2 (work)forSema Telecoms,acompanywhich3 (develop) the technology forVodaphone.Inthosedays,mobilephones 4 (not have) keyboards, so hehadtotypethemessage on a computer. Papworthwasnot, however, thefirstpersontothink of sending ashortmessage.AmancalledFriedhelm Hillebrand5 (already/suggest)theideaback in1984.AnditwasHillebrand wholimitedthemessageto160 characters. Text messagingwasnotimmediatelypopular,butinrecent yearsit 6 (grow)veryrapidly.Infact,thesedayswe (grow) very rapidly. In fact, thesedayswe7 (s end) (s end) over 15milliontext messages every minute!Platformssuch as Twitter, 8 (also/contribute)totextinghavingbecomesuch (also/contribute) to texting having become such anessentialpartofourlivestoday. 9 SPEAKINGCompletethesentences withyour ownideas. 1 Iwastalkingtoafriendtheotherdaywhen... 2 Nowadays,moreandmorepeoplearekeepingintouchby... 3 Bylunchtimeyesterday,Ihadalready ... 1 Readthequestionand watchthevideo.Saywhatthe speakersanswer.Theninpairs, askandanswerthequestion. Howhassocialmediachanged thewaywecommunicate? G R A M M A R V I D E O 5 01 □Icanusethepresentandpasttensestotalk aboutdifferentactions. 8
INTRODUCTION own sentence. Swap placeson theboard with theperson to Move forward three squares. Go backto square 1. ... isn’tit? Go to square 15. ...hadn’t he? ... don’tyou? 4 5 6 7 8 293 PHOTOCOPIABLE©PEARSONEDUCATIONLIMITED2020 RESOURCE 4 Let’s play tag! 1D GRAMMAR (Question tags) ... shall we? ... aren’tI? Choose your own sentence. Swap places on theboard with theperson to yourleft. ... hadn’t he? 19 3 18 20 9 PHOTOCOPIABLE©PEARSONEDUCATIONLIMITED2020 Choose your own sentence. Swap placeson theboard with theperson to PHOTOCOPIABLE©PEARSONEDUCATIONLIMITED2020 (Phrasesforbreaking theice, idiomsrelated to communication) tryto hitit off have alaugh makesmall talk asktostay in touch Nice to meetyou 1C VOCABULARY (Phrasesforbreaking theice, idioms relatedto communication) RESOURCE 3 trytohititoff have alaugh makesmall talk ask to stay in touch (Phrasesforbreaking theice, idioms relatedto communication) (Phrasesforbreaking theice, idioms relatedto communication) how you say it how you say it how Read the titleof thearticle.Why doyouthink theword ‘how’ isinlarger font and in bold? What doyou think the articlemight be about? In pairs,discussyour ideas.Then read thearticle quickly tocheck them. As aspecies,wehavehadremarkablesuccess in evolvingourability to communicate.Over thousands of years wehavedevelopednotonly thousandsofsophisticatedlanguagesandover twenty different alphabets, but alsotheskill tointerpret thenon-verbal messages behindthem,usingthem alltobuildanything from personal relationships toempires.But in less thantwenty years ofthedawn of theInternet andsocial media, we have becomesointent on reachingas many peopleas possibleusingas littleeffort as possible,that we may be Haveyouever read asocial media messagefrom afriend and not been surewhat they meant? Was it sarcasm? Werethey being critical? Howdoyougetacrossyouremotions inashort message?How do you avoid offending someonewhenit’s hardfor themtopick up thesignalswithout seeing you?It is saidthatover eighty percent of our communicationisnon-verbal – that is,weusebody languageandgesturestoconvey how we are feeling and what wereally mean.Instead,wenowuseemojis toaddartificialemotiontowhat wewrite. For example, if we makefunofour friendin aface-to-faceconversation,then alook or grincanlet themknowwemeanno harm. Butin asocial mediamessage,weadda laughing emoji tolet themknowwearejoking without explaining the wholejoke.Insituations likethese,emojis arepossibly apoor substitutefortheskillbody language employs in conveyingourfeelings and intentions.It’s abit likeadding dried garlic out of apacket toour spaghetti because youcan’t bebotheredtopeel andchopa garlic clove;it does thejobbut it’s notthereal deal. Peopleareincreasingly using iconsas asubstitutefor not onlybody languagebut for thewritten language as well;theseiconsensureyoucanget information acrossquickly, without much effort.Younger generations spend moretimecommunicatingin this way than usingface-to-facecommunicationor indeedby carefully writing in the you say it 291 PHOTOCOPIABLE©PEARSONEDUCATIONLIMITED2020 COURSE COMPONENTS • Student’s Book pages with an overprinted answer key • Ideas for extra activities • References to additional materials and the course assessment • Student’s Book audio and video scripts • Workbook audio script • Workbook answer key • 45 photocopiable resources • Culture notes • Ideas for debate lessons • Extra activities for the Grammar Videos TEACHER’S BOOK Audio material for use in class (Student’s Book) CLASS AUDIO CDS A series of booklets which provide additional, intensive practice and support for important international exams. These books work alongside the Level 4 Students’ Book: • Cambridge English First (FCE) • Pearson Test of English General Level 3 (B2/B2+). The audio and answer keys are available in the Teacher’s Resources. EXAM PRACTICE BOOKS Additional information and support available on www.english.com/highnote PRESENTATION TOOL • Front-of-class teacher’s tool with fully interactive version of Student’s Book and Workbook activities with integrated audio and video • Easy navigation via either book page or lesson flow ONLINE PRACTICE, EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES • Teacher view of Online Practice and extra digital activities • Access to the Gradebook and student’s performance area • Assigning tasks to the whole class, groups or individual students • Automatic marking to save time TEACHER’S RESOURCES • Photocopiable resources • Culture notes • Ideas for debate lessons • Extra activities for the Grammar Videos • Student’s Book and Workbook answer keys • Audio and video with scripts ONLINE PRACTICE, EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES Access code to: • Word lists with audio recordings • Assessment Package consisting of ready-made tests in versions A and B • Lesson plans • A series of video clips on how to use the course material (Phrasesforbreaking theice, idiomsrelatedto communication) RESOURCE 2 It’s notwhat you say,it’s how 1B READING ANDVOCABULARY (Identifying the author’s opinion) Read the titleof thearticle.Why doyouthink theword ‘how’ isinlarger font and in bold? What doyou think the articlemight be about? In pairs,discussyour ideas.Then read thearticle quickly tocheck them. Read the first paragraph of the article again and choosethe correct answer. the Internet and socialmedia is toblame for us losing the ability to communicate. In which paragraphdoes the writer give their main message? What is this message? As aspecies,wehavehadremarkablesuccess in evolvingourability to communicate. Over thousands of years wehavedevelopednotonly thousandsofsophisticatedlanguagesandover twenty different alphabets, but alsotheskill tointerpret thenon-verbal messages behindthem,usingthem all to build anything from personal relationships toempires.But in less thantwenty years ofthedawn of theInternet and social media, we have becomesointent on reachingas many peopleas possibleusingas littleeffort as possible, that we may be Haveyouever read asocial media messagefrom afriend and not been surewhat they meant? Was it sarcasm? Werethey being critical? Howdoyougetacrossyouremotions inashort message? How do you avoid offending someonewhenit’s hardfor themtopick up thesignalswithout seeing you?It is said that over eighty percent of our communicationisnon-verbal – that is,weusebody languageandgestures to convey how we are feeling and what wereally mean.Instead,wenowuseemojis toaddartificialemotionto what we write. For example, if we makefunofour friendin aface-to-faceconversation,then alook or grincan let them know we mean no harm. Butin asocial mediamessage,weadda laughing emoji tolet themknowwearejoking without explaining the wholejoke.Insituations likethese,emojis arepossibly apoor substitutefor the skill body language employs in conveyingourfeelings and intentions.It’s abit likeadding dried garlic out of a packet to our spaghetti because youcan’t bebotheredtopeel andchopa garlic clove;it does thejobbut it’s not the real deal. Peopleareincreasingly using iconsas asubstitutefor not onlybody language but for the written language as well;theseiconsensureyoucanget information acrossquickly, without much effort. Younger generations spend moretimecommunicatingin this way than usingface-to-facecommunication or indeed by carefully writing in the traditional way that that older generationswereusedto.Maybethey arenowmoreat homein ‘chatting’than talking to someone.This is evidencedwhenyou see friends satin coffeeshopsmessagingeachotherover thetableor at home how you say it PHOTOCOPIABLE©PEARSONEDUCATIONLIMITED2020 (Identifying the author’s opinion) Read the titleof thearticle.Why doyouthink theword ‘how’ isinlarger font and in bold? What doyou think the articlemight be about? In pairs,discussyour ideas.Then read thearticle quickly tocheck them. Read the first paragraph of the article again and choosethe correct answer. the Internet and socialmedia is toblame for us losing the ability to communicate. In which paragraphdoes the writer give their main message? What is this message? As aspecies,wehavehadremarkablesuccess in evolvingourability to communicate.Overthousands of years wehavedevelopednotonly thousandsofsophisticatedlanguagesandover twenty different alphabets,but alsotheskill tointerpret thenon-verbal messages behindthem,usingthem alltobuildanythingfrompersonal relationships toempires.But in less thantwenty years ofthedawn of theInternet andsocialmedia,wehave becomesointent on reachingas many peopleas possibleusingas littleeffort as possible,thatwe may be Haveyouever read asocial media messagefrom afriend and not been surewhat they meant?Was itsarcasm? Werethey being critical? Howdoyougetacrossyouremotions inashort message?How doyou avoidoffending someonewhenit’s hardfor themtopick up thesignalswithout seeing you?It is saidthatover eighty percent of our communicationisnon-verbal – that is,weusebody languageandgesturestoconvey howwearefeeling and what wereally mean.Instead,wenowuseemojis toaddartificialemotiontowhat wewrite.Forexample,ifwe makefunofour friendin aface-to-faceconversation,then alook or grincanlet themknowwemeannoharm. Butin asocial mediamessage,weadda laughing emoji tolet themknowwearejoking without explaining the wholejoke.Insituations likethese,emojis arepossibly apoor substitutefortheskillbody languageemploys in conveyingourfeelings and intentions.It’s abit likeadding dried garlic out of apacket toour spaghetti because youcan’t bebotheredtopeel andchopa garlic clove;it does thejobbut it’s notthereal deal. Peopleareincreasingly using iconsas asubstitutefor not onlybody languagebut for thewrittenlanguageas well;theseiconsensureyoucanget information acrossquickly, without much effort.Younger generations spend moretimecommunicatingin this way than usingface-to-facecommunicationor indeedby carefully writing in the traditional way that that older generationswereusedto.Maybethey arenowmoreat homein ‘chatting’than talking to someone.This is evidencedwhenyou see friends satin coffeeshopsmessagingeachotherover thetableor at home how PHOTOCOPIABLE©PEARSONEDUCATIONLIMITED2020 Snap is a tense game! 1A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY (Present and past tenses) RESOURCE 1 Sentence cards Iupload around fifty photosaday to Instagram. People usually stay in touch using message appsor textmessages. I’m looking for a newlaptop–atouch screen. Instant messaging is getting moreandmore popular with older pe op le. Beforetheinvention oftheInternet and telephone,people communicatedbyletter. Theresearchteam wereworkingwith familiesin anIndian villagelastmonth. Thevideocallmeeting was going really well untiltheInternet wentdown. Ihavebeenablogger forabout ayear. Social mediahas changedtheway we communicateforever. Ihavebeenusing Facebook fortenyears but Snapchatisbetter. Ihadlostmy phone and couldn’t callmy parentsto say IwasOK. Function cards Present Simplefor routinesandhabits/ things that happen repeatedly PresentSimple forfacts andthingsthatare generally true PresentContinuousfor things happening now oraroundnow PresentContinuousfor situationswhich are changing during the present time PastSimplefor actions that started andfinished ataspecifictimein the past PastContinuousfor actionsinprogressata specifictimeinthepast Past Continuous foralong activity interruptedby a shortone PresentPerfectSimple foractionsand states which began inthe pastandcontinue untilnow PresentPerfectSimple for finished actionsin thepastwhen wedon’t sayexactly whenthey happened PresentPerfect Continuousforan action inprogressor repeatedoveraperiod oftimeupuntilnow PastPerfectforan actioninthepastthat wascompletedbefore anotheractionortime in thepast PHOTOCOPIABLE © PEARSONEDUCATION LIMITED 2020 290 9
INTRODUCTION 6 Inpairs, look atthe echo questionin italics. Then answer questions1−3below. Cameron Actually, it ’s my birthday tomorrow. Emma Isit?Do you have anything specialplanned? Isit?Do you haveanythingspecialplanned? Is it? 1 Whatisthefunction of an echoquestion? 2 Do we use a positive or a negative questionto reply to a positive statement? 3 Which intonationpatternfromExercise4do we use withanechoquestion: Aor B? Grammar Reference and Practice > page172 7 1.9 Completethe conversations with no morethan three wordsin each gap.Listen and check your answers. Ben Where would you live if you could live anywhere inthe world? Meg 1 a goodquestion, isn’t it? I don’t think I’ve ever really thought about it before. Hmm ... Somewhere abit warmer,I guess. Ben Yes, 2 toomuch raininthis country,isn’t there? toomuchraininthiscountry,isn’tthere? Meg Oh yes,thereis.ButI wouldn’t want tolive somewheretoohot.I mean, in some countriesit can be 45degreesinthe summer. That would be unbearable, 3 ? Ben Actually, I used tolive inDubai. Meg 4 you?Ibet5 reallyhot, wasn’t it? Ben Boiling!But we had air conditioning,and apool. Meg That soundsgreat.I wouldn’t mindliving somewherelikethat, actually. Ira Move up, 6 ?Ireally need to sit down! Kate Have you beendancing? Ira Yes, Ilove the musicthey’re playing.7 ? Kate It’s not really my thing, actually.I findit abitboring. Ira 8 ?But everyone loves thisband, 9 ? Kate Not me. Ira You have no taste in musicthen. Kate Erm, seriously? IraIra Oh, sorry, I’m being abit annoying, Oh, sorry, I’mbeingabitannoying, Oh, sorry, I’m being abit annoying, 1010 ?? Let’s stoptalking aboutmusic then, Let’sstoptalkingabout music then, 11 ? Kate Yes, Ithinkthat mightbebest! Yes,Ithinkthatmightbe best! 8 SPEAKINGInpairs, writeand r Inpairs,writeand roleplay a conversation. aconversation. Go topage 196. 1 1.6 Look at thephoto. Listento three conversations at aparty. Whichdo you thinkisthe bestquestion they use to keep a conversationgoing? 2 Think ofthree morequestions you could askto get to know someone better. Question tags and echo questions 3 Look atthe underlined examples ofquestion tagsfrom the dialogues.Then completethe sentences1−4below with thewordsin the box. negative end positive modal It’s such agreat city, isn’t it? Wow, so you’d never beentherebefore, had you? had yo u? Ishouldn’t be sofussy, should I? 1 Aquestiontagis a shortquestion added to the of a sentence. 2 Weform aquestion tag using an auxiliary or a verb and apronoun. 3 Apositive statement usually hasa question tag. question tag. 4 Anegative statement usuallyhas a questiontag. questiontag. 4 1.7 PRONUNCIATIONListen and match what you hear with intonationpatternA orB below.Which patternis used for a realquestion and which for confirming something the speaker alreadyknows? 5 1.8 Look at these more unusual questiontags. Choosethe correct wordsto completethe sentences. Listen and check. 1 Thisis silly,isn’t it/it/it this? 2 Nothing ever changes, do/doesit? 3 Comeandlook atthis, will/don’t you? don’tyou? don’t 4 Everyone was there,weren’t/ weren’t/ weren’t wasn’t they? wasn’tthey? wasn’t 55 Don’t be late, Don’t be late, Don’t be late, are are // will will you? you? 6 No onelikeshim, No onelikeshim, do/doesthey? 7 Let’s stay here, Let’sstay here, do/ shall we? 8 I’m a bit late, I’mabitlate,don’t/ don’t/ don’t aren’t I? aren’t I? aren’t 9 Pick me up at eight, Pickmeup at eight,don’t/ don’t/ don’t could you? you? A B 9 01 □ Ican use questiontags and echo questionsto keep a conversationgoing. 1D GRAMMAR 1 In pairs, discussthe questions. Then read the article and check which forms of communication ... • make it easier to stay in touch nowadays? • used to be a good way to quickly spreadthe message that an enemy was coming? • can carry a message over a longdistance? • can be used to convey a short and simple message? • could be a good way to make contactif you were stuck on a desert island? Since the dawn of time people Since the dawnof time people 1 have been using have been using different ways of communicating at a distance. different ways of communicating at a distance. In ancient times, they used smoke signals and after writing developed, they In ancient times, they used smoke signals and after writing developed, they In ancient times, they used smoke signals and after writing developed, they 2 invented more ingenious methods of delivering messages; for example, sending a message in a bottle. It is ingenious methods of delivering messages; for example, sending a message in a bottle. It is ingenious methods of delivering messages; for example, sending a message in a bottle. It is believed this first began thousands of years ago. At the turn of the twentieth century, bottles believed this first began thousands of years ago. At the turn of the twentieth century, bottles believed this first began thousands of years ago. At the turn of the twentieth century, bottles were found which had been sent by people who were found which had been sent by people who 3 were travelling were travelling on board the Titanic. on board the Titanic. Happier stories have also come to light. In 1956, Ake Viking, a Swede, tossed a letter into Happier stories have also come to light. In 1956, Ake Viking, a Swede, tossed a letter into Happier stories have also come to light. In 1956, Ake Viking, a Swede, tossed a letter into the sea, hoping it would reach his future wife. Two years later he received a letter from the sea, hoping it would reach his future wife. Two years later he received a letter from the sea, hoping it would reach his future wife. Two years later he received a letter from a Sicilian girl, Paolina, who a Sicilian girl, Paolina, who 4 had found his bottle and soon after they were married! his bottleand soon after they were married! Romantic, if not exactly environmentally friendly! Romantic, if not exactly environmentally friendly! The invention of the telegraph in 1837 sped up communication dramatically. The invention of the telegraph in 1837 sped up communication dramatically. The invention of the telegraph in 1837 sped up communication dramatically. A famous story tells of how a murderer, John Tawell, was caught after he had A famous story tells of how a murderer, John Tawell, was caught after he had A famous story tells of how a murderer, John Tawell, was caught after he had escaped on the train to London. A telegram was sent to the London police, escapedon the train to London. A telegram was sent to the London police, escaped on the train to London. A telegram was sent to the London police, and they 5 were waiting were waiting were waiting for him when he arrived there. His capture was hailed for him when he arrived there. His capture was hailed as a miracle of science! as amiracle of science! Since the invention of the Internet, the world Sincethe invention of the Internet, the world 6 has become has become a different place. People place. People place. People place. People 77 are still sending are still sending are still sending messages, apparently up to 60 messages, apparently up to 60 messages, apparently up to 60 messages, apparently up to 60 billion a day, and it usually billion a day, and it usually 8 takes only seconds to deliver only seconds to deliver them. But them. But 9 are we now forgetting are we now forgetting how to communicate how to communicate face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some challenges, but there are also examples of when the challenges, but there are also examples of when the challenges, but there are also examples of when the Internet Internet 10 has changed changed someone’s life for the better. someone’s life for the better. Look at Tara Taylor’s case, a mother who Look at Tara Taylor’s case, a mother who 11 lives lives in the USA: when she uploaded a photo of her daughter to USA: when she uploaded a photo of her daughter to USA: when she uploaded a photo of her daughter to Facebook, a facefriend spotted a problem with one Facebook, a facefriend spotted a problem with one Facebook, a facefriend spotted a problem with one of the child’s eyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It of the child’s eyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It of the child’s eyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It turned out that the girl had a rare disease, but her turned out that the girl had a rare disease, but her turned out that the girl had a rare disease, but her sight was saved! sight was saved! The story of communication is, in many ways, The story of communication is, in many ways, The story of communication is, in many ways, the story of the human race: we’ve always shared knowledge and built relationships, whatever means of communication we use. 2 Make more collocations with the nouns message, contact, touch, using the verbs fromthe box. deliver establish lose maintain pass on 1 / / co nta ct 2 / a/the message 3 touch 3 Discuss in pairs. How can a means of communication change someone’s life? Find examples in the text. Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... 4 1A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY VOCABULARY Collocations with contact, message and touch,phrasal verbs, phrases forbreaking the ice, communicationidioms, emotion adjectives GRAMMAR Present and past tenses, question tags, echoquestions Use of English > page 191 SPEAKING Expressing emotions WRITING Aninformal email VIDEO Grammar Documentary Get the message 01 7 Match the sentencehalves. In pairs, discuss the reasons for your answers. 1 The phone is ringing . T he phone rings . a all the time now that we run a business b and I can’t find where I’ve put it 2 I’ve been callingMike .I’ve calledMike . a all day today b a couple of timestoday 3 It’s getting . It gets . a easier and easier to stay in touch with people b lessdifficult every time I write an essay 4 I was watching a film . I watched a film . a whenthe lights suddenly went out b whenI gothome from school 5 She has sent me a lot of emails recently, . She sent me long emails every day . a while she was travelling abroad b so I might get one today 6 When I looked at my phone, the message arrived . When Ilooked at my phone, the message had arrived, . a but Ididn’t notice it buzzing earlier b at exactly the same moment 7 What do you think . W hat are you thinking ? a of my phone b about 8 1.2 1.2 Complete the text with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Sometimesmore than one form is possible. Listen and check. Present and past tenses 4 Study theGrammar box and match the underlined phrases 1–11 in the article with the meanings a–k. Present and past tenses We use the Present Simplefor: a □ routines andhabits b □ facts andthings that are generally true We use the Present Continuous for: c □ thingshappening now or around now d □ situations which are changing during the present time We use the Past Simple for: e □ actionsthat started and finished at a specific time in the past We use the Past Continuous for: f □ actionsin progress at a specific time in the past g □ a long activity interrupted by a short one We use the Present PerfectSimple for: h □ actions and states which beganinthe past and continue until now i □ finished actions in the past when we don’t say exactly when they happened We use the Present PerfectContinuous for: j □ anaction in progress or repeated over a period of time up until now We use the Past Perfect for: k □ anaction in the pastthat was completed before another action or time inthe past Grammar Reference and Practice > page172 5 Match time expressions below with the tenses in Exercise 4. Find more time expressions in the article. at the moment at the time currently earlier today ever since every so often for from time to time in recent years nowadays once in a while recently right now since the day before yesterday these days 6 Read Watch out! and explain thedifference in meaning between sentences a and b. WATCH OUT! Some state verbs canbe used in continuous form to express a different meaning or a temporary action. 1 a She has lots of online friends. bWe’re having a really goodtime in Greece. 2 a Mark appears toknow a lot about apps. bLynda is appearing as Cinderella in the new school play next week. In 1992, Neil Papworth, a software engineer and developer, 1 (send) the first text message, which said simply, ‘Happy Christmas’. At that time, he 2 (work) for Sema Telecoms, a company which 3 (develop) the technology for Vodaphone. In those days, mobile phones 4 (not have) keyboards, so he had to type the message on a computer. Papworth was not, however, the first person to think of sending a short message. A man called Friedhelm Hillebrand 5 (already/suggest) the idea back in 1984. And it was Hillebrand who limited the message to 160 characters. Text messaging was not immediately popular, but in recent years it 6 (grow) very rapidly. In fact, these days we (grow) very rapidly. In fact, these days we 7 (send) (send) over 15 million text messages every minute! Platforms such as Twitt er, 8 (also/contribute) to texting having become such (also/contribute) to texting having become such an essential part of ourlives today. 9 SPEAKING Complete the sentences with your own ideas. 1 I was talkingto a friend the other day when ... 2 Nowadays, more and more people are keepingin touch by ... 3 By lunchtime yesterday,I had already ... 1 Read thequestion and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, ask and answer thequestion. How has social media changed the way we communicate? G R A M M A R V I D E O 5 01 □I can use the present and past tensesto talk about different actions. 9 01 1A Present andpast tenses We use thePresentSimple to talk about: • habits and routines: Heoftenlosestouch withhis co lleag ue s. • permanent situations around thepresent time: Henow shares aflat with afriend. • states(verbs not usually used in the continuousform), e.g.love, like, believe,think (opinion),know, look (appearance): Heloves gettingtraditionalletters. Shelooks very fit. Somestate verbs changetheir meaning and canbe used in the continuous form,e .g .think of/ think of/ think of about, see (goout with),look at: Whatdo you thinkofthis message? thinkofthismessage? think (opinion) ofthismessage?(opinion) ofthismessage? What are you thinking about? Idon’t see why you want to stayin touch withhim. (understand) I’m seeingDave thesedays. (go out with) I’dliketo establish contact withthat company,but my boss doesn’t lookatitthat way. (thinkin aparticular way) Why areyou looking at methat way? We use thePresentContinuous to talk about: • actionsin progress at thetime of speaking: Heistalking onhis mobile. • temporary actionsin progress around now: He’s thinking ofgetting anew phone. ’sthinkingofgettinganewphone. ’sthinkingof • changes anddevelopments: Thenews is spreadingquickly. Wealso often use thePresentSimple andPresent Continuous totalk about thefuture. SeeUnit 2,page25. Present PerfectSimple and Continuous Theselinkthe past and thepresent. We use thePresentPerfect Simpletotalkabout: • the duration of statesthatbeganinthepast and continue up to now: He’s been stuck hereforfive years. • completedpast actions with apresent relevance/result: Thelightshave gone out. (And now it’s pitchdark here). He’s changeddramatically. ’schangeddramatically. ’schanged (Helooksvery different now.) • experiencesduring apresentperiod oftime: I’ve sent five thousand text messages sofar. ’vesentfivethousandtext messagessofar. ’vesent We use thePresentPerfect Continuous totalk about: • the duration of actionsthatbegan inthe past and continue up tothepresent:I’ve been here since9a.m. • past processes with apresent relevance/result: I’vegotbettergradesbecause I’ve been studing alotlately. We use thePast Simpletotalk about actions or events completed at a specifictimein thepast: NeilPapworth sentthefirsttext messagein1992. We use thePastContinuous totalk about actionsthat were: • in progress at a specifictimeinthepast(thisoften providesbackground to other past events): WhileMark was waiting for us, his mum waswaiting forus,hismum waswaiting for was texting. • interrupted by a shorterpast action: She was studying when suddenly somebody tossed a brick through the window. We use thePast Perfect to show the relationshipbetween a situationinthepast and an earlier state or action. Therulesare similar tothe rulesforthePresentPerfect: BeforeColin methiswife,he hadbeen singlefor adecade. We use thePast Perfect Continuous totalk about an activity which startedbefore a secondpast event and was stillinprogress,or had recently finished when the second event happened.We often say how longthe activityhad been going on: They hadbeentalking for anhour before Dannyarrived. Itisformed usinghad + had + had (not)+ been + PresentParticiple: WhenI woke up,I saw that my brother hadbeen cooking. (Ithadn't been completed orthe result was thatthe kitchen was a mess.) 1D Question tags and echoquestions Aquestiontag is a shortquestion added to the end of a sentence. It isformed usingdo/does/did(insimple tenses)orthe auxiliary + a pronoun. Apositive statement usually has a negative questiontag and a negative statementhas apositive questiontag: You don’t understand, Youdon’t understand, Youdon’t doyou? She usually comesinlate, doesn’t she? You are coming totheparty, aren ’t you? Theyhaven’t been toLondon yet, Theyhaven’t been toLondonyet, Theyhaven’t havethey? They went to school,didn’t they? Theywenttoschool,didn’t they? Theywent Shehad abreak,didn’t she? Wehad met thembefore, met thembefore, met hadn’t we? Thisis an amazinghouse, isn’t it? Nothinghashappend sofar,hasit? ThoseareMartha’s guests, aren ’t they? Modal verbsare usually repeatedin thetag questions, just like auxiliaries: I can email my CV, can ’t I? Exceptions: Let’s gotothe cinema, shall we? Someonehasbumpedinto your car, haven’t they? Nobody cametothepresentation,did they? I’m still employed, aren ’t I? Questiontags can also be used for: • requests: Buy me the newspaper, could you? You’ll cook thedinnertoday, won’t you? • invitations: Cometo visit us next summer, won’t you? • commands: Writeitdown,willyou? Don’t makea mess,will you? Questiontags are also used in echoquestions.The main use of such questionsisto show interest or express surprise and make a conversationgo smoothly: A Iused tolive inMoscow. B Didyou? I betis wasamazing! 172 Grammar Reference and Practice 1 1A Completethe sentences usingthe correcttense and a time expression fromthebox. at thetime ever since fromtime to time inrecent years right now once a week thesedays earlier today for 1I (lose touch)with afew of my friends . 2 Dad (make contact)with his cousin , so they’re not close. 3 She (chat)onher mobile ages. Can’t they (see) each other inperson? 4I (establish contact)withMrFarley , but he hasn’t responded yet. 5 (you / use)thelaptop ?Ineedtosend an emai l. 6 My teachertook my mobilephone off me yesterday – I (talk)tomy friend ! 7He (stayintouch)with me wehad that argument. 8I (love)goingfor a regular run . 9 Ja mie (prefer)tostay in on Saturday nights . 10 Mike wanted to sit down because he (st an d) all day at work. 2 1ACompletethe sentences using the correct tense and the verbs fromthebox. Use every verb twice. appear have look see smell think 1 Doyou know that man?He at you all evening. 2 Why themilk? Do you thinkit hasgonebad? 3We lunch now. Will you join us,please? 4 Just look athisface: I bethe about something amazing! 5 Apologies, but I much time atthe moment. I’llget backto you soon, I promise. 6 DanielCraig inthelatestJamesBond movie, NoTimetoDie. 7 She tobehighly intelligent,but he’s awfully lazy too.What a waste! 8I what you mean, butI can’t agree with you. 9 Mymum it’s thebest idea. 10 Andy much better with hishair cut. 11 WhenIgot home,theflat of cigarette smoke. 12 you anybodythese days, Frank? 3 1A Completethetext usingthe correcttense andthe verbs fromthebox. agree be x3 read send x2 tell work write Software programmer NeilPapworth 1 the first text messagein1992.It 2 : ‘Merry Christmas!’ . Papworth 3 forVodafone atthetime. Sincethe timeofthat very first message, people 4 really long messages, so it 5 so easy to forgetthatthere 6 a limit of160 charactersper messagebackthen! Papworth said that he only recently 7 hischildren thatit washe who 8 the very firsttext message. Sincethen,there 9 many innovationsinphone technology,butPapworth 10 thatthis was perhaps a key momentin mobilehistory. 4 1DMatch the sentencehalves. 1 Let’s go to theparty, 2 Sorry, I’mputting you on the spot, 3 Somebodytold you, 4 Nobody gave you the message, 5 Don’t forget, 6 He’llturn thelaptop off, 7 You couldn’t help me, 8 Cometotheparty, 5 1DCompletethequestions with the correctquestiontag. 1 He doesn’t come across very well, ? 2 You can’t letitdrop, ? 3 You’re going to Paris, ? 4 You haven’t seen my mobile, ? 5 Ishould pay her a compliment when we first meet, ? 6 He’s not goingtotake to you if you insist onhaving thelast word, ? 7 The roomlooksdifferent ...Someonehas moved the couch, ? 8 Let’s get someice cream, ? 9 Comesit with us, ? 10 Parents needtoteach children nottodroplitter, ? 11 Pickit up, ? 12 Nobody helpedher, ? 13 I’m havinglunch withthem, ? 14 Don’t go out tonight, ? 6 1D Completethe conversation with question tags or echo questions. Bella It’s Jade’s birthday party tomorrow. Tia 1 ?Oh, no!I haven’t bought her apresent yet! Bella Well, you only needtobuy a little something, 2 ? Tia Isupposeso– 3 that close, are we? What have you bought her? Bella Some earrings – they’re silver. Tia 4 ?That’s nice.You’ve beenfriendsfor a longtime now ... Well,I’llhave to thinkof somethingtoo. Let’s go to thepartytogether, 5 ? Bella Goodidea!7p.m . at mine?Don’t belate,6 ? a could you? b aren’t I? c shall we? d won’t you? e won’the? f didthey? g will you? h didn’t they? 173 Each Student’s Book unit is divided into seven lessons (Lessons A-G). It always starts with Grammar and Vocabulary (Lesson A) and ends with Writing (Lesson G). The order of the other lessons varies from unit to unit and is determined by the most natural and harmonious flow of the presented topics. This helps make teaching and learning more flexible and varied. HIGH NOTE UNIT WALKTHROUGH There are two grammar lessons in each unit: • The first grammar point is introduced at the beginning of each unit and is combined with vocabulary for more integrated learning (Lesson A: Grammar and Vocabulary). This lesson is additionally supported by Grammar Videos, which provide authentic, manageable chunks of the target grammar in a real context. The grammar is then recycled throughout the rest of the unit. • The second grammar lesson comes later in the unit and introduces another grammar point. GRAMMAR 1 3 2 4 4 5 7 8 6 5 5 7 9 Clear summary of unit contents. 1 Learning objectives with an immediate opportunity for self-assessment. 2 Grammar presented through a variety of text types (blogs, magazine articles, dialogues, etc.) or recorded conversations. 3 Guided discovery approach to grammar makes new language more memorable and enhances motivation. Students check their guesses about grammar either with the Grammar box on the page, if present, or in the Grammar Reference at the back of the book. 4 Grammar Reference and Practice section at the back of the book, with more explanations and exercises. It can be used for remediation, extra practice or in a flipped classroom scenario. 5 Watch out! boxes draw students’ attention to areas of special difficulty and help pre-empt common errors. 6 Variety of exercises provide meaningful practice of new structures in relevant contexts. 7 Grammar Videos provide authentic examples of the presented grammar, which students can use as a model for their speaking. 8 Pronunciation exercises focus students’ attention on different aspects of pronouncing individual sounds and groups of sounds. 9 10
INTRODUCTION 7 Match theidioms 1–6 with their definitions a–f . 1 □ jump down somebody’s throat jumpdown somebody’s throat 2 □ putsomebody onthespot 3 □ fire questions at someone 4 □ refusetolet something drop 5 □ insist onhavingthelast word 6 □ not get awordinedgeways a To be unable to sayanything because someone else is talking all the time. b To embarrasssomeone by forcingthemtoanswer a difficult question. c To have tomake the finalpointina discussion orargument. d To not stop talking about a particular subject. e To react angrily tosomethingsomeone hassaid. f To asksomeone a lot of questionsquickly. 8 Study ActiveVocabulary anddiscuss how you would express theidioms inExercise7in your own language. Howcouldyouillustratetheidioms with a drawing? ACTIVE VOCABULARY |Idioms • Anidiomis a fixedphrase that hasa specialmeaning which isdifferentfromthe usualmeaningof the individualwords, e.g. He jumpeddown my throat meansHereacted angrily. • Idioms rarely translate exactly into another language. • Manyidioms describe animage. Ifyoucan visualise the image – or evendraw it –that might helpyou to rememberand learnthe idiom. 9 Whichof theidioms in Exercise7arethingsyou dislike someone doing whenyou’re talking to them? Say why. 10 REFLECT |Society Inpairs,makea list of top fiverules for making a goodimpression or communicating well with other people at a party. 1 Look at thecartoonand thetitleof thearticle.Inpairs, answer thequestions. 1 Canyou work out the meaningofthe title from the context? 2 Doyou findit easy or difficult tobreak the ice with people you don’t know? Say why. 2 Read the article. Whichpiece of advicedo you think is the most useful? Say why. 3 Study thephrases highlighted in the article. Then completethesecondsentenceso that it means the sameas thefirst,includingtheword given incapitals. 1 He startedtalkingtoher inthe hallway. STRUCK He withher inthe hallway. 2 She gave the impressionof beingveryself-confident. ACROSS She beingveryself-confident. 3 Alice commented onhow nice hisshoeswere.PAID Alice abouthis shoes. 4 I immediately liked him. TOOK I immediately. 5 We foundit really funny. LAUGH We really about it. 6 I didn’treally like her friendswhenI met them.OFF I didn’treally withher friendswhen I metthem. 4 Inpairs, discusshowyoumet yourbest friend. Use some of the phrasesfromExercise 3. 5 1.4 Listen to someone talking about breaking the ice. What kind of behaviour does shefind annoying whenmeetingnewpeople? 6 1.5 Listen againandwritedownwhat you hear. This time there will bepauses. Don’t worry too much about Don’t worrytoomuch about making a favourable impression. Often the best way to Often the best way to strike up a conversation is simply to is simply to comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s happening around you. If you can happening around you. If you can happening around you. If you can have a laugh about the situation about the situation you’re in, it can really create a bond or connection between you. or connection between you. People often like it if you People often like it if you pay them a compliment, but don’t try too hard or you’ll sound insincere. Just too hard or you’ll sound insincere. Just too hard or you’ll sound insincere. Just make small talk about whereyou live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find where you live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find where you live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find where you live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. People are more likely to People are more likely to take to you if you come across as a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though don’t stare) and smile. and make new friends and make new friends and make new friends 8 How to How to Nice hammer! Thanks, I got it for my birthday. it for my birthday. it for my □Icantalk about makingnew friends. 1C VOCABULARY | Idioms and phrases related to communication Vocabulary is a vital element of each unit. It is integrated into all lessons and systematically developed. • The first lesson (Lesson A) combines new grammar with new vocabulary. • There is a separate Vocabulary lesson which presents the main lexical set(s) of the unit. • There is additional vocabulary input in the Reading, Listening, and some Speaking and Writing lessons. • There are extra exercises activating the word lists and tips on how to best memorise new words. 2 4 1 3 3 5 1AGRAMMAR ANDVOCABULARY 5.1 be stuck/ˌbi ˈstʌk/ build relationships /ˌbɪld rɪˈleɪʃənʃɪps/ buzz (v)/bʌz/ capture (n)/ˈkæptʃə/ carry a message /ˌkæri ə ˈmesɪdʒ/ come tolight /ˌkʌm tə ˈlaɪt/ contribute (v)/kənˈtrɪbjuːt/ communicateface-to-face/kəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt ˌfeɪs tə ˈfeɪs/ convey a message/kənˌveɪ ə ˈmesɪdʒ/ deliver a message /dɪˌlɪvər ə ˈmesɪdʒ/ essential(adj)/ɪˈsenʃəl/ establishcontact withsb/ɪˌstæblɪʃ ˈkɒntækt wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ get a response/ˌget ə rɪˈspɒns/ goout (lights)/ˌɡəʊ ˈaʊt (laɪts)/ hail (v)/heɪl/ ingenious (adj)/ɪnˈdʒiːniəs/ keep/stayintouch withsb/ˌkiːp/ˌsteɪ ɪn ˈtʌtʃ wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ lose contact/touch withsb/ˌluːz ˈkɒntækt/ˈtʌtʃ wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ maintain contact withsb/meɪnˌteɪn ˈkɒntækt wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ make contact withsb/ˌmeɪk ˈkɒntækt wɪθ ˌsʌ mbɒdi/ means of communication/ˌmiːnz əv kəˌmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃən/ pass ona message /ˌpɑːs ˈɒn ə ˌmesɪdʒ/ rapidly(adv)/ˈræpɪdli/ rare (adj)/reə/ share knowledge/ˌʃeə ˈnɒlɪdʒ/ sincethe dawn oftime /ˌsɪns ðə ˈdɔːn əv ˌtaɪm/ smoke signals(n)/ˈsməʊk ˌsɪɡnəlz/ speed up(phrv)/ˌspiːd ˈʌp/ spot a problem /ˌspɒt ə ˈprɒbləm/ spreadthemessage/ˌspredðə ˈmesɪdʒ/ stayintouch/ˌsteɪ ɪn ˈtʌtʃ/ text (v)/tekst/ text messaging/ˈtekst ˌmesɪdʒɪŋ/ toss(v)/tɒs/ turnout(phr v)/ˌtɜːn ˈaʊt/ without adoubt /wɪðˌaʊt ə ˈdaʊt/ 1B READINGAND VOCABULARY 5.2 alien civilisation/ˌeɪliən ˌsɪvəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/ assume (v)/əˈsjuːm/ assumption(n)/əˈsʌmpʃən/ being (n)/ˈbiːɪŋ/ billion (num)/ˈbɪljən/ brand-new (adj)/ˌbrænd ˈnjuː/ bring about (phr v)/ˌbrɪŋ əˈbaʊt/ bychance /ˌbaɪ ˈtʃɑːns/ come across (phr v)/ˌkʌm əˈkrɒs/ diagram (n)/ˈdaɪəɡræm/ distant (adj)/ˈdɪstənt/ enormous (adj)/ɪˈnɔːməs/ estimate(v)/ˈestəmət/ evolve(v)/ɪˈvɒlv/ extraterrestial(adj,n)/ˌekstrətəˈrestriəl/ fear sb/sth(v)/ˈfɪə ˌsʌmbɒdi/ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ figure out (phr v)/ˌfɪɡər ˈaʊt/ gaze (v)/ɡeɪz/ get across (phr v)/ˌɡet əˈkrɒs/ giventhat/ˈɡɪvən ðæt/ gold-plated(adj)/ˌɡəʊld ˈpleɪtəd/ habitable (adj)/ˈhæbətəbəl/ hazardous (adj)/ˈhæzədəs/ highly likely /ˌhaɪli ˈlaɪkli/ humanity (n)/hjuːˈmænəti/ humankind (n)/ˌhjuːmənˈkaɪnd/ insurmountable (adj)/ˌɪnsəˈmaʊntəbəl/ launchinto space/ˌlɔːntʃˌɪntə ˈspeɪs/ linguist(n)/ˈlɪŋɡwɪst/ make out (phrv)/ˌmeɪk ˈaʊt/ nuisance(n)/ˈnjuːsəns/ outer space(n)/ˌaʊtə ˈspeɪs/ pass on (phr v)/ˌpɑːs ˈɒn/ physicist(n)/ˈfɪzɪsɪst/ pick up (phr v)/ˌpɪk ˈʌp/ point out(phr v)/ˌpɔɪnt ˈaʊt/ process (v)/ˈprəʊses/ puttogether(phr v)/ˌpʊt təˈɡeðə/ radiodish/ˈreɪdiəʊ ˌdɪʃ/ random (ad j) /ˈ r ændə m/ realm (n)/relm/ ridiculous (adj)/rɪˈdɪkjələs/ sophisticated(adj)/səˈfɪstɪkeɪtɪd/ spacecraft /ˈspeɪskrɑːft/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Twoverbs collocateineach Two verbs collocate in each T case.Cross out the wrong verb. Then check with the word list. 1 You’ve gottolearn how to release / carry /manage your emotions positively. 2 It’sunlikely we will ever deliver /make/ establish contact withaliens. 3 The article aimstoconvey / process/ spread an important message. 4 Idon’twantto come /get/turn into conflict with anybody. intoconflict with anybody. intoconflict 2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs of movement. Then check with the wordlist. 1 I offeredher a coffee to the ice. 2 Why are you dow n my throat? Calm down. 3 I don’tthinkAnn and Tim it off when they met. I guess theydon’t have much incommon. 4 Iam onair! I passed my driving test! 3 Complete thephrasal verbs with prepositions. Then check with the word list. 1 figure (how todosth) 2 point (mistakes) 3 spell (how todosth) 4 pick (signals) 5 strike (a conversation) 6 speed (your plans) 4 Writesynonyms (endingin -ed) for each of these adjectives. 1 totally confused –b 2 intelligent or made in a complicatedway–s 3 extremelyupset–d 4 annoyed – e ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Phrases When you learn phrasesfromthe word lists, you may divide them intogroupsaccording to the way they are built. Forexample,find all phrases with prepositions(with, off, up, etc.), like in Exercise 3 above or words that collocate with the samenoun, like in Exercise 1. 14 Word List species(n)/ˈspiːʃiːz/ spell out (phr v)/ˌspel ˈaʊt/ subtly (adv)/ˈsʌtlɪ/ superior(adj)/suːˈpɪəriə/ takein(phr v)/ˌteɪk ˈɪn/ vital(adj)/ˈvaɪtəl/ wipe out (phrv)/ˌwaɪp ˈaʊt/ 1C VOCABULARY 5.3 approachable (adj)/əˈprəʊtʃəbəl/ breakthe ice/ˌbreɪk ði ˈaɪs/ come across as (phr v)/ˌkʌm əˈkrɒs əz/ comment on sth/ˈkɒment ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ create abond/connection/kriˌeɪt ə ˈbɒnd/ kə ˈnek ʃən/ firequestionsat sb/ˌfaɪə ˈkwestʃənz ət ˌsʌmbɒdi/ friendsforlife /ˈfrendz fə ˌlaɪf/ get a wordin edgeways/ˌget ə ˈwɜːd ɪn ˌedʒweɪz/ give (somebody)an impression /ˌɡɪv (ˌsʌmbɒdi) ən ɪmˈpreʃən/ have a laugh/ˌhəv ə ˈlɑːf/ havethelast word/ˌhəv ðə ˌlɑːst ˈwɜːd/ hit it off(withsomebody)/ˌhɪt ɪt ˈɒf (wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi)/ insincere (adj)/ˌɪnsɪnˈsɪə/ jumpdown sb’s throat /ˌdʒʌmp ˈdaʊn ˌsʌmbɒdiz ˈθrəʊt/ let somethingdrop/ˌlet ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈdrɒp/ make afavourableimpression/ˌmeɪk ə ˌfeɪvərəbəl ɪmˈpreʃən/ make eye contact /ˌmeɪk ˈaɪ ˌkɒntækt/ make smalltalk/ˌmeɪk ˈsmɔːl ˌtɔːk/ pay a compliment /ˌpeɪ ə ˈkɒmpləmənt/ put sb onthe spot /ˌpʊt ˌsʌmbɒdi ɒn ðə ˈspɒt/ strike upa conversation/ˌstraɪk ˈʌp ə ˌk ɒnvəˈ seɪ ʃ ən/ taketo sb/ˈteɪk tə ˌsʌmbɒdi/ 1D GRAMM AR 5.4 airconditioning /ˈeə kənˌdɪʃənɪŋ/ annoy ing (ad j) / əˈnɔɪ ɪ ŋ/ bet (v)/bet/ boiling hot /ˌbɔɪlɪŋ ˈhɒt/ fussy (adj)/ˈfʌsi/ have(no)taste in sth/ˌhəv( /ˌhəv( /ˌhəv nəʊ) ˈteɪst ɪn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ unbearable (adj)/ʌnˈbeərəbəl/ 1E LISTENINGANDVOCABULARY 55 .5 annoyed (adj)/əˈnɔɪd/ apparently(adv)/əˈpærəntli/ astonished(adj)/əˈstɒnɪʃt/ be conscious of sth /ˌbi ˈkɒnʃəs əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ bewildered(adj)/bɪˈwɪldəd/ clenchjaws /ˌklentʃˈdʒɔːs/ confused(adj)/kənˈfjuːzd/ devastated(adj)/ˈdevəsteɪtɪd/ ecstatic(adj)/ɪkˈstætɪk/ emotionalintelligence /ɪˌməʊʃənəl ɪnˈtelədʒəns/ empathy(n)/ˈempəθi/ EQ(emotionalquotient)(n)/ˌi: ˈkjuː (ɪˌməʊʃənəl ˈkwəʊʃənt)/ exasperated(adj)/ɪɡˈzɑːspəreɪtɪd/ fixed (adj)/fɪkst/ get into conflict /ˌɡet ˌɪntə ˈkɒnflɪkt/ grunt (v)/ɡrʌnt/ IQ(intelligence quotient) (n)/ˌaɪ ˈkjuː (ɪnˌtelədʒəns ˈkwəʊʃənt)/ livid (adj)/ˈlɪvɪd/ nod(v)/nɒd/ piece of research/ˌpi:s əv rɪˈsɜːtʃ/ problem-solve (v)/ˈprɒbləm ˌsɒlv/ put oneself in sb’s shoes /ˌpʊt wʌnˌself ˌɪn ˌsʌmbɒdiz ˈʃuːz/ reason(v)/ˈriːzən/ release negativeemotions/rɪˌliːs ˌneɡətɪv ɪˈməʊʃəns/ self-aware (adj)/ˌself əˈweə/ self-awareness (n)/ˌself əˈweənəs/ significant(adj)/sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt/ snap (v)/snæp/ take responsibilityforsth/ˌteɪk rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪləti fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ tense(adj)/tens/ terrified(adj)/ˈterɪfaɪd/ thrilled (adj)/θrɪld/ toa largedegree/extent /ˌtʊ ə ˌlɑːdʒ dɪˈɡriː/ toa largedegree/extent /ˌtʊ ə ˌlɑːdʒ dɪˈɡriː/ toa largedegree/extent ɪkˈstent/ 1F SPEAKING 5.6 annoyance (n) /əˈnɔɪəns/ anxiety/æŋˈzaɪəti/ befed upwithsth/ˌbi fed ˈʌp wɪð ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ beheartbroken/ˌbi ˈhɑːtˌbrəʊkən/ beworried sick about sth/ˌbi ˌwʌridˈsɪk əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ blamesbfor sth/ˈbleɪm ˌsʌmbɒdi fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ breathe asigh of relief/ˌbriːð ə ˌsaɪ əv rɪˈliːf/ be concerned about sth/ˌbi kənˈsɜːnd əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ disbelief (n)/ˌdɪsbəˈliːf/ drive sbupthewall/ˌdraɪv ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈʌp ðə ˈwɔːl/ feelblue/ˌfiːl ˈbluː/ feeldowninthedumps/ˌfiːl ˈdaʊn ɪn ðə ˈdʌmps/ get on sb’s nerves /ˌɡet ˈɒn ˌsʌmbɒdiz ˈnɜːvz/ get out ofhere /ˌɡet ˈaʊt əv ˌhɪə/ havehadit uptohere withsth/həv ˌhæd ɪt ˈʌp tə ˌhɪə wɪð ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ keep sb up at night /ˌkiːp ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈʌp ət ˌnaɪt/ relief (n)/rɪˈliːf/ walk onair/ˌwɔːk ɒn ˈeə/ weightoff(one’s) mind/ˌweɪt ˈɒf (wʌnz) ˌmaɪnd/ 1GWRITING 5.7 bebetteroff/ˌbi ˌbetər ˈɒf/ bedeadimpressed/ˌbi ˌded ɪmˈprest/ be off /ˌbi ˈɒf/ convinced (adj)/kənˈvɪnst/ cross (adj)/krɒs/ half-term(n)/ˌhɑːf ˈtɜːm/ leadrole/ˈliːd ˌrəʊl/ loads of work/ˌləʊdz əv ˈwɜːk/ longtimenosee/ˌlɒŋ ˈtaɪm ˌnəʊ ˌsiː/ nauseous (adj)/ˈnɔːziəs/ put on a musical/ˌpʊt ˈɒn ə ˌmjuːzɪkəl/ reckon(v)/ˈrekən/ rehearse (v)/rɪˈhɜːs/ relieved(adj)/rɪˈliːvd/ step out(phr v)/ˌstep ˈaʊt/ tedious(adj)/ˈtiːdiəs/ tutor(n)/ˈtjuːtə/ 15 01 6 7 HIGH NOTE UNIT WALKTHROUGH Main lexical input of the unit in a separate Vocabulary lesson (the page in the same colour as the course level, i.e. green). 2 Vocabulary introduced through a variety of reading and listening texts and activities. 1 Active Vocabulary boxes support students in learning new vocabulary. • In the Vocabulary lessons, Active Vocabulary boxes draw students’ attention to the intricacies of some of the key lexical areas taught in the lesson, such as idioms, compound nouns, collocations and phrasal verbs, and help pre-empt frequent errors. • In the Remember More sections Active Vocabulary boxes provide tips for students on how to improve their ability to remember and learn new words, encouraging their independent learning skills. 4 Frequent opportunities for using the new vocabulary in speaking contexts. 3 Additional vocabulary input in the Reading, Listening, and some Speaking and Writing lessons (in green boxes or with green highlight). 5 Clearly organised word lists include all the explicitly taught vocabulary from the unit. All entries are recorded, which facilitates pronunciation practice. 6 Remember More section provides further vocabulary practice and activates the words from the list, which helps more efficient learning. 7 VOCABULARY WORKBOOK • Vocabulary Extensions in Reading and Listening lessons introduce more words and phrases, focusing on such areas as phrasal verbs, collocations and word building. • There is also an extra Unit Vocabulary Practice section, which gathers the lexis from the entire unit. There are extra exercises activating the word lists and tips on how to best memorise new words. 5 1 SPEAKINGInpairs,lookatthephotosonpage7and discussthequestions. 1 Doyourecogniseanyofthesefilms?Doyouenjoy watchingfilmsaboutaliens?Saywhy. 2 Whatdo youthinkwouldhappen ifweevermade contact with extraterrestrials? 2 CRITICALTHINKINGRead the article and studyActive Reading. What opinions about the contact between humansandaliensdoestheauthorexpress?Howfar do youagreewith him? ACTIVEREADING|Identifying the author’s opinion In a text, the author presents his/her pointof view on atopicanddifferentargumentstosupportthatview. • Writers often use opinion verbs and phrases to signal theirposition,e.g .Ifeel...,Ithink... • Sometimes they express theirviews more subtlyby usingmodal verbs,e.g .Weshould... • Theymayalsousephrasesofprobability,e.g. Possibly ..., etc. • You will often find the author’smain message towards theendofthearticle. Remember that you can form yourown opinion, rather than uncritically accepting what the author has to say. 3 Read the article again and choose the correctanswers. 1 Howcan theauthor’sopinionofthe Recordbestbesummarised? a Itcontainedtheperfectselectionofitems. b It was very challenging to puttogether. c Ithassucceededincommunicatingwithaliens. d It was too focused on one or two cultures. 2 According to the author, aliens a probablyonlyexist in films and books. b are statisticallylikely to exist. c are certainlyouttheresomewhere. d have picked up our messages already. 3 What does the author think aboutthe possibility of communication between humans and aliens? a Aliens would be intelligentenough to workout a means of communication. b Culture differenceswouldmake communication impossible. c It would be ridiculous to tryand communicate withaliens. d Aliens would assume that humans couldn’t understandthem. 4 What does the author believemight happen if humans made contact with an alien civilisation? a Theymighttreatpeople as a lowerform oflife. b It might be acomplete waste oftime. c It might lead to the destruction ofthe world. d Theymighthelp us to develop as aspecies. 6 □ I can identify the author’s opinion and talkaboutlife on other planets. 1BREADING ANDVOCABULARY Inpairs,lookatthe photos onpage 7 and Doyourecogniseanyofthesefilms?Doyouenjoy watchingfilmsaboutaliens? Saywhy. Whatdo youthinkwouldhappen if we ever made contactwithextraterrestrials? eadthearticleandstudyActive Reading.Whatopinionsaboutthecontactbetween humansandaliensdoestheauthorexpress?Howfar Identifyingtheauthor’sopinion Inatext,theauthorpresentshis/her pointof view on atopicanddifferentarguments to supportthat view. • Writersoftenuseopinionverbs and phrases to signal Ithink ..., Inmy opinion ..., etc. • Sometimestheyexpresstheirviews more subtlyby Weshould...,Itmustbe..., etc. • Theymayalsousephrasesof probability, e.g . Maybe ..., • Youwilloftenfindtheauthor’smainmessagetowards Rememberthatyoucanformyourown opinion, rather thanuncriticallyacceptingwhattheauthorhastosay. Readthearticleagainandchoose the correctanswers. Howcan theauthor’sopinion of the VoyagerGolden bestbesummarised? Itcontainedtheperfect selection ofitems. Itwasverychallengingto puttogether. Ithassucceededincommunicating with aliens. 4 StudyActiveReadingagain.Whichmodalverbs, phrasesofprobabilityandexpressionsofopinion helpedyoutoanswerquestionsinExercise3? 5 Matchthehighlightedphrasalverbsfromthearticle withtheirdefinitionsbelow. 1 Toreceive(abroadcast). 2 Tocausesomethingtohappen. 3 Totellsomeonesomethingyouthinktheydon’tknow. 4 To see something with difficulty. 5 Todestroysomethingcompletely. 6 Tosuccessfullycommunicateamessage/anidea. 7 Toexplainsomethingveryclearly. 8 Tomeetorfindsomethingbychance. 9 Tosolveaproblem. 10 Tounderstandandremembersomethingyouaretold. 6 Completethesentenceswith thephrasalverbsfrom thearticle,inthecorrectform. 1 Iwasembarrassedwhenhe thatIhadmade somebasic spellingmistakes. 2 Itwas cloudy, buthe could still the distantstar. 3I aninterestingarticleaboutspaceexploration theotherday. 4 Technologyhas manychangesintheway welive. READING AND VOCABULARY Ithassucceededin communicating with aliens. Itwastoo focused on one or two cultures. Accordingtotheauthor,aliens probablyonlyexist in films and books. arestatisticallylikely to exist. arecertainlyouttheresomewhere. havepickedupourmessagesalready. Whatdoestheauthor think aboutthe possibility of communicationbetween humans and aliens? Alienswouldbeintelligentenough to workout ameansofcommunication. Culturedifferenceswouldmakecommunication Itwouldberidiculous to tryand communicate Alienswouldassume that humans couldn’t understandthem. Whatdoestheauthor believemight happen if humansmadecontact with an alien civilisation? Theymighttreatpeople as a lowerform oflife. Itmightbeacomplete waste oftime. Itmightleadtothe destruction ofthe world. Theymighthelpus to develop as aspecies. Ican identifytheauthor’sopinionandtalkaboutlifeonotherplanets. Ithassucceededincommunicating with aliens. Itwastoo focusedononeor two cultures. Accordingtotheauthor,aliens probablyonlyexistinfilms and books. arestatisticallylikelytoexist. arecertainlyouttheresomewhere. havepickedupourmessagesalready. Whatdoestheauthorthink aboutthe possibility of communicationbetween humans and aliens? Alienswouldbeintelligentenough to workout ameansofcommunication. Culturedifferenceswouldmake communication Itwouldberidiculousto tryand communicate Alienswouldassumethat humans couldn’t Whatdoestheauthorbelievemight happen if humansmadecontactwith an alien civilisation? Theymighttreatpeople as a lowerform oflife. Itmightbeacompletewaste oftime. Itmightleadtothedestruction ofthe world. Theymighthelpustodevelop as aspecies. Ican identifytheauthor’sopinion and talkaboutlife on other planets. 2 Yourbrotherorsisterseemsquitedepressed. Theyrarelycomeoutoftheirroomandwhenyou trytotalktothemtheyjustgrunt.You’regetting abitworried. 2 □Beingabletoreasonandproblem-solve. 3 □Beingabletomanageyouremotions. 4 □Beingabletofeelandshowempathy. 5 □Beingabletorememberinformation. 6 □Beingabletomotivateyourself. 7 □Beingabletodealwithconflict. 8 □Beingabletomanipulatepeople’semotions. 9 □Beingagoodlistener. 10 □Icanidentifyspecificinformationinaradiointerviewand talkaboutemotionalintelligence. thanuncriticallyacceptingwhattheauthor has to say. Readthearticleagainandchoosethecorrectanswers. VoyagerGolden Itcontainedtheperfectselectionofitems. Itwasverychallengingtoputtogether. Ithassucceededincommunicating with aliens. 5 That’swhatI’vebeentryingto to you,butyou won’tlisten! 6 Ittookmeagesto exactlyhowtouse thetelescope. 7 You don’tunderstand?DoIhaveto whatImean? 8 Arewe actualsignals,orisitjustrandom spacenoise? 9 WhentheEuropeansarrivedinMexico,theybrought Ithassucceededincommunicating with aliens. Itwastoo focusedononeortwocultures. probablyonlyexistinfilmsandbooks. arecertainlyouttheresomewhere. havepickedupourmessagesalready. 9 WhentheEuropeansarrivedinMexico,theybrought adiseasewhich 15million Aztecs. 10 Afterthediscussion,Timrealisedthathe anything shesaid.Hewascompletelyconfused! 7 SPEAKINGInsmallgroups,askandanswerthequestions. 1 Howdoyouthinkextraterrestrialsmightdifferfromus? 6 1.10 Listen toaninterviewand ticktheideas inExercise5 whichthespeakersdescribedas being relatedtoemotionalintelligence. 7 1.10 Listen again andcompletethesentences withaword,aphraseoranumber. 1 Onepieceofresearchshowed thatpeoplewith highemotionalintelligenceearned$ morethanthosewith alowEQ. 2 Emotionalintelligenceisnot , whichis differentfrom IQ. 3 Onewayto becomemoreself-awareistowrite a . 4 Weneedtolearnhowtorecogniseournegative emotionsinordertobeableto them. 5 Otherpeoplecannotmakeusfeelacertainway; wearelargely forourownmoods. 6 Bodylanguage,suchas candemonstrate that you arelistening. 7 Activelisteningcanalsohelpyoutoavoid . 8 SPEAKINGInpairs,discussthequestions. 1 Whichaspectsofemotional intelligencedo you thinkyouarestrongestat? 2 Howcouldyoufurtherimproveyouremotional intelligence?Whatcouldbethebenefits? 9 SPEAKINGIngroups,discuss thebestwayto approachthesituationsbelow.Thinkabouthow you coulduseself-awareness,manageyourown emotions andlistentoandempathisewiththe otherpersoninthesituation. 1 Aclosefriendhasstartedhangingoutwith adifferentgroupoffriends.Yougettheimpression thattheyareavoidingyou.Youfeelhurt,andquite confusedaboutwhat’shappening. 1 THINKBACKHowgoodareyouatidentifyingemotions? Inpairs,lookatthephotosanddiscusswhatemotionsyou thinkthepeoplearefeeling.Usethewordsfromthebox. annoyed confused frightened furious nervous sad surprised thrilled 2 Matchtheadjectivesbelowwiththeirsynonymsin Exercise1.Whichofthewordshaveastrongermeaning thantheirsynonyms? 1 terrified frightened 2 astonished 3 exasperated 4 livid 5 tense 6 ecstatic 7 bewildered 8 devastated 3 Completethesentenceswith theadjectivesfrom Exercise2.Sometimesmorethanoneanswerispossible. 1 I’mcompletely aboutmyexamresults–Inever thoughtI’d do so well! 2 Hehasnoideahowhegothomelastnight.Hefeels completely . 3 She was absolutely when shefoundouthehad cheatedintheexamagain. 4 She felt very asshewaitedforherjobinterview. 5 He’s thatsomeonewillfindouthissecret. 6 Nothingischangingandheisbecomingmoreandmore aboutthesituation. 4 Inpairs,talkaboutoccasionswhenyoufeltsomeof theemotionsinExercises1 and2.Givereasonsfor your answers. 5 Whatisemotionalintelligence?Whichoftheideas1–9 doyouthinkarerelated tothisterm? Discussinpairs. 1 □Beingawareofyourownemotions. 2 □Beingabletoreasonandproblem-solve. A B C 1ELISTENING AND VOCABULARY 4 11
INTRODUCTION LISTENING 6 1.10 Listen to an interview and tickthe ideas in Exercise 5 which the speakers described as being related to emotional intelligence. 7 1.10 Listen again and completethe sentences with a word,a phrase or anumber. 1 One piece of researchshowedthatpeople with highemotionalintelligence earned $ morethan those with alow EQ. 2 Emotional intelligence is not , which is differentfrom IQ. 3 One way to become moreself-aware is to write a . 4 We needto learn how to recogniseour negative emotions in order to beableto them. 5 Other people cannot make us feel acertain way; we are largely for our ownmoods. 6 Body language,such as can demonstrate that you are listening. 7 Activelisteningcan also helpyou to avoid . 8 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss thequestions. 1 Whichaspects ofemotionalintelligencedo you think you arestrongest at? 2 How could youfurther improveyour emotional intelligence? What could be thebenefits? 9 SPEAKINGIn groups,discuss the best way to approach the situations below.Thinkabout how you could use self-awareness,manage yourown emotions and listento and empathise with the otherperson in thesituation. 1 Aclosefriendhas started hanging out with a different group of friends.You get theimpression thatthey are avoidingyou. You feel hurt, andquite confused about what’shappening. 2 Your brother or sister seems quite depressed. They rarelycome out oftheir room and when you try totalk to them they just grunt.You’re getting abitworried. 1 THINK BACK How good areyou at identifying emotions? In pairs, look at the photos and discuss what emotions you thinkthepeople are feeling. Usethe words fromthe box. annoyed confused frightened furious nervous sad surprised thrilled 2 Match theadjectives below with theirsynonyms in Exercise 1.Which of thewords havea strongermeaning than their synonyms? 1 terrified frightened 2 astonished 3 exasperated 4 livid 5 tense 6 ecstatic 7 bewildered 8 devastated 3 Complete the sentences with the adjectives from Exercise2.Sometimesmorethan oneanswer ispossible. 1 I’m completely about myexam results – I never thought I’d do so well! 2 Hehas no ideahow he got homelast night.He feels completely . 3 Shewasabsolutely when shefound out hehad cheated in theexam again. 4 She felt very as she waited for her jobinterview. 5 He’s thatsomeonewillfind out his secret. 6 Nothing is changingand he is becomingmore andmore about thesituation. 4 In pairs, talk about occasions when youfelt some of theemotions in Exercises 1 and 2.Give reasons for youranswers. 5 What is emotionalintelligence?Which of the ideas 1–9 do you thinkare related to this term?Discuss in pairs. 1 □ Being awareof your own emotions. 2 □ Being able to reason andproblem-solve. 3 □ Being able to manage your emotions. 4 □ Being able to feel and showempathy. 5 □ Being able to remember information. 6 □ Being able to motivate yourself. 7 □ Being able to dealwithconflict. 8 □ Being able to manipulate people’s emotions. 9 □ Being agoodlistener. A B C 10 □ Ican identify specific information in a radio interview and talk about emotionalintelligence. 1E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY The Reading lessons feature a variety of information-rich and thought-provoking texts. They contain a range of exercises that practise reading for the main idea, followed by focusing on specific information, vocabulary practice and discussion. The Active Reading boxes cover all crucial skills strategies, which students can actively practise through a series of exercises. This lesson is additionally supported by Documentary Videos, which provide highly engaging clips that can be used as an extension to the themes raised in the reading texts. The Listening lessons offer varied text types and tasks, and numerous opportunities for students to practise listening skills with new vocabulary. READING 1 3 2 Main comprehension exercises in the format of exam-specific tasks. 2 Active Reading boxes cover all crucial skills strategies, which students can actively practise through a series of exercises. 1 New vocabulary is clearly highlighted or presented in coloured boxes, making it easy to find. 1 Frequent opportunities for personalisation and building fluency. 3 Main comprehension exercises in the format of exam-specific tasks. 2 Vocabulary-from-the-text activities encourage students to notice and absorb new words and phrases. 3 All reading texts are recorded so that students can listen to them in their own time to focus on pronunciation. 6 Watch and Reflect sections with authentic Documentary Videos that extend the topics of the reading texts. The clips are accompanied by the video worksheets at the back of the Student’s Book. 5 WORKBOOK New reading texts recycle the grammar and vocabulary covered in the Student’s Book and provide more skills practice. WORKBOOK • New listening texts recycle the grammar and vocabulary covered in the Student’s Book and provide more skills practice. • Active Pronunciation boxes help students see superintendencies between sounds and give tips on how to pronounce particular sounds correctly. Reflect exercises develop critical thinking, asking students to think more deeply about various social, cultural and value-related issues and consider various viewpoints. They can be found in different lessons within a unit and provide extra speaking practice and help build fluency. 4 1 SPEAKINGInpairs, look atthephotos onpage7 and discussthequestions. 1 Do you recognise any ofthese films?Do you enjoy watchingfilmsabout aliens?Saywhy. 2 What doyou think would happen if we ever made contact with extraterrestrials? 2 CRITICALTHINKINGRead the article and studyActive Reading.What opinions about the contact between humansand aliensdoesthe authorexpress?How far doyou agree with him? ACTIVE READING|Identifyingtheauthor’s opinion In atext,the authorpresentshis/her point of view on a topicand different argumentsto supportthat view. • Writers often use opinion verbs andphrasesto signal theirposition,e.g.Ifeel..., Ithink..., Inmyopinion..., etc. • Sometimesthey expresstheir views more subtlyby using modal verbs, e .g .We should ... , It mustbe ..., etc. • They mayalso use phrasesofprobability, e.g .Maybe... , Possibly ..., etc. • You will oftenfind the author’s main messagetowards theend ofthe article. Rememberthat youcan formyour own opinion,rather than uncriticallyaccepting whatthe authorhasto say. 3 Read the article again and choosethe correct answers. 1 Howcanthe author’s opinion ofthe VoyagerGolden Record bestbe summarised? a It containedtheperfect selection ofitems. b It wasvery challengingtoputtogether. c It has succeeded in communicating with aliens. d It wastoo focused on one or two cultures. 2 According to the author, aliens a probablyonlyexistinfilms and books. b arestatisticallylikelyto exist. c are certainlyoutthere somewhere. d havepicked up our messages already. 3 What doesthe authorthink aboutthepossibilityof communicationbetweenhumans and aliens? a Aliens wouldbe intelligent enough towork out a means of communication. b Culturedifferences would make communication imp o ssib le. c It wouldbe ridiculousto try and communicate with aliens. d Alienswould assumethathumanscouldn’t understandthem. 4 What doesthe authorbelieve mighthappenif humansmade contact with an alien civilisation? a They mighttreatpeopleasalower form oflife. b It mightbea complete waste oftime. c It mightleadto thedestruction of the world. d They mighthelp usto develop as a species. 4 StudyActiveReading again. Which modal verbs, phrases ofprobabilityand expressions of opinion helpedyou to answerquestions in Exercise3? 5 Match thehighlighted phrasal verbsfromthe article with their definitions below. 1 To receive (abroadcast). 2 To causesomethingto happen. 3 Totell someone something you thinktheydon’t know. 4 To seesomething with difficulty. 5 To destroysomething completely. 6 To successfullycommunicate a message/an idea. 7 To explain something veryclearly. 8 To meet or find somethingbychance. 9 To solve a problem. 10 To understand and remember something you aretold. 6 Completethe sentences withthe phrasal verbsfrom thearticle, in the correct form. 1 Iwasembarrassed when he thatIhad made some basic spelling mistakes. 2 Itwascloudy,but he could still the distant star. 3I an interesting article about space exploration the otherday. 4 Technologyhas manychangesinthe way we l ive. 5 That’s whatI’ve been trying to to you, butyou won’t listen! 6 Ittookmeagesto exactlyhowto use the telescope. 7 You don’t understand?Do Ihave to what I mean? 8 Arewe actual signals, or is itjust random space noise? 9 WhentheEuropeans arrivedinMexico, they brought a disease which 15millionAztecs. 10 After the discussion, Tim realised thathe anything she said.He was completelyconfused! 7 SPEAKINGInsmallgroups,ask and answerthequestions. 1 Howdoyou think extraterrestrials mightdifferfrom us? 2 What could welearnfromthemifthey visited ourplanet? 3 Should webe scared of communicating with aliens? Say why. 8 REFLECT| Culture In smallgroups, discuss whatyou would includein a message to send into space like the Voyager GoldenRecord.What doyouthink represents thebest of human culture? 2 WATCHANDREFLECT Goto page162.Watch the documentaryGetting through toanimals and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 6 □Ican identifythe author’s opinion andtalk about life on otherplanets. 1B READING AND VOCABULARY For centuries, peoplehave gazed at the stars and wondered if therecould be other beings out there. If so, how could we get a messageto them? Inthe 1800s, peopleexperimented with drawing enormous symbols on the ground, which theyhoped could be made out from space. But ever since spacetravel became possiblein thelater part ofthe twentieth century, people have been looking for more sophisticated waysto make contact. In 1977,the Voyager spacecrafts were launched into space, each carrying a copy of theVoyagerGolden Record, a twelve-inch gold-plated disc, with sounds and images intended to introduce the human race to any extraterrestrials that might find it.But how can you possiblyget across to an alien civilisation what it meansto be human and to live on our planet?Among other things, the Voyager record contained an X-ray of a human hand, an image of a streetin Pakistan, diagrams of the structure of DNA, greetingsfrom Earth in fifty-five languages and ninety minutes of classical, popular and traditional music tracksfrom around the world.More than fortyyearslater, Voyagers1 and 2 arestill sending back vital information about outer spacebut, as far as we know, the messages about humanity have not been passed on. You might assume that thisisbecause aliens are simplysomething we will only ever come across in movies, but you’d probablybe wrong.In fact, ithasbeen estimated thatthere maybe as many as two billion potentially habitableplanets in our galaxy alone, which meansthat we should take the possibility seriously.Chinais so convinced that we will soon make contact, that ithasinvested billions ofpoundsin buildingthe world’s largest radio dish, which canpick up signalsfrom even the very deepest realms of space. However, as thePolish philosopher and science fiction writer, Stanislaw Lem, pointed out,itis highly likely that, even if we do make contact, we won’t be abletotake in orprocess whatthe aliens aretrying totell us. There are, he said,two insurmountable barriers: language and intelligence. The speakers of any two languages around the world will understand each other when they refer to concepts such as food, life anddeath and day and night.But with an alien culture, we can’t make any such assumptions. Thenthereis the fact that in order to travel to our planet,the aliens would have to befar more advanced than we are. Would we be able to figure out what they were saying any morethan most animals understand what we say tothem? I think we have tohope thattheir superior development would mean thatthey were abletofind a solutiontothis problem. And mightit be actually hazardous to send out signalsto attract the attention And mightit be actually hazardous to send out signalsto attract the attention of these superior beings?The well-known physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking certainlythought so. He often spelt out what he feared mayhappen, sayingthat aliens might treat us the same way we would treat bacteria – as a nuisance to be cleaned up.We’ve seen this scenarioplayed out manytimes infilms, such asIndependence Day, where the aliens’ one goal isto wipe out humanity. It’s probably natural to fear that something sodifferent from ourselves could bring about the end of the world. However, given that any visiting aliens arelikely to be considerably more developed than us, mightthey perhaps have something to teach us? In thefilm Arrival,learningthe aliens’ language changes thebrain ofthe linguistinthe film, leading her to evolve. She becomes ableto see thepast and thefuture as clearly as the present, just as the aliens do, and we are led to believe that she will be able to teach us all to do this. As a result, humankind will become able to seethe world from a brand-new perspective. Maybe, just as on this planet, we need to stop fearing those who are different and open our minds tothe possibilities that greater connection with others could bring. MAKING contact By Danny Exeter 5 10 15 2020 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 7 GLOSSARY extraterrestrial – a creaturethat people think may exist on another planet habitable – good enough forpeopletolivein outer space – the space outsidetheEarth’s air, wherethe planets and stars are radiodish – a pieceof equipmentthat collects radio waves fromspace and is usedtofind objectsin space (radiotelescope) realm – area superiorbeing –highlyintelligentthingthat exists 1.3 01 1 SPEAKING Inpairs, look atthephoto of a scientist communicating withaparrot and answerthequestions. 1 What question doyouthink thescientist isasking theparrot? 2 Inwhat ways can humans and animals communicate? Mentionyour own experiences. 2 2 Watchthevideo and answerthe questions. 1 What isthemain reason why mammals can’t speaklikehumans? 2 What isthepurpose of Catherine Hobaiter’s research withchimpanzees? 3 What does achimp mean whenit touches anotherchimpgentlyunder the chin? 4 What has Professor Pepperberg’s research shown? 5 What isimpressive about Griffinthe parrot’s abilitytolie? 6 What has scientific research into human- animal communicationshown us sofar? 3 Whoseresearch in thevideodoyoufind more valuable orinteresting?Say why. What other researchinto communication withanimals doyouknow about? 4 2 Completethesentences withthe words fromthebox. Then watch the video again and check. body concepts forms gesture insight level relatives similarities speech 1 Most mammals actuallyhavethesame mechanical capacity toproduce that humans do. 2 To what extent can wedevelop non- verbal of communicationwith mammals? Chimpanzees are our closest living . Andtheir main methods of communicationare and movement.They use language so much that primatologistCatherine Hobaiteris compiling a dictionary tohelp peoplefigure out what chimpanzees are saying. 3 By deliberately choosingthewrong words, Griffin(theparrot)shows that heunderstands abstract and is capable of using languageto deceive. Deceptiondemonstrates a veryhigh of intelligence. 4 There’s stillalot left toexploreinthis field,but theresearch sofarshows some striking betweenhuman and animal communication, giving us a remarkable into whattheyfeel, and how theybehave. 5 SPEAKING Inpairs or smallgroups, discuss thequestions. Thenshare youropinions withanothergroup. 1 How couldtechnologyhelp animals andhumansto communicate inthefuture? 2 What aretheadvantagesforhumans of being ableto communicate with animals?What aretheadvantages for animals? 3 Which animals wouldyou most like tobe able to communicate with? Whatquestionswouldyou askthem? 6 WRITINGTASK Imagine you are an animalthathas learntto communicate withhumans. Writeablogpost(200–300words) in which youdescribeyour experience. Mention: • theprocess of learningtocommunicate withhumans • what youhavelearnt about humans • howyoufeel about yourexperience GLOSSARY cerebral cortex– theouterpart of thebrain deceive – cause someone tobelieve something untrue deception – theactionof deceiving someone mechanical capacity – physical ability mimicry –theactionof imitating someone or something nerves – fibres that carry messagesbetweenthebody andthebrain neuron – a nerve cell that makes up thenervoussystem and sends messages to otherparts of thebody orthebrain vocal tract –thepassageinthemouthandthroat through which we produce sounds 162 WATCH AND REFLECT 01 Getting through to animals 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 12
INTRODUCTION 12 the rise of messagingonline. Do youthink there is any truth in this point of view? 9 WRITINGTASKWritean email from Maisieto Scarlett, in responseto heremail in Exercise2. • Sharesomerecent personalnews. • Answer the questions Scarlett asks inher email. • Ask Maisiequestionsabout her musical theatreshow. b Ibiza is a fabulous holidaydestination because it’s warm sunnyand a lotof fun. 2 a Actually, I’m prettysureshehad theleadrolein the show. b Actually I’mpretty sure, shehadthelead rolein theshow. 3 a MycousinJacques –theFrenchone– iscoming to stay. b My cousinJacques(the French one) iscoming tostay. 13 □Ican writean informalemail. 1 Discuss in groups.Which of thefollowing forms of communication do you use most often? Do you communicatewith different peoplein different ways? communicatewith different peoplein different ways? communicatewith different peoplein different ways? Givereasons for youranswer. Givereasons for youranswer. emailing messagingthroughsocial media phoning emailing messagingthroughsocial media phoning texting video calling writing a letter texting video calling writing a letter Hi Maisie, Long time no see. How are things? I was sorry to hear that you’ve been ill. Hope you’re feeling better now? Things have been pretty busy here. I’ve beenrehearsing for a musical, Bugsy Malone, which we’re putting on in a few weeks’ time. You like musicals too, don’t you?I’m playing the part of Blousey Brown, which is a pretty big role, so it’s loads of work! I’m really enjoying it, though I’m sure I’ll be terrified when I actually have to step out in front of an audience. We’re expecting over 200 people! BTW, I saw Janie the other day at a party. She said she was working hard for her exams, and that’s why she wasn’t keeping in touch with you. Hmm ... I’m not sure I believed her, someone told me that she was livid with youfor having moved away. How ridiculous is that? It’s not like you could help it, is it? I wouldn’t let it keep you up at night, reckon you’re better off without her if that’s how she feels. Great news about you getting into Oxford University, BTW. Wow! I’m dead impressed. I’m still hoping to get a place at Sheffield University. Actually, I need to speak to one of the tutors about the course. Do you think I should email her, or ring her? What’s the best way to communicate? What else? Well, we’re all off to the coast for a few days for half-term – sun, sand, sea, and sleep. I’m exhausted! What kind of holidays do you enjoy best? Anyway, I guess I’d better go and get on with some revision for my exams. :( Give my love to your family. 2 Read the emailand answerthe questions. 1 What has Scarlett been busy with recently? 2 Why is Maisielikelytobeinterestedin news about Janie? 3 What three questions does Scarlett ask Maisie? 3 What is the relationship between Scarlett and Maisie? What is the relationship between Scarlett and Maisie? What words orphrases makethis relationship clear? What words orphrases makethis relationship clear? From: Scarlett To: Maisie Subject: What’s up? 1G WRITING | An informal email WATCH OUT! We usecommas • after thegreeting, and also after wesign off, e.g. Hi Al, • after introductoryadverbs, e.g. Well, However, Suddenly, Meanwhile, • to separatea series of threeor morewords or phrases We use • brackets and dashestoaddextra information or make a comment on what youhavejustwritten • exclamation marks to express emotions • multiple questionmarksor exclamation marks to put more emphasis (informalwriting) 7 Read theemailfrom aseventeen-year-oldboy to his friend of thesameage.Rewriteit to makeit more informal.Use thephrases in the Writing box. To: Harry Subject: Personal update Dear Sir, I hope that you are quite well? It has been quite a long time since we last made contact. You will be surprised to hear that I was able to pass all of my exams. I feel greatly relieved. I was quite convinced that I had made a great number of mistakes. I will shortly be going on holiday with my parents to Madeira. I am afraid that it may be a little tedious as I believe that only rather elderly people tend to holiday there. I would much prefer to go to Ibiza and go dancing with you. I am convinced that we would enjoy ourselves greatly. My parents would rather eat out in nice restaurants, particularly seafood restaurants, but I greatly dislike seafood. Do you? The thought of it makes me feel a little nauseous. Please do tell me in your next email what your holiday plans are. Kind regards, Stefan 8 REFLECT |Society Somepeople believethat the youngergenerationis losingtheability to communicateface-to-faceorin any depth becauseof the riseof messagingonline. Do youthink there is any 4 Complete the Writing box withexamplesfrom Scarlett’semail. WRITING|An informalemail Organisation • Start with a friendly greeting, e.g. Hi/Hithere. • Mention your last contactwith the other person, e.g . Long time 1 ./Howare 2 ?/Haven’t seen you inages. • Mentionanynewsfromyour friend,e.g.I wassorry to hearthat ... • Cover each topic in a separateparagraph. • Finishwitha friendly, informal goodbye, e.g . Well, that’sallfor now./Hopingto hear from yousoon./ Can’t wait to seeyou!/Givemy 3 to .../ Take4 ,/Love, /Best,/Cheers, Informal style • Usecontractions, e.g. Hope you’re feeling better. • Usemoreinformalquantifiers and intensifiers, e.g. ... whichisa5 big role./I’m 6 impressed./ It ’s 7 work. • Leave out thesubject andauxiliaryverbif themeaning is obvious, e.g. Great newsabout you getting into OxfordUniversity!/Reckonyou’re better off without him. • You mayusequestion tagsandrhetoricalquestions, e.g. Youlike musicals too, 8 ?/9 else ? 5 Matchtheinterjections 1–9with theirmeaningsa–i. Inpairs,taketurns to makestatements andresponses. A I won thelottery! B Yay! 1 □Aha! 2 □Oops! 3 □Argh! 4 □Hmm. 5 □Phew! 6 □Yuck! 7 □Wow! 8 □Yikes! 9 □Yay! a That’s amazing! b I (or someone else) made a smallmistake. c Now I understand! d I’m cross or frustrated. e I’m notsure. f That’sscary or worrying. g That’sbrilliant news! Congra tul a ti ons! h What a relief! i That’sdisgusting. 6 StudyWatch out!Then choosethe sentences whichare correctly punctuated. Give reasons foryour answers. 1 a Ibiza isa fabulous holidaydestinationbecause it’swarm, sunnyanda lot of fun. b Ibiza is a fabulous holidaydestination because 01 The Speaking lessons prepare students for everyday interactions such as participating in conversations, being polite, giving instructions, expressing and challenging opinions. The dialogues present the functional language in a real-life context and make it both meaningful and memorable. The Writing lessons are carefully staged: they begin with an engaging input text relevant to students’ lives, which is followed up by a series of preparation exercises that lead to students completing the final writing task. 1 3 2 Engaging and relevant model text. 1 Writing boxes with useful tips and key language. 2 Graded writing tasks provide students with opportunities to practise their writing skills. 3 Speaking boxes contain key functional language. The phrases are recorded in the Workbook. 1 Pairwork activities and role plays encourage students to use the functional language from the lesson and increase their confidence in speaking English. 2 SPEAKING WRITING 1 WORKBOOK The Active Writing section guides students through all the stages of the process of writing a specific type of text. 3 1.12 Listen to six statements.When you hear a beep, choose and say a suitable response from the box. I don’t blame you. I know, right? I’m really pleased for you. I’m so sorry to hear that. What a pain! What’s the worst that could happen? 4 Replace the underlined words with phrases from the Speaking box and suitable responses in Exercise 3. 1 A I’m extremely concerned I’m extremely concerned about my cat – she isn’t very well. B That’s awful. It’s horrible when a pet is sick. 2 A I’ve got to give a presentation in class next week. I’m really nervous. I’ve been worrying about it a lot I’ve been worrying about it a lot. B There’s no need to worry There’s no need to worry. You’ll be great! 3 A My parents are taking me to Florida this summer. B I don’t believe you I don’t believe you! You lucky thing! A Yes, I’m so happy I’m so happy. 4 A I’m completely fed up with I’m completely fed up with people gossiping behind my back. B I don’t blame you. It’s awful. 5 A I finally finished my Geography project. B That must be a relief for you a relief for you. 5 In pairs, role play the situations. Student A, read the instructions below. Student B, go to page 200. STUDENT A In pairs, role play the two situations. Use language for expressing emotions and for responding from this lesson. 1 You can’t decide what subjects to choose for your final year at school. You’re really worried about this. Tell your friend how you feel. 2 You did badly in your exams. Tell your friend how you feel. For each situation which your partner describes, respond according to these instructions. 1 Express your happiness at the situation. 2 Express your surprise and pleasure. 1 1.11 Listen to six short conversations. What is the main emotion each speaker expresses? Why did each speaker feel that way? 2 Complete the Speaking box with the phrases from the box. Get out of here! I’m feeling a bit blue. I’m heartbroken. I’m worried sick about ... I’ve had it up to here with ... That’s a weight off my mind. SPEAKING | Expressing emotions Expressing anxiety It’s been keeping me up at night. 1 Expressing relief I can breathe a sigh of relief now. 2 Thank goodness. Expressing annoyance and frustration ... is driving me up the wall! ... re ally gets on my nerves. 3 Expressing surprise or disbelief You’ve got to be kidding me! 4 Who would have thought it? Expressing sadness I’m feeling a bit down in the dumps. 5 6 Expressing enjoyment or happiness I’m walking on air! I can’t stop smiling! D E F 01 11 □ I can use fixed phrases to express emotions. 1F SPEAKING 2 1 13
INTRODUCTION Unit 2 1 Complete the sentences withthecorrect form of the words in brackets.Addextra words were necessary. 1 You (get/soak) unless you take an umbrella. 2 Theworldpopulationwassix billion (turn/twenty-first) century. 3 Whenyouarestudyingtill4 a.m., you (be/bound/feel) exhausted the next day. 4 People thought that the useof robots (do/job) such ascleaningandcooking.Butthere’s stilla long wayto go. 5 By theend of this month,they (fight/control) of thecompany for twoyears. 6 My unclehadsigneda contractand (be /op en) anicecreamparlour when his businesspartner backed out. 2 Choose the correct words a–d to complete thetext. Although air travel is more popular than ever, only three percent of the world’s population chose this means of transportation in 2017, and only eighteen percent have ever done so. But things are changing. In 2016, there were around four billion air passengers. Every year the numbers are higher and this is a/an 1 trend. According to estimations, this figure 2 to 7.2 billion by 2035. The whole aviation sector 3 to five percent of global heating. Even if we assume that only three percent of the world’s population fly, we must admit that such high percentage of global emissions is brought 4 by a relatively small group. There is no other human activity that emits as much CO2 as flying over such a short period of time. For example, a person taking one roundtrip flight from Europe to the Caribbean is 5 to produce the same amount ofCO2 as 80 Tanzanians within a year. So even if you eat vegan, rely on solar power and feel 6 about endangered species but still take a plane, you shouldn’t consider yourself green. So what can be done about it? There seems to be a solution, although an expensive one: 7 fuels such as coal or gas need to be more expensive. Unfortunately, this will surely 8 in higher air fares. But the real question is whether we really need to fly so much. Fly green! or be green! or be green! 1 a similar b upwa rd c maximum ddownward 2 a willhave risen b will be rising c isrising disgoing torise 3 a makes b produces c causes dcontributes 4 aby b about cin dover 5 a likely b due c co mmon dsignificant 6 a strongly b deeply c considerably dmerely 7 a exhaust b renewable c acid dfossil 8 a affect b lead c result dcause Unit 1 1 Complete thesecond sentenceusing the word in capitals sothat it means the sameas thefirst one.Use no morethanfour words,including the word in bold. 1 We heard the good news onour waybackhome.WERE Weheard thegood news back home. 2 I have a lot todobefore I go on holidays.LOADS There is before I go on holidays. 3 When I’m very sad,I watch funny videos.DUMPS When I’m , I watchfunnyvideos on You Tube. 4 Sheseemedrather arrogant at first. ACROSS She as arrogant at first. 5 I haven’t eatenmeat for nearlya year.LAST The meat was a year ago. 6 After anhour,wefounda wayhowto turn off unwanted messages.FIGURE It tookusan hour toturn off unwanted messages. 7 Thelast time Sara cametothe cinema waslast winter.SINCE Sara hasn’t Dec emb er. 8 Thisapp enables peopleto maintainregular contacts.TOUCH Thanks to this app,peoplecan . 2 Complete thetext withthecorrect form of the words from thebox.There aretwo extrawords. annoy astonish become carry celebrate find get high send Message in a balloon A 10-year-old Laura Buxton 1 her grandparents’ 50th wedding anniversary in Staffordshire, England. Encouraged by her grandfather, Laura decided to have a bit of fun with one of the helium balloons decorating the party. Before letting it loose, she attached a note which 2 the message ‘Please return to Laura Buxton’ together with her address and phone number. Two days later and 140 miles away in Milton Lilbourne, a farmer 3 the balloon message in his field. Surprisingly, his neighbours were named the Buxtons, and they had a daughter whose name was Laura, so he passed the message on to them. This started a series of extraordinary coincidences. When Laura Buxton received the message, she contacted the Laura Buxton who 4 it. When the two met up, they realized there were other similarities apart from their names. The girls were 5 to discover that they were both the same age, fair-haired, blue-eyed and the same height! On top of that, the girls had the same pets: female black Labrador dogs, grey rabbits and guinea pigs. The two hit it off right from the start and 6 friends for life. The story of the Buxton girls is a reminder that just because something is 7 unlikely, it doesn’t mean it’s impossible. 191 Use of English REVISION VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Complete the sentences with the words fromthebox. Thereare fourextrawords. carry contact get across hit itoff impression laugh passon realbond strikeup took to 1We right from thestart.We talked all evening! 2 Wecreated a . I felt like I’d known her for a year,not an hour. 3 I don’tusually like someoneimmediately but I really him . 4 Mygrandparentsare reallyfunny.We alwayshave a good . 5 It’ssometimes difficult to a conversation at parties with peopleyou don’tknow. 6 The canteen will be closedtomorrow.Can you please themessage to the others? 2 Complete the second sentence using theword in bold so that it means the same as the first one.Useno more than fivewords, including the word in bold. 1 I found it hard to understand what the physics teacher was talking about.FIGURE I found what the physics teacher was talking about. 2 Youmust explain your ideavery clearly so he understands.SPELL Youmust your ideaso he understands. 3 Maryhas drawn my attention to aproblem.POINTED Mary aproblem to me. 4 I couldn’t processso muchinformation.TAKE I allthe information. 5 Thearrival of aliens could causepanic.ABOUT Thearrival of aliens could . 3 Choose the correct words to complete thetext. I’ma verygoodstudent, so I wasreally 1ecstatic /devastated whenI foundout I’d failedan exam. I wasreally 2livid /downinthe dumpswhilemyfriendswho had passed felt like they were walking on air!I genuinely felt 3thrilled /heartbrokenfor thembutat thesametimeI was 4hazardous/ bewildered as towhyI hadn’t passed. I was 5exasperated /worried sicktoo asI hadtotellmy parents. worried sicktoo asI hadtotellmy parents. worried sick Then thehead teacher called me. She apologised and explained there hadbeena terrible mistake. I hadcome top,not bottom!What a weightoff my6nerves /mind! 4 Choose the correct words to complete thesentences. 1 I’ve been talking /talkedonthe phone all afternoon. 2 Urgh,that issounding / soundsawful! 3 I amthinking /think that youngpeople generally spend / are generallyspendingtoo much timeonsocial media. 4 Nowadays,it’s getting/ itgetseasier and easier to stay in touch with people. 5 I saw / was seeingafamousYouTuber yesterday while I shopped/ wasshopping. 6 When we arrived,Lucy hadcooked/ cookeddinner – it wasreadyonthe table! 7 I’ve had/ been havinga phone for as long as I can remember. 5 Complete the mini-dialogues with aquestion tag or an echo question. 1 A I’msureyoufelt stressedout, ? BI suredid. 2 A Hepaidmea lot of compliments. B ?That’s nice! 3 A Don’t tell anyone my secret, ? BOf coursenot! 4 A I’m always making the samemistake, ? BButyoualwayscorrect yourself, whichisgreat! 5 A Wehadn’t had such a goodlaughfor ages, ? BRigh t! I r eally enjo yed m yse lf. 6 A Let’sgo to thecoast, ? BThat’s agreat idea! 7 A I think I’ve reallyhurt Sasha’s feelings. B ?Why don’t youtalk to her about it? USE OF ENGLISH 6 Choosethe correct words a–d to completethetext. STRATEGY| Multiple choice Readthe completetext to haveglobalunderstanding. Look for clues around eachgapasthe word before or after the gap may bepart of aset phrase,e.g. pay a compliment. 1 awere bhadbeen chavebeen dare 2 abeen bgone c discovered d come 3 a convey b carry c write d receive 4 a Staying b Passing c Maintaining d Spreading 5 alast b recently c these d recent 6 achat b speak c talk d conve rs ati on Use of English > page 191 People 1 recording information in the form of writing since ancient times. Latin, the language of religion, and French, the language of the rich and powerful, were the preferred languages in the Middle Ages in Europe. Subjects were usually connected to religion, trade and government, although historians have also 2 acr oss love letters people wrote to stay in touch in those times. After the invention of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century, books and documents in people’s native languages became readily available. This, together with improvements in education and the spread of postal services in the nineteenth centur y, permitted families and friends to 3 messages to each other by letter. messages to each other by letter. 4 co nt act was much easier than it had ever been. In5 years, though, everything has changed. Mobile years, though, everything has changed. Mobile phones, emails and text messages are replacing letters. Why bother writing a letter when you can make small 6 on the phone for very little cost? Most people on the phone for very little cost? Most people would agree, however, that there is something very special about receiving a personal, handwritten letter. Staying In touch 01 Revision 16 READING 7 Read thetext. Match sentences A–G with gaps 1–6in the text.There is oneextra sentence. A Finally, we shouldn’t forgetthat when students learn a foreign language,they are alsolearning about the cultureof the country or countries whereit is spoken. B Learninga foreign languagehasonceagain been given the importanceit deserves. C It is easyto get your messageacross in ahotelor restaurant in Spanish and French,but neither is as widely spoken or as simple to learn as English. D This was attributed to amixtureof culturalreasons and pastgovernment policies. E Perhaps students in theUK are wasting their time bylearning French and German, and should be turning their attention to Mandarin, the most spoken language inthe world? F Brazil,Russia,Indiaand China areconsideredto bethe main emerging economies,so it would seem tomake sense to study one of the mainlanguages spoken in these countries. G Thevast majority of students at secondary school learna foreign language,which is oftenEnglish. SPEAKING 8 In pairs,role play the situationbelow.Then change roles and dothe taskagain. STRATEGY | Role play Read thetaskandnotedownsome statements and questions you could use.Decide if you haveto role play aconversationbetween friends or strangers anduse appropriateformalor informalregister. Remember to be polite and speak clearly. Student A You feela classmateis ignoringyou.You thought he/ shewasyour friend and you arerather upset.Discuss theproblem withStudent B.Your goalis to find thebest possible solutionto theproblem. Student B You area friend of Student A, who shares a problem with you. Discussthe problem and suggest some solutions. Do your best to help.Use thephrases below tohelp you. You start first. • Is anythingthe matter?Youlook a bit down. • You’ve got to be kiddingme! Canyouthinkof something youhave done that mighthave upset him/her? • Try andget itin perspective.Maybe he/she hasproblems and itisn’t youat all. • Why don’t youhave a serious chatwithhim/her? WRITING 9 Read this emailyoureceived from yourEnglish- speaking friend, Marianne. Going to study in the USA! Hi, How are you? I haven’t seen you in ages. How are your studies going? Have you been doing anything exciting recently? Hey, I’ve got an offer of a place at university in the US! It’ll be a great opportunity for me to get a degree in engineering from a top college, but it’ll mean going abroad for a long time, and probably losing touch with all my friends here. I’m worried sick about this. I’m really not sure what to do − have you got any advice for me? Take care, Marianne Write yourreply. A recent study in the UK revealed that only about twenty-five percent of adults in the UK can hold a conversation in a foreign language. 1 However, However, foreign language learning is now being prioritised in schools. French, Spanish and German are three of the languages identified as the most important. On the other hand, the situation in Europe is different. 2 English is now a compulsory subject in English is now a compulsory subject in many primary schools too. Fluency in a foreign language in general and English in particular is considered highly important fora student’s future. There are many reasons for this. Firstly, having a good command of a foreign language is a useful skill to include on a curriculum vitae and can help young people be successful in their chosen career. What’s more, proficiency in a different language than your native one also makes travelling less stressful and fun! 3 This is a great way of promoting global This is a great way of promoting global understanding too. However, is English really as crucial as the large number of students of English would suggest? 4 The question of which languages will dominate The question of which languages will dominate the future is a difficult one to answer. It really depends upon which future we are considering. Take the future of business, for example. 5 Re p orts Reports also suggest Arabic and Spanish will be important languages to do business in the future. This is all ratherbewildering! As faras travelling is concerned, Chinese is the most spoken language in the world today, but as it is rather complex and more unevenly geographically distributed, it isn’t the ideal lingua franca. 6 So, English as a vehicle of international communication would seem to be here to stay. The next lingua franca 17 Unit revisions reinforce skills and practise the language covered in the unit. They have two parts: a review of vocabulary and grammar with a focus on the Use of English type of tasks, and an integrated skills section. The Vocabulary and Grammar section focuses on reviewing the key language from the unit. 1 • The Use of English section consolidates the grammar and vocabulary through task types that are often used in exams. • The Use of English section at the back of the Student’s Book provides more exam-oriented practice of the language taught in the unit. 2 Useful strategies to deal with typical exam task types. 3 Carefully developed speaking activities help students review and practise speaking skills. 5 Writing exercises are based on the most frequent exam task types. 6 WORKBOOK • The Self-assessment page provides an opportunity for students to assess their progress and reflect on their learning. • The Self-check page lets students verify how much they have learnt with regard to the unit objectives. 1 5 3 2 2 6 4 Graded exam-style reading tasks (and listening tasks in other units) help students to review and practise reading/ listening skills. 4 14
INTRODUCTION CULTURE SPOT 2 Houses of Parliament 157 157 How to give a persuasive presentation LIFE SKILLS 01–02 5 1.23 5Watchorlistento Jenny,astudent, giving a presentation.Answer the questions. 1 WhatdoesJenny sayisthekeymessageofhertalk? 2 Howdoesshemakethebeginningofhertalk 7 Rewrite the sentences following theinstructions inbrackets. 1 Doing wellin examsrequires severaldifferent things. (Think of three thingsand use tripling.) I have never forgotten my first day at primary school or at secondary school.(Use repetition by repeating It’sprobably agood ideato stand up for our beliefs. (Make this statement moreconvincing. Use emotional Listen to three pairs of sentences.In each pair, which sentence sounds more interesting and ookat some sentences from Jenny’s talk and underline key words (words that carry the most I’d liketotalk about the aims and ambitions we all have. We need tohavesomethingto reach for and to help If you’ve got something you really want to do,then For as long asI can remember,I’veloved to swim. But if you arereally passionate about something, ork in pairs.Choose one of thetopics below, or think of another one that you feelstrongly about. Make a list It is moreimportant to enjoy life than make money. Developing self-disciplineis essential to success in life. Use your notes from Ex.10 to give a short presentation. • Organiseyour arguments and examples into clear sections. presentation aspersuasive andmotivating as possible. • Use someoftherhetorical devices from the Speakingbox. • Give your talk to the class. Think about stress andintonation. techniques they use to maketheir presentationimpactful. 33 D eb a t i ng Cl u b LIFE SKILLS How to be good at debating 03–04 R o u n d h i lls R o u n d h i lls D eb a t i ng Cl u b D eb a t i ng Cl u b A rey o u rea d yf o r the R o un d hills D e b a tin g C lu b meetin g next Thurs d ay? In case you are still w orking on your talks, w e’ve asked our last m onth’s debate cha m pions In case you are still w orking on your talks, w e’ve asked our last m onth’s debate cha m pions 3 Study the Life Skillsbox and match tips 1–6 with textsA–C .Sometextsmatchwithmorethanonetip. LIFE SKILLS |How to be good at debating 63 7 2.19 Study the Speaking box.Listen again and complete the phrases with the wordsfrom thebox. case conclude evidence point reinforces several support vital Supporting your arguments in a debate isthat ... It iseasy to think of many instances of thisin daily life. cases w her e this has happ ened ... that ... Work in pairs.Choose one of the topics and make alist Themedia does not have the right to report on the Thegovernment should have some control over what is Teenagersshouldshare the responsibility for running Work in groupsof four. Prepare for a debate in the next class.Use thetips from the lesson and the language from • Find a pair who have chosen thesame topic as you • With your partner,analyseyour argumentsandfind • ThenStudentB ineach pair presents the second argument. • Listen to the argumentsof theother pair and think of • At the endof thedebate,assessyour argumentsand LIFE SKILLS How to make the most of volunteering 05–06 Giant Beach Clean-up Giant Beach Clean-up Giant Beach Day C Last year the annualGiant Beach Clean-up 1 In pairs, look at the photos showing different volunteering opportunities anddiscussthequestions. 1 How are thevolunteersin eachpicture helping others, or the environment? What otherkindsof volunteering 7 Study the LifeSkillsbox and think about your answers tothequestions.Then,interviewyourpartnerusing thebox.Discusswhatkindof volunteeringprojects would suit each of you. How to make the most of volunteering a commitment. Whenapplying to be avolunteer,make responsibledecisionsabout the project you want to be • What experience do I havethat will help meto be • Would Irather work from home or face-to-face? • Could I organise a smaller project myself (in school or Read a statement below. In small groups, make a list of argumentsfor and against that you could use in It is better to donate money to established charitiesthan to volunteer your timeas an inexperienced amateur? In pairs, discuss the question. What smaller volunteer projects could you set up (e.g.holding abake sale, • Consider how you willgather your volunteers – asking 93 LIFE SKILLS How to manage your online image Last year the annualGiant Beach Clean-up 07–08 Silence and respect Silence and respect Lindsey Stonewas a carer working with a group of adults with Lindsey Stone was a carer working with a group of adults with tips 1–6 with extra How to manage your online image Don’t post anything online without thinking about its Do a search on your nameevery six monthsor so. Remember that posting something privately doesn’t Ask yourself if you would be comfortable with your Set up an alert to let you know when someonetags Add a lot of new poststo move something you don’t want people to see to the third or fourth pageof Don't download or shareanythingthat belongs to Could someone else access and impact your digitalfootprint? How well do In pairs or small groups,discuss this statement. Adults should not be allowedto post pictures of their children on social mediawithout their explicit permission. Work in pairs. Make aplanto improveyour online presence. • Look at your current online presence and consider if • Writedownat least five actions you will take in the 123 out and about, theywould often take and postsilly photosof One day they visited Arlington National Cemetery in Washington. number of war veterans. Lindseyand Jamie saw a sign saying ‘Silence and Respect’ and thoughtit would befunnyto takea photo of Lindsey pretending to shout. They posted the photo, Theyreally had never thought about their privacysettings or who mightbe sharing the photo untilLindseywoke up one day to find reporters and camera crews outsideher door. 12,000 people had signed an online petition to haveher fired fromher job, because of the lackof respectshown by her photo. Soon she was one of themost hated women in America – and shedid indeed lose her job as aresult of her negative onlinepresence. learning difficulties. She and her friend and colleague Jamie often took thegroup on daytrips and holidays. Thetwo friends often took thegroup on daytrips and holidays. Thetwo friends had something of a running joke going on. When theywere out and about, theywould often take and postsilly photosof RESILIENCE: skillsandstrategies A B Peoplesometimes think thata resilient person is someone whoisneverupset orworried by stressful situations, butinfact, resilienceis somethingthat people buildbygoing throughdifficulties and coming out the other side.Everyonecanlearn to be more resilient. Asmuch as anything, building resilienceis about changing howyou look at the world.When difficult situations arise, tryto keep themin perspective. Don’t assume that because something hasgonewrong, everything will continue thatway. See the problemasa challenge, and trust that eventuallyyou willovercome it, even if it takesa few tries.Trysetting yourselfsmall, manageable tasks that will moveyou slowlytowardsyourfinal goal. Sometimes, youreallycan’t doanythingtoimprovethe situationbutyoucanalwayslearn fromit.Maybethat’s aboutlearning what you might dodifferentlyanother time, or simplygainingaheightenedawareness of the positivethingsinyour life. Accept that change happens andthat you can’talwayscontrol it. Whengoing throughtoughtime,it’simportanttotake careof yourself.Eatfoodsthat willnourish andsustain you, getenoughsleepand exercise. Make timefor activitiesthat you enjoyand that bringyoupleasure. Andrememberthat you don’t havetodoeverything alone. Thesupport of otherscanmake all the differencebetweenbeing resilient andfeeling overwhelmed. Appreciateand makeuseof any supportoffered, anddon’tbeafraid to ask forhelp when inneed. 152 LIFE SKILLS How to build resilience out and about, they would often take and post silly photos of 1 Read thedefinition of resilience. In what way does each photo symbolisetheidea of resilience? resilience(n)– theabilitytokeepgoingwhenlifeisdifficult, andevenlearn somethingfromtheexperience 2 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 What different lifesituationscanyou think of whereit would be usefulor necessary to have resilience? 2 Doyouthinkitispossibletodevelopresilience? 3 4.16 ListentoAnnaandJoetalkingaboutadifficultsituation in theirlife. Make notes about the situations andhow they were dealt with. 4 Read the article and usetheinformation to complete the summary intheLifeSkillsbox. LIFE SKILLS |How to build resilience • Acceptthat1 happensandthatitisn’talwayspossibleto 2 it. • Try tokeepthingsin3 andhaveapositiveandhopeful outlook. • Bedeterminedanddon’t 4 upeasily.Break tasksdown intosmallmanageablechunks. • Seeasetbackor disappointmentasanopportunity to5 something aboutyourself or aboutlife. • Takecareofyourself.6 wellandgetenoughsleep and exercise. • Even ifyou’re busy,makesureyouhavetimeto7 yourself. • Bewillingtoaskfor 8 orhelp from yourfriends and family. 5 What advice would you giveto the following people to help them deal with their problem? I think I’ve done something toupsetmybestfriend. I don’tknow whatitis,butIcan tell fromthewayshelooksatme that she’s annoyed with me. I think she’s going to start hanging out with someone else,and ifthathappens,I’ll havenofriends atallbecausethey’llalllikeherbetter. Mygrannyhashadtogointo hospital.I canhear myparents whisperingaboutitinthe kitchen, but they aren’t telling mewhat’sgoingonor ifshe’s goingto bealright.I ’mreally worried. 6 Inpairs,discussthequestions. 1 Describe atime you found really stressful atschool. 2 How do you deal with pressure? 3 Talkaboutatimeyoufailedatsomething. 7 Interviewersforjobsoruniversityplaces often ask questionslike thosein Exercise 6. Why do you thinkthat is? 8 DEBATEReadthestatement.Insmallgroups, makealistof argumentsfor andagainstthat youcoulduseinadebate. Should resiliencebetaughtin schools or isit p aren ts’ resp onsi bilit y? 9 Dothetaskbelow. LIFE SKILLS|Project Work in small groups. Choosea famous person whoyouthinkisresilient.Dosomeresearchabout theperson and prepare a mini-presentation for theclass.Make notes under thefollowing h eadin gs: • Briefdescriptionof theperson and what diffi cult ies t hey ex per ience d. • How they dealt with thedifficulties.(They may not havedealt with them well at first). • How they were supported by others,if appr op riat e. • Whatthey learnt and/orhow they changed asa result. • The positiveimpact they havehad on others or on the world. C 153 09–10 JonathanHarker, a solicitor, is staying at CountDracula’scastleto arrangethesaleof a propertyon behalfofhis employer.TheCount isa strangeman who forces Jonathan tohaveall 161 EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT BRITISH PARLIAMENT 1 Workingroups.What doyouknowabout theBritish Houses of Parliament? 2 Readtheinterviewonpage156andcheckyour ideas inExercise1. 6 4.4 .19 Listen toa conversation and check your answers to the quiz questions. 7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of verbs from thebox. drag honour inherit overrun precede reclaim The town hallwasreopened last week after atransformation – it has been completely modernised. with tourists and ahuge The builderscouldn’t lift the stones,so they hadto by afilm about Alarge number of houseswere built on the site that with an award for excellencein answer the questions. How isthe home of your country’sgovernment different from the Houses ofParliament? Doyou think it’s better to keep traditions in government,like those in the British Houses of Parliament, or to modernise the rulesand – (BrE) an areaof acountry that elects – to make an area of desert,wetland, etc. suitable A greatnumberofmusicians featuredthe themes and quotes from Shakespeare’splaysin awholerange of works: fromthe Beatles andDireStraits toMetallica andthe Lumineers. TaylorSwiftwas alsoinspiredbythe playwright andrecorded an award-winningsong‘Romeoand Juliet’. The smash musical hitThe Lion Kingis aretellingofthe plotofHamlet, anda thrillernovelMacbeth bythemajor Scandinavian writer, JoNesbo, brings tolife the famous protagonistagain as an inspector dealingwith gangs, and aimingfor the toppolice jobofcommissioner. There is also a groupcalledTheHip-hop Shakespeare Company, which combinesrapandShakespeare tobringthe playsand sonnetstoyoungaudience. Although controversy still remains about the authenticity ofmanyShakespeareanworks,it is relatively safe to assumethathe wrote the majority ofthe thirty-sevenplays and a hundred and fifty-four sonnets attributed to him. All ofthese works have led toa variety ofinterpretations andadaptations whichhave impacted ourlives invarious ways.There is a magic aboutShakespeare’sstories and characters thatreachoutacross the centuries.Andthat’s because he dealtwith the issue:whatit means tobe human.His playsfeature universal themesand emotions, andthe questions he poses engage people from century to centuryall over the world.Every one ofus canunderstand (if not identify with) such emotions as falling in and out of love,jealousy,betrayal,ambition,ruthlessness, deception, misguidedbeliefs,etc.Shakespeare’splays mirrorour societytoday andthe messages are still relevant.Thatis whytheycanbe performed ina multitude ofdifferentways andplaces –Macbethcanbe the ScottishKing,orhe can be a police inspector,Romeoand Julietcanbe children offeudingfamilies,or membersofdifferent gangs inthe streets ofNewYork. CULTURE SPOT 1 The influence of Shakespeare Not of an age, but for all time. all time. all – Ben Jonson 1 2 And thequestions Shakespeare asksin hisplaysare justthat–questions. Heleavesittous, his audiences to discuss and findourown responses. This is anotherway Shakespeare hasinfluencededucation today. Lookingat Shakespeare’s playsandanalysingthe motivation ofthe protagonists can help students develop critical thinking skills. Byquestioningour assumptions and beliefs we become better thinkers. The tragedy Romeo and Juliet raisesquestions, such as whetherfamilytiesare stronger than romantic love. In Othellowelearn aboutracismand intolerance. The issuesofsocialdivision, crime, war, death, mentalhealth, religion andmanymoreare alltouchedon by Shakespeareandprovoke debatetodayasmuch asthey didin his era. One ofthe mostfamous quotationsisHamlet’s ‘tobeor nottobe’, anditisasvalidtodayasithaseverbeen. Shakespeare alsohadothersignificant impacts onour culture.Itwas his work that helpedredefine modern theatre.He interactedwithpeople fromall backgrounds andclasses andhis staging ofplaysbrought theatre tothe general public,ratherthan only to those ofthe upperclasses. Back inthe day,hisaudiences were loud andinteractive,shoutingcomments,cheering,booing. The theatre after Shakespeare was never the same again. His plots alsohelpedmoderncinematic techniques develop; familiarity with the storylines of Shakespeare’s plays allowedearly cinema pioneers to experimentwith silentmovies;KingJohn in1899andearly special effects with the flyingand disappearingfairies inA Midsummer Night’s Dream.Inadditiontothis,Shakespeare shaped what we know abouthistory andhistorical figures;his plays supplement historicalrecords about the kings and queens he portrayed.As well as this,questionshe raised about people’s thought processes and behaviour, prompted early investigations into psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud admitted to being influenced by Shakespeare’s portrayal ofHamlet’s obsessions. Lastbut notleast,ofcourse, one ofShakespeare’s major influences wason the Englishlanguage itself.He added a huge amountofvocabularytoenrich the English language so every day English speakers unthinkingly use Shakespearean words orphrases.Check outour website todiscoverhowyoumightbe quoting Shakespeare when youspeak! 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 5 Shakespearedied over400 years ago, but today his plays and sonnets arestillstudied by overhalf thepupils in theworld and thewriter’s influence is literally everywhere.Let’s have aquick look at modern pop culture. Hamlet’s ‘to be or not to be’ is as ‘tobeornottobe’isas ‘tobeornottobe’ valid today as it has ever been. 154 1 Workin pairs and answer the questions. 1 HowmanyShakespeare’splayscanyouname? 2 Look at photos 1–3 below. Matchtheplays A–C tothe photos.Whatdoyouknowaboutthestories? A Hamlet B Macbeth C AMidsummerNight’sDream 2 Inpairs,discussdifferentwaysShakespeare’sworkhas influencedculture.Thinkabout:film,literature,music, psychology, theatre. 3 Readthearticleonpage154.Whichof your ideasfrom Exercise 2 are mentioned? 4 Read the article again and answer the questions. 1 Whydoesthe writer mentionTaylor Swift? 2 What isthe writer’s opinion about the authorshipof Shakespeare’s playsand sonnets? 3 Why,according to the writer,are Shakespeare’splays stillvalid today? 4 How can studying Shakespeare help studentstoday? 5 How did Shakespeare change the theatreinhis lif etim e? 6 Why areShakespeare’s history plays important for us? 5 Completesentences1–6withnounsformedfrom the wordsinthebox. assume authentic betray deceive familiar ruthless 1 Studentsneedtoshow with Shakespeare’s Hamlet to answer the questions. 2 The ofthepoemisnotindoubt. 3 Youcan’ttellKatyaboutourconversation–itwould bea oftrust. 4 A key characteristic of many dictatorsis . 5 People often make about things without knowing all thefacts. 6 Thejudge foundhim guilty of and finedhim hea vily . 6 4.17 Listentoaconversationabout new words 17 Listen to a conversation about new words 17 thatShakespeareisbelievedtohavecreatedand complete the sentences. 1 Shakespeareappearstohaveinventedbetween wor ds. 2 Hisplayswere recordedbecause of theinvention of the . 3 Today,peopleuseabout of thesewords. 4 Thetechniqueof creating new words as Shakespeare didisknownas . 5 An example of a simple wordhe created is . 6 Today,weusehisword‘rant’todescribewhenwe . 7 Lookat some expressionsmade popularby Shakespeare. What doyou think they mean? 1 aheart of gold 2 tobeinapickle 3 tocomefullcircle 4 tobeonawildgoosechase 5 todosomethingbytheskinof yourteeth 8 4.18 4.18 Listen to the rest of the conversation and checkyour answers. 9 Inpairs,tellyourpartnerabout... 1 atimewhenyouwereinabitofapickle. 2 something that has comefull circle. 3 atimewhenyouwereonawildgoosechase. 4 something you recently managed to doby the skin of your teeth. 5 someoneyouknowwhohasaheartofgold. 10 REFLECT | Culture Look at thequotes from Shakespeare’s plays and answer the questions. 1 What do thequotes mean?Givean explanationin En glish . 2 Doyou have any similar sayings in your language? 3 Can you think of a playwright or novelist whohashad asimilarinfluence on your language andculture? Talk abo ut h im/he r. All’s well that ends well. All that glisters is not gold. Brevity is the soul of wit. The robb’d that smiles, steals something from the thief. GLOSSARY boo–toshout‘boo’ toshowthatyoudonotlike aperson, performance, idea, etc. enrich – make richer feuding – engaged in along quarrel,dispute portray – show, describe pose aquestion – ask aquestion promptsbtodosth–tomakesomeonedecideto do som et hing protagonist – main character sonnet – type of poem withfourteen lines 3 155 WhatI saw wasthe Count’s headcomingout from the WhatI saw wasthe Count’s headcomingout from the window. I didnotsee the face, but I knewthe man by the window. I didnotsee the face, but I knewthe man by the neck and the movementof hisback and arms. In any case neck and the movementof hisback and arms. In any case I couldnotmistake the handswhichI had had so many I couldnotmistake the handswhichI had hadso many opportunitiesofstudying. I wasat firstinterested and opportunitiesofstudying. I wasat firstinterestedand somewhatamused, forit is wonderful how a small matter somewhatamused, forit is wonderful how a small matter will interestandamuse a manwhen he isa prisoner. But will interestandamuse a manwhen he isa prisoner. But and terror when and terror when and terror when I saw the whole man slowly emerge from the window and I saw the whole man slowly emerge from the window and beginto crawl downthe castle wall overthatterrifying beginto crawl downthe castle wall overthat terrifying abyss, face down withhiscloak spreadingoutaround abyss, face down withhiscloak spreadingout around himlike greatwings. Atfirst, I could not believe my eyes. himlike greatwings. Atfirst, I could not believe my eyes. I thoughtitwassome trick ofthe moonlight, some weird I thoughtitwassome trick ofthe moonlight, some weird effectof shadow;butI kept looking, anditcould be no effectof shadow;butI kept looking, anditcould be no . I saw the fingersandtoesgrasp the cornersof . I saw the fingersandtoesgrasp the cornersof the stones,worn smoothby time, andby usinginthis the stones,worn smoothby time, andby using in this way every irregularity of the wall, move downwardswith way every irregularity of the wall, move downwards with considerable speed, justasa lizardmoves alonga wall. considerable speed, justasa lizardmoves along a wall. What type of man isthis, or what type of creature is it What type of man isthis, or what type of creature is it of thishorrible of thishorrible place overpoweringme; Iam infear– inawful fear – placeoverpoweringme;Iaminfear–inawful fear – andthere isno escape for me; Iamsurrounded by – a dark deep hole which seems to have no bottom – a word usedinthe past to mean a bedroom – a deep narrowvalley between hills Bram Stoker, anovelist and short story writer, was born in Ireland in 1847.As a student hedeveloped an interest in thetheatre and becamea theatre critic. Hewrote many , pu blish ed isa strangeman who forces Jonathan tohaveall their conversationsatnight andwarnshim not to move around the castle alone. Jonathan soon realises that heis a prisoner in the castle. exams,she smiled and said she’d beenlucky. 4 Mozartissaidtohavebeenachild , w riting musicfromaveryearlyage. 5 Thedirector chosesome musicfor that scene and ithelped createthe right atmosphere. 6 Don’tcallmea ! You didn’t know theanswer eit her. 158 ofthesong was.Hetold meitwas‘AMaiden’sGrave AMaiden’sGrave ofthesong was.Hetold meitwas‘AMaiden’sGrave ofthesongwas.Hetoldmeitwas‘ ’ . Hesays,‘Neverheardof it.’ Melaniecontinues,‘I wanted to play itonthepiano. Melaniecontinues,‘I wanted to play itonthepiano. Theday aftertheconcertI asked my brother to stop Theday after the concert I asked my brother to stop byamusic storeandgetsomesheetmusic for me. byamusic storeandgetsomesheetmusic for me. Heasked mewhich song. ‘A Maiden’sGrave Heasked mewhich song. ‘AMaiden’sGrave Heasked mewhich song. ‘ ,’Itoldhim. ,’ I told him. ‘What song’s that?’ he wasfrowning. I laughed. ‘Attheconcert, dummy.Thesongshefinished I laughed. ‘At the concert, dummy.The song shefinished the concert with.That song. You told me the title.’ inahundredandfiftycountriesandhe israrelyoutofthe bestsellerlists worldwide. He says that hisinspiration to write fiction camefrom reading the James Bondnovelby IanFlemingFrom Russia withLove whenhewasjust11.Yearslater,he wasinvitedtowrite an additionalbookinthe Bond series entitledCarte Blanche whichheisimmensely proudof. Otherbooksby this author: The Blue Nowhere, The October List,The Bone Collector, Praying forSleep,TheSteel Kiss,RoadsideCrosses,TheVanishedMan. 50 159 LITERATURE SPOT 2 Dracula 1 Doyouknowanybooksorfilmsaboutvampires? Doyouenjoy them?Saywhy. 2 4.21 Inpairs,askandanswerthequestions aboutvampires.Thenlistentoapodcastandcheck 7 Complete the sentences with the correct wordshi inthetext. 1 Owlsare birds andit’simpossible to seethem beforedusk. 1 ReadthefactboxaboutJeffreyDeaver,apopular modernAmericanwriter.Haveyoureadanyofhis books?Ifso,whatdoyoulikeaboutthem? 2 Lookatthewordsinthebox.Whatdoyouthinkthe bookAMaiden’sGravemightbeabout?Shareyour ideaswith the class. hostage negotiator abandonedbarn students dem ands 3 4.20 Listentoaconversationbetweentwo students and checkyour ideasfrom Exercise 2. 4 4.20 Listenagainanddecideifthesentencesare trueor false. 1 □ Dave usually reads well written books. 2 □Thebookheisreadingnowwaswritteninthe pre vio us cent ur y. 3 □ Dave likes this writer becauseheisa typical thr iller wr iter . 4 □ The writer developsplotsaround problems that haverelevance today. 5 □ Thebookis about a criminalwhohas adisability. 6 □ Dave likes the style thewriter uses. 7 □ Melanie, theteacher,sometimesimaginesthat sheisnot deaf. 8 □ Melanie makesfriends with the negotiator. 5 Inpairs,discusswhat youthinkmight beinMelanie’s imaginarymusicroom.ReadExtract1andcheck your ideas. 6 Read Extract 2 and answer thequestions. 1 WhydidMelaniestart imaginingthe secret music room? 2 Whyisthere no naturallightin the musicroom? 3 What do youthink Melanie’s attitude to signingis? Say why. 4 What was Melanie’s talent before shebecamedeaf? 5 How did Melanierealise that she wasgoing deaf? 7 Findthesewordsinthetextandtry toguesstheir meanings.Then completethesentences below with the words. bashfully dummy haunting grasp prodigy salvation 1 Living in thecountrysidefor six months was very isolating and installing wi-fi wasmy . 2 Thelecturer sometimesuses such complex sentences thatIcan’t what hemeans. 3 When IcomplimentedHelen onher marksin the exams,she smiled and said she’d beenlucky. 8 Insmallgroups,discuss the meaningof thefollowing phrasesfrom theextract. 1 YoucanbeDeafbuthearing. 2 Peoplewholiveaccordingtotheirownhearts. 9 SPEAKINGIn pairs,discuss the questions. 1 On what occasionsmight people need to use ‘visualisation’ to helpthem? Say why. 2 Visualise y our own p erf ect esc ape place . D escr ibe itto your partner. 10 REFLECT | Culture In pairs, discussthequestions. 1 Are people withdisabilities reflected in novels,films orTVseriesinyourcountry?Doyouthink thisisagood thin g? Say why . 2 Which other modern thriller writers arepopularin your country?Doyouenjoytheirbooks?Saywhy. 11 WRITING TASK TASK T Imaginethatyoucanhavea conversationwithanyoneyouchooseinanimaginary place,someoneyouhaveorhaven’tmetorsomeone whois alive or dead. Write the conversation. FROM PAGE TO LIFE Thebook ThebookAMaiden’s Gravewasmadeintoafilm DeadSilencein 1997,featuring James Garner as the FBIhostagenegotiator and Marlee Matlinas Melanie,the youngdeaf teacher.Thefilm received critical acclaim.It is a tensethriller which also raises awareness of problems encountered by thedeaf and hearing-impaired.The titleof thebook comesfrom the song‘AmazingGrace’ written in 1779. ‘AmazingGrace’ written in 1779. ‘AmazingGrace’ GLOSSARY harpsichord – a musicalinstrument from theeighteenth century,like asmall piano pelt sb with sth – to attack sbby throwinga lot of things at them pitch–adegreeofhighnessorlownessofamusical tone/ note sheet music – musicinitsprinted form, especially single sheetsof paper not formedinto a book signing – aform of communicationfor deaf peopleusing handsandfingers tapestry – apicture madefrom sewing different colo ur ed thr eads taunt –aremark orjokeintendedtomakesomeoneupset vibes–atypeofpercussioninstrument LITERATURE SPOT 1 AMaiden’s Grave JonathanHarker, a solicitor, is staying at CountDracula’scastleto arrangethesaleof a propertyon behalfofhis employer.TheCount Dracula Complete the sentences with the correct words highlighted birds and it’simpossible to seethem a propertyon behalfofhis employer.TheCount isa strangeman who forces Jonathan tohaveall their conversationsatnight andwarnshim not to move around the castle alone. Jonathan soon realises that heis a prisoner in the castle. Dracula Extract1 Melaniedid the only thing she could – what she’d doneearlier: Melaniedid theonly thing shecould –what she’d done earlier: closing hereyes,lowering her head,she wentaway.Theplace closing hereyes,lowering her head,she went away. The place she’descapedto earlier today.Her secret place,her music she’descapedto earlier today.Her secret place, her music room. It’s aroom ofdark wood,tapestries,pillows,smokyair. It’s aroom ofdark wood,tapestries,pillows,smoky air. Notawindowintheplace. TheOutsidecannotgetinhere. Notawindowintheplace. TheOutsidecannotget inhere. Here’saharpsichordcarvedofdelicate rosewood,inlaid Here’saharpsichordcarvedofdelicate rosewood, inlaid with ivory andebony.Here’sa piano whosetone sounds like with ivory andebony.Here’sa piano whosetone sounds like resonating crystal.Asetof golden vibes,acrisp,pre-war resonating crystal.Asetof golden vibes,acrisp,pre-war Martin guitar. Extract 2 It wasaplace that never existedandnever would. It wasaplace that never existedandnever would. Butit wasMelanie’s salvation.Whenthe taunts at school hadgrown too much,when shesimply at school hadgrown too much,when shesimply couldn’tgraspwhat someonewassaying toher, couldn’tgraspwhat someonewassaying toher, her music room was theonly placeshe couldgo to her music room was theonly placeshe couldgo to be safe,to be comforted. Melanie,sittingon thecomfortablecouchin her Melanie,sittingon thecomfortablecouchin her secret place,decides shedoesn’t wanttobe alone. secret place,decides shedoesn’t wanttobe alone. She needs someonewithher.Someoneto talkwith. She needs someonewithher.Someoneto talkwith. Someone with whom shecanshare human words. Someone with whom shecanshare human words. Who shouldsheinvite? Today,when sheopens thedoor,she sees amiddle- Today,when sheopens thedoor,she sees amiddle- agedmanwithgreying hair,wearing an ill-fitting navy agedmanwithgreying hair,wearing an ill-fitting navy bluejacketandblack-framedglasses.Themanfrom bluejacketandblack-framedglasses.Themanfrom the fieldoutside. the field outside. ‘Hello,’ shesaysin avoicelike aglassbell. ‘Andto you too.’ She pictureshim taking her hand ‘Andto you too.’ She pictureshim taking her hand and kissing it, rather bashfully, rather firmly. ‘You’reapoliceman,aren’t you?’she asks. ‘Yes,’ hesays. ‘Canwetalk forawhile? That’swhat Imissmost,talking. ’ ‘Canwetalk forawhile? That’swhat Imissmost,talking.’ Onceyou’vespokentosomeone,pelted them with Onceyou’vespokentosomeone,pelted them with wordsand felt theirsin your ears, signing isn’tthesame wordsand felt theirsin your ears, signing isn’tthesame atall. ‘Iwant totellyouastory.AbouthowI learnedI was deaf. ’ ‘Iwant totellyouastory.AbouthowI learnedI wasdeaf.’ Melaniehad planned to beamusician, shetellshim. Melaniehad planned to beamusician, shetellshim. From thetimeshewas four or five.Shewas no prodigy, From thetimeshewas four or five.Shewas no prodigy, but shedid havethe giftofperfectpitch.Classical, but shedid havethe giftofperfectpitch.Classical, Celtic, or country-western –sheloved itall. She could Celtic, or country-western –sheloved itall. She could hear atuneonceandpick itout from memory on the hear atuneonceandpick itout from memory on the family’sYamahapiano. ‘Andthen...whenIwaseight, almostnine,Iwentto ‘Andthen...whenIwaseight, almostnine,Iwentto a Judy Collinsconcert.Shewassinging a songI’dnever a Judy Collinsconcert.Shewassinging a songI’dnever heard before.Itwashaunting.Mybrotherhadtheconcert heard before.Itwashaunting.Mybrotherhadtheconcert program andI leanedoverand askedhimwhatthename program andI leanedoverand askedhimwhatthename ofthesong was.Hetold meitwas‘AMaiden’sGrave AMaiden’sGrave ofthesong was.Hetold meitwas‘AMaiden’sGrave ofthesongwas.Hetoldmeitwas‘ ’ . FACTBOX FACTBOX Jeffrey Deaver JeffreyDeaver JeffreyDeaverisafamousandwell-respectedbestselling crime andmysteryauthor.Hewasbornin1950intheUSA andhasdegreesinJournalismandLaw.Heistheauthorof over thirty-five novels andthreebooks ofshort stories for whichhehasreceivednumerous awards.Hehasalsowritten thelyricsfora countryandwesternalbum.Hisbooksaresold inahundredandfiftycountriesandhe israrelyoutofthe Then he laughed.‘Who’sa dummy? ‘ Then he laughed. ‘Who’sa dummy? ‘A Maiden’s Then he laughed.‘Who’sa dummy? ‘A Maiden’s Then he laughed.‘Who’sa dummy? ‘ Grave’?What’reyou talking about? Itwas ‘ ’? What’reyou talking about? Itwas ‘Amazing ’?What’reyou talking about? Itwas ‘Amazing ’?What’reyou talking about? Itwas ‘ Grace.’ The oldgospel.That’swhatI toldyou.’ .’Theoldgospel.That’swhatI toldyou.’ ‘No!’ IwassureI heard him say ‘ ‘No!’ IwassureI heard him say ‘A Maiden’s Grave ‘No!’ IwassureI heard him say ‘A Maiden’s Grave ‘No!’ IwassureI heard him say ‘ ,’ Iwaspositive! Andjust then Irealisedthat I’dbeen Iwaspositive! Andjust then I realised that I’dbeen leaningforward to hear him andthat wheneither leaningforwardto hear him and that when either ofusturnedaway Icouldn’treally hear what he was ofusturnedawayIcouldn’treally hear what he was saying at all.Andthatwhen Iwaslooking athim,Iwas sayingatall.Andthatwhen Iwaslooking athim,Iwas looking only at his lips,never hiseyes or the restofhis lookingonlyathis lips,never hiseyes or the restofhis face.The same way I’dbeenlooking ateveryone else face.Thesameway I’dbeenlooking ateveryone else I’d talked to for thelast six or eightmonths.’ I’dtalkedtoforthelast six or eightmonths.’ After a moment she says, ‘I think that you’re Deaf.’ Afteramomentshesays,‘Ithinkthatyou’re Deaf.’ ‘Deaf? Me?’ He grins awkwardly.‘But Ican hear.’ ‘Deaf? Me?’ He grins awkwardly. ‘ But I can hear.’ ‘Oh,you canbeDeafbuthearing.’ ‘Oh,you canbeDeafbut hearing.’ He looks confused. He looks confused. ‘Deaf but hearing,’ shecontinues.‘See,wecallpeople ‘Deafbuthearing,’ shecontinues. ‘See,wecallpeople who can hear Others.ButsomeoftheOthers are who can hear Others. But some of theOthers are more likeus.’ ‘Whatsortofpeopleare those?’ heasks.Is he proud ‘Whatsortofpeople are those?’ he asks. Is he proud to beincluded? Shethinks he is. to beincluded? She thinks he is. ‘People who live according totheir own hearts,’ ‘Peoplewho live according to their own hearts,’ Melanieanswers,‘not someone else’s.’ Melanieanswers,‘not someone else’s.’ Fora moment she’sashamed,for she’s not sure that Foramomentshe’sashamed,for she’s not sure that shealways listensto her own. shealwayslistensto her own. 5 10 15 20 2525 30 35 40 45 55 60 65 70 75 ADDITIONAL LESSONS LIFE SKILLS The Life Skills lessons at the end of every second unit teach practical skills that are indispensable to achieve success in the modern 21st-century world. Engaging content and an integrated skills approach help practise new competencies in an active, discussion-driven way. 1 How to ... boxes summarise the lessons and give useful life skills tips. 2 Life Skills projects involve research and encourage collaboration, critical thinking and creativity. 3 LITERATURE SPOTS The Literature Spot lessons familiarise students with well-known literary works that have made an impact on popular culture. The literary texts have been carefully selected to offer a mixture of classic and contemporary writing and to appeal to students at this age. The language difficulty has been adjusted to the course level. All reading texts have been recorded. 1 Fact Boxes contain crucial information about the author of the literary text. 2 New vocabulary is introduced and practised. 3 CULTURE SPOTS Culture Spot lessons provide intriguing and useful information about various aspects of British culture. Culture topics are introduced through reading texts, all of which have been recorded. 1 Listening exercises extend the information introduced in the reading texts and offer extra skills practice. 2 New, culturally relevant vocabulary is introduced. 4 From Page to Life boxes explain why this particular literary text is important for mass culture and what impact it has made. 4 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 3 1 3 2 The final activity (Reflect I Culture) encourages students to compare the introduced aspects of British culture with those of their own culture. 3 15
INTRODUCTION HIGH NOTE VIDEOS In High Note 4, there is an extra Life Skills Video. It is an integral part of the first Life Skills lesson (Life Skills 01–02) which teaches techniques of using body language in presentations. LIFE SKILLS VIDEO These are short clips of real people filmed on the streets of London, answering questions about their lives and opinions, following the topics and themes of the lesson. The purpose of this type of video is to provide short, manageable chunks of the target grammar structures presented in the lesson in a real context, which students can use as a model for their own speech, thus improving their productive accuracy. Because the vox pops are unscripted, authentic, spontaneous speech, students are exposed to real language uttered by speakers of English from the UK as well as from other countries. Number of videos: 10 (1 per unit) Place in the book: first grammar lesson in the unit (first spread) Video activities: in the Teacher’s Book (pages 270–273) GRAMMAR VIDEOS (VOX POPS) These are 3–4 -minute-long authentic, thought-provoking documentary films produced in cooperation with ITN Productions. The intention for the High Note documentaries concept is to provide film extension to the topics and themes raised in the units, which will enable students to get more insight into a given issue, think about it critically and discuss it at length. Authentic documentary videos will boost students’ motivation, expose them to natural, real-life language, extend their vocabulary and develop their receptive fluency and critical thinking skills. Number of videos: 10 (1 per unit) Place in the book: Reading or Vocabulary lessons Video activities: in the Watch and Reflect section at the back of the Student’s Book DOCUMENTARY VIDEOS 16
INTRODUCTION HIGH NOTE VIDEOS TEACHING PATHWAYS There are many different ways to teach English, which are influenced by such factors as a teacher’s specific teaching context, a preferred teaching style, the number of students in class, their level and background. For this reason, High Note was designed to be easily customised for each unique teaching situation. It was also created to make it easy and rewarding to integrate digital tools in one’s teaching in a gradual, step-by-step way. This diagram describes how High Note was prepared to be used and how all the components fit together to enable students to achieve the stated learning objectives most efficiently. Core units 1–10 and Revisions 100–120 hours + Life Skills 110–130 hours + Culture Spot + Literature Spot 118–138 hours + Watch and Reflect + Use of English + Grammar Reference and Practice 148–168 hours + Photocopiable Resources + Tests 168+ hours TEACHER ASSIGNED COURSE ASSESSMENT AND EXAM PREPARATION TESTS EXAM BOOKLET PRACTICE IN CLASS INPUT SB This diagram shows the estimated numbers of hours needed to cover specific sections of the Student’s Book. Depending on one’s teaching situation, these numbers may vary. IN CLASS REVIEW SB WB ONLINE PRACTICE EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES HOMEWORK REMEDIATION / FURTHER PRACTICE SB WB ONLINE PRACTICE TEACHER’S RESOURCES EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES IN CLASS or HOMEWORK SB WB ONLINE PRACTICE EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES IN CLASS PRODUCTION / PERSONALISATION SB WB ONLINE PRACTICE EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES 17
INTRODUCTION HOW TO TEACH FOR EXAMS WITH HIGH NOTE High Note is a general English course that is beneficial for both exam and non-exam students. It provides a number of resources that help develop the technical skills students need to deal with exam tasks, while also improving and extending their general language skills. Exam training is woven seamlessly into the flow of a lesson. Each unit includes types of exam tasks that are typical of most school-leaving and international exams such as multiple choice, matching or gap fill and which test crucial subskills such as finding specific information or identifying facts from opinions. Students are exposed to realistic tasks with a focus on the target language of the unit. Over the course of the book, students build their exam strategies and their confidence through step-by-step activities and task-based exam tips. DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE Exam tasks require students to demonstrate a range of language at the appropriate level. The grammar and vocabulary sections in High Note develop this range in topic- related units, which makes it easy for students to apply them to exam tasks and to the real world. SKILLS STRATEGIES High Note carefully develops students’ general reading and listening strategies which students can use both in exams and in real life. The Active Reading and Active Listening boxes contain concise descriptions of such crucial sub-skills as understanding the main idea, finding specific information, differentiating fact from opinion, understanding the author’s attitude, understanding links in a text, and summarising. The descriptions are then followed by a series of practice exercises which help students apply and internalise a given strategy. GRADED EXAM TASKS Exam tasks are introduced to students early in the course, but in a graded way. This may mean that a task has fewer questions or a simpler text or that it tests a more limited range of language. This helps them understand the exam task and therefore learn to deal with it more effectively. EXAM STRATEGIES There are exam strategies in every Revision section. They focus on those aspects of a given exam task that will help students deal with it effectively. The tips help students understand exactly what is being tested, what to look out for and develop a bank of appropriate exam techniques that they can refer to. As they work through the Student’s Book and become familiar with the tips, the exam tasks become easier. WRITING TASKS To help students identify good practice in writing tasks, lessons in the Student’s Book provide model texts. There are also tasks that encourage students to analyse the model texts, which gives them greater understanding of how to complete the tasks themselves. There is a task at the end of each Writing section which mirrors the model so that students can practise writing an answer themselves. In the Workbook, there is an Active Writing section which guides students through all the stages of the process of writing a specific type of text. RESOURCES FOR SELF-STUDY There are numerous resources which provide opportunities for self-study, give supplementary information and further practice. These can be used in class or at home. They include: • a Word List at the end of each unit in the Student’s Book • a Use of English section at the back of the Student’s Book • a Grammar Reference and Practice section at the back of the Student’s Book • audio scripts for the listening tasks • the Workbook/Online Practice • extra digital activities EXAM PRACTICE BOOKS High Note comes with a series of booklets which provide additional practice and support for Pearson Test of English General exams and Cambridge English exams. The books have been matched to the specific levels of the course. Please see page 9 for more details. EXAM CORRELATION The table below shows the correlation between the language level of each part of the High Note series and international exam requirements. GSE CEFR EXAMS High Note 1 30–40 A2/A2+ Pearson Test of English Level 1, Cambridge Key (KET) and Preliminary (PET) High Note 2 37–52 A2+/B1 Pearson Test of English Level 1 & 2, Cambridge Preliminary (PET) High Note 3 50–62 B1+/ B2 Pearson Test of English Level 2 & 3, Cambridge Preliminary (PET) and First (FCE) High Note 4 61–75 B2/ B2+ Pearson Test of English Level 3 & 4, Cambridge First (FCE) High Note 5 73–85 B2+/C1 Pearson Test of English Level 4, Cambridge Advanced (CAE) It is worth noting that a careful development of language in High Note, its systematic development of skills strategies, and a wide variety of exam tasks covered in the course may prove beneficial also for those students who intend to take other international exams than those described above, e.g . TOEFL, IELTS or International GCSE. 18
INTRODUCTION HOW TO TEACH FOR EXAMS WITH HIGH NOTE HOW TO FLIP THE CLASSROOM WITH HIGH NOTE The flipped classroom is an approach where classroom instruction is given to students at home via a video, tasks are usually given for homework and then completed in class with the teacher’s support. Teachers who flip their classrooms believe that the approach allows students to become more independent in their learning: rather than receive information in the classroom, they take more control and ensure they learn outside the classroom. In class, students have time to ask the teacher questions if they still do not understand and choose when they need support. This autonomy can motivate students and may result in a higher level of engagement. What is more, they gain more practice time and receive more feedback from the teacher on performance. In English language learning, flipping the classroom means students listen to or read information about language at home before a lesson, leaving more time for practice of that language in the classroom. Alternatively, it could be information about an exam technique or how to write a specific type of text. Students can tackle the same tasks or collaborate in groups on different tasks to ensure they work at a level suitable for them. In the lesson, the teacher begins by checking students’ understanding of the material that was set as homework (video, reading, listening or a grammar explanation), then gives several practice tasks to complete. Finally, at the end of the lesson, students reflect on what they have learnt to help them identify progress and areas where they still need to improve. This reflection allows students to gain a greater understanding of their strengths and weaknesses, and encourages them to set achievable learning goals for future lessons. High Note provides the following resources that will help flip the classroom: VIDEO The teacher can ask students to watch any of the wide variety of video clips at home. This allows the teacher to check understanding before the lesson and adjust their lesson plan if students have found the language particularly easy or difficult. READING AND LISTENING TEXTS The teacher can also set a reading text (and its recorded version) or a listening text in a lesson as homework for the next class. By doing this, the time in class can be spent on checking comprehension and the actual discussion about the text rather than reading it or listening to it for the first time, which usually takes a lot of time. Another advantage of this approach is that students’ involvement with the text will be greater if they have seen it several times, which accelerates the learning process. GRAMMAR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE The Grammar Reference and Practice section at the back of the Student’s Book contains detailed information about the meaning, function and form of the target language, with examples and practice exercises. These can be used by the teacher in class, when explaining language, but they can also be set as homework for students. VOCABULARY: WORD LISTS AND THE REMEMBER MORE SECTION The teacher can also start a unit by checking students’ knowledge of the unit vocabulary with the aim of identifying the areas which need more focus and maximising student’s exposure to the new words. For this purpose, he or she can ask students to analyse the word lists at the end of each unit and complete the exercises in the corresponding Remember More section. WORKBOOK SUPPORT The Workbook contains exercises on the grammar points taught in each unit. These can be used as homework prior to the Grammar lesson to check what students already know. With students at this level, the grammar is unlikely to be completely new to them and so a test-teach-test approach can be used. Alternatively, the Workbook exercises can be completed in class to provide as much practice as possible while the teacher is available to offer support and clarify any confusing aspects of the language. ONLINE PRACTICE Similarly to the paper Workbook, some of the exercises can be completed online prior to the lesson to maximise learning. This is particularly beneficial as the interactive Workbook exercises have an instant feedback functionality, which enables students to quickly check their answers. EXTRA DIGITAL ACTIVITIES The extra digital activities contain Grammar and Vocabulary Checkpoints as well as Reading, Listening and Use of English banks of texts and exercises which help students prepare for class tests, check their progress and exam readiness. A teacher may choose to ask students to complete them before the class. 19
CONTENTS UNIT GRAMMAR VOCABULARY 01 Get the message pp4–5 Present and past tenses Grammar Video p9 Question tags and echo questions Pronunciation: Intonation patterns pp4–5 Collocations with contact, message and touch p8 Idioms and phrases related to communication Active Vocabulary: Idioms p10 Emotion adjectives pp14–15 Word List 02 Looking ahead pp18–19 Future forms for predictions Grammar Video p25 Future forms for plans and hopes p19 Cause and effect phrases p20 Threats to the environment Documentary Video Active Vocabulary: Compound nouns Pronunciation: Stress in compound nouns p21 Weather-related vocabulary p22 Endangered species pp28–29 Word List LIFE SKILLS How to give a persuasive presentation Life Skills Video pp32–33 pp32–33 03 Influences pp34–35 Past and present habits Grammar Video p40 Relative and participle clauses pp34–35 Phrases for ways of behaving p36 Life events p37 Personal qualities and behaviour Pronunciation: Stress patterns in adjectives pp44–45 Word List 04 Inside story pp48–49 Narrative tenses; Past Perfect Simple and Continuous Grammar Video Pronunciation: Weak pronunciation p51 Negative inversion pp48–49 Conspiracy theories p50 News reporting Documentary Video Active Vocabulary: Collocations p54 Photography pp58–59 Word List LIFE SKILLS How to be good at debating pp62–63 05 Making sense of the senses pp64–65 Gerunds and infinitives Grammar Video p67 Verbs with gerunds and infinitives pp64–66 The senses p68–69 Social work and education p70 Food and cooking pp74–75 Word List 06 Where we live pp78–79 Modal and related verbs Grammar Video p81 Articles p80 Nomadic lifestyle p82 Houses p84 Household problems and solutions Active Vocabulary: Phrasal verbs pp88–89 Word List LIFE SKILLS How to make the most of volunteering pp92–93 07 Is it fair? pp94–95 Reported speech Grammar Video p100 Reporting verbs pp94–95 Protests p97 Social issues Documentary Video Pronunciation: Stress in word families Active Vocabulary: Word building pp104–105 Word List 08 Digital perspectives pp108–109 The passive Grammar Video p115 Impersonal passive structures pp108–109 The Internet of Things p111 Technology, synonyms Active Vocabulary: Synonyms pp98–99 Cyberbullying pp112–113 Virtual Reality pp118–119 Word List LIFE SKILLS How to manage your online image pp122–123 09 Highs and lows pp124–125 Conditionals Grammar Video Pronunciation: Intonation in conditional sentences p130 wish, if only, past modals pp124–125 Rags-to-riches stories p126 Failure and success p127 Chance and risk Documentary Video Active Vocabulary: Binomials pp134–135 Word List 10 Culture vulture pp138–139 Past modals of speculation Grammar Video p141 Reduced adverbial clauses pp138–139 Ancient artefacts p140 New Orleans and music p142 Spoilers p144 Performance Documentary Video Active Vocabulary: Easily confused words pp148–149 Word List LIFE SKILLS How to build resilience pp152–153 pp154–157 Culture Spot pp158–161 Literature Spot pp162–171 Watch and Reflect (Documentary Video worksheets) 20
READING LISTENING SPEAKING WRITING REVISION pp6–7 Making contact Active Reading: Identifying the author’s opinion Documentary Video p10 A radio interview about emotional intelligence p11 Using fixed phrases to express emotions pp12–13 An informal email pp16–17 Revision 01 Use of English > p191 pp22–23 They need saving too! p21 A lecture about climate change Active listening: Understanding signposting p24 Using fixed phrases to express indecision, agreement, disagreement and to reach a decision pp26–27 A formal email pp30–31 Revision 02 Use of English > p191 pp38–39 Extract from Lion: A long way home Documentary Video p36 A radio programme about life events Active listening: Distinguishing between facts and opinion p41 Using generalisations to talk about something that is usually true pp42–43 An opinion essay Active Writing: Creating a line of reasoning pp46–47 Revision 03 Use of English > p192 pp52–53 Secret plan to massacre 17,500 trees revealed: How locals fought to protect one of Europe’s greenest cities Active Reading: Recognising bias p54 A radio programme about famous photos p55 Telling an anecdote pp56–57 A story pp60–61 Revision 04 Use of English > p192 pp68–69 Sabriye Tenberken: A blind woman with a vision Active Reading: Making inferences Documentary Video p70 A podcast about the history of ketchup Pronunciation: Stress in international food words p71 Asking and answering questions about preferences pp72–73 A review pp76–77 Revision 05 Use of English > p193 pp82–83 Living small Documentary Video p82 A radio programme about mobile lifestyle Active Listening: Understanding fast speech (1) p85 Giving instructions pp86–87 A report pp90–91 Revision 06 Use of English > p193 pp98–99 Dancing man Active Reading: Understanding complex and compound sentences p97 Films and TV series about social issues p101 Expressing and challenging opinions pp102–103 An article pp106–107 Revision 07 Use of English > p194 pp112–113 Virtual Reality: Walking in someone else’s shoes Documentary Video p114 A radio programme about selfies Active Listening: Understanding fast speech (2) p110 Describing trends pp116–117 A for-and- against essay Active Writing: Evaluating other people’s views pp120–121 Revision 08 Use of English > p194 pp128–129 Inspiring stories of resilience Active Reading: Following events in a narrative p126 Personal stories about failure and success p131 Discussing advantages and disadvantages pp132–133 A competition entry/ A letter of application pp136–137 Revision 09 Use of English > p195 pp142–143 Spoliers: Love ‘em or hate ‘em? p140 A podcast about music p145 Negotiating informally Pronunciation: Connected speech pp146–147 An article pp150–151 Revision 10 Use of English > p195 pp172–189 Grammar Reference and Practice p190 Irregular Verbs pp191–195 Use of English pp196–200 Communication 21
1 In pairs, discuss the questions. Then read the article and check which forms of communication ... • make it easier to stay in touch nowadays? • used to be a good way to quickly spread the message that an enemy was coming? • can carry a message over a long distance? • can be used to convey a short and simple message? • could be a good way to make contact if you were stuck on a desert island? Since the dawn of time people Since the dawn of time people 1 have been using have been using different ways of communicating at a distance. different ways of communicating at a distance. In ancient times, they used smoke signals and after writing developed, they In ancient times, they used smoke signals and after writing developed, they In ancient times, they used smoke signals and after writing developed, they 2 invented more ingenious methods of delivering messages; for example, sending a message in a bottle. It is ingenious methods of delivering messages; for example, sending a message in a bottle. It is ingenious methods of delivering messages; for example, sending a message in a bottle. It is believed this first began thousands of years ago. At the turn of the twentieth century, bottles believed this first began thousands of years ago. At the turn of the twentieth century, bottles believed this first began thousands of years ago. At the turn of the twentieth century, bottles were found which had been sent by people who were found which had been sent by people who 3 were travelling were travelling on board the Titanic. on board the Titanic. Happier stories have also come to light. In 1956, Ake Viking, a Swede, tossed a letter into Happier stories have also come to light. In 1956, Ake Viking, a Swede, tossed a letter into Happier stories have also come to light. In 1956, Ake Viking, a Swede, tossed a letter into the sea, hoping it would reach his future wife. Two years later he received a letter from the sea, hoping it would reach his future wife. Two years later he received a letter from the sea, hoping it would reach his future wife. Two years later he received a letter from a Sicilian girl, Paolina, who a Sicilian girl, Paolina, who 4 had found his bottle and soon after they were married! his bottle and soon after they were married! Romantic, if not exactly environmentally friendly! Romantic, if not exactly environmentally friendly! The invention of the telegraph in 1837 sped up communication dramatically. The invention of the telegraph in 1837 sped up communication dramatically. The invention of the telegraph in 1837 sped up communication dramatically. A famous story tells of how a murderer, John Tawell, was caught after he had A famous story tells of how a murderer, John Tawell, was caught after he had A famous story tells of how a murderer, John Tawell, was caught after he had escaped on the train to London. A telegram was sent to the London police, escaped on the train to London. A telegram was sent to the London police, escaped on the train to London. A telegram was sent to the London police, and they 5 were waiting were waiting were waiting were waiting were waiting for him when he arrived there. His capture was hailed for him when he arrived there. His capture was hailed as a miracle of science! as a miracle of science! Since the invention of the Internet, the world Since the invention of the Internet, the world 6 has become has become a different place. People place. People place. People place. People 77 are still sending are still sending are still sending messages, apparently up to 60 messages, apparently up to 60 messages, apparently up to 60 messages, apparently up to 60 billion a day, and it usually billion a day, and it usually 8 takes only seconds to deliver only seconds to deliver them. But them. But 9 are we now forgetting are we now forgetting how to communicate how to communicate face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some face-to-face? Without a doubt there are some challenges, but there are also examples of when the challenges, but there are also examples of when the challenges, but there are also examples of when the Internet Internet 10 has changed changed someone’s life for the better. someone’s life for the better. Look at Tara Taylor’s case, a mother who Look at Tara Taylor’s case , a mother who 11 lives lives in the USA: when she uploaded a photo of her daughter to USA: when she uploaded a photo of her daughter to USA: when she uploaded a photo of her daughter to Facebook, a facefriend spotted a problem with one Facebook, a facefriend spotted a problem with one Facebook, a facefriend spotted a problem with one of the child’s eyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It of the child’s eyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It of the child’s eyes, so Tara took her to the doctor. It turned out that the girl had a rare disease, but her turned out that the girl had a rare disease, but her turned out that the girl had a rare disease, but her sight was saved! sight was saved! The story of communication is, in many ways, The story of communication is, in many ways, The story of communication is, in many ways, the story of the human race: we’ve always shared knowledge and built relationships, whatever means of communication we use. 2 Make more collocations with the nouns message, contact, touch, using the verbs from the box. deliver establish lose maintain pass on 1 / / contact 2 / a/the message 3 touch 3 Discuss in pairs. How can a means of communication change someone’s life? Find examples in the text. Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... Messaging through time ... 4 1A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY VOCABULARY Collocations with contact, message and touch, phrasal verbs, phrases for breaking the ice, communication idioms, emotion adjectives GRAMMAR Present and past tenses, question tags, echo questions Use of English > page 191 SPEAKING Expressing emotions WRITING An informal email VIDEO Grammar Documentary Get the message 01 REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 238 CULTURE NOTES page 205 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • After Exercise 8, ask students to write one sentence for each of the functions a–k in the Grammar box in Exercise 6. Students can then swap answers with a partner to check. • After Exercise 10, ask students to come up with two more sentence stems of their own and swap them with a partner to complete. establish lose maintain deliver pass on lose Exercise 3 Examples in text: Ake Viking found his wife. Harold Hackett has received over 3,000 messages from around the world. John Tawell was caught by the police. Tara Taylor saved her daughter’s sight. 22
7 Match the sentence halves. In pairs, discuss the reasons for your answers. 1 The phone is ringing . The phone rings . a all the time now that we run a business b and I can’t find where I’ve put it 2 I’ve been calling Mike . I’ve called Mike . a all day today b a couple of times today 3 It’s getting . Itgets . a easier and easier to stay in touch with people b less difficult every time I write an essay 4 I was watching a film . I watched a film . a when the lights suddenly went out b when I got home from school 5 She has sent me a lot of emails recently, . She sent me long emails every day . a while she was travelling abroad b so I might get one today 6 When I looked at my phone, the message arrived . When I looked at my phone, the message had arrived, . a but I didn’t notice it buzzing earlier b at exactly the same moment 7 What do you think . What are you thinking ? a of my phone b about 8 1.2 Complete the text with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Sometimes more than one form is possible. Listen and check. Present and past tenses 4 Study the Grammar box and match the underlined phrases 1–11 in the article with the meanings a–k. Present and past tenses We use the Present Simple for: a □ routines and habits b □ facts and things that are generally true We use the Present Continuous for: c □ things happening now or around now d □ situations which are changing during the present time We use the Past Simple for: e □ actions that started and finished at a specific time in the past We use the Past Continuous for: f □ actions in progress at a specific time in the past g □ a long activity interrupted by a short one We use the Present Perfect Simple for: h □ actions and states which began in the past and continue until now i □ finished actions in the past when we don’t say exactly when they happened We use the Present Perfect Continuous for: j □ an action in progress or repeated over a period of time up until now We use the Past Perfect for: k □ an action in the past that was completed before another action or time in the past Grammar Reference and Practice > page 172 5 Match time expressions below with the tenses in Exercise 4. Find more time expressions in the article. at the moment at the time currently earlier today ever since every so often for from time to time in recent years nowadays once in a while recently right now since the day before yesterday these days 6 Read Watch out! and explain the difference in meaning between sentences a and b. WATCH OUT! Some state verbs can be used in continuous form to express a different meaning or a temporary action. 1 a She has lots of online friends. bWe’re having a really good time in Greece. 2 a Mark appears to know a lot about apps. bLynda is appearing as Cinderella in the new school play next week. In 1992, Neil Papworth, a software engineer and developer, 1 (send) the first text message, which said simply, ‘ Happy Christmas’. At that time, he 2 (work) for Sema Telecoms, a company which 3 (develop) the technology for Vodaphone. In those days, mobile phones 4 (not have) keyboards, so he had to type the message on a computer. Papworth was not, however, the first person to think of sending a short message. A man called Friedhelm Hillebrand 5 (already/suggest) the idea back in 1984. And it was Hillebrand who limited the message to 160 characters. Text messaging was not immediately popular, but in recent years it 6 (grow) very rapidly. In fact, these days we (grow) very rapidly. In fact, these days we 7 (send) (send) over 15 million text messages every minute! Platforms such as Twitter, 8 (also/contribute) to texting having become such (also/contribute) to texting having become such an essential part of our lives today. 9 SPEAKING Complete the sentences with your own ideas. 1 I was talking to a friend the other day when ... 2 Nowadays, more and more people are keeping in touch by ... 3 By lunchtime yesterday, I had already ... 1 Read the question and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, ask and answer the question. How has social media changed the way we communicate? G R A M M A R V I D E O 5 01 □ I can use the present and past tenses to talk about different actions. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 1, page 270 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 172 • Workbook pages 4–5/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 1: Snap is a tense game!, pages 276, 290 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 1A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 1A NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about their favourite film about space or aliens and prepare a short synopsis to deliver to the class next lesson. Alternatively, ask students to write their synopses and display them around the class for other students to read. 7 6 5 10 2 3 8 9 11 1 4 Exercise 5 (Time expressions from the article are in brackets.) Present Simple: every so often, from time to time, nowadays, once in a while Present Continuous: at the moment, currently, right now, these days Present Perfect Simple/ Continuous: ever since, for, in recent years, recently, since, (since the dawn of time) Past Simple/Continuous: at the time, earlier today, the day before yesterday, a little while back (in ancient times, thousands of years ago, at the turn of the twentieth century, in 1956, two years later, soon after, in 1837, when) Past Perfect: ever since, for, since (after) Exercise 6 1 a have (got) – shows possession; state verb, so Present Simple b have – situation at the moment of speaking (part of fixed expression have a good time), so Present Continuous 2 a appear – used when saying how someone or something seems; state verb, so Present Simple b appear – take part in a film, play, concert, television programme; action verb, so Present Continuous (for future arrangements) b a b b a a a b a a a b b b Exercise 8 1 sent 2 was working 3 was developing 4 didn’t have 5 had already suggested 6 has grown/has been growing 7 send 8 have also contributed 23
1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos on page 7 and discuss the questions. 1 Do you recognise any of these films? Do you enjoy watching films about aliens? Say why. 2 What do you think would happen if we ever made contact with extraterrestrials? 2 CRITICAL THINKING Read the article and study Active Reading. What opinions about the contact between humans and aliens does the author express? How far do you agree with him? ACTIVE READING | Identifying the author’s opinion In a text, the author presents his/her point of view on a topic and different arguments to support that view. • Writers often use opinion verbs and phrases to signal their position, e.g . I feel ..., I think ..., In my opinion ..., etc. • Sometimes they express their views more subtly by using modal verbs, e.g. We should ..., It must be ..., etc. • They may also use phrases of probability, e.g. Maybe ..., Possibly ..., etc. • You will often find the author’s main message towards the end of the article. Remember that you can form your own opinion, rather than uncritically accepting what the author has to say. 3 Read the article again and choose the correct answers. 1 How can the author’s opinion of the Voyager Golden Record best be summarised? a It contained the perfect selection of items. b It was very challenging to put together. c It has succeeded in communicating with aliens. d It was too focused on one or two cultures. 2 According to the author, aliens a probably only exist in films and books. b are statistically likely to exist. c are certainly out there somewhere. d have picked up our messages already. 3 What does the author think about the possibility of communication between humans and aliens? a Aliens would be intelligent enough to work out a means of communication. b Culture differences would make communication impossible. c It would be ridiculous to try and communicate with aliens. d Aliens would assume that humans couldn’t understand them. 4 What does the author believe might happen if humans made contact with an alien civilisation? a They might treat people as a lower form of life. b It might be a complete waste of time. c It might lead to the destruction of the world. d They might help us to develop as a species. 4 Study Active Reading again. Which modal verbs, phrases of probability and expressions of opinion helped you to answer questions in Exercise 3? 5 Match the highlighted phrasal verbs from the article with their definitions below. 1 To receive (a broadcast). 2 To cause something to happen. 3 To tell someone something you think they don’t know. 4 To see something with difficulty. 5 To destroy something completely. 6 To successfully communicate a message/an idea. 7 To explain something very clearly. 8 To meet or find something by chance. 9 To solve a problem. 10 To understand and remember something you are told. 6 Complete the sentences with the phrasal verbs from the article, in the correct form. 1 I was embarrassed when he that I had made some basic spelling mistakes. 2 It was cloudy, but he could still the distant star. 3I an interesting article about space exploration the other day. 4 Technology has many changes in the way we live. 5 That’s what I’ve been trying to to you, but you won’t listen! 6 Ittookmeagesto exactly how to use the telescope. 7 You don’t understand? Do I have to what I mean? 8 Arewe actual signals, or is it just random space noise? 9 When the Europeans arrived in Mexico, they brought a disease which 15 million Aztecs. 10 After the discussion, Tim realised that he anything she said. He was completely confused! 7 SPEAKING In small groups, ask and answer the questions. 1 How do you think extraterrestrials might differ from us? 2 What could we learn from them if they visited our planet? 3 Should we be scared of communicating with aliens? Say why. 8 REFLECT | Culture In small groups, discuss what you would include in a message to send into space like the Voyager Golden Record. What do you think represents the best of human culture? 2 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 162. Watch the documentary Getting through to animals and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 6 □ I can identify the author’s opinion and talk about life on other planets. 1B READING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 238 CULTURE NOTES page 205 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • As an extension to Exercise 1, ask students to share their synopses with the class (or in groups of three if you have a large class). Encourage discussion about which film or films students like the sound of and might watch. • After Exercise 7 (or for homework), ask students to write a review of the film they wrote a synopsis for. How many of the highlighted phrasal verbs from the text can they include in their review? Exercise 2 Opinions expressed by author: The human race is very likely to encounter an alien civilisation at some point and when that happens, we should use the contact as a learning experience. Exercise 4 1 But how can you possibly get across to an alien civilisation ... 2 You might assume that this is because ...; there may be asmanyas...;weshould take the possibility seriously 3 I think we have to hope that ... ; they were able to resolve this issue 4 ... might they perhaps have something to teach us?; She becomes able to see the past...;shewillbeableto teach us all ... ; humankind will become able to see theworld...;weneedto stop fearing those who ... ; ... greater connection with others could bring Exercise 6 1 pointed out 2 make out 3 came across 4 brought about 5 get across 6 figure out 7 spell out 8 picking up 9 wiped out 10 hadn’t taken in Exercise 5 1 pick up 2 bring about 3 point out 4 make out 5 wipe out 6 get across 7 spell out 8 come across 9 figure out 10 take in 24
For centuries, people have gazed at the stars and wondered if there could be other beings out there. If so, how could we get a message to them? In the 1800s, people experimented with drawing enormous symbols on the ground, which they hoped could be made out from space. But ever since space travel became possible in the later part of the twentieth century, people have been looking for more sophisticated ways to make contact. In 1977, the Voyager spacecrafts were launched into space, each carrying a copy of the Voyager Golden Record, a twelve-inch gold-plated disc, with sounds and images intended to introduce the human race to any extraterrestrials that might find it. But how can you possibly get across to an alien civilisation what it means to be human and to live on our planet? Among other things, the Voyager record contained an X-ray of a human hand, an image of a street in Pakistan, diagrams of the structure of DNA, greetings from Earth in fifty-five languages and ninety minutes of classical, popular and traditional music tracks from around the world. More than forty years later, Voyagers 1 and 2 are still sending back vital information about outer space but, as far as we know, the messages about humanity have not been passed on. You might assume that this is because aliens are simply something we will only ever come across in movies, but you’d probably be wrong. In fact, it has been estimated that there may be as many as two billion potentially habitable planets in our galaxy alone, which means that we should take the possibility seriously. China is so convinced that we will soon make contact, that it has invested billions of pounds in building the world’s largest radio dish, which can pick up signals from even the very deepest realms of space. However, as the Polish philosopher and science fiction writer, Stanislaw Lem, pointed out, it is highly likely that, even if we do make contact, we won’t be able to take in or process what the aliens are trying to tell us. There are, he said, two insurmountable barriers: language and intelligence. The speakers of any two languages around the world will understand each other when they refer to concepts such as food, life and death and day and night. But with an alien culture, we can’t make any such assumptions. Then there is the fact that in order to travel to our planet, the aliens would have to be far more advanced than we are. Would we be able to figure out what they were saying any more than most animals understand what we say to them? I think we have to hope that their superior development would mean that they were able to find a solution to this problem. And might it be actually hazardous to send out signals to attract the attention And might it be actually hazardous to send out signals to attract the attention of these superior beings? The well-known physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking certainly thought so. He often spelt out what he feared may happen, saying that aliens might treat us the same way we would treat bacteria – as a nuisance to be cleaned up. We’ve seen this scenario played out many times in films, such as Independence Day, where the aliens’ one goal is to wipe out humanity. It’s probably natural to fear that something so different from ourselves could bring about the end of the world. However, given that any visiting aliens are likely to be considerably more developed than us, might they perhaps have something to teach us? In the film Arrival, learning the aliens’ language changes the brain of the linguist in the film, leading her to evolve. She becomes able to see the past and the future as clearly as the present, just as the aliens do, and we are led to believe that she will be able to teach us all to do this. As a result, humankind will become able to see the world from a brand-new perspective. Maybe, just as on this planet, we need to stop fearing those who are different and open our minds to the possibilities that greater connection with others could bring. MAKING contact By Danny Exeter 5 10 15 20 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 7 GLOSSARY extraterrestrial – a creature that people think may exist on another planet habitable – good enough for people to live in outer space – the space outside the Earth’s air, where the planets and stars are radio dish – a piece of equipment that collects radio waves from space and is used to find objects in space (radio telescope) realm – area superior being – highly intelligent thing that exists 1.3 01 FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook pages 6–7/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 2: It’s not what you say, it’s how you say it, pages 276, 291 NEXT CLASS Ask students to make a list of all the words they know relating to communication. Can they think of any idioms? 25
7 Match the idioms 1–6 with their definitions a–f. 1 □ jump down somebody’s throat jump down somebody’s throat 2 □ put somebody on the spot 3 □ fire questions at someone 4 □ refuse to let something drop 5 □ insist on having the last word 6 □ not get a word in edgeways a To be unable to say anything because someone else is talking all the time. b To embarrass someone by forcing them to answer a difficult question. c To have to make the final point in a discussion or argument. d To not stop talking about a particular subject. e To react angrily to something someone has said. f To ask someone a lot of questions quickly. 8 Study Active Vocabulary and discuss how you would express the idioms in Exercise 7 in your own language. How could you illustrate the idioms with a drawing? ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Idioms • An idiom is a fixed phrase that has a special meaning which is different from the usual meaning of the individual words, e.g. He jumped down my throat means He reacted angrily. • Idioms rarely translate exactly into another language. • Many idioms describe an image. If you can visualise the image – or even draw it – that might help you to remember and learn the idiom. 9 Which of the idioms in Exercise 7 are things you dislike someone doing when you’re talking to them? Say why. 10 REFLECT | Society In pairs, make a list of top five rules for making a good impression or communicating well with other people at a party. 1 Look at the cartoon and the title of the article. In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Can you work out the meaning of the title from the context? 2 Do you find it easy or difficult to break the ice with people you don’t know? Say why. 2 Read the article. Which piece of advice do you think is the most useful? Say why. 3 Study the phrases highlighted in the article. Then complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first, including the word given in capitals. 1 He started talking to her in the hallway. STRUCK He with her in the hallway. 2 She gave the impression of being very self-confident. ACROSS She being very self-confident. 3 Alice commented on how nice his shoes were. PAID Alice about his shoes. 4 I immediately liked him. TOOK I immediately. 5 We found it really funny. LAUGH We really about it. 6 I didn’t really like her friends when I met them. OFF I didn’t really with her friends when I met them. 4 In pairs, discuss how you met your best friend. Use some of the phrases from Exercise 3. 5 1.4 Listen to someone talking about breaking the ice. What kind of behaviour does she find annoying when meeting new people? 6 1.5 Listen again and write down what you hear. This time there will be pauses. Don’t worry too much about Don’t worry too much about making a favourable impression. Often the best way to Often the best way to strike up a conversation is simply to is simply to comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s comment on the weather, or say something funny about what’s happening around you. If you can happening around you. If you can happening around you. If you can have a laugh about the situation about the situation you’re in, it can really create a bond or connection between you. or connection between you. People often like it if you People often like it if you pay them a compliment, but don’t try too hard or you’ll sound insincere. Just too hard or you’ll sound insincere. Just too hard or you’ll sound insincere. Just make small talk about where you live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find where you live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find where you live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find where you live, what you’re studying and so on. You may find that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. that in the end you really hit it off and become friends for life. People are more likely to People are more likely to take to you if you come across as a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though a warm and approachable person. So, make eye contact (though don’t stare) and smile. and make new friends and make new friends and make new friends 8 How to How to Nice hammer! Thanks, I got it for my birthday. it for my birthday. it for my □ I can talk about making new friends. 1C VOCABULARY | Idioms and phrases related to communication 8 □ I can talk about making new friends. 8 □ I can talk about making new friends. REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 215 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Start the lesson by eliciting students’ vocabulary from the list they made at home. Write any relevant words on the board. Give students one point for a relevant word and two points for an idiom. Congratulate the winner. • After Exercise 7, put students in groups of three and tell them that each student has to talk for one minute. They should include as many phrases and idioms from Exercises 3 and 7 as they can. One student times them and the other counts the idioms. If they make a mistake, the other students can correct them. The winner is the student with the most idioms. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 8/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 3: Nice to meet you, pages 277, 292 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 1 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 1 Exercise 3 1 struck up a conversation 2 came across as 3 paid him a compliment 4 took to him 5 had a laugh 6hititoff Exercise 5 She finds it annoying when someone talks too much, but she thinks it’s even worse when someone keeps firing questions at you and thus makes you do all the talking. Exercise 6 I hate it when someone talks so much that I just can’t get a word in edgeways. I know it’s often because they’re nervous, but it’s really annoying. However, maybe it’s even worse when someone keeps firing questions at you and making you do all the talking. To make a favourable impression on someone, you have to learn to get a balance between speaking and listening. e b f c d a make people feel more friendly and willing to talk to each other 26
6 In pairs, look at the echo question in italics. Then answer questions 1−3 below. Cameron Actually, it’s my birthday tomorrow. Emma Is it? Do you have anything special planned? Is it? Do you have anything special planned? Is it? 1 What is the function of an echo question? 2 Do we use a positive or a negative question to reply to a positive statement? 3 Which intonation pattern from Exercise 4 do we use with an echo question: A or B? Grammar Reference and Practice > page 172 7 1.9 Complete the conversations with no more than three words in each gap. Listen and check your answers. Ben Where would you live if you could live anywhere in the world? Meg 1 a good question, isn’t it? I don’t think I’ve ever really thought about it before. Hmm ... Somewhere a bit warmer, I guess. Ben Yes, 2 too much rain in this country, isn’t there? too much rain in this country, isn’t there? Meg Oh yes, there is. But I wouldn’t want to live somewhere too hot. I mean, in some countries it can be 45 degrees in the summer. That would be unbearable, 3 ? Ben Actually, I used to live in Dubai. Meg 4 you?Ibet5 really hot, wasn’t it? Ben Boiling! But we had air conditioning, and a pool. Meg That sounds great. I wouldn’t mind living somewhere like that, actually. Ira Move up, 6 ? I really need to sit down! Kate Have you been dancing? Ira Yes, I love the music they’re playing. 7 ? Kate It’s not really my thing, actually. I find it a bit boring. Ira 8 ? But everyone loves this band, 9 ? Kate Not me. Ira You have no taste in music then. Kate Erm, seriously? Ira Ira Oh, sorry, I’m being a bit annoying, Oh, sorry, I’m being a bit annoying, Oh, sorry, I’m being a bit annoying, 10 10 ?? Let’s stop talking about music then, Let’s stop talking about music then, 11 ? Kate Yes, I think that might be best! Yes, I think that might be best! 8 SPEAKING In pairs, write and r In pairs, write and role play a conversation. a conversation. Go to page 196. 1 1.6 Look at the photo. Listen to three conversations at a party. Which do you think is the best question they use to keep a conversation going? 2 Think of three more questions you could ask to get to know someone better. Question tags and echo questions 3 Look at the underlined examples of question tags from the dialogues. Then complete the sentences 1−4 below with the words in the box. negative end positive modal It’s such a great city, isn’t it? Wow, so you’d never been there before, had you? had you? I shouldn’t be so fussy, should I? 1 A question tag is a short question added to the of a sentence. 2 We form a question tag using an auxiliary or a verb and a pronoun. 3 A positive statement usually has a question tag. question tag. 4 A negative statement usually has a question tag. question tag. 4 1.7 PRONUNCIATION Listen and match what you hear with intonation pattern A or B below. Which pattern is used for a real question and which for confirming something the speaker already knows? 5 1.8 Look at these more unusual question tags. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. Listen and check. 1 This is silly, isn’t it /it /it this? 2 Nothing ever changes, do / does it? 3 Come and look at this, will / don’t you? don’t you? don’t 4 Everyone was there, weren’t / weren’t / weren’t wasn’t they? wasn’t they? wasn’t 55 Don’t be late, Don’t be late, Don’t be late, are are // will will you? you? 6 No one likes him, No one likes him, do / does they? 7 Let’s stay here, Let’s stay here, do / shall we? 8 I’m a bit late, I’m a bit late, don’t / don’t / don’t aren’t I? aren’t I? aren’t 9 Pick me up at eight, Pick me up at eight, don’t / don’t / don’t could you? you? A B 9 01 □ I can use question tags and echo questions to keep a conversation going. 1D GRAMMAR REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 215 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS As an extension to Exercise 5, ask students to write a different sentence for each of the incorrect tag options in Exercise 5. Students swap with a partner to check their answers. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 173 • Workbook page 9/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 4: Let’s play tag!, pages 277, 293 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 1D ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 1D NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about two situations in which they have felt a strong emotion, one negative and one positive, which they are happy to share with the class. Exercise 4 1 B (confirmation) 2 A (real question) 3 B (confirmation) 4 B (confirmation) Exercise 6 1 to show interest or show that we’re listening 2 We use a positive question to reply to a positive statement. 3A end modal negative positive Exercise 7 1 That’s 2 There’s 3 wouldn’t it 4 Did 5 that was 6 will you 7 don’t you 8Doyou 9 don’t they 10 aren’t I 11 shall we 27
6 1.10 Listen to an interview and tick the ideas in Exercise 5 which the speakers described as being related to emotional intelligence. 7 1.10 Listen again and complete the sentences with a word, a phrase or a number. 1 One piece of research showed that people with high emotional intelligence earned $ more than those with a low EQ. 2 Emotional intelligence is not , which is different from IQ. 3 One way to become more self-aware is to write a . 4 We need to learn how to recognise our negative emotions in order to be able to them. 5 Other people cannot make us feel a certain way; we are largely for our own moods. 6 Body language, such as can demonstrate that you are listening. 7 Active listening can also help you to avoid . 8 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Which aspects of emotional intelligence do you think you are strongest at? 2 How could you further improve your emotional intelligence? What could be the benefits? 9 SPEAKING In groups, discuss the best way to approach the situations below. Think about how you could use self-awareness, manage your own emotions and listen to and empathise with the other person in the situation. 1 A close friend has started hanging out with a different group of friends. You get the impression that they are avoiding you. You feel hurt, and quite confused about what’s happening. 2 Your brother or sister seems quite depressed. They rarely come out of their room and when you try to talk to them they just grunt. You’re getting a bit worried. 1 THINK BACK How good are you at identifying emotions? In pairs, look at the photos and discuss what emotions you think the people are feeling. Use the words from the box. annoyed confused frightened furious nervous sad surprised thrilled 2 Match the adjectives below with their synonyms in Exercise 1. Which of the words have a stronger meaning than their synonyms? 1 terrified frightened 2 astonished 3 exasperated 4 livid 5 tense 6 ecstatic 7 bewildered 8 devastated 3 Complete the sentences with the adjectives from Exercise 2. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1 I’m completely about my exam results – I never thought I’d do so well! 2 He has no idea how he got home last night. He feels completely . 3 She was absolutely when she found out he had cheated in the exam again. 4 She felt very as she waited for her job interview. 5 He’s that someone will find out his secret. 6 Nothing is changing and he is becoming more and more about the situation. 4 In pairs, talk about occasions when you felt some of the emotions in Exercises 1 and 2. Give reasons for your answers. 5 What is emotional intelligence? Which of the ideas 1–9 do you think are related to this term? Discuss in pairs. 1 □ Being aware of your own emotions. 2 □ Being able to reason and problem-solve. 3 □ Being able to manage your emotions. 4 □ Being able to feel and show empathy. 5 □ Being able to remember information. 6 □ Being able to motivate yourself. 7 □ Being able to deal with conflict. 8 □ Being able to manipulate people’s emotions. 9 □ Being a good listener. A B C 10 □ I can identify specific information in a radio interview and talk about emotional intelligence. 1E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 215 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Lead in to Exercise 1 by asking students to describe the emotions they made notes on at home in groups of three but without saying the word itself. Can the other group members guess what the emotion is? • After Exercise 9, in the same groups, students think of one more situation to discuss. They then join another group, share their situations and discuss them. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 10/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 5: What’s your EQ?, pages 277, 294 Exercise 1 A furious, annoyed, nervous B confused C frightened D nervous, confused E thrilled F sad 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 have a stronger meaning. surprised annoyed furious nervous thrilled confused sad Exercise 3 1 ecstatic 2 bewildered 3 livid 4 tense 5 terrified 6 exasperated Exercise 5 Emotional intelligence is the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one’s emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically. The following ideas could be related to emotional intelligence 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9. Exercise 7 1 29,000 2 fixed 3 diary 4 release 5 responsible for 6 nodding 7 conflict ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 28
3 1.12 Listen to six statements. When you hear a beep, choose and say a suitable response from the box. I don’t blame you. I know, right? I’m really pleased for you. I’m so sorry to hear that. What a pain! What’s the worst that could happen? 4 Replace the underlined words with phrases from the Speaking box and suitable responses in Exercise 3. 1 A I’m extremely concerned I’m extremely concerned about my cat – she isn’t about my cat – she isn’t very well. B That’s awful. It’s horrible when a pet is sick. 2 A I’ve got to give a presentation in class next week. I’m really nervous. I’ve been worrying about it a lot I’ve been worrying about it a lot. B There’s no need to worry There’s no need to worry. You’ll be great! 3 A My parents are taking me to Florida this summer. B I don’t believe you I don’t believe you! You lucky thing! A Yes, I’m so happy I’m so happy. 4 A I’m completely fed up with I’m completely fed up with people gossiping behind my back. B I don’t blame you. It’s awful. 5 A I finally finished my Geography project. B That must be a relief for you a relief for you. 5 In pairs, role play the situations. Student A, read the instructions below. Student B, go to page 200. STUDENT A In pairs, role play the two situations. Use language for expressing emotions and for responding from this lesson. 1 You can’t decide what subjects to choose for your final year at school. You’re really worried about this. Tell your friend how you feel. 2 You did badly in your exams. Tell your friend how you feel. For each situation which your partner describes, respond according to these instructions. 1 Express your happiness at the situation. 2 Express your surprise and pleasure. 1 1.11 Listen to six short conversations. What is the main emotion each speaker expresses? Why did each speaker feel that way? 2 Complete the Speaking box with the phrases from the box. Get out of here! I’m feeling a bit blue. I’m heartbroken. I’m worried sick about ... I’ve had it up to here with ... That’s a weight off my mind. SPEAKING | Expressing emotions Expressing anxiety It’s been keeping me up at night. 1 Expressing relief I can breathe a sigh of relief now. 2 Thank goodness. Expressing annoyance and frustration ... is driving me up the wall! ... really gets on my nerves. 3 Expressing surprise or disbelief You’ve got to be kidding me! 4 Who would have thought it? Expressing sadness I’m feeling a bit down in the dumps. 5 6 Expressing enjoyment or happiness I’m walking on air! I can’t stop smiling! D E F 01 11 □ I can use fixed phrases to express emotions. 1F SPEAKING REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 216 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity after Exercise 4. In pairs, one student should choose a phrase from the Speaking box to say to their partner. Their partner should think of a response in order to start a short exchange. Pick out any good conversations and ask pairs to repeat them for the class. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 11/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to do an Internet search to find out about the stage musical Bugsy Malone. Exercise 1 1 anxiety (because of impending exams) 2 relief (because she found her phone) 3 enjoyment/happiness (because he got his choice of university) 4 surprise/disbelief (because Andrew and Marta didn’t use to like each other) 5 anger/annoyance/ frustration (because she keeps receiving chain messages) 6 sadness/empathy (because his grandfather is in hospital) Exercise 3 1 What’s the worst that could happen? 2 I’m really pleased for you. 3 What a pain! 4 I’m so sorry to hear that. 5 I know, right? 6 I don’t blame you. Exercise 4 1 A I’m worried sick B I’m so sorry to hear that. 2 A It’s been keeping me up at night. B What’s the worst that could happen? 3 B You’ve got to be kidding me! A I’m walking on air! / I can’t stop smiling! 4AI’vehadituptoherewith 5 B a weight off your mind I’m worried sick about ... That’s a weight off my mind. I’ve had it up to here with ... Get out of here! I’m feeling a bit blue. I’m heartbroken. 29
1 Discuss in groups. Which of the following forms of communication do you use most often? Do you communicate with different people in different ways? communicate with different people in different ways? communicate with different people in different ways? Give reasons for your answer. Give reasons for your answer. emailing messaging through social media phoning emailing messaging through social media phoning texting video calling writing a letter texting video calling writing a letter Hi Maisie, Long time no see. How are things? I was sorry to hear that you’ve been ill. Hope you’re feeling better now? Things have been pretty busy here. I’ve been rehearsing for a musical, Bugsy Malone, which we’re putting on in a few weeks’ time. You like musicals too, don’t you? I’m playing the part of Blousey Brown, which is a pretty big role, so it’s loads of work! I’m really enjoying it, though I’m sure I’ll be terrified when I actually have to step out in front of an audience. We’re expecting over 200 people! BTW, I saw Janie the other day at a party. She said she was working hard for her exams, and that’s why she wasn’t keeping in touch with you. Hmm ... I’m not sure I believed her, someone told me that she was livid with you for having moved away. How ridiculous is that? It’s not like you could help it, is it? I wouldn’t let it keep you up at night, reckon you’re better off without her if that’s how she feels. Great news about you getting into Oxford University, BTW. Wow! I’m dead impressed. I’m still hoping to get a place at Sheffield University. Actually, I need to speak to one of the tutors about the course. Do you think I should email her, or ring her? What’s the best way to communicate? What else? Well, we’re all off to the coast for a few days for half-term – sun, sand, sea, and sleep. I’m exhausted! What kind of holidays do you enjoy best? Anyway, I guess I’d better go and get on with some revision for my exams. :( Give my love to your family. 2 Read the email and answer the questions. 1 What has Scarlett been busy with recently? 2 Why is Maisie likely to be interested in news about Janie? 3 What three questions does Scarlett ask Maisie? 3 What is the relationship between Scarlett and Maisie? What is the relationship between Scarlett and Maisie? What words or phrases make this relationship clear? What words or phrases make this relationship clear? From: Scarlett To: Maisie Subject: What’s up? 1G WRITING | An informal email 12 REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 206 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • As a follow-up to Exercise 1, ask students to discuss when it’s appropriate to write an email instead of a text message or social media chat. When is it appropriate to send an informal vs. a formal email? • Before Exercise 2, ask students to tell the class what they found out about Bugsy Malone. Ask for a show of hands for who would go to watch the musical. Why? Exercise 2 1 Rehearsing for a musical. 2 It seems that she may have been friends with Janie, but they have lost contact because Masie moved away and now Janie is cross with her. 3 She asks whether she should phone or email one of her course tutors, what the best way to communicate is, and what kind of holidays Maisie enjoys best. Exercise 3 They are friends. We can tell because of the informal style used, e.g. Hi, ... sorryto hear that you’ve been ill, Give my love to your family, Take care. 30
WATCH OUT! We use commas • after the greeting, and also after we sign off, e.g. Hi Al, • after introductory adverbs, e.g. Well, However, Suddenly, Meanwhile, • to separate a series of three or more words or phrases We use • brackets and dashes to add extra information or make a comment on what you have just written • exclamation marks to express emotions • multiple question marks or exclamation marks to put more emphasis (informal writing) 7 Read the email from a seventeen-year-old boy to his friend of the same age. Rewrite it to make it more informal. Use the phrases in the Writing box. To: Harry Subject: Personal update Dear Sir, I hope that you are quite well? It has been quite a long time since we last made contact. You will be surprised to hear that I was able to pass all of my exams. I feel greatly relieved. I was quite convinced that I had made a great number of mistakes. I will shortly be going on holiday with my parents to Madeira. I am afraid that it may be a little tedious as I believe that only rather elderly people tend to holiday there. I would much prefer to go to Ibiza and go dancing with you. I am convinced that we would enjoy ourselves greatly. My parents would rather eat out in nice restaurants, particularly seafood restaurants, but I greatly dislike seafood. Do you? The thought of it makes me feel a little nauseous. Please do tell me in your next email what your holiday plans are. Kind regards, Stefan 8 REFLECT | Society Some people believe that the younger generation is losing the ability to communicate face-to-face or in any depth because of the rise of messaging online. Do you think there is any truth in this point of view? 9 WRITING TASK Write an email from Maisie to Scarlett, in response to her email in Exercise 2. • Share some recent personal news. • Answer the questions Scarlett asks in her email. • Ask Maisie questions about her musical theatre show. 4 Complete the Writing box with examples from Scarlett’s email. WRITING | An informal email Organisation • Start with a friendly greeting, e.g. Hi/Hi there. • Mention your last contact with the other person, e.g. Long time 1 ./Howare2 ?/Haven’t seen you in ages. • Mention any news from your friend, e.g. I was sorry to hear that ... • Cover each topic in a separate paragraph. • Finish with a friendly, informal goodbye, e.g. Well, that’s all for now./Hoping to hear from you soon./ Can’t wait to see you!/Give my 3 to .../ Take 4 ,/Love,/Best,/Cheers, Informal style • Use contractions, e.g. Hope you’re feeling better. • Use more informal quantifiers and intensifiers, e.g. ... whichisa5 big role./I’m 6 impressed./ It’s 7 work. • Leave out the subject and auxiliary verb if the meaning is obvious, e.g. Great news about you getting into Oxford University!/Reckon you’re better off without him. • You may use question tags and rhetorical questions, e.g. You like musicals too, 8 ?/9 else? 5 Match the interjections 1–9 with their meanings a–i . In pairs, take turns to make statements and responses. A I won the lottery! B Yay! 1 □Aha! 2 □ Oops! 3 □ Argh! 4 □Hmm. 5 □ Phew! 6 □ Yuck! 7 □Wow! 8 □ Yikes! 9 □Yay! a That’s amazing! b I (or someone else) made a small mistake. c Now I understand! d I’m cross or frustrated. e I’m not sure. f That’s scary or worrying. g That’s brilliant news! Congratulations! h What a relief! i That’s disgusting. 6 Study Watch out! Then choose the sentences which are correctly punctuated. Give reasons for your answers. 1 a Ibiza is a fabulous holiday destination because it’s warm, sunny and a lot of fun. b Ibiza is a fabulous holiday destination because it’s warm sunny and a lot of fun. 2 a Actually, I’m pretty sure she had the lead role in the show. b Actually I’m pretty sure, she had the lead role in the show. 3 a My cousin Jacques – the French one – is coming to stay. b My cousin Jacques (the French one) is coming to stay. 01 13 □ I can write an informal email. • After Exercise 9, put students in pairs for some peer correction. Get them to read each other’s emails and think about what their partner has done well and what could be improved. Students can then rewrite their emails at home, based on their partner’s feedback. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 12/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 14–15. Exercise 4 1nosee 2 things 3 love 4 care 5 pretty 6 dead 7 loads of 9 don’t you 10 What c e g b h f d i a 31
1A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.1 be stuck /ˌbi ˈstʌk/ build relationships /ˌbɪld rɪˈleɪʃənʃɪps/ buzz (v) /bʌz/ capture (n) /ˈkæptʃə/ carry a message /ˌkæri ə ˈmesɪdʒ/ come to light /ˌkʌm tə ˈlaɪt/ contribute (v) /kənˈtrɪbjuːt/ communicate face-to-face /kəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt ˌfeɪs tə ˈfeɪs/ convey a message /kənˌveɪ ə ˈmesɪdʒ/ deliver a message /dɪˌlɪvər ə ˈmesɪdʒ/ essential (adj) /ɪˈsenʃəl/ establish contact with sb /ɪˌstæblɪʃ ˈkɒntækt wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ get a response /ˌget ə rɪˈspɒns/ go out (lights) /ˌɡəʊ ˈaʊt (laɪts)/ hail (v) /heɪl/ ingenious (adj) /ɪnˈdʒiːniəs/ keep/stay in touch with sb /ˌkiːp/ˌsteɪ ɪn ˈtʌtʃ wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ lose contact/touch with sb /ˌluːz ˈkɒntækt/ˈtʌtʃ wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ maintain contact with sb /meɪnˌteɪn ˈkɒntækt wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ make contact with sb /ˌmeɪk ˈkɒntækt wɪθ ˌ sʌmbɒdi/ means of communication /ˌmiːnz əv kəˌmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃən/ pass on a message /ˌpɑːs ˈɒn ə ˌmesɪdʒ/ rapidly (adv) /ˈræpɪdli/ rare (adj) /reə/ share knowledge /ˌ ʃeə ˈnɒlɪdʒ/ since the dawn of time /ˌsɪns ðə ˈdɔːn əv ˌtaɪm/ smoke signals (n) /ˈsməʊk ˌsɪɡnəlz/ speed up (phr v) /ˌspiːd ˈʌp/ spot a problem /ˌspɒt ə ˈprɒbləm/ spread the message /ˌspred ðə ˈmesɪdʒ/ stay in touch /ˌsteɪ ɪn ˈtʌtʃ/ text (v) /tekst/ text messaging / ˈtekst ˌmesɪdʒɪŋ/ toss (v) /tɒs/ turn out (phr v) /ˌtɜːn ˈaʊt/ without a doubt /wɪðˌaʊt ə ˈdaʊt/ 1B READING AND VOCABULARY 5.2 alien civilisation /ˌeɪliən ˌsɪvəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/ assume (v) /əˈsjuːm/ assumption (n) /əˈsʌmpʃən/ being (n) /ˈbiːɪŋ/ billion (num) /ˈbɪljən/ brand-new (adj) /ˌbrænd ˈnjuː/ bring about (phr v) /ˌbrɪŋ əˈbaʊt/ by chance /ˌbaɪ ˈtʃɑːns/ come across (phr v) /ˌkʌm əˈkrɒs/ diagram (n) /ˈdaɪəɡræm/ distant (adj) /ˈdɪstənt/ enormous (adj) /ɪˈnɔːməs/ estimate (v) /ˈestəmət/ evolve (v) /ɪˈvɒlv/ extraterrestial (adj,n) /ˌekstrətəˈrestriəl/ fear sb/sth (v) /ˈfɪə ˌsʌmbɒdi/ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ figure out (phr v) /ˌfɪɡər ˈaʊt/ gaze (v) /ɡeɪz/ get across (phr v) /ˌɡet əˈkrɒs/ given that /ˈɡɪvən ðæt/ gold-plated (adj) /ˌɡəʊld ˈpleɪtəd/ habitable (adj) /ˈhæbətəbəl/ hazardous (adj) /ˈhæzədəs/ highly likely /ˌhaɪli ˈlaɪkli/ humanity (n) /hjuːˈmænəti/ humankind (n) /ˌhjuːmənˈkaɪnd/ insurmountable (adj) /ˌɪnsə ˈmaʊntəbəl/ launch into space /ˌlɔːntʃ ˌɪntə ˈspeɪs/ linguist (n) /ˈlɪŋɡwɪst/ make out (phr v) /ˌmeɪk ˈaʊt/ nuisance (n) /ˈnjuːsəns/ outer space (n) /ˌaʊtə ˈspeɪs/ pass on (phr v) /ˌpɑːs ˈɒn/ physicist (n) /ˈfɪzɪsɪst/ pick up (phr v) /ˌpɪk ˈʌp/ point out (phr v) /ˌpɔɪnt ˈaʊt/ process (v) /ˈprəʊses/ put together (phr v) /ˌpʊt təˈɡeðə/ radio dish /ˈreɪdiəʊ ˌdɪʃ/ random (adj) /ˈrændəm/ realm (n) /relm/ ridiculous (adj) /rɪˈdɪkjələs/ sophisticated (adj) /səˈfɪstɪkeɪtɪd/ spacecraft /ˈspeɪskrɑːft/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Two verbs collocate in each Two verbs collocate in each T case. Cross out the wrong verb. Then check with the word list. 1 You’ve got to learn how to release / carry / manage your emotions positively. 2 It’s unlikely we will ever deliver / make / establish contact with aliens. 3 The article aims to convey / process / spread an important message. 4 Idon’twanttocome/get/turn into conflict with anybody. into conflict with anybody. into conflict 2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs of movement. Then check with the word list. 1 I offered her a coffee to the ice. 2 Why are you down my throat? Calm down. 3 I don’t think Ann and Tim it off when they met. I guess they don’t have much in common. 4 Iam on air! I passed my driving test! 3 Complete the phrasal verbs with prepositions. Then check with the word list. 1 figure (how to do sth) 2 point (mistakes) 3 spell (how to do sth) 4 pick (signals) 5 strike (a conversation) 6 speed (your plans) 4 Write synonyms (ending in -ed) for each of these adjectives. 1 totally confused – b 2 intelligent or made in a complicated way – s 3 extremely upset – d 4 annoyed – e ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Phrases When you learn phrases from the word lists, you may divide them into groups according to the way they are built. For example, find all phrases with prepositions (with, off, up, etc.), like in Exercise 3 above or words that collocate with the same noun, like in Exercise 1. 14 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Individually, students think of one or two sentences to describe an idiom or phrase from the word list for Lessons 1C or 1F. They then say their sentence to a partner, who has to guess the idiom/ phrase. • Individually, students think of one word to describe an adjective from Lesson 1E and tell it to a partner, who has to guess it. They should try to use emotion when they are speaking, to help convey the meaning of the word, e.g . Yippee! (ecstatic). • Students play Taboo. Put them in pairs and ask them to choose 8–10 words from the word list they would like to remember and write each word on a separate piece of paper. On the same piece of paper, they should write three more words which should not be used when giving a definition of that word. break jumping hit walking out up out up up up ewildered ophisticated evastated xasperated 32
species (n) /ˈspiːʃiːz/ spell out (phr v) /ˌspel ˈaʊt/ subtly (adv) /ˈsʌtlɪ/ superior (adj) /suːˈpɪəriə/ take in (phr v) /ˌteɪk ˈɪn/ vital (adj) /ˈvaɪtəl/ wipe out (phr v) /ˌwaɪp ˈaʊt/ 1C VOCABULARY 5.3 approachable (adj) /əˈprəʊtʃəbəl/ break the ice /ˌbreɪk ði ˈaɪs/ come across as (phr v) /ˌkʌm əˈkrɒs əz/ comment on sth /ˈkɒment ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ create a bond/connection /kriˌeɪt ə ˈbɒnd/ kəˈnekʃən/ fire questions at sb /ˌfaɪə ˈkwestʃənz ət ˌsʌmbɒdi/ friends for life /ˈfrendz fə ˌlaɪf/ get a word in edgeways /ˌget ə ˈwɜːd ɪn ˌedʒweɪz/ give (somebody) an impression /ˌɡɪv (ˌsʌmbɒdi) ən ɪmˈpreʃən/ have a laugh /ˌhəv ə ˈlɑːf/ have the last word /ˌhəv ðə ˌlɑːst ˈwɜːd/ hit it off (with somebody) /ˌhɪt ɪt ˈɒf (wɪθ ˌsʌmbɒdi)/ insincere (adj) /ˌɪnsɪnˈsɪə/ jump down sb’s throat /ˌdʒʌmp ˈdaʊn ˌ sʌmbɒdiz ˈθrəʊt/ let something drop /ˌlet ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈdrɒp/ make a favourable impression /ˌmeɪk ə ˌfeɪvərəbəl ɪmˈpreʃən/ make eye contact /ˌmeɪk ˈaɪ ˌkɒntækt/ make small talk /ˌmeɪk ˈsmɔːl ˌtɔːk/ pay a compliment /ˌpeɪ ə ˈkɒmpləmənt/ put sb on the spot /ˌpʊt ˌsʌmbɒdi ɒn ðə ˈspɒt/ strike up a conversation /ˌstraɪk ˈʌp ə ˌkɒnvəˈseɪʃən/ take to sb /ˈteɪk tə ˌsʌmbɒdi/ 1D GRAMMAR 55.4 air conditioning /ˈeə kənˌdɪʃənɪŋ/ annoying (adj) /əˈnɔɪɪŋ/ bet (v) /bet/ boiling hot /ˌbɔɪlɪŋ ˈhɒt/ fussy (adj) /ˈfʌsi/ have (no) taste in sth /ˌhəv ( /ˌhəv ( /ˌhəv nəʊ) ˈteɪst ɪn ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ unbearable (adj) /ʌnˈbeərəbəl/ 1E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 5.5 annoyed (adj) /əˈnɔɪd/ apparently (adv) /əˈpærəntli/ astonished (adj) /əˈstɒnɪʃt/ be conscious of sth /ˌbi ˈkɒnʃəs əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ bewildered (adj) /bɪˈwɪldəd/ clench jaws /ˌklentʃ ˈdʒɔːs/ confused (adj) /kənˈfjuːzd/ devastated (adj) /ˈdevəsteɪtɪd/ ecstatic (adj) /ɪkˈstætɪk/ emotional intelligence /ɪˌməʊʃənəl ɪnˈtelədʒəns/ empathy (n) /ˈempəθi/ EQ (emotional quotient) (n) /ˌi: ˈkjuː (ɪˌməʊʃənəl ˈkwəʊʃənt)/ exasperated (adj) /ɪɡˈzɑːspəreɪtɪd/ fixed (adj) /fɪkst/ get into conflict /ˌɡet ˌɪntə ˈkɒnflɪkt/ grunt (v) /ɡrʌnt/ IQ (intelligence quotient) (n) /ˌaɪ ˈkjuː (ɪnˌtelədʒəns ˈkwəʊʃənt)/ livid (adj) /ˈlɪvɪd/ nod (v) /nɒd/ piece of research /ˌpi:s əv rɪˈsɜːtʃ/ problem-solve (v) /ˈprɒbləm ˌsɒlv/ put oneself in sb’s shoes /ˌpʊt wʌnˌself ˌɪn ˌsʌmbɒdiz ˈʃuːz/ reason (v) /ˈriːzən/ release negative emotions /rɪˌliːs ˌneɡətɪv ɪˈməʊʃəns/ self-aware (adj) /ˌself əˈweə/ self-awareness (n) /ˌself əˈweənəs/ significant (adj) /sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt/ snap (v) /snæp/ take responsibility for sth /ˌteɪk rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪləti fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ tense (adj) /tens/ terrified (adj) /ˈterɪfaɪd/ thrilled (adj) /θrɪld/ to a large degree/extent /ˌtʊ ə ˌlɑːdʒ dɪˈɡriː/ to a large degree/extent /ˌtʊ ə ˌlɑːdʒ dɪˈɡriː/ to a large degree/extent ɪkˈstent/ 1F SPEAKING 5.6 annoyance (n) /əˈnɔɪəns/ anxiety /æŋˈzaɪəti/ be fed up with sth /ˌbi fed ˈʌp wɪð ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ be heartbroken /ˌbi ˈhɑːtˌbrəʊkən/ be worried sick about sth /ˌbi ˌwʌrid ˈsɪk əˌbaʊt ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ blame sb for sth /ˈbleɪm ˌsʌmbɒdi fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ breathe a sigh of relief /ˌbriːð ə ˌsaɪ əv rɪ ˈliːf/ be concerned about sth /ˌbi kənˈsɜːnd əˌbaʊt ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ disbelief (n) /ˌdɪsbəˈliːf/ drive sb up the wall /ˌdraɪv ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈʌp ðə ˈwɔːl/ feel blue /ˌfiːl ˈbluː/ feel down in the dumps /ˌfiːl ˈdaʊn ɪn ðə ˈdʌmps/ get on sb’s nerves /ˌɡet ˈɒn ˌsʌmbɒdiz ˈnɜːvz/ get out of here /ˌɡet ˈaʊt əv ˌhɪə/ have had it up to here with sth /həv ˌhæd ɪt ˈʌp tə ˌhɪə wɪð ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ keep sb up at night /ˌkiːp ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈʌp ət ˌnaɪt/ relief (n) /rɪˈliːf/ walk on air /ˌwɔːk ɒn ˈeə/ weight off (one’s) mind /ˌweɪt ˈɒf (wʌnz) ˌmaɪnd/ 1G WRITING 5.7 be better off /ˌbi ˌbetər ˈɒf/ be dead impressed /ˌbi ˌded ɪmˈprest/ be off /ˌbi ˈɒf/ convinced (adj) /kənˈvɪnst/ cross (adj) /krɒs/ half-term (n) /ˌhɑːf ˈtɜːm/ lead role /ˈliːd ˌrəʊl/ loads of work /ˌləʊdz əv ˈwɜːk/ long time no see /ˌlɒŋ ˈtaɪm ˌnəʊ ˌsiː/ nauseous (adj) /ˈnɔːziəs/ put on a musical /ˌpʊt ˈɒn ə ˌmjuːzɪkəl/ reckon (v) /ˈrekən/ rehearse (v) /rɪˈhɜːs/ relieved (adj) /rɪˈliːvd/ step out (phr v) /ˌstep ˈaʊt/ tedious (adj) /ˈtiːdiəs/ tutor (n) /ˈtjuːtə/ 15 01 Join pairs together into groups of four and get them to put their cards in two piles face down on the desk. They take it in turns to pick one card from the other pair’s pile and give a definition of the word on the card without using the ‘taboo’ words. If their partner guesses the word, they win a point. If not, or if the student giving the definition uses one of the taboo words, the card is ‘burnt’ and no points are scored. The pair with the most points at the end are the winners. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 13/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 1. 33
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. There are four extra words. carry contact get across hit it off impression laugh pass on real bond strike up took to 1We right from the start. We talked all evening! 2 We created a . I felt like I’d known her for a year, not an hour. 3 I don’t usually like someone immediately but I really him. 4 My grandparents are really funny. We always have a good . 5 It’s sometimes difficult to a conversation at parties with people you don’t know. 6 The canteen will be closed tomorrow. Can you please the message to the others? 2 Complete the second sentence using the word in bold so that it means the same as the first one. Use no more than five words, including the word in bold. 1 I found it hard to understand what the physics teacher was talking about. FIGURE I found what the physics teacher was talking about. 2 You must explain your idea very clearly so he understands. SPELL You must your idea so he understands. 3 Mary has drawn my attention to a problem. POINTED Mary a problem to me. 4 I couldn’t process so much information. TAKE I all the information. 5 The arrival of aliens could cause panic. ABOUT The arrival of aliens could . 3 Choose the correct words to complete the text. I’m a very good student, so I was really 1ecstatic / devastated when I found out I’d failed an exam. I was really 2 livid / down in the dumps while my friends who had passed felt like they were walking on air! I genuinely felt 3thrilled / heartbroken for them but at the same time I was 4 hazardous / bewildered as to why I hadn’t passed. I was 5exasperated / worried sick too as I had to tell my parents. worried sick too as I had to tell my parents. worried sick Then the head teacher called me. She apologised and explained there had been a terrible mistake. I had come top, not bottom! What a weight off my 6nerves / mind! 4 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. 1 I’ve been talking / talked on the phone all afternoon. 2 Urgh, that is sounding / sounds awful! 3 I am thinking / think that young people generally spend / are generally spending too much time on social media. 4 Nowadays, it’s getting / it gets easier and easier to stay in touch with people. 5 I saw / was seeing a famous YouTuber yesterday while I shopped / was shopping. 6 When we arrived, Lucy had cooked / cooked dinner – it was ready on the table! 7 I’ve had / been having a phone for as long as I can remember. 5 Complete the mini-dialogues with a question tag or an echo question. 1 A I’m sure you felt stressed out, ? BI sure did. 2 A He paid me a lot of compliments. B ? That’s nice! 3 A Don’t tell anyone my secret, ? BOf course not! 4 A I’m always making the same mistake, ? BBut you always correct yourself, which is great! 5 A We hadn’t had such a good laugh for ages, ? BRight! I really enjoyed myself. 6 A Let’s go to the coast, ? BThat’s a great idea! 7 A I think I’ve really hurt Sasha’s feelings. B ? Why don’t you talk to her about it? USE OF ENGLISH 6 Choose the correct words a–d to complete the text. STRATEGY | Multiple choice Read the complete text to have global understanding. Look for clues around each gap as the word before or after the gap may be part of a set phrase, e.g. pay a compliment. 1 awere bhadbeen chavebeen dare 2 abeen bgone c discovered d come 3 a convey b carry c write d receive 4 a Staying b Passing c Maintaining d Spreading 5 alast b recently c these d recent 6 achat b speak c talk d conversation Use of English > page 191 People 1 recording information in the form of writing since ancient times. Latin, the language of religion, and French, the language of the rich and powerful, were the preferred languages in the Middle Ages in Europe. Subjects were usually connected to religion, trade and government, although historians have also 2 across love letters people wrote to stay in touch in those times. After the invention of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century, books and documents in people’s native languages became readily available. This, together with improvements in education and the spread of postal ser vices in the nineteenth century, permitted families and friends to 3 messages to each other by letter. messages to each other by letter. 4 contact was much easier than it had ever been. In5 years, though, ever ything has changed. Mobile years, though, everything has changed. Mobile phones, emails and text messages are replacing letters. Why bother writing a letter when you can make small 6 on the phone for ver y little cost? Most people on the phone for very little cost? Most people would agree, however, that there is something ver y special about receiving a personal, handwritten letter. Staying In touch 01 Revision 16 FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 191 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 1 and Self-check 1, Workbook pages 14–15/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening. ASSESSMENT • Unit 1 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 1 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 1 Writing Test Exercise 1 1hititoff 2 real bond 3 took to 4 laugh 5 strike up 6 pass on Exercise 2 1 it hard to figure out 2 spell out your idea / spell your idea out 3 has pointed out 4 couldn’t take in 5 bring about panic Exercise 5 1 didn’t you 2Didhe 3 will you 4 aren’t I 5hadwe 6 shall we 7 Have you 34
READING 7 Read the text. Match sentences A–G with gaps 1–6 in the text. There is one extra sentence. A Finally, we shouldn’t forget that when students learn a foreign language, they are also learning about the culture of the country or countries where it is spoken. B Learning a foreign language has once again been given the importance it deserves. C It is easy to get your message across in a hotel or restaurant in Spanish and French, but neither is as widely spoken or as simple to learn as English. D This was attributed to a mixture of cultural reasons and past government policies. E Perhaps students in the UK are wasting their time by learning French and German, and should be turning their attention to Mandarin, the most spoken language in the world? F Brazil, Russia, India and China are considered to be the main emerging economies, so it would seem to make sense to study one of the main languages spoken in these countries. G The vast majority of students at secondary school learn a foreign language, which is often English. SPEAKING 8 In pairs, role play the situation below. Then change roles and do the task again. STRATEGY | Role play Read the task and note down some statements and questions you could use. Decide if you have to role play a conversation between friends or strangers and use appropriate formal or informal register. Remember to be polite and speak clearly. Student A You feel a classmate is ignoring you. You thought he/ she was your friend and you are rather upset. Discuss the problem with Student B. Your goal is to find the best possible solution to the problem. Student B You are a friend of Student A, who shares a problem with you. Discuss the problem and suggest some solutions. Do your best to help. Use the phrases below to help you. You start first. • Is anything the matter? You look a bit down. • You’ve got to be kidding me! Can you think of something you have done that might have upset him/her? • Try and get it in perspective. Maybe he/she has problems and it isn’t you at all. • Why don’t you have a serious chat with him/her? WRITING 9 Read this email you received from your English- speaking friend, Marianne. Going to study in the USA! Hi, How are you? I haven’t seen you in ages. How are your studies going? Have you been doing anything exciting recently? Hey, I’ve got an offer of a place at university in the US! It’ll be a great opportunity for me to get a degree in engineering from a top college, but it’ll mean going abroad for a long time, and probably losing touch with all my friends here. I’m worried sick about this. I’m really not sure what to do − have you got any advice for me? Take care, Marianne Write your reply. A recent study in the UK revealed that only about twenty-five percent of adults in the UK can hold a conversation in a foreign language. 1 However, However, foreign language learning is now being prioritised in schools. French, Spanish and German are three of the languages identified as the most important. On the other hand, the situation in Europe is different. 2 English is now a compulsory subject in English is now a compulsory subject in many primary schools too. Fluency in a foreign language in general and English in particular is considered highly important for a student’s future. There are many reasons for this. Firstly, having a good command of a foreign language is a useful skill to include on a curriculum vitae and can help young people be successful in their chosen career. What’s more, proficiency in a different language than your native one also makes travelling less stressful and fun! 3 This is a great way of promoting global This is a great way of promoting global understanding too. However, is English really as crucial as the large number of students of English would suggest? 4 The question of which languages will dominate The question of which languages will dominate the future is a difficult one to answer. It really depends upon which future we are considering. Take the future of business, for example. 5 Reports Reports also suggest Arabic and Spanish will be important languages to do business in the future. This is all rather bewildering! As far as travelling is concerned, Chinese is the most spoken language in the world today, but as it is rather complex and more unevenly geographically distributed, it isn’t the ideal lingua franca. 6 So, English as a vehicle of international communication would seem to be here to stay. The next lingua franca 17 D G A F C E 35
Let ’s be honest. We may have seen some improvement in poverty and crime figures in recent decades, but why assume that this pattern will continue? I’d argue that for most people life is actually unlikely to get better from now on. Advances in robotics and artificial intelligence will not only drastically reduce the number of unskilled jobs available, but will also eliminate semi-skilled administrative jobs which can be done by a computer. By 2050, young people graduating today 2 will have been trying will have been trying, and failing, to get a permanent job for most of their ‘working’ lives! In twenty to thirty years’ time, a few lucky people will be rich and the rest of us will be much poorer than we are now. Within twenty years, people 3 will have stopped will have stopped fighting over oil – 4 we’ll be fighting we’ll be fighting over water instead, as global heating is certain to lead to water shortages in many countries. In many ways, human life on this planet is better than it’s ever been. In many countries across the world, violence and crime have been dropping steadily. This may be due to better education, or perhaps to a reduction in extreme poverty. In 2016, the proportion of the world’s population living in extreme poverty fell to below ten percent for the first time. With any luck, no one 1 will be living will be living in this way within a few decades. Technology is also making our lives easier and safer, and this trend is bound to continue as we develop more and more ways to use it. For example, driving is sure to become safer. Human error is the key reason for most car accidents, and well-programmed and designed driverless cars may save huge numbers of lives. Such cars are already a reality and are going to become more and more common in the next few years. And finally, life expectancy is already higher than it’s ever been and as a result of better nutrition and medicine, young people today are likely to live their increasingly happy lives until the age of 150. FUTURE’S... FUTURE’S... FUTURE’S... T H E ... BRIGHT ... TERRIFYING! 1 In pairs, read the definition of ‘dystopia’ and discuss the questions. 1 Do you enjoy reading books, watching films or playing video games set in a dystopia? Give reasons for your answers. 2 What examples of books/films/series can you think of? 2 Read the magazine article about two different visions of the future. Which text is dystopian? Which of them is closest to your opinion about the future of our world? 18 dystopia /dɪsˈtəʊpiə/ an imaginary place where life is extremely difficult and a lot of unfair or immoral things happen 2A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY VOCABULARY Cause and effect phrases, compound nouns for threats to the environment, describing wildlife and threats to wildlife GRAMMAR Future forms for predictions, plans and hopes Use of English > page 191 SPEAKING Problem solving WRITING A formal email VIDEO Grammar Documentary Looking ahead 02 REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 239 CULTURE NOTES page 206 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity at any point after Exercise 8 or at the end of the lesson. Put students in groups of three or four and ask them to come up with three ideas about what the English classroom will be like in fifty years. They should incorporate future forms for predictions in their ideas. After 3–5 minutes, groups share their ideas with the class. Have a class vote on the predictions students think will most likely come true. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 2, page 270 36
9 1.13 Complete the article with the phrases from the box. Then listen and check. is likely to mean is unlikely will be eating will be living will definitely have to will have will have been working will have switched will have risen will probably taste Future forms for predictions 3 THINK BACK Look at two predictions from the texts. Which verb form is used when there is some evidence now for the prediction? 1 Driverless cars are already a reality and are going to become going to become commonplace in the next few years. 2 A few lucky people will be rich and the rest of us will be much poorer than we are now. 4 Match the underlined phrases (1–4) in the article to these tenses. a □ Future Perfect Simple b □ Future Perfect Continuous c □ Future Continuous 5 Now match the tenses a–c in Exercise 4 to the explanations 1–3 below. 1 □ an activity in progress at a specific time in the future 2 □ an activity which will be completed by a specific time in the future 3 □ an activity which continues up to a specific point in the future 6 Choose the correct answers to complete the sentences. 1 By 2025, software will be able / will have been able to predict traffic jams before they even start. 2 In a few years, tablets won’t exist anymore. They will be / will have been replaced by a projection from your watch. 3 By the time today’s young people retire, they will be working / will have been working for seventy years or more. 4 I don’t think we will need / are going to need passwords anymore because computers will be able to recognise our faces. 5 In a few decades, everyone will be growing / will have been growing their own food on the roof of their house or apartment building. 6 In fifty years, we are all going to live / will all be living on Mars because we will have destroyed / will have been destroying our own planet. 7 Look at the underlined phrase in the sentence. How likely does the author think the prediction is ? a almost definite b probable c improbable Technology is also making our lives easier and this trend is bound to continue as we develop continue as we develop more ways to use it. Find four more examples of structures using be + adjective + infinitive in the articles and decide how definite the author is. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 174 8 Read through the predictions in Exercise 6 again. In pairs, discuss how likely you think they are to happen. Use phrases from Exercise 7 and the article to explain your views. 10 Read the sentences from the articles on page 18. Which highlighted phrases refer to cause and which to effect? 1 This may be due to better education. 2 Asaresultof a result of better nutrition and medicine, young people a result of better nutrition and medicine, young people a result of today are likely to live until the age of 150. 3 Global heating is certain to lead to water shortages. 11 Rewrite the sentences in Exercise 10 using the phrases from the box. You can rewrite two of the sentences in several ways. a big cause of as a consequence of bring about cause (v) give rise to result from result in 12 SPEAKING In groups, complete the sentence beginnings with your predictions for the future. Explain your choices. 1 By2089,... 2 BythetimeI... 3 Within our lifetime ... 4 A hundred years from now ... 5 In fifty years’ time, ... 6 By the time this school year ends, ... G R A M M A R V I D E O 3 Read the prompt and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, complete the sentence. By the time I’m 65, I will have ... At the turn of the twenty-first century, the population of the world was just under seven billion people, but according to the United Nations, by 2075 that figure 1 to more than nine billion. This 2 that we will need to use more and more land for housing, especially as it is predicted that by 2050 a third of people 3 alone. It is obvious what impact this 4 on the environment as more and more trees are bound to be cut down to make way for houses. We will also need to produce more and more food andit5 that we will be able to produce enough meat that we will be able to produce enough meat to feed all those people without further damaging the natural environment. Our eating habits 6 change. change. Luckily, scientists are already working on alternatives to meat, such as insects and synthetic protein. It may sound disgusting, but in a few years, all of us 7 it! In fact, it! In fact, most scientists believe that by 2025, we 8 completely to completely to cheap synthetic meat which 9 identical to the real thing. identical to the real thing. Chiara Wilton, who works for a company developing artificial meat says, ‘By the end of this year, we 10 on this project on this project for ten years and over that time we have seen incredible developments. It’s now almost impossible to tell the difference between our artificial meat and the real thing. ’ What will we be eating in the future? 19 02 □ I can use a variety of forms to talk about future predictions. • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 174 • Workbook pages 16–17/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 6: 2050, pages 277, 295 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 2A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 2A NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about the environmental issues in their home town and make notes. be going to Exercise 7 Examples from the articles: driving is sure to become safer – a young people today are likely tolive–b life is actually unlikely to get better – c global heating is certain to lead to water shortages – a Exercise 8 1 will have risen 2 is likely to mean 3 will be living 4 will have 5 is unlikely 6 will definitely have to 7 will be eating 8 will have switched 9 will probably taste 10 will have been working Exercise 11 1 This may have been brought about/caused by/ have resulted from better education. 2 As a consequence of better nutrition and medicine, young people today ... 3 Global heating is certain to bring about/cause/give rise to/result in water shortages. 3 c a b 2 1 cause cause effect 37
3 PRONUNCIATION Read the compound nouns in Exercise 2 aloud. Is the stress on the first or the second word for each compound noun? Underline the correct word. 4 11.14 Study Active Vocabulary. Then listen again and check your answers to Exercise 3. Practise saying the compound nouns. ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Compound nouns • A compound noun is made up of two words. Usually the first part of the compound tells us the type or purpose of the second noun, e.g . climate change (climate tells us what type of change we are talking about). • The first word can be a noun, adjective or a verb, but the second word is always a noun, e.g. climate change (noun, noun), industrial waste (adjective, noun), swimming pool (verb, noun). • When both words are nouns, the stress is always on the first noun, e.g. climate change. When the first word is an adjective or a verb, the stress is on the second word, e.g. industrial waste. 5 Complete the sentences with compound nouns from Exercise 2. 1 Average temperatures around the world have risen by 1.5 degrees in the last century, almost certainly as a result of . 2 Eighty percent of the energy we consume is provided by which pollute the atmosphere. 3 Deforestation causes because tree roots are no longer in place to bind the earth together. 4 It is claimed that from cars kill twice as many people as accidents caused by vehicles. 5 Up to 300 homes can be powered by one , using . 6 is the greatest threat to which are close to extinction. 7 For safety reasons, must be stored in sealed containers underground. 8 damages buildings, forests, and kills fish. 9 By 2025, around 1.8 billion people are likely to face as a result of climate change (mainly droughts and floods). 6 REFLECT | Culture In small groups, make a list of at least three environmental issues for each of the categories below. Then choose one category and present your choices to the class. Give reasons for your answers and say what people could do to deal with these problems. 1 The most urgent issues to deal with. 2 The issues where it would be easier to change people’s behaviour. 3 The issues which most affect people living in poorer countries. 4 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 163. Watch the documentary The plastic whale and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 1 In pairs, look at the ‘before and after’ photos. What do you think happened? What impact did it have? 2 1.14 Complete the compound nouns with the nouns from the box. Then listen and check. effect emissions energy erosion fuels fumes layer loss rain scarcity species turbine heating waste 1 acid 2 endangered 3 exhaust 4 fossil 5 global 6 greenhouse 7 habitat 8 ozone 9 renewable 10 soil 11 toxic 12 vehicle 13 water 14 wind Before ... After ... 2B VOCABULARY | Threats to the environment 20 □ I can talk about threats to the environment. REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 239 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Before Exercise 1, elicit information on environmental issues faced in students’ local areas. Write any common ones on the board and try to establish which issue poses the biggest threat. • After Exercise 6, put students in groups and allocate one of the issues from Exercise 2 to each group. Groups research the issue online for 2 minutes, then present their findings to the class in quick presentations. Students can also complete the task for homework and present their ideas at the beginning of the next lesson. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 18/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 7: It’s a match, pages 278, 296 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 2 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 2 rain layer species energy fumes erosion fuels waste heating emissions effect scarcity loss turbine Exercise 3 1 acid rain 2 endangered species 3 exhaust fumes 4 fossil fuels 5 global heating 6 greenhouse effect 7 habitat loss 8 ozone layer 9 renewable energy 10 soil erosion 11 toxic waste 12 vehicle emissions 13 water scarcity 14 wind turbine Exercise 5 1 global heating 2 fossil fuels 3 soil erosion 4 exhaust fumes/ vehicle emissions 5 wind turbine, renewable energy 6 habitat loss, endangered species 7 toxic waste 8 Acid rain 9 water scarcity 38
5 Study Active Listening. Then match the phrases for signposting 1–10 with the functions a–f. 1 □ I’m going to be talking about ... 2 □Tobeginwith,... 3 □ ... when, in reality,/in fact, ... 4 □ In other words, ... 5 □ The second thing that people often seem to think is ... 6 □Thefactisthat... 7 □ Then there are the people who ... 8 □...whereas... 9 □ Similarly, ... 10 □So,tosumup,... a sequencing an argument b indicating that the speaker is going to paraphrase what he/she just said c indicating that the speaker is going to argue against what he/she just said d introducing the topic e concluding f indicating that the speaker is going to give another example ACTIVE LISTENING | Understanding signposting ‘Signposts’ are words or phrases that help you to follow what a speaker is saying, especially in a presentation or lecture. They can also indicate how something relates to what has already been said. 6 1.15 Listen again and complete the notes with no more than three words in each gap. 1 The percentage of scientists who believe that climate change is real is about . 2 To understand changes to climate, it is necessary to look at the rather than the current weather. 3 It is possible that warmer weather may actually cause more . 4 In the past temperature changes were gradual and caused by natural factors such as solar activity and . 5 Industrial developments have been responsible for increased emissions of greenhouse gases, which have risen sharply, particularly since . 6 While carbon dioxide may help plants to grow, it also causes freak weather which destroys . 7 Higher temperatures may benefit people living in but not elsewhere. 7 REFLECT | Society In groups, discuss the questions. 1 Do you think recent changes in climate and weather are due to natural or human causes? Do you find the arguments in the lecture convincing? Say why. 2 Is climate change something that you worry about? Say why. 3 What do you think individuals can do to make a difference? 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos and make a list of weather-related vocabulary to describe them. Which of the types of weather have you heard about or experienced recently? 2 Make more weather-related collocations, using the nouns from the box. floods heat humidity rain snow temperatures weather winds 1 blistering / 2 freak / / 3 gale-force 4 heavy / 5 high / 6 scorching / / 7 soaring 8 sub-zero 9 torrential 3 In groups, discuss the questions. 1 What problems do such weather conditions cause? 2 Do you think that the weather is changing? If so, what is causing that? 3 Look at some arguments people make about climate change. Do you think there is any truth in them? • Many scientists say that climate change isn’t real. • The temperature is actually cooling rather than heating up. • Climate change is not being caused by human beings, it’s just a natural temporary change in temperature. • Climate change has more positive than negative effects. 4 1.15 Listen to a lecture about climate change myths and facts. Does the speaker agree with any of the arguments in Exercise 3? A C B D 21 02 □ I can understand signposting in a lecture and talk about climate change. 2C LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 216 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity after Exercise 6. In pairs, students each choose a collocation from Exercise 2 but do not tell their partner which one. They pretend to look outside and say one sentence to describe the weather they have chosen. Their partner guesses the collocation. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 19/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 8: Climate change myths and facts, pages 278, 297 NEXT CLASS Ask students to research and make notes on one endangered animal and what threats it faces. Exercise 2 1 heat, temperatures 2 weather, temperatures, winds 3 winds 4 rain, snow 5 temperatures, humidity 6 heat, temperatures, weather 7 temperatures 8 temperatures 9 rain no d b a a a c c c f e Exercise 6 1 97 percent 2 (overall weather) trends 3 snowfall 4 volcanic eruptions 5 the 1950s 6 crops 7 (northern) Europe 39
6 Complete the short texts below with words from Exercise 4 and 5. 1 In pairs, look at the photos on page 23. What do you think all these creatures have in common? 2 Read the article on page 23 quickly and find two things the creatures have in common. 3 Read the article again and match questions 1–10 with paragraphs A–E . Each paragraph may be chosen more than once. In which paragraph does the author ... 1 □ suggest that a creature’s natural defence mechanism makes it more vulnerable to humans? 2 □ tell us what kind of creatures get the least funding in terms of research and preservation? 3 □ explain how the behaviour of a particular creature protects the environment in which it lives? 4 □ tell us about a creature whose body is perceived as useful by some humans? 5 □ mention a belief that a particular creature might be a good/bad sign 6 □ explain how a creature’s physical features protect it from an extreme environment? 7 □ explain why wildlife conservation institutions often choose certain animals to represent them? 8 □ mention that a specific creature had disappeared completely from the wild before being brought back? 9 □ describe an animal that is very different from others in its class? 10 □ mention that one of the species is likely to become extinct as a result of chemical pollution? 4 Write the highlighted words from the article under the correct heading. Animals Parts of the body Adjectives to describe a creature 5 Complete the collocations from the article with the correct words from the box. Then check your answers in the text. chemical critically extinct natural poisoning 1 Animals that are classified as ‘endangered’ are at risk of becoming . 2 Lead is life-threatening and requires immediate care. 3 Tigers – the largest living cats on Earth – are at the top of their food chain so they have no predators. 4 Potentially harmful pesticides are used to kill pests such as insects, rodents, fungi or weeds. 5 The orangutan, black rhino or Amur leopard are endangered which means they are facing an extremely high risk of extinction. TheThe blue whale blue whale blue whale blue whale The blue whale The The blue whale is the largest (and noisiest!) animal on the planet, but with less than 25,000 of these creatures left, they are critically 1 . Blue whales are 2 animals, preferring to travel alone or in small groups. They have few natural 3 other than man. Nowadays, they are a protected species, but they are still very much threatened by habitat loss caused by pollution and global heating. Until 2008, the tiny pygmy tarsier was assumed to be 4 ; nobody had seen one for many years before a team of anthropologists found a small group in the mountains of Sulawesi Island in Indonesia. The animals look very cute and 5 , with what looks like a permanent smile. Unlike larger tarsiers, they have 6 on their hands and feet, rather than nails – possibly to help them climb the slippery trees in their damp environment. TheThe pygmy tarsier pygmy tarsier pygmy tarsier The pygmy tarsier The 7 SPEAKING In groups, discuss these statistics. What can be done about the situations? How could less popular species be ‘marketed’? 1 2 3 8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Go to page 196. Prepare a presentation. In the last 500 years, human activity has caused the extinction of over 800 species. One in four mammals, one in eight birds and one in three amphibians are in danger of extinction. In the UK last year, the government allocated £5,735 per vertebrate species, £95 .82 per plant species and £4.32 per invertebrate species for research and protection. □ I can identify specific details in an article and talk about endangered species. I can identify specific details in an article and talk about endangered species. 22 2D READING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 206 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Lead in to the topic of the lesson by referring students to the notes they made at home. Put them in pairs or small groups to discuss and compare their answers, then invite a few students to share their answers with the class. • As an extension to Exercise 7, ask groups to research one of the statistics to find out more information. Give them 2 minutes to research the issue using the Internet, then ask groups to present their findings to the class in a quick thirty-second presentation. If students do not have access to the Internet in class, ask them to complete the task for homework and present their ideas at the beginning of the next lesson. Exercise 2 • They are endangered species. • They are less known, considered not ‘exciting’ enough to get as much media coverage as ‘ carismatic megafauna’. D A C D E B A C D C invertebrates crustaceans mammals reptile primate backbone fins skeleton beaks scales claws extinct slimy marine cuddly endangered nocturnal furry solitary extinct natural chemical critically poisoning Exercise 6 1 endangered 2 solitary 3 predators 4 extinct 5 cuddly 6 claws 40
AAA Think of an endangered species. What comes to mind? The giant panda, the blue whale, the snow leopard? And what do these creatures all have in common? They’re known as ‘charismatic megafauna’, in other words, large species of animals which appeal to a lot of people. It’s no accident that the symbol of the World Wide Fund for Nature is a giant panda. These animals are cute or beautiful, or both, and of course we all want to save them. This popularity enables organisations such as the WWF to raise much-needed money to support a range of critically endangered species and protect their habitats. However, less well-known or ‘exciting’ creatures are far more likely to actually become extinct because they don't get enough attention from researchers. Invertebrates Invertebrates (animals without a backbone backbone) make up over ninety percent of all the creatures on Earth, but get only a tiny percentage of the money available to protect our wildlife because people just don’t connect to them in the way that they do to a tiger or an elephant. B And what about those creatures that many people would find positively ugly? The Ugly Animal Preservation Society’s mascot is the blob fish, voted the world’s ugliest animal. With its tiny eyes, big mouth and slimy slimy pink body it’s far from attractive. This marine creature lives deep in the ocean, where the pressure is very high. As a result, it has tiny fi n sfi n s and no skeleton skeleton, which keeps it from being crushed by the water pressure. Unfortunately, when fishing boats sweep the ocean floor, looking for other fish and crustaceans, these fish can get swept into the nets accidentally, which is causing their numbers to drop. C The California condor is another accidental victim of human activity. These huge birds with bald heads and big beaks beaks weigh up to fourteen kilos, have a wingspan of weigh up to fourteen kilos, have a wingspan of up to two metres and can live as long as sixty years. They play an important role in the ecosystem by feeding on dead animals, thus preventing the spread of disease. Reintroduced into the wild after becoming extinct, other than in captivity, they are now under threat once more because of chemical pesticides introduced into the food chain and lead poisoning from the ammunition used to kill the animals they feed on. D The threat faced by the pangolin, however, is far from accidental. They are more often targeted by poachers than any other animal in the world. Unique among mammals mammals, it is covered in scales scales, like a reptile reptile. They may not look very cuddly cuddly or cute, but these scales are highly prized in traditional Chinese medicine, which has caused the population of pangolins in China to fall by up to ninety-nine percent since the 1960s. However, there is no research evidence that the medicine actually has a beneficial effect. Pangolins are a type of anteater. They have no teeth, but their claws claws are strong enough to dig through concrete. Their name in Cantonese means ‘the animal that digs through the mountain’ . They are easy to catch because when threatened they roll up into a ball. Their scales protect them from their natural predators, which cannot bite them, but it’s simple for a poacher to just pick them up. E Other creatures become endangered precisely because people find them ugly. Take the aye aye for example. Found only on the island of Madagascar, the aye aye is the world’s largest nocturnal nocturnal primate primate. During the day they sleep in nests in the trees, coming out to hunt at night. They are solitary solitary creatures, furry furry, but strange looking, with big eyes, large ears and long, thin, pointed fingers. The middle finger is particularly thin and they use it to gently knock on trees. Then they reach into the tree and pull out any insects that respond to the knocking. Unfortunately, the way they look means that they are traditionally considered an omen of bad luck. Some people even believe that if they point that thin middle finger at someone, they will die. As a result, they are often killed, even though, like many endangered species, they are now protected by law. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 THEY NEED SAVING TOO! the California condor the blob fish the aye aye the pangolin 1.16 GLOSSARY poacher – someone who illegally catches or shoots animals predator – an animal that kills and eats other animals reintroduce – bring an animal back to an area after it has not existed there for some time wingspan – the distance from the end of one wing to the end of the other 02 2323 FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook pages 20–21/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to note down what recycling facilities there are in their area. If they don’t know, they should do an Internet search to find out. Students should think about whether they recycle enough and what else they can do to reduce waste. 41
2E SPEAKING 4 1.18 Complete the discussion with phrases from the Speaking box. Listen and check. Sam Which poster do you prefer? Milo I don’t know. I’m 1 this one with the water bottle, and that one with the bright colours. Jess I can’t put 2 , but the one with the water bottle doesn’t 3 . Milo Maybe it’s just not as original? Sam I don’t think this idea will really inspire people to take part. It takes a lot of effort to remember to bring in a reusable bottle. We need to think about how to motivate people to do it. Milo That’s a 4 , but maybe that depends on how we present the concept? Jess Yes, you’re 5 , Milo! That’s why we need a poster that really makes an impact. Sam OK, let’s make a decision on which poster then. Will 6 the one with the bright colours? Jess Yes, it looks 7 that one is the best idea. 5 In pairs, discuss the ideas for the competition in Exercise 1 and reach a decision. Use the language in the Speaking box. 6 In small groups, look at three posters on page 197. Choose one of the posters, giving reasons for your choice. Use language from the Speaking box. 1 In pairs, look at the notice for a competition. Can you think of an idea that could help your school to protect the your school to protect the your environment? 2 11.17 Go to page 197 and study some ideas for the competition in Exercise 1. Then listen to a student committee discussing the ideas. Which idea do they finally choose? 3 11.17 Complete the Speaking box with the words from the .17 Complete the Speaking box with the words from the .17 box. Listen to the conversation again and check your answers. fence finger grab mind second spot track what with SPEAKING | Problem-solving Expressing indecision I’m torn between ... and ... I’monthe1 (about) ... I’m having 2 thoughts. Ican’tmakeupmy3 . On the one hand, ... but on the other hand, ... Ican’tputmy4 onit,but... Expressing agreement You’re 5 on! That’s 6 I was going to say! Absolutely! Expressing disagreement It doesn’t 7 me. I think we’re on the wrong 8 . That’s a good point, but ... Ok, but another option might be ... Seriously?! Reaching a decision So, let’s make a decision on this. Okay, so shall we go 9 ...? It looks as if we agree that ... Do you have an idea to help our school better protect the environment? protect the environment? We have up to £1000 available to help We have up to £1000 available to help you get your idea off the ground! Complete the form to tell us about Complete the form to tell us about your idea and you might get a grant to make it a reality! 24 □ I can use fixed phrases to express indecision, agreement, disagreement. REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 217 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Before Exercise 1, refer students to the notes they made at home and invite them to share their findings with the class. List their ideas on the board and keep them till the end of the lesson. • After Exercise 6, refer students to the list on the board. In pairs, ask them to discuss and decide on two ideas to adopt to help their own local environment, using language from the Speaking box. If there is time, invite different pairs to share their ideas with the class. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 22/Online Practice fence second mind finger spot what grab track with banning single-use bottles Exercise 4 1 torn between 2 my finger on it 3 grab me 4 good point 5 spot on 6wegowith 7asifweagree 42
6 1.20 Look at these sentences from the recording. Then read the rules a–d below and complete the sentences with an appropriate form. Listen and check. 1 So,I set up a small business recycling and customising denim. 2I selling them online once I have enough items to sell. 3I start working on a project to design a shop window display. 4It go on display to the public at the beginning of next week. 5 So,I get an expert to come in and talk to the whole school about the topic. 6It at 7 p.m . at the auditorium. We use these phrases to talk about the future: a for plans, we can use be planning/hoping to + infinitive or be thinking of + gerund b for things happening very soon, we can use be about to + infinitive c for timetabled events, we can use be due to + infinitive d for formal or official arrangements, instructions or commands, we can use be to + infinitive Grammar Reference and Practice > page 174 7 Look at the rules in Exercise 6 again. Choose the correct verb forms to complete the mini-conversations. Jon I’ve decided. I 1am going to give up / will give up buying new clothes for a year. Amy Really? Why’s that? Jon I think we all buy too many clothes and I 2am thinking / am hoping to save some money as well. Mary Why are you still awake? Emma The online sale 3starts / is about to start at 2 a.m. Mary Are you really 4planning / due to stay up that long? Emma You’re right. I think I 5have / will have a nap now and set my alarm for 1.55 a.m . Mary You’re crazy! 8 SPEAKING In groups, discuss these ideas. 1 An item of clothing you’re about to buy. 2 A project you’re hoping to complete soon. 3 An exciting activity you’re doing this weekend. 4 An event which is due to take place in your town this month. 5 Something you’re going to do when you have enough money. 1 In pairs, look at the infographic and discuss the questions. 1 Do these statistics surprise or shock you? Say why. 2 Do you ever consider environmental issues when buying clothes? Say why. 2 1.19 Listen to three students talking on a radio programme. What projects are they involved in? 3 1.19 Listen again. Why are denim and cotton bad for the environment? How is Erin planning to sell her denim? How is Janie hoping to change people’s opinions? Future forms for plans and hopes 4 Match the examples of future forms from the recording with the explanations a–e. 1 □ I’m going to turn I’m going to turn them into pairs of shorts. 2 □ Send me the details ... and I’ll take a look. 3 □ She’ll be explaining She’ll be explaining how to understand the labels on clothes. 4 □ I’m meeting her I’m meeting her next week to finalise the plans. 5 □ It starts at 7 p.m. in the auditorium. a to talk about an action that is expected to happen in the normal course of events b to talk about a timetabled or scheduled future event c to talk about something which has already been decided d to talk about a future arrangement with another person e to talk about a future action decided at the moment of speaking 5 In pairs, discuss the pairs of sentences. Explain the difference in meaning, if any. 1 a I’m having lunch with Josie tomorrow. b I’m going to have lunch outside today because the weather’s lovely. 2 a Which platform does the train leave from? b The train will be leaving soon. Hurry up! 3 a Sorry about breaking your favourite mug. I’ll buy you a new one, I promise. b I’m going to buy a new coat this afternoon. I’m going to buy a new coat this afternoon. I’m going to buy THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY Clothing production doubled from 2000 to 2014, and the number of garments purchased each year by the average consumer increased by 60 percent. Consumer s keep clothing items about half as long as they did fifteen years ago, throwing them away after just seven or eight wears. seven or eight wears. seven or eight Making one kilo of fabric generates an average of twenty-three kilos of greenhouse gases! GREENHOUSE GASES GREENHOUSE GASES 23 02 25 □ I can use a variety of forms to talk about plans and hopes. 2F GRAMMAR 25 □ I can use a variety of forms to talk about plans and hopes. 25 □ I can use a variety of forms to talk about plans and hopes. REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 217 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 8, students imagine they want to help the environment by changing the way they consume clothing. In pairs or groups, they discuss what they areabouttodo/aregoingtodo/willbe doing next year. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 174 • Workbook page 23/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 9: Cover it!, pages 278, 298 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 2F ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 2F NEXT CLASS Ask students to make a list of situations when they might need to send a formal email. Exercise 2 • recycling and customising denim clothes • designing a shop window display using only recycled clothes and textiles • educating other students about sustainable fabrics Exercise 3 Because of all the chemicals involved in making it dark blue. She’ll sell the items online. Janie wants to design a shop window display using only recycled clothes and textiles for people to see how great recycled clothes can look so that people would think twice before they throw old clothes away. Exercise 5 1 Both are used for future plans, but the Present Continuous is specifically about an arrangement with another person. 2 The Present Simple is used for a timetabled or scheduled event; the Future Continuous is used here to talk about what the speaker expects to happen in the normal course of events (trains usually leave when expected). 3 Will is used to describe a decision at the moment of speaking (the speaker didn’t know beforehand that they would break the mug); be going to describes an action which has already been planned or decided. Exercise 6 1 am planning/hoping to (a) 2 am thinking of (a) 3 am just about to (b) 4isdueto(c) 5 am planning to (a) 6 starts (c) c a e d b 43
1 In pairs, look at the photos and answer the questions. 1 In which photo do the vegetables look more appealing? Say why. 2 What environmental problems do you think the plastic packaging might cause? A B Dear Sir or Madam, A I am writing to draw your attention to I am writing to draw your attention to a pressing problem to which your stores are contributing significantly by their use of non-biodegradable plastic packaging. Like many others, B I am deeply concerned by I am deeply concerned by the huge quantity of plastic used to package items which simply do I am deeply concerned by the huge quantity of plastic used to package items which simply do I am deeply concerned by not require it. We are told that since the 1950s the world has produced 8.3 billion tonnes of plastic, of which around seventy-nine percent has been thrown into a landfill or left as waste in the general environment. C It is essential that we all take immediate action to prevent this. Much of this plastic is a result of unnecessary packaging. It is vital that this is reduced as much as possible. Some supermarkets have managed to cut the amount of plastic packaging by using sustainable cardboard instead of plastic, or simply by removing unnecessary plastic from tissue boxes, pizza boxes and other items. I would ask you to investigate alternative forms of packaging for your products as a matter of urgency. In the meantime, perhaps the quickest way to start to tackle this problem would be to sell fruit and vegetables without any extra packaging, creating a plastic-free aisle, where customers could use paper bags or their own reusable containers. Around a third of consumers say that they base their buying decisions on ethical practices, so providing an opportunity to buy fruit and vegetables plastic-free could help you to win over a large number of new customers. DIurgeyouto I urge you to consider these possible solutions very seriously, and do everything in your power to reduce the amount of plastic you use in packaging, to protect the future of the planet. I look forward to your response. Yours faithfully, Sean Bright From: Sean Bright yesterday at 20.13 To: Customer Service Subject: Reduce plastic! 2 Read Sean's email to Customer Service. What problem does he describe and what three solutions does he suggest? 3 Read the email again. Do you think that the problems and solutions the writer describes are likely to persuade the reader that something should be done? 26 2G WRITING AND VOCABULARY | A formal email □ I can write a formal email. EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Lead in to Exercise 1 by referring students to the notes they made at home. Elicit some of their ideas and write them on the board. Encourage polite disagreement if appropriate. • Do this activity to help students with ideas for the writing task in Exercise 9. Once students have discussed their ideas in pairs or groups in Exercise 8, invite representatives from different pairs/groups to share their ideas with the class. List students’ ideas on the board and get them to copy the list into their notebooks. This will give them a larger pool of ideas to choose from when they do the writing task. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 24/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 28–29. Exercise 2 Sean describes the use of unnecessary plastic packaging. He suggests using sustainable cardboard, removing unnecessary plastic, and selling fruit and vegetables without any extra packaging. 44
6 Rewrite the sentences in a more formal style using the words in brackets. 1 I heard that plastic litter in the sea is harming more than 600 species. (estimated) 2 It’s important to look after nature. (vital) 3 You’ve got to stop using plastic packaging! (urge) 4 All the best, James. (faithfully) 5 I’m really bothered by the amount of plastic we use. (concerned) 6 Get rid of plastic packaging! (banned) 7 I’m writing to tell you how bothered I am about ... (express) 8 You should look into other options. (ask/investigate) 9 It’s important to do this right away. (essential/action) 10 You must do this very soon. (done/urgency) 7 Match adjectives from box A and verbs from box B to sentences 1–4 to make collocations with the words problem and solution. A complex ideal fundamental minor realistic significant simple workable B address deal with face implement offer provide 1 I am writing to draw your attention to a pressing / / / / problem ... 2 However, probably the simplest way to tackle / / / this problem would be ... 3 I would suggest that this could be a(n) viable / / / / solution. 4 A committee might be able to devise / / / a solution to the problem. 8 SPEAKING Read the factfile below. Is the situation similar in your country? Can you think of any other solutions to the problems caused by this type of coffee cup? 9 WRITING TASK Write a formal email to a coffee shop chain in your country. Describe the problem of disposable cups and urge the chain to take action. Use your ideas from Exercise 8 and the language from this lesson to help you. 4 Complete the Writing box by matching the sentence beginnings 1–12 with the endings a–l . WRITING | A formal email Greeting and signing off 1 □ If you know the name of the person, 2 □ If you don’t know the name of the person, 3 □ If you start a letter Dear Sir/Madam, 4 □ If you start a letter with the name of the person, a end the letter Yours sincerely. b start the letter Dear Sir or Madam or Dear Sir/Madam. c start the letter Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Smith. d end the letter Yours faithfully. Structure of the email (or letter) 5 □ In the introduction, 6 □ In the main paragraphs, 7 □ In the final paragraph, 8 □ Before you sign off, e ask the recipient of the email/letter to take some action. f state the problem(s) and offer some solutions. f state the problem(s) and offer some solutions. f g mention that you expect a reply. h state your reasons for writing. Formal writing conventions 9 □ Don’t use contractions, e.g. 10 □ Avoid using phrasal verbs, e.g. 11 □ Make points less personal/direct by using passives, e.g. 12 □ Make your tone less direct by using hypothetical constructions, e.g. i use reduce rather than cut down on. j use We are told that rather than Some people say. k use I would ask you to rather than Please ... . l use I am writing not I’m writing. 5 Read the email again. Match the underlined phrases A–D to the categories below. Giving your reasons for writing I am writing to express my concern about ... 1 I am writing with regard to ... Explaining why the issue is important 2 I am extremely worried that ... I find it unacceptable that ... It is for these reasons that I ... Making a point forcefully 3 The situation cannot be allowed to continue. Call to action/asking for action Iwouldaskyouto... 4 I would be grateful if you could ... 02 27 The problem The UK uses 2.5 billion paper coffee cups The UK uses 2.5 billion paper coffee cups per year – less than 1 percent of them are per year – less than 1 percent of them are recycled. The cups have a plastic coating recycled. The cups have a plastic coating which can only be recycled at specialist units. which can only be recycled at specialist units. which can only be recycled at specialist units. Possible solutions • The cups could be changed so there is a plastic lining • The cups could be changed so there is a plastic lining • The cups could be changed so there is a plastic lining • The cups could be changed so there is a plastic lining which can be detached. • Customers could pay a fee to ‘rent’ a reusable cup and • Customers could pay a fee to ‘rent’ a reusable cup and • Customers could pay a fee to ‘rent’ a reusable cup and get the money back when they return it. get the money back when they return it. • Cups could be made of something edible, like an ice • Cups could be made of something edible, like an ice • Cups could be made of something edible, like an ice cream cone. • Customers could be charged extra if they don’t bring • Customers could be charged extra if they don’t bring • Customers could be charged extra if they don’t bring their own cup (rather than getting a discount if they do). their own cup (rather than getting a discount if they do). their own cup (rather than getting a discount if they do). coffee cups coffee cups coffee cups coffee cups coffee cups coffee cups Disposable coffee cups Disposable coffee cups c h l b f i d e j a g k It is essential that ... Iurgeyouto... I am deeply concerned by ... I am writing to draw your attention to ... Exercise 6 1 It is estimated that plastic litter in the sea ... 2 It is vital to look after nature. 3 I urge you to stop using plastic packaging. 4 Yours faithfully, James (+ surname) 5 I am deeply concerned by the amount of ... 6 Plastic packaging should be banned. 7 I am writing to express my concern about ... 8Iwouldaskyouto investigate other options. 9 It is essential to take immediate action. 10 This must be done as a matter of urgency. Exercise 7 1 complex, fundamental, minor, significant 2 address, deal with, face 3 ideal, realistic, simple, workable 4 implement, offer, provide 45
2A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.8 advances in sth /ədˈvɑːnsəs ɪn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ alternative to sth /ɔːlˈtɜːnətɪv tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ artificial intelligence /ˌɑːtɪˈfɪʃəl ɪnˈtelədʒəns/ as a consequence/result of /əz ə ˈkɒnsəkwəns/ rɪˈzʌlt əv/ be bound to /ˌbi ˈbaʊnd tə/ be due to /ˌbi ˈdjuː tə/ be likely/unlikely to /ˌbi ˈlaɪkli/ʌnˈlaɪkli tə/ be sure to /ˌbi ˈʃɔː tə/ bring about (phr v) /ˌbrɪŋ əˈbaʊt/ cause (n, v) /kɔːz/ countless (adj) /ˈkaʊntləs/ driverless car /ˈdraɪvələs ˌkɑː/ drop steadily /ˈdrɒp ˌstedəli/ dystopia (n) /dɪsˈtəʊpiə/ dystopian (adj) /dɪsˈtəʊpɪən/ face sth /ˈfeɪs ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ fight over sth /ˌfaɪt ˈəʊvə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ give rise to sth /ˌɡɪv ˈraɪz tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ human error (n) /ˌhjuːmən ˈerə/ improvement (n) /ɪmˈpruːvmənt/ increasingly (adv) /ɪnˈkriːsɪŋli/ key reason /ˈkiː ˌriːzən/ lead to sth /ˈliːd tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ life expectancy (n) /ˌlaɪf ɪkˈspektənsi/ nutrition (n) /njuːˈtrɪʃən/ obvious (adj) /ˈɒbviəs/ permanent (adj) /ˈpɜːmənənt/ predict (v) /prɪˈdɪkt/ projection (n) /prəˈdʒekʃən/ reduce (v) /rɪˈdjuːs/ reduction (n) /rɪˈdʌkʃən/ result from/in sth /rɪˈzʌlt frəm/ɪn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ semi-skilled job /ˌsemiˈskɪld ˌdʒɒb/ switch (v) /swɪtʃ/ synthetic protein /sɪnˌθetɪk ˈprəʊtiːn/ unskilled job /ˌʌnˈskɪld ˌdʒɒb/ water shortage (n) /ˈwɔːtə ˌ ʃɔːtɪdʒ/ with any luck /wɪð ˌeni ˈlʌk/ 2B VOCABULARY 5.9 acid rain (n) /ˌæsɪd ˈreɪn/ bind sth together /ˈbaɪnd ˌsʌmθɪŋ təˌɡeðə/ deforestation (n) /diːˌfɒrəˈsteɪʃən/ endangered species /ɪnˌdeɪndʒəd ˈspiːʃiːz/ exhaust fumes /ɪɡˈzɔːst ˌfjuːmz/ extinction (n) /ɪkˈstɪŋkʃən/ for safety reasons /fə ˈseɪfti ˌriːzənz/ fossil fuel (n) /ˈfɒsəl ˌfjuːəl/ global heating /ˌɡləʊbəl ˈhiːtɪŋ/ greenhouse effect (n) /ˌɡriːnhaʊs ɪˈfekt/ habitat loss (n) /ˌhæbətæt ˈlɒs/ industrial waste /ɪnˌdʌstriəl ˈweɪst/ ozone layer (n) /ˈəʊzəʊn ˌleɪə/ pollute (v) /pəˈluːt/ provide sth (v) /prəˈvaɪd ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ renewable energy /rɪˌnjuːəbəl ˈenədʒi/ sealed container /ˌsiːld kənˈteɪnə/ soil erosion (n) /ˈsɔɪl ɪˌrəʊʒən/ store (v) /stɔː/ threat to sth (n) /ˈθret tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ toxic waste (n) /ˌtɒksɪk ˈweɪst/ vehicle emissions (n) /ˌviːɪkəl ɪˈmɪʃənz/ water scarcity (n) /ˈwɔːtə ˌskeəsəti/ wind turbine (n) /ˈwɪnd ˌtɜːbaɪn/ 2C LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 5.10 benefit sb (v) /ˈbenəfɪt ˌsʌmbɒdi/ blistering heat/temperature /ˌblɪstərɪŋ ˌhiːt/ ˌ temprətʃə/ carbon dioxide (n) /ˌkɑːbən daɪˈɒksaɪd/ freak weather /ˌfriːk ˈweðə/ gale-force wind /ˈɡeɪlˌfɔːs ˌwɪnd/ gradual (adj) /ˈɡrædʒuəl/ greenhouse gas /ˌɡriːnhaʊs ˌɡæs/ heat wave /ˈhi:t weɪv/ heavy snow/rain /ˌhevi ˈsnəʊ/ˈrein/ humidity (n) /hjuːˈmɪdəti/ rise sharply /ˈraɪz ˌ ʃɑːpli/ scorching temperature /ˈskɔːtʃɪŋ ˌtemprətʃə/ soaring (adj) /ˈsɔːrɪŋ/ solar activity /ˌsəʊlə ækˈtɪvəti/ sub-zero temperature /ˌsʌb ˈzɪərəʊ ˈtemprətʃə/ temporary (adj) /ˈtempərəri/ torrential rain /təˈrenʃəl ˈreɪn/ variation (n) /ˌveəriˈeɪʃən/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Complete the statements with words from the word list in the correct form. Then decide which statements are false. 1 □ Japan is a country with one of the lowest average life e (84.2 years). 2 □ A simple and effective way to reduce vehicle e is to drive at steady speed. 3 □Sugarhasab effect on the brain – it helps us learn faster and remember more. 4 □ Each year, over 140 million pound's worth of clothing is thrown away and ends upinl . 5□D plastic cutlery and plastic cutlery and straws are on the way out. There are plenty of eco- friendly alternatives. 2 Make collocations, using the verbs from the box. Then check with the word list. draw express go/become make tackle 1 extinct 2 an impact 3 concern 4 a problem 5 attention 3 Write words or phrases with opposite meanings. Then check with the word list. 1 vertebrate – 2 sub-zero temperatures – 3 drop steadily – 4 single-use – 4 Complete the phrases with the correct adjectives formed from the words in bold. Then check with the word list. 1 changes GRADE 2 puppies FUR 3 possibilities COUNT 4 flowers EAT 5 energy NEW 5 Do the task below. Write your own quiz similar to the one in Exercise 1 above. Find some interesting facts and write 4 true/false sentences with the phrases from the word list. You may challenge your classmates or publish your quiz online. 28 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Write anagrams of 6–8 words from the word list on the board. Individually or in pairs, students try to solve the anagrams as quickly as they can. The first student/pair to do so wins. To make the activity easier, you could choose words from a category (e.g . Threats to the environment, Weather, Describing animals) and give students that category before they begin. • Students choose 6–8 words from the word list (or one word from each lesson) to describe to a partner. In pairs, they take turns to describe the words for their partner to guess. To make it easier, students can tell each other which section the word is in. • Divide the class into teams. Give each team in turn a word of phrase from the word list. They have to use it correctly in a sentence. Each correct sentence gives each team one point, and the team with the most points at the end are the winners. F F Exercise 1 1 expectancy 2 emissions 3 beneficial 4 landfill 5 Disposable go express make tackle draw invertebrate blistering/scorching temperatures rise sharply reusable Exercise 4 1 gradual 2 furry 3 countless 4 edible 5 renewable 46
2D READING AND VOCABULARY 55.11 allocate (v) /ˈæləkeɪt/ amphibian (n) /æmˈfɪbiən/ anteater (n) /ˈæntˌiːtə/ anthropologist (n) /ˌænθrəˈpɒlədʒɪst/ appeal to sb (v) /əˈpiːl tə ˌsʌmbɒdi/ backbone (n) /ˈbækbəʊn/ be under threat /ˌbi ˌʌndə ˈθret/ beak (n) /biːk/ become/go extinct /bɪˌkʌm/ˌɡəʊ ɪkˈstɪŋkt/ become/go extinct /bɪˌkʌm/ˌɡəʊ ɪkˈstɪŋkt/ become/go extinct beneficial effect /ˌbenɪˈfɪʃəl ɪˈfekt/ blue whale (n) /ˈbluː ˌweɪl/ chemical pesticides /ˌkemɪkəl ˈpestɪsaɪdz/ claw (n) /klɔː/ concrete (n) /ˈkɒŋkriːt/ conservation (n) /ˌkɒnsəˈveɪʃən/ critically endangered /ˌkrɪtɪkli ɪnˈdeɪndʒəd/ crustacean (n) /krʌˈsteɪʃən/ cuddly (adj) /ˈkʌdli/ damp (adj) /dæmp/ defence mechanism (n) /dɪˈfens ˌmekənɪzəm/ feed on sth (phr v) /ˌfiːd ˈɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ fi n (n) /fɪn/ food chain /ˈfuːd tʃeɪn/ furry (adj) /ˈfɜːri/ get swept /ˌget ˈswept/ highly prized (adj) /ˌhaɪli ˈpraɪzd/ in captivity /ˌɪn kæpˈtɪvəti/ in danger of extinction /ɪn ˈdeɪndʒər əv ɪkˈstɪŋkʃən/ invertebrate (n) /ɪnˈvɜːtəbrət/ lead poisoning (n) /ˈled ˌpɔɪzənɪŋ/ make up (phr v) /ˌmeɪk ˈʌp/ mammal (n) /ˈmæməl/ marine (adj) /məˈriːn/ megafauna (n) /ˌmeɡəˈfɔːnə/ natural predator /ˌnætʃərəl ˈpredətə/ natural predator /ˌnætʃərəl ˈpredətə/ natural predator nocturnal (adj) /nɒkˈtɜːnl/ ocean floor /ˌəʊʃən ˈflɔː/ omen (n) /ˈəʊmən/ pangolin (n) /pæŋˈgəʊlɪn/ poacher (n) /ˈpəʊtʃə/ preservation (n) /ˌprezəˈveɪʃən/ prevent sth (v) /prɪˈvent ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ primate (n) /ˈpraɪmeɪt/ pygmy tarsier (n) /ˌpɪgmi ˈtɑːsɪə/ raise money /ˌreɪz ˈmʌni/ reintroduce (v) /ˌriːɪntrəˈdjuːs/ reptile (n) /ˈreptaɪl/ research evidence /rɪˈsɜːtʃ ˌevɪdəns/ scale (n) /skeɪl/ skeleton (n) /ˈskelətən/ slimy (adj) /ˈslaɪmi/ slippery (adj) /ˈslɪpəri/ solitary (adj) /ˈsɒlətəri/ spread of disease /ˌspred əv dɪˈziːz/ toxic waste (n) /ˌtɒksɪk ˈweɪst/ vertebrate (n) /ˈvɜːtəbrət/ vulnerable (adj) /ˈvʌlnərəbəl/ water pressure (n) /ˈwɔːtə ˌpreʃə/ wingspan (n) /ˈwɪŋspæn/ 2E SPEAKING 55.12 be on the fence (about sth) /ˌbi ɒn ðə ˈfens (əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ)/ be on the right/wrong track /ˌbi ɒn ðə ˌraɪt/rɒŋ be on the right/wrong track /ˌbi ɒn ðə ˌraɪt/rɒŋ be on the right/wrong track ˈ træk/ be spot on /ˌbi ˌspɒt-ˈɒn/ be torn between /ˌbi ˈtɔːn bɪˌtwiːn/ get a grant /ˌɡet ə ˈgrɑːnt/ get your idea off the ground /ˌɡet jə aɪˈdɪə ɒf ðə ˌ ɡraʊnd/ go with (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈwɪð/ grab sb /ˈɡræb ˌsʌmbɒdi/ have second thoughts /ˌhəv ˌsekənd ˈθɔːts/ make a decision /ˌmeɪk ə dɪˈsɪʒən/ make an impact /ˌmeɪk ən ˈɪmpækt/ make up your mind /ˌmeɪk ˈʌp jə ˌmaɪnd/ put your finger on something /ˌpʊt ˌjə ˈfɪŋɡə ɒn ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ reusable (adj) /ˌriːˈjuːzəbəl/ single-use (adj) /ˈsɪŋɡəl juːz/ 2F GRAMMAR 5.13 auditorium (n) /ˌɔːdəˈtɔːriəm/ average consumer /ˌævərɪdʒ kənˈsjuːmə/ clothing item /ˌkləʊðɪŋ ˈaɪtəm/ customise (v) /ˈkʌstəmaɪz/ denim (n) /ˈdenɪm/ double (v) /ˈdʌbəl/ garment (n) /ˈɡɑːmənt/ generate (v) /ˈdʒenəreɪt/ on display /ɒn dɪˈspleɪ/ purchase (v) /ˈpɜːtʃɪs/ set up a business /ˌset ˈʌp ə ˌbɪznəs/ window display (n) /ˈwɪndəʊ dɪˌspleɪ/ 2G WRITING AND VOCABULARY 5.14 address a problem /əˌdres ə ˈprɒbləm/ aisle (n) /aɪl/ appealing (adj) /əˈpiːlɪŋ/ as a matter of urgency /əz ə ˌmætər əv ˈɜːdʒənsi/ ban (v) bæn biodegradable (adj) /ˌbaɪəʊdɪˈɡreɪdəbəl/ bothered (adj) /ˈbɒðəd/ charge sb (v) /ˈtʃɑːdʒ ˌsʌmbɒdi/ cut down on sth (phr v) /ˌkʌt ˈdaʊn ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ deal with a problem /ˌdiːl wɪð ə ˈprɒbləm/ detach (v) /dɪˈtætʃ/ devise a solution /dɪˌvaɪz ə səˈluːʃən/ disposable (adj) /dɪˈspəʊzəbəl/ draw (sb’s) attention to sth /ˌdrɔː (ˌsʌmbɒdiz) əˈtenʃən tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ edible (adj) /ˈedəbəl/ ethical practices /ˌeθɪkəl ˈpræktɪsəz/ express (your) concern about sth /ɪkˌspres (jə) kənˈsɜːn əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ face a problem /ˌfeɪs ə ˈprɒbləm/ find sth unacceptable /faɪnd ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˌʌnəkˈseptəbəl/ fundamental (adj) /ˌfʌndəˈmentl/ implement (v) /ˈɪmpləment/ landfill (n) /ˈlændfɪl/ offer a solution /ˌɒfə ə səˈluːʃən/ plastic coating /ˌplæstɪk ˈkəʊtɪŋ/ plastic lining /ˌplæstɪk ˈlaɪnɪŋ/ pressing problem /ˌpresɪŋ ˈprɒbləm/ provide a solution /prəˌvaɪd ə səˈluːʃən/ realistic/simple solution /rɪəˌlɪstɪk/ˌsɪmpəl səˈluːʃən/ sustainable /səˈsteɪnəbəl/ tackle a problem /ˌtækəl ə ˈprɒbləm/ take immediate action /ˌteɪk ɪˌmiːdiət ˈækʃən/ tissue box (n) /ˈtɪʃuː bɒks/ urge sb to do sth /ˈɜːdʒ ˌsʌmbɒdi tə ˈduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ viable/workable solution /ˌvaɪəbəl/ˌwɜːkəbəl səˈluːʃən/ with regard to sth /wɪð rɪˈgɑːd tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ 29 02 FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 25/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 2. 47
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. There are three extra words. acid blistering boiling erosion freak freezing fumes greenhouse layer ozone scarcity torrential turbines vehicle 1 The weather is really weird. It’s cold one minute and then hot the next. 2 Pollution in the atmosphere results in rain. 3 Soil happens when the plants and trees that keep it in place are destroyed by the elements or man. 4 The heat caused the pavement to melt! 5 Powerful wind use wind power to create energy. use wind power to create energy. 6 A good way of reducing emissions is to promote the production of electric cars, which don’t produce harmful exhaust . 7 Because of global heating, weather conditions are more common with periods of drought followed by rain. 8 Below average rainfall can result in water . 2 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. 1 My dad works at sea. They sometimes catch slimy / soaked marine creatures by mistake, as well as fish! 2 A fish’s scales / fins help it to move through the water in the right direction. 33 It isn’t easy to take a good photo of an owl. As they It isn’t easy to take a good photo of an owl. As they are solitary / nocturnal, they are much more active at night! 4 Poachers / Predators capture rare creatures which are sometimes endangered / extinct, and sell them for a lot of money. 5 Lead poisoning / Pesticides used by human beings not only kill harmful insects but other creatures as well. 3 Look at the underlined expressions. Tick ( Look at the underlined expressions. Tick (✔) the correct ones, cross (✘) those that are wrong and correct them. 1 I hope I’ll earn ✘ so much money by the time I’m 40 that I won’t need to work anymore won’t need to work anymore ✔ . will have earned 2 This time next week, you are going to give are going to give our our presentation about climate change but you won’t have finished yet! 3 Some scientists think that by the end of the twenty- first century we will be discovering will be discovering a cure to many serious illnesses so probably we are going to live are going to live a lot longer. 4 I’m certain most people in the future will have driven electric cars. I just hope it won’t be too late for the environment. 5 By six o’clock, they will be working for will be working for twenty-four twenty-four hours non-stop to clear up the damage caused by the flood. Extra help is certain to arrive soon. soon. 4 Complete the dialogues with the correct future forms of the verbs in brackets. 1 A What are you up to later? B Well, I (hope) to finish my university project. After that, I (go) on the ‘Save the Planet’ protest! I’ve arranged to meet everyone at 5 p.m . 2 A Are you ready yet? The guests (arrive) soon. It’s almost seven o’clock! B They (come) at eight, not seven. Don’t panic! (come) at eight, not seven. Don’t panic! 3 A What do you think of the new weather app? B I haven’t used it yet. I (give) it a try later on. Then I (let) you know. 4AI (plan) to go to the lecture on the blob fish. What time it (start)? B At2p.m.Sohurryup! USE OF ENGLISH 5 Complete the second sentence using the word in bold so that it means the same as the first one. Use between two and five words, including the word in bold. 1 The lecture is going to start soon. ABOUT The lecture . 2 It's been so hot today that it’s very probable there will be a storm here. BOUND It’s been so hot today that a storm here. 3 The bridge was closed because of gale force winds. TO The bridge was closed . 4 It is probable global heating will be worse in fifty years. LIKELY Global heating in fifty years. 5 We have arranged to meet on Thursday morning. PLANNING on Thursday morning. 6 Global heating has caused freak weather in many parts of the world. RISE Global heating freak weather in many parts of the world. Use of English > page 191 02 Revision 30 REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 218 FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 191 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 2 and Self-check 2, Workbook pages 26–27/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening ASSESSMENT • Unit 2 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 2 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 2 Writing Test • Units 1–2 Cumulative Review Test • Units 1–2 Exam Speaking freezing boiling acid erosion blistering turbines vehicle fumes freak scarcity torrential ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓ Exercise 3 2 ✗ (will be giving), ✓ 3 ✗ (will have discovered), ✗ (will live) 4 ✗ (will drive / will be driving), ✓ 5 ✗ (will have been working), ✓ Exercise 4 1 am hoping, am going 2 will be arriving, are coming 3 will give, will let 4 am planning, does (it) start Exercise 5 1 is about to start 2 is bound to happen 3 due to gale force winds 4 is likely to be worse 5 We are planning to meet 6 has given rise to 48
LISTENING 6 1.21 You are going to hear six short recordings. Read questions 1–6 and the possible answers. Then listen and choose the correct answer for each recording. STRATEGY | Multiple choice • Read the questions and underline key words. Decide on the focus of each question, so you know what you’re listening for. • The task may include questions where you have to decide if the speakers agree or disagree about something. Remember the speakers may agree about some issues but disagree about others. • Before you choose the answer, listen to the whole recording. 1 You are going to hear a radio weather forecast. What does the presenter announce? a A hurricane is about to cross Britain. b The weather will get better. c Temperatures are below freezing everywhere. 2 You are going to hear two friends discussing a TV documentary. What do they disagree about? a That a TV programme about GM foods was interesting. b That GM crops are necessary. c People aren’t aware what animals eat. 3 You are going to hear two friends talking about something. What are they discussing? a which animal to sponsor b which animal photo to put on a website c which animals are in the greatest danger of extinction 4 You are going to hear a woman talking on a radio programme. What is the speaker’s purpose? a to review a film b to review a book c to explain her vision of the future 5 You are going to hear a student talking to a teacher. Why did the student choose this volunteering project? a It was recommended to him. b It will help him to learn people skills. c He would like to work with animals. 6 You are going to hear a young woman talking about a hobby. How does she feel about it? a She finds it boring. b She finds it addictive. c She would like to be better at it. SPEAKING 7 A local youth group is organising a talk for teenagers called The future is almost here. The group has asked you to help them to decide which is the most interesting topic for teenagers. Talk about the possible topics and then decide which is the most inspiring. STRATEGY | Collaborative task Try to keep speaking rather than finish your discussion early. Show that you can use a range of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Recycling: clothes of the future! The future of plastic. Getting around in 2050: the future of transport. The weather in our town in ten years’ time. What will we be eating twenty years from now? WHICH TOPIC IS THE MOST INTERESTING? 8 Now discuss these questions. 1 Do you think transport in your town or city will be the same in twenty years’ time? How might it be different? 2 Some people say we will eat pills instead of food in the future. Do you agree? Say why. 3 Why do people buy clothes from second-hand shops? 4 Do you think it’s a good idea to ban plastic containers? Say why. WRITING 9 You see this leaflet about the proposed construction of a new road. You agree with the objections and decide to write a letter to the council. Say NO now! The Council has proposed the construction of a new road link to the town centre to improve access and help businesses including shops. It is a BIG MISTAKE! • It will increase levels of noise pollution. • Vehicle emissions will rise. • It will damage both the environment and tourism. Write your letter. 31 49
1 Do you ever watch inspiring or motivating short talks online? Why do you think they are popular? Discuss in pairs. 2 Look at the list of popular topics for motivating talks. Which would you like to watch? Say why. • How to be happy. • Why stress can be a good thing. • The importance of creativity. • Why looking good isn’t really that important. • How to be a more effective public speaker. • The power of believing in your dreams. 3 1.22 Listen to two students talking about giving talks. One of them recently gave a motivational talk for the first time. What did she learn from the experience? 4 11.22 Complete the advice in the Life Skills box with one word in each gap. Then listen again and check. LIFE SKILLS | How to give a persuasive presentation (1) Planning and delivery • Focus on getting across just one key 1 . Everything you say should clearly relate to this. • Plan a strong 2 and 3 . Practise exactly what you’re going to say at these points. • It’s vital to 4 with the audience. You can do this through: – keeping good eye contact – engaging them with some 5 facts, saying facts, saying something funny, or telling a 6 anecdote – making your voice sound 7 – using 8 aids and props. aids and props. 32 How to give a persuasive presentation LIFE SKILLS REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 218 VIDEO SCRIPT page 239 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS You could do this activity before Exercise 1 or before Exercise 5. Invite students to tell the class about a presentation they found boring. Why was it boring? What exactly didn’t they like about it? What would they change in it to make it more interesting? If there is time, let them discuss in pairs/ groups first, then share ideas with the class. NEXT CLASS Students think about their classmates’ feedback from Exercise 11 and prepare a new presentation. They record it and play it for the class in the next lesson or, if time allows, give their new presentations in front of the class. Conduct class feedback: was their classmates’ feedback helpful? Did it help them improve? How? that you have to connect with your audience Exercise 4 1 message 2 beginning 3 ending 4 connect 5 surprising 6 personal 7 enthusiastic 8 visual 50
5 1.23 5 Watch or listen to Jenny, a student, giving a presentation. Answer the questions. 1 What does Jenny say is the key message of her talk? 2 How does she make the beginning of her talk memorable and engaging? 3 What personal stories does she tell? 4 What is the prop she uses towards the end of the talk, and why does she use it? L I F E S K I L L S V I D E O 6 1.24 Study the Life Skills box. Then listen to four extracts from Jenny’s presentation. Write the number of each extract next to the rhetorical feature she uses. Some extracts relate to more than one point. LIFE SKILLS | How to give a persuasive presentation (2) Using rhetorical devices Rhetorical devices are techniques used by a speaker to make their language or arguments more persuasive or convincing. □ Emotion People tend to respond to emotional language, or an appeal to their emotions. □ Rhetorical questions A rhetorical question is asked to make a point, rather than to get an answer. □ Quotations A well-selected quotation from a famous person can give your argument more weight. □ Repetition The repetition of a particular word or phrase, usually something which carries a key meaning. □ Tripling People seem to respond to information in threes, so speeches often list three similar things, or make three similar points. 7 Rewrite the sentences following the instructions in brackets. 1 Doing well in exams requires several different things. (Think of three things and use tripling.) Hard work, motivation and determination are all required for exam success. 2 I think you probably all agree with me. (Use a rhetorical question.) 3 I have never forgotten my first day at primary school or at secondary school. (Use repetition by repeating I have never forgotten) 4 It’s probably a good idea to stand up for our beliefs. (Make this statement more convincing. Use emotional adjectives or adverbs. Start with If we ...) 5 This issue affects a lot of different people. (Think of three people or groups of people the problem affects and use tripling.) 6 I’m not sure what we should do about this. (Use a rhetorical question.) 8 1.25 Listen to three pairs of sentences. In each pair, which sentence sounds more interesting and engaging? Say why. 9 1.26 Look at some sentences from Jenny’s talk and underline key words (words that carry the most meaning). Listen and check which words Jenny stresses. Repeat the stress and intonation. 1 I’d like to talk about the aims and ambitions we all have. 2 We need to have something to reach for and to help us move forward. 3 If you’ve got something you really want to do, then you shouldn’t let anything stop you. 4 For as long as I can remember, I’ve loved to swim. 5 But what they hadn’t realised was just how determined I was. 6 But if you are really passionate about something, don’t be afraid to take the risk. 10 Work in pairs. Choose one of the topics below, or think of another one that you feel strongly about. Make a list of arguments and examples to support them. 1 It is more important to enjoy life than make money. 2 Developing self-discipline is essential to success in life. 3 Video games are good for you. 11 Do the task below. LIFE SKILLS | Project Use your notes from Ex.10 to give a short presentation. • Prepare a presentation based on your plan. • Organise your arguments and examples into clear sections. • Use the tips from the Life Skills box to make your presentation as persuasive and motivating as possible. • Use some of the rhetorical devices from the Speaking box. • Give your talk to the class. Think about stress and intonation. • Listen to other students’ presentations. Notice what techniques they use to make their presentation impactful. • Choose the most persuasive presentation. 33 01–02 Exercise 5 1 The power of believing in your dreams. 2 She uses a quote from Martin Luther King. 3 She talks about winning her first swimming competition and becoming determined to swim competitively. Later, she describes a time when she nearly gave up after losing an important tournament. 4 The swimming cap she was wearing when she decided to become a competitive swimmer; the size and childishness of it illustrate just how far she has come. Exercise 7 Possible answers 2 Would you all agree with me? 3 I have never forgotten my first day at primary school and I have never forgotten my first day at secondary school. 4 If we don’t stand up for our beliefs, then we should be ashamed of ourselves! 5 This issue affects me, it affects you, it affects everyone. 6 I ask you, what should we do about this? Exercise 8 1B2B3A 2 3 1 4 4 51
3 Match the definitions 1–9 with the phrases for ways of behaving from the box. be the peacemaker blow things out of proportion burst into tears have a go at sb make a fuss of sb mess about show off tell sb off wind sb up 1 To say things in order to annoy somebody. 2 To react as if what has happened is much worse than it is. 3 To try and impress somebody. 4 To suddenly start crying. 5 To behave in a silly way. 6 To criticise someone. 7 To give someone a lot of attention. 8 To help other people resolve an argument. 9 To speak to somebody angrily about something wrong that they have done. 4 SPEAKING In pairs, talk about how you get on with different members of your family. Use the phrases from Exercises 2 and 3. Do you think being the oldest, youngest or middle child, or an only child, affects your personality? 1 SPEAKING In pairs, ask and answer the questions. 1 Look at the photos. What are the benefits of being from a small/large family? 2 If you don’t have siblings, what do you think are the good or bad things about being an only child? If you do have siblings, how well do you get on with them? 2 THINK BACK Look at the phrases describing ways of behaving towards other people. Are these positive or negative things to do? Can you add any other phrases? empathise with sb fall out with sb give sb a compliment let sb down lose your temper make fun of sb/sth make up with sb put up with sb/sth talk behind sb’s back 34 3A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY VOCABULARY Behaviour, life events, role models, community and poverty GRAMMAR Past and present habits, defining and non-defining relative clauses, participle clauses Use of English > page 192 SPEAKING Generalising WRITING An opinion essay VIDEO Grammar Documentary Influences 03 REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 240 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Students can briefly talk about their own families after discussing the questions in Exercise 1. If they are allowed mobile phones in class, they can also show each other pictures of their family. • After Exercise 10 or as an extension to Exercise 11, ask students to tell a partner three things each that they used to do / would do in their childhood which they don’t do now. Students can then write a paragraph about their or their partner’s past habits for homework. Exercise 2 Positive: empathise with sb, give sb a compliment, make up with sb Negative: fall out with sb, let sb down, lose your temper, make fun of sb/sth, put up with sb/sth, talk behind sb’s back Exercise 3 1windsbup 2 blow things out of proportion 3 show off 4 burst into tears 5 mess about 6haveagoatsb 7makeafussofsb 8 be the peacemaker 9 tell sb off 52
8 Look at sentences a–d and complete rules 1–3 with used to or would. a As a child, I used to spend used to spend my weekends playing with my friends. We would play would play all day together. b I was an only child and I used to feel bored at home on my own. c On Saturdays, I would go would go swimming with my dad. d Iusedtogetup used to get up early when I was younger, but I nearly always have a lie-in now. 1 Weoftenuse1 to set the scene, and then, when the time reference is clear, we can use 2 for other examples of past habitual behaviour. 2 WeDON’Tuse3 to describe a past state. 3 Weuse4 to talk about a past state or a situation that doesn’t happen any longer. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 176 9 Complete the short texts with used to or would. Sometimes both are possible. A When he was younger, Simon 1 play basketball. He2 be quite tall for his age, but then all the other boys caught up. In fact, his younger brother, who 3 be tiny, is now quite a bit taller than him. B Every Sunday, my grandmother 4 bake a cake. Sometimes she 5 make a Victoria sponge, sometimes a chocolate cake. I 6 love helping her.I7 try and eat the raw cake mixture, though try and eat the raw cake mixture, though she 8 stopmeifshesawme!I stopmeifshesawme!I9 doalotof cooking with her, but nowadays I don’t do much at all. 10 Replace the underlined parts in each sentence with a different structure for talking about habits. 1 If a friend does something silly, I am usually am usually quite sympathetic. 2 I hated it when my big brother wound me up, but now I just ignore him. 3 I have a bad habit of putting things off have a bad habit of putting things off. 4 When I tied my hair in a ponytail, my brother constantly pulled constantly pulled it. 5 If you show off, people won’t like you as much. 6 When I was little and I went to fancy dress parties, I dressed up I dressed up as a cowboy. 11 Complete the sentences so they are true for you. 1 I’m always ... . It’s a really bad habit. 2 When I was little, I would ... 3 The most annoying thing my friend does is that he/she will ... 6 Read the question and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, answer the question. What did you find annoying in your parents’/siblings’ behaviour when you were younger? G R A M M A R V I D E O 5 Read the short texts. Which one describes an only or oldest child, a middle child and a youngest child? Go to page 197 to check your ideas. Past and present habits 6 Look at the examples showing two forms which can be used to talk about past and present habits. Find five more examples of such forms in the texts in Exercise 5. Then answer the questions below. Habits in the present My brother is always showing off. Habits in the past When I was little, my parents were forever telling me off. 1 What effect on meaning does using the words forever, continually or continually or continually always have? 2 What is the difference in meaning or emphasis between using Past Simple and used to? 7 2.01 PRONUNCIATION Listen to sentences about present and past habits. Does each speaker sound neutral (N) or annoyed (A)? How does the intonation change? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A When I was little, my parents were forever telling me off about the things I’d done. I was quite naughty and I used to mess about from time to time, sure. I mean, there was one time when I dressed up in my dad’s clothes and went down the High Street pretending to be him! It was hilarious, but my parents didn’t get the joke. They took it way too seriously and blew it completely out of proportion. I really wasn’t that bad as a child! I just didn’t like being told what to do, and I would rebel a bit if anyone tried, but I always did my homework and helped around the house and that sort of thing. B My brother is always showing off. I ’m not sure he even realises he’s doing it. He’ll go on and on about how great he’s doing at school, and everyone always makes a big fuss of him. It really winds me up, but if I say anything, my parents tell me I’m being jealous. It’s not fair. C My brother gets attention for being great at school, and my sister is the clown of the family. Me? I’m not really sure what my role is. I’m certainly the peacemaker when my brother and sister fight. They’re really loud and emotional, whereas I tend to keep my emotions to myself, really. I don’t burst into tears easily or start shouting. I usually just stay quiet and go off to my room. 35 03 □ I can use a variety of forms to talk about present and past habits. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 3, page 270 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 176 • Workbook pages 28–29/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 10: Would I lie to you?, pages 279, 299 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 3A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 3A NEXT CLASS Ask students to make notes about a stressful event they have experienced, which they are happy to share with the class. How did they react? Was the outcome positive or negative? What did they learn from the experience? Exercise 6 1 They show that a habit is/ was annoying. 2 The Past Simple can be used to describe a past incident or past habit which may still exist the present. The use of used to shows the action/ state no longer exist in the present. Exercise 9 1 used to (setting the scene and a habit) 2 used to (state) 3 used to (state) 4 used to (setting the scene and a habit; would is also possible) 5 would (past habitual behaviour; used to is also possible) 6 used to (state) 7 would/used to (past habit) 8 would/used to (past habit) 9 used to (doesn’t happen in the present) Exercise 10 1 will be 2 used to hate 3 am forever/constantly putting things off/ always put things off 4 was always pulling 5 are always/constantly/ forever showing off 6usedtogoto,Iwould always dress up The intonation rises on adverbs when the speaker is annoyed. A A N A A N N used to would would used to 53
5 22.03 Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 What prevented Dan from doing well at secondary school? a He wasn’t being challenged enough by his teachers. b He wasn’t very academically gifted. c He was friends with people who didn’t pay attention in class. 2 Which of the following is an opinion and not a fact? a Colic can have a variety of causes. b Colic is usually worse in the evening and at night. c Lying flat makes colic more of a problem. 3 What was the hardest thing for Daisy when she went to school in Germany? a Struggling to communicate with people. b Leaving her old friends behind in the UK. c Not being treated well by the other kids. 4 The bullies stopped teasing Ben because a the new pupil defended Ben. b Ben grew taller as he got older. c Ben learnt to ignore them. 6 Do you agree with the presenter that stressful or upsetting life experiences can have positive outcomes? In pairs, discuss your ideas. 7 In pairs, read the underlined phrases in the extracts from the recording and discuss their meaning. 1 He helped me to see that this attitude really wasn’t doing me any favours. 2 This experience really changed me because I saw that even when things don’t immediately go my way, that doesn’t mean that they won’t turn out to be positive in the long run. 3 And now, I speak German pretty well, so I’m really glad I kept trying. It’s taught me the value of sticking at something. 4 When I first went to secondary school, I had a really hard time. I was quite small for my age and the bigger kids used to wind me up about it. 5 I learnt a lot from watching how he handled the situation, and pretty soon they’d stopped teasing me as well. 8 SPEAKING In pairs, add more life events to the list in Exercise 1. Then decide which of them might be the least or most diffcult to deal with. Say why. 1 Which of the life events in the box can you see in photos A–C? Which of them can be the most challenging? a clash between you and a parent/sibling a newborn baby in the family a row/misunderstanding with your best friend flunking an important exam relocating to a different town or country splitting up with somebody 2 2.02 Listen to the first part of a radio programme about the influence of life events and answer the questions. 1 Why does the speaker think that what happens to us can influence our personality? 2 Does the speaker think that negative events are to be avoided? Say why. 3 CRITICAL THINKING Study Active Listening. Are the extracts from the recording below facts or opinions? How do you know? 1 We know from recent findings in neuroscience, that the brain makes new connections based on what we learn from events which have happened to us. 2 People sometimes think that stressful or upsetting events shape us negatively, and joyful events have a positive effect, but to my mind, the opposite can also be true. ACTIVE LISTENING | Distinguishing between facts and opinion To assess what a speaker is saying critically, it is vital to be able to distinguish between something that is a fact, and something that is simply the speaker’s opinion. • An opinion is an individual’s belief or viewpoint. It is subjective, rather than being based on evidence. It may be signalled by the use of such words as feel, believe or think or phrases such as think or phrases such as think Ifyouaskme.../ I have the impression that ... • A fact is something for which there is some objective evidence which can be checked or verified. It may be signalled by a phrase such as The data shows ... / The research indicates ... 4 2.03 Listen to the rest of the programme and make notes for the four speakers: Dan, Lila, Daisy and Ben. 1 What was the life event? 2 How was it stressful? 3 What influence did it have? 4 What did he/she learn from it? 36 □ I can distinguish between opinion and facts in a radio programme and talk about life events. 3B LISTENING AND VOCABULARY A B C REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 219 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Students use the notes they made at home in Exercise 6. They can share their experiences before discussing the question or use it as an example to support their answers. • After Exercise 7, students stay in their pairs and think of an experience from their past which they can describe using each of the highlighted phrases. For example, studying hard and passing their exams might have taught them the value of sticking at something. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 30/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 11: Life events, pages 279, 300 NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about a famous person who is a role model for them and why, and another person who they consider to be a bad role model. If they are able, they could bring in a photo of them to share with the class. C B A Exercise 2 1 Because events cause the brain to make new connections, which changes us. 2 No, because negative events can also influence us positively. It depends what we learn from them. Exercise 3 1 fact (We know from recent findings ...) 2 opinion (People sometimes think...;tomymind, ...) Exercise 4 Dan 1 Transferring from primary to secondary school. 2 He did badly at school. 3 He often got into trouble at school. 4 He learnt that he should put in more of an effort and not be scared of failing. Lila 1 The birth of her little sister Carly. 2 She couldn’t accept the fact that her parents gave all their attention to her sister. 3 She felt unhappy. 4 She saw that even when things don’t immediately go her way, they may still turn out positive in the long run. Daisy 1 Her family relocated to Germany for two years. 2 She hated not being able to communicate with people. 3 She felt down in the dumps. 4 She learnt the value of sticking at something even when it’s not easy. Ben 1 He was bullied when he started secondary school. 2 He felt upset a lot of the time. 3 He burst into tears. 4 He realised he doesn’t have to worry about what other people think of him. Exercise 7 1 wasn’t helpful to me 2 things don’t immediately happen in the way I want; happen in a particular way or have a particular result; later in the future, not immediately 3 it’s taught me that it’s worthwhile to continue doing something in a determined way in order to achieve something 4 had a lot of problems or bad experiences 5 dealt with the situation 54
6 PRONUNCIATION Match the adjectives from Exercise 2 to the correct stress patterns in the table. There are several adjectives for some of the stress patterns. 1 2 3 4 5 conceited 6 7 8 9 10 7 2.05 Listen and check. Then practise saying the words. 8 In your opinion, what makes a good role model? Do you think any of the people in Exercise 1 are good role models? Give reasons for your answer. 9 Look at the words and phrases in the box. Which ones could you use to talk about someone who is a good role model? □ a bad influence (on sb) □ a good/shining example of ... □ admire □ despise □ find sb inspirational □ follow in sb’s footsteps □ idolise □ loathe □ look down on □lookupto □ put sb on a pedestal □ set a good example 10 2.06 Listen to Kara and Jake talking about good and bad role models. Tick the words and phrases in Exercise 9 which you hear. 11 Replace the underlined parts of the sentences with words and phrases from Exercise 9. 1 You should be a good role model be a good role model for the children. 2 He admired his mother and copied her copied her by becoming a lawyer. 3 I can’t stand people who are arrogant and conceited. 4 Everyone has faults so don’t put her on put her on a pedestal a pedestal. 5 The behaviour of some celebrities has a negative a negative effect on many young people. 12 SPEAKING In small groups, ask and answer the questions. 1 Do famous people have a responsibility to be good role models? Say why. 2 Who do you think has more influence on you – public figures, your friends or your family? Say why. 3 Who could you be a role model for? Say why. 1 In pairs, ask and answer the questions. Mark Zuckerberg Emma Watson Neymar Junior Serena Williams George R.R . Martin 1 Which of the people in the box do you recognise? What are they known for? 2 Do you admire any of them? Say why. 3 What personal qualities do you think they possess? 2 In pairs, decide if the adjectives in the box are positive or negative. Are there any which could be both? bigoted capable charming compassionate conceited decent dedicated defensive hypocritical idealistic immature inspirational modest passionate pushy sincere tough trustworthy 3 2.04 Listen and match the definitions you hear to ten of the words from Exercise 2. 4 Complete the sentences with the remaining words from Exercise 2. 1 He’s really ; always telling everyone how great he is. 2 She’s so ; she’s determined to get what she wants. 3 He’s so that he refuses to accept anyone who thinks differently from him. 4 She’s really about animals; they’re so important to her. 5 He’s quite ; you would never know that he’s a big star. 6 You can’t say anything to criticise her at all or she gets angry; she’s so . 7 He will look after your dog well; he’s reliable, responsible and completely . 8 She can deal with the most difficult situations; she’s very . 5 Complete the description of Meghan Markle with adjectives from Exercise 2. Meghan, the Duchess of Sussex, has been an ambassador for more than one charity, and it’s pretty clear that she’s 1 about making the world a better place. about making the world a better place. She famously gave a(n) 2 speech at the UN speech at the UN (United Nations) Women’s Conference about the importance of speaking up for your values. As an actor, she was used to being in the public eye, and she seems pretty 3 and able to deal with criticism without getting angry or 4 . These qualities could be useful, because she has already been accused of being a ‘5 princess’, princess’, who only married Prince Harry to become rich and famous. 03 37 □ I can talk about personal qualities and behaviour. 3C VOCABULARY | Personal qualities and behaviour REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 219 CULTURE NOTES page 206 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 9, students, in pairs, discuss the role models they made notes about at home. They should explain their answers using the language in Exercises 2 and 9. If students have brought in any photos, they can share them with their partner. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 31/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 12: Say it how you mean it, pages 279, 301 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 3 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 3 NEXT CLASS Ask students to do a search for people who have been on an epic journey and make notes. Why did they go on the journey? Did they encounter any difficulties along the way? Did they learn anything from their experience? Exercise 2 Positive: capable, charming, compassionate, decent, dedicated, idealistic, inspirational, modest, passionate, sincere, trustworthy Negative: bigoted, conceited, defensive, hypocritical, immature, pushy Both: tough Exercise 3 1 immature 2 charming 3 hypocritical 4 dedicated 5 sincere 6 compassionate 7 idealistic 8 inspirational 9 capable 10 decent Exercise 11 1 set a good example 2 looked up to, followed in her footsteps 3 despise/loathe 4 idolise her 5 a bad influence Exercise 4 1 conceited 2 pushy 3 bigoted 4 passionate 5 modest 6 defensive 7 trustworthy 8 tough Exercise 5 1 passionate 2 inspirational 3 tough 4 defensive 5 pushy Exercise 6 1 tough 2 sincere 3 charming, decent, modest, pushy 4 conceited, defensive 5 immature 6 dedicated 7 bigoted, capable, passionate, trustworthy 8 compassionate 9 hypocritical, inspirational 10 idealistic ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 55
6 Complete the table with the highlighted words/phrases from the text. Add other words/phrases you know. Community Poverty keep someone company deprivation 7 Match the highlighted words/phrases in the text with their definitions below. For some of the definitions there is more than one correct answer. 1 Have just enough money to buy what you need. 2 Dealing with things without thinking about the future. 3 Didn’t have enough food. 4 Sit or stand very close to other people. 5 Asked for money or food from strangers. 6 Very thin. 7 Be comfortable in a particular place. 8 SPEAKING In small groups, discuss the questions. 1 How did the author’s life change as a result of getting lost at the age of five? 2 Why was Saroo so determined to find his birth family? 9 REFLECT | Society How do you think poverty influences someone’s life? Can there be any positive outcomes to being poor? 7 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 164. Watch the documentary Long lost sisters and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the film poster. Have you seen this film? If not, what do you think it is about? 2 Read the blurb for the book on which the film is based and check your ideas. This is the incredible true story of a little boy who boarded a train, got lost and eventually found his way home, twenty-five years later. Five-year-old Saroo found himself utterly lost and alone on the streets of Calcutta. He survived and ended up being adopted by a middle-class couple from Australia, but he always remembered his birth family. Against all the odds, he eventually located his home town and retraced his steps to find his way back to them. 3 In pairs, ask and answer the questions. 1 How do you think Saroo finally managed to locate his birth family? 2 What do you think happened when he did? 4 Read an extract from the book on page 39 and answer the questions below. 1 Why did Saroo’s adoptive mum decorate the house with a map of India and Indian ornaments? Did Saroo understand why she did that at the time? 2 Why couldn’t Saroo find the place of his birth on the map? 3 How do you think he felt about his family in India? What evidence do you have from the text? 5 Read the text again and choose the correct answers. 1 Why was the author so intrigued by the map of India? a Because he could imagine all the wild animals living there. b Because the country was so enormous. c Because his home town was on that map. d Because his adoptive mother had given it to him. 2 Why did the author initially not talk much about his previous life in India? a He didn’t have the right words in English. b He couldn’t remember much about it. c He didn’t care much about what had happened before. d He preferred to think about it on his own. 3 How did the author feel about the time he spent with his family in India and their neighbours? a He felt he was part of a community. b He felt upset about being hungry. c He felt anxious about his sister. d He felt ashamed of his family’s poverty. 4 What does ‘oddly enough’ mean in lines 40–41? a sadly b understandably c in fact d surprisingly 5 What does ‘it’ in line 41 refer to? a begging for money on the streets b having to share everything c always feeling in need of food d feeling upset and unhappy 38 □ I can identify attitudes and feelings of characters in a text and talk about different cultural backgrounds. 3D READING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 240 CULTURE NOTES page 207 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Lead in to Exercise 1 by putting students in pairs or small groups and asking them to discuss the ideas they made notes about at home. • As a follow-up to Exercise 6, ask students to discuss what they think of Saroo. Is he a good role model? Why? You could ask them to try to incorporate vocabulary from Lesson 3C in their answer. • To extend Exercise 9, expand the discussion into a class debate. Write the following motion on the board: There can never be a positive outcome to being poor. Split the class into two and ask pairs from each half to present one point for or against the motion to the class. At the end of the debate, have a class vote for or against the motion. Exercise 4 1 To help him feel at home. No, he didn’t because he thought all houses had these things. 2 Because he didn’t know the exact name or where it was. 3 He loved them. The days he spent watching over his baby sister, he says he loved and looked up to his older brothers. Exercise 6 Community: feel at home, gather together, sense of belonging, huddle together Poverty: make ends meet, went hungry, begged, subsistence, living day-to- day, hand-to-mouth, skinny, malnourished Exercise 7 1 make ends meet, subsistence, hand-to-mouth 2 living day-to-day 3 went hungry, malnourished 4 gather together, huddle together 5 begged 6 skinny 7 feel at home Exercise 8 1 Saroo came from a very poor family in India. They lived day-to-day and hand- to-mouth. The children often went hungry. Saroo didn’t go to school in India. After he got lost, he was adopted by a middle class couple from Australia so his life must have changed dramatically. We can assume that he started going to school, had his own room, and never went hungry again. 2 Saroo had really warm memories of his past and thought about them all the time. Although he was malnourished and often went hungry, Saroo was not too distressed about it. It was part of his life and he accepted it. What really mattered was his family and a real sense of belonging and wellbeing. 56
LION: LION: LION: LION: A LONG A LONG A LONG A LONG WAY HOME WAY HOME WAY HOME WAY HOME When I was growing up in Hobart, I had a map of India on my bedroom wall. When I was growing up in Hobart, I had a map of India on my bedroom wall. When I was growing up in Hobart, I had a map of India on my bedroom wall. When I was growing up in Hobart, I had a map of India on my bedroom wall. My mother – my adoptive mother, Mum – had put it there to help me My mother – my adoptive mother, Mum – had put it there to help me My mother – my adoptive mother, Mum – had put it there to help me My mother – my adoptive mother, Mum – had put it there to help me My mother – my adoptive mother, Mum – had put it there to help me feel at home when I arrived from that country at the age of six to live with them, when I arrived from that country at the age of six to live with them, when I arrived from that country at the age of six to live with them, when I arrived from that country at the age of six to live with them, in 1987. She had to teach me what the map represented – I was completely in 1987. She had to teach me what the map represented – I was completely in 1987. She had to teach me what the map represented – I was completely in 1987. She had to teach me what the map represented – I was completely uneducated and don’t think I even knew what a map was, let alone the uneducated and don’t think I even knew what a map was, let alone the uneducated and don’t think I even knew what a map was, let alone the uneducated and don’t think I even knew what a map was, let alone the shape of India. Mum had decorated the house with Indian objects – there shape of India. Mum had decorated the house with Indian objects – there shape of India. Mum had decorated the house with Indian objects – there shape of India. Mum had decorated the house with Indian objects – there were some Hindu statues, brass ornaments and bells, and lots of little were some Hindu statues, brass ornaments and bells, and lots of little were some Hindu statues, brass ornaments and bells, and lots of little were some Hindu statues, brass ornaments and bells, and lots of little elephant figurines. I didn’t know then that these weren’t normal objects elephant figurines. I didn’t know then that these weren’t normal objects elephant figurines. I didn’t know then that these weren’t normal objects elephant figurines. I didn’t know then that these weren’t normal objects to have in an Australian house. to have in an Australian house. The map’s hundreds of place names swam before me in my childhood. The map’s hundreds of place names swam before me in my childhood. The map’s hundreds of place names swam before me in my childhood. The map’s hundreds of place names swam before me in my childhood. Long before I could read them, I knew that the immense V of the Indian Long before I could read them, I knew that the immense V of the Indian Long before I could read them, I knew that the immense V of the Indian Long before I could read them, I knew that the immense V of the Indian Long before I could read them, I knew that the immense V of the Indian Long before I could read them, I knew that the immense V of the Indian subcontinent was a place teeming with cities and towns, with deserts subcontinent was a place teeming with cities and towns, with deserts subcontinent was a place teeming with cities and towns, with deserts subcontinent was a place teeming with cities and towns, with deserts and mountains, rivers and forests – the Ganges, the Himalayas, tigers, and mountains, rivers and forests – the Ganges, the Himalayas, tigers, and mountains, rivers and forests – the Ganges, the Himalayas, tigers, and mountains, rivers and forests – the Ganges, the Himalayas, tigers, gods! – and it came to fascinate me. I would stare up at the map, lost in the gods! – and it came to fascinate me. I would stare up at the map, lost in the gods! – and it came to fascinate me. I would stare up at the map, lost in the gods! – and it came to fascinate me. I would stare up at the map, lost in the thought that somewhere among all those names was the place I had come thought that somewhere among all those names was the place I had come thought that somewhere among all those names was the place I had come thought that somewhere among all those names was the place I had come from, the place of my birth. I knew it was called ‘Ginestlay’, but whether that was from, the place of my birth. I knew it was called ‘Ginestlay’, but whether that was from, the place of my birth. I knew it was called ‘Ginestlay’, but whether that was from, the place of my birth. I knew it was called ‘Ginestlay’, but whether that was the name of a city, or a town, or a village, or maybe even a street – and where to the name of a city, or a town, or a village, or maybe even a street – and where to the name of a city, or a town, or a village, or maybe even a street – and where to the name of a city, or a town, or a village, or maybe even a street – and where to start looking for it on that map – I had no idea. As children do, I picked up my new language quite quickly. But at first I spoke very little about my past in India. My parents didn’t want to push me to talk about it until I was ready, and apparently I didn’t show many signs that I gave it much thought. ... But deep down, it did matter to me. My memories were all I had of my past, and privately I thought about them over and over ... First of all, I remember days spent watching over my baby sister, Shekila, her grubby face smiling up at me as we played peekaboo. And I remember long, warm nights during the hot months of the year, when my family would join the others with whom we shared the house and gather together gather together outside in the courtyard, while someone gather together outside in the courtyard, while someone gather together played the harmonium and others sang. I had a real sense of belonging and well- being on those nights. The women would bring out bedding and blankets, and we would all huddle together huddle together, gazing up at the stars, before closing our eyes in sleep. huddle together, gazing up at the stars, before closing our eyes in sleep. huddle together As well as my mother and my baby sister, there were also my older brothers, Guddu and Kallu, whom I loved and looked up to. To help make ends meet, when Guddu was around ten, he took a job washing dishes in a restaurant. Even then, we often went hungry went hungry. We lived one day at a time. There were many occasions when we begged for food from neighbours, or begged for money and food on the streets by the marketplace and around the railway station, but somehow we managed a subsistence, living day-to-day living day-to-day and living day-to-day and living day-to-day hand-to-mouth. Everyone used to go out at the start of the day and get whatever they could, be it money or food, and at the end of each day we would return, put whatever we had managed to find on the table, and everyone would share. I remember feeling hungry most of the time, but oddly enough I wasn’t too distressed by it. It became part of life and I accepted it. We were very skinny skinny children, with blown-up stomachs from gas and no food. We were skinny children, with blown-up stomachs from gas and no food. We were skinny probably malnourished, but then so were poor children all across India, so it was nothing out of the ordinary. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 EXTRACT FROM BY SAROO BRIERLEY GLOSSARY brass – a very hard bright yellow metal that is a mixture of copper and zinc distressed – very upset figurine – a small model of a person or animal used as a decoration grubby – fairly dirty peekaboo – a game you play to amuse young children, in which you hide your face and then show it again teem with somebody/something – to be very full of people or animals, all moving about 2.07 03 39 FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook pages 32–33/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to do an Internet search for 1–2 phrases or idioms about technology or the Internet and their origins. They should make notes. 57
6 Rewrite the pairs of sentences as one sentence using a relative clause. In which sentences can the pronoun be omitted? 1 Televisions used to have a dial. The dial was used to change channel. 2 Technology is always changing. I find this exciting. 3 Holly sent a text message. She sent the message to her grandfather. 4 Liam has lost his phone. It was very expensive. 5 Eugene has lost his phone. He is very absent- minded. 6 The UK generally has good wi-fi. Ninety-nine percent of young Britons use the Internet. 7 My grandmother struggles to stream videos. Her wi-fi is very slow. 8 Holly was asking about some items. Carbon paper was one of the items. 7 Study two participle clauses from the conversation in Exercise 2, and compare them with similar sentences using full relative clauses. What do you notice? Complete the rules below with the correct word. a There was a wire attaching attaching the phone to the wall. (present participle clause) There was a wire which attached the phone to the wall. (relative clause) b The copy made by the carbon paper was called the carbon copy. (past participle clause) The copy which was made by the carbon paper was called the carbon copy. (relative clause) 1 We use a present participle to replace a relative clause with an active / a passive verb. 2 We use a past participle to replace a relative clause with an active / a passive verb. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 176 8 Replace the underlined parts of the relative clauses in each sentence with a present or past participle. 1 Did you take the charger that was plugged in that was plugged in next to the TV? 2 Anyone who wanted to speak who wanted to speak on the phone had to go into the hall. 3 The only people who use non-smart mobile phones now are the elderly. 4 I don’t want to sit next to that woman who is shouting shouting into her phone. 5 Mobiles are bad for the environment because of the metals that are needed to make them. 6 People who are buying who are buying that smartphone don’t realise that a new model is about to come out. 9 SPEAKING In pairs, tell your partner about a piece of technology, using relative and participle clauses. Student A, go to page 196. Student B, go to page 200. 1 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the question. What do you think is the origin of these phrases? hang up the phone go online cc an email dial a number 2 2.08 Listen to Holly talking to her grandfather. Check your ideas from Exercise 1. What new expressions does Holly teach him? Relative and participle clauses 3 THINK BACK Study the underlined relative clauses a and b and answer the questions. a The house which we just walked past which we just walked past belongs to my grandfather. b My grandfather's house, which I love, isn’t very modern. 1 Which sentence gives essential information that cannot be omitted? (defining relative clause) 2 Which sentence gives some extra information that can be omitted? (non-defining relative clause) 4 Read some extracts from the conversation between Holly and her grandfather. Which of the underlined relative clauses are defining? 1 ... phones are something that you can keep in your pocket that you can keep in your pocket. 2 I had to go into the hall, where the phone was kept where the phone was kept, and everyone could hear every word I said. 3 My girlfriend, who I was usually talking to who I was usually talking to, used to get fed up with me whispering all the time! 4 ... you had to have a wire that connected your computer that connected your computer with the telephone line with the telephone line. 5 And it took ages to get a connection, which was really which was really irritating irritating. 6 Carbon paper was something which people used to make which people used to make a copy of a note or letter with a copy of a note or letter with. 5 Read the sentences in Exercise 4 and answer the questions. 1 In which type of relative clause can we use that instead of that instead of that which or who? 2 In which two sentences can you omit the relative pronoun without affecting the meaning? Why is this? 3 What does the relative pronoun in Sentence 2 refer to? What relative pronoun is used to refer to possession? 4 In which sentence is the relative clause a comment on the whole of the main clause? 5 Look at this more formal version of Sentence 3: My girlfriend, to whom I was usually talking to whom I was usually talking, used to ... . Rewrite Sentence 6 in the same way. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 176 40 □ I can use defining and non-defining relative clauses to give additional information. 3E GRAMMAR REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 220 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • During Exercise 1, students can share their findings about the idioms/phrases they looked up at home. • After Exercise 8, in pairs, students swap their sentences for peer checking. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 176 • Workbook page 34/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 13: It’s a word you need to guess, pages 279, 302 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 3E ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 3E NEXT CLASS Ask students to do an Internet search or ask parents/carers to find out the name of the generation they belong to and what characterises it (what their generation is like). They should make some notes. Exercise 2 See underlined text in audio script 2.08, page 220. Holly teaches her grandfather I’ve got to bounce and I’ll ping you. Exercise 5 1 In defining relative clauses. 2 The pronoun can be omitted in sentences 1 and 6. When the relative pronoun is the object of the clause in a defining relative clause, we can omit it. 3 It refers to a place. Whose. 4 Sentence 5. 5 Carbon paper was something with which people used to make a copy of a note or letter. Exercise 6 1 Televisions used to have a dial which was used to change the channel. 2 Technology is always changing, which I find exciting. 3 The person to whom Holly sent the text message was her grandfather. / The person who(m)/ that Holly sent the text message to was her grandfather. 4 Liam has lost his phone, which was very expensive. 5 Eugene, who is very absent- minded, has lost his phone. 6 The UK, where ninety-nine percent of young Britons use the Internet, generally has good wi-fi. 7 My grandmother, whose wi-fi is very slow, struggles to stream videos. 8 Carbon paper was one of the items about which Holly was asking. / Carbon paper was one of the items that/which Holly was asking about. (The pronoun can be omitted in sentences 3 and 8. The person Holly sent the message to was her grandfather. Carbon paper was one of the items Holly was asking about.) Exercise 9 Student A (page 196) 1 which is 2 which/that is 3 which is 4 that was 5 which were 6 where Student B (page 200) 1 which was 2 when 3 which was 4 which/that 5 which/that 6 where 7 where/when a b 1,4and6 plugged in using shouting needed buying wanting to speak 58
5 Rewrite the sentences as generalisations using the words in brackets. 1 In small groups, look at memes A–D about different generations. What characteristics are they joking about? Are the jokes fair? Say why. 2 2.09 Listen to a radio phone-in programme about three different generations and make notes in the table. Baby boomers (born 1946–1964) Generation X (born 1965–1980) Millennials (born 1981–2000) Events which influenced them Attitude towards work Personality characteristics 3 In pairs, discuss what you heard. Do you think there is any truth in these generalisations about different generations? Say why. 4 2.09 Study the Speaking box. Then listen again and tick the phrases which are used in the phone-in programme. SPEAKING | Generalising Talking about what you think is generally true □ On the whole, ... □ In general, ... □ In some/many/most cases, ... □ Broadly speaking, ... □ By and large, ... □ More often than not, ... □ Nine times out of ten, ... □ Ninety percent of the time, ... □ To some/a great extent, ... □ ... tend to think/say/believe ... □ There’s a tendency for ... to ... Acknowledging that you are generalising □ This is a bit of a sweeping statement, but ... □ I may be overgeneralising, but ... □ You might think this is an overgeneralisation, but ... 6 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Do you feel you belong to Generation Z? Say why. 2 Do you agree with the generalisations about Generation Z in Exercise 5? Say why. 3 Can you think of any other generalisations that people make about Gen Z? 7 In pairs, prepare a short presentation about your generation. Use these questions to help you. 1 Which events do you think have influenced your generation? 2 What is your generation’s attitude towards work / relationships / technology? 3 What personal qualities do you think are typical of your generation? 8 Give your presentation to another pair. Use generalising language where appropriate. Do you agree with each other about what typifies your generation? 9 REFLECT | Society Do you think it is possible for people of different generations to be friends? How can society overcome generation gaps? Baby boomers: retired at fifty- five on a full pension – think young people are lazy. How Gen X sent text messages. Millennial elevator has three buttons: up, down and whatever. Gen Z: You can’t say that – it hurts my feelings! A B C D 1 Generation Z spend a lot of time online. (general) 2 They use Instagram rather than Facebook. (whole) 3 They take offence very easily. (tend) 4 They have an entrepreneurial spirit. (nine) 5 They like getting a bargain. (cases) 6 They are into experiences rather than material possessions. (extent) 7 They avoid clicking online ads. (more) 8 They are into healthy eating and good habits. (broadly) 9 Generation Z tend not to take too many risks. (tendency) 10 They live much of their lives online. (overgeneralisation) Generation Z (or Gen Z): people born from 2001 onwards 03 41 □ I can use generalisations to talk about something that is usually true. 3F SPEAKING REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 220 CULTURE NOTES page 207 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 8, pairs can join another pair and share the information they found out about their parents/carers at home. They should pool their information to make some generalisations about the generation(s) using the language in the Speaking box. Get feedback from the class and formulate two or three points which were true for all the groups. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 35/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to interview a parent or carer and ask their opinion on time spent as a family. Do they feel they get enough? Does technology get in the way? When was the last time the whole family spent time together? Were families closer in the past? Students make notes for the next lesson. born not long after WW2 fall of the Berlin wall 9/11 work harder than any other generation work hard, but also want a good work-life balance work the hardest – less holiday, longer hours determined and resourceful value freedom, very independent people say they are selfish and entitled Exercise 5 1 In general, Generation Z spend ... 2 On the whole, they use Instagram ... 3 They tend to take offence ... 4 Nine times out of ten, they have ... 5 In some/many/most cases, they like ... 6 To a great/some extent, they are into ... 7 More often than not, they avoid ... 8 Broadly speaking, they are into ... 9 There’s a tendency for Generation Z not to take ... 10 You might think this is an overgeneralisation, but they live ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 59
ARE FAMILIES AS CLOSE AS THEY USED TO BE? ARE FAMILIES AS CLOSE AS THEY USED TO BE? ARE FAMILIES AS CLOSE AS THEY USED TO BE? ARE FAMILIES AS CLOSE AS THEY USED TO BE? ARE FAMILIES AS CLOSE AS THEY USED TO BE? ARE FAMILIES AS CLOSE AS THEY USED TO BE? ARE FAMILIES AS CLOSE AS THEY USED TO BE? Many people today feel that Many people today feel that Many people today feel that Many people today feel that Many people today feel that Many people today feel that relationships between members of the same family are not as close as they were perhaps relationships between members of the same family are not as close as they were perhaps relationships between members of the same family are not as close as they were perhaps relationships between members of the same family are not as close as they were perhaps a few generations ago. Changes in our working lives and the advent of technology have certainly altered how families a few generations ago. Changes in our working lives and the advent of technology have certainly altered how families a few generations ago. Changes in our working lives and the advent of technology have certainly altered how families a few generations ago. Changes in our working lives and the advent of technology have certainly altered how families a few generations ago. Changes in our working lives and the advent of technology have certainly altered how families interact, but interact, but I would argue that I would argue that families generally remain as close as they ever were. families generally remain as close as they ever were. families generally remain as close as they ever were. Increasingly, parents are seeking a greater work-life balance and more flexibility in their working hours. This means Increasingly, parents are seeking a greater work-life balance and more flexibility in their working hours. This means Increasingly, parents are seeking a greater work-life balance and more flexibility in their working hours. This means Increasingly, parents are seeking a greater work-life balance and more flexibility in their working hours. This means Increasingly, parents are seeking a greater work-life balance and more flexibility in their working hours. This means that even in a family where both parents work, they are often able to ensure that at least one parent is available to take that even in a family where both parents work, they are often able to ensure that at least one parent is available to take that even in a family where both parents work, they are often able to ensure that at least one parent is available to take that even in a family where both parents work, they are often able to ensure that at least one parent is available to take that even in a family where both parents work, they are often able to ensure that at least one parent is available to take their children to after-school activities or to attend shows and concerts at the school. A better work-life balance also their children to after-school activities or to attend shows and concerts at the school. A better work-life balance also their children to after-school activities or to attend shows and concerts at the school. A better work-life balance also their children to after-school activities or to attend shows and concerts at the school. A better work-life balance also their children to after-school activities or to attend shows and concerts at the school. A better work-life balance also enables families to spend more quality time together than was perhaps the case a generation ago. enables families to spend more quality time together than was perhaps the case a generation ago. enables families to spend more quality time together than was perhaps the case a generation ago. enables families to spend more quality time together than was perhaps the case a generation ago. It is commonly accepted that It is commonly accepted that It is commonly accepted that It is commonly accepted that It is commonly accepted that It is commonly accepted that the time needed to run a household has also decreased over the last few decades as the time needed to run a household has also decreased over the last few decades as the time needed to run a household has also decreased over the last few decades as the time needed to run a household has also decreased over the last few decades as more and more labour-saving devices have been invented. A striking example of this is the humble washing machine, more and more labour-saving devices have been invented. A striking example of this is the humble washing machine, more and more labour-saving devices have been invented. A striking example of this is the humble washing machine, more and more labour-saving devices have been invented. A striking example of this is the humble washing machine, more and more labour-saving devices have been invented. A striking example of this is the humble washing machine, which Hans Rosling, a well-known Swedish statistician, called ‘the greatest invention of the industrial revolution’ which Hans Rosling, a well-known Swedish statistician, called ‘the greatest invention of the industrial revolution’ which Hans Rosling, a well-known Swedish statistician, called ‘the greatest invention of the industrial revolution’ which Hans Rosling, a well-known Swedish statistician, called ‘the greatest invention of the industrial revolution’ which Hans Rosling, a well-known Swedish statistician, called ‘the greatest invention of the industrial revolution’ because of the way that it liberated parents to spend more time with their children. Prior to its invention, it was usual to because of the way that it liberated parents to spend more time with their children. Prior to its invention, it was usual to because of the way that it liberated parents to spend more time with their children. Prior to its invention, it was usual to because of the way that it liberated parents to spend more time with their children. Prior to its invention, it was usual to because of the way that it liberated parents to spend more time with their children. Prior to its invention, it was usual to spend an entire day doing laundry – now the task is easily completed at the touch of a button or two. spend an entire day doing laundry – now the task is easily completed at the touch of a button or two. spend an entire day doing laundry – now the task is easily completed at the touch of a button or two. spend an entire day doing laundry – now the task is easily completed at the touch of a button or two. spend an entire day doing laundry – now the task is easily completed at the touch of a button or two. spend an entire day doing laundry – now the task is easily completed at the touch of a button or two. Going online Going online can be seen as can be seen as a way of bringing families together as well as a distraction. Whereas in the past family a way of bringing families together as well as a distraction. Whereas in the past family a way of bringing families together as well as a distraction. Whereas in the past family a way of bringing families together as well as a distraction. Whereas in the past family a way of bringing families together as well as a distraction. Whereas in the past family members living apart would have to write letters and often wait a long time for a reply, nowadays there are many members living apart would have to write letters and often wait a long time for a reply, nowadays there are many members living apart would have to write letters and often wait a long time for a reply, nowadays there are many members living apart would have to write letters and often wait a long time for a reply, nowadays there are many members living apart would have to write letters and often wait a long time for a reply, nowadays there are many members living apart would have to write letters and often wait a long time for a reply, nowadays there are many members living apart would have to write letters and often wait a long time for a reply, nowadays there are many more ways to keep in touch, such as social media and video calls. Overall, more ways to keep in touch, such as social media and video calls. Overall, more ways to keep in touch, such as social media and video calls. Overall, more ways to keep in touch, such as social media and video calls. Overall, I believe that family members do actually family members do actually communicate with each other more than they may have done in the past, whether through technology or face-to-face. communicate with each other more than they may have done in the past, whether through technology or face-to-face. communicate with each other more than they may have done in the past, whether through technology or face-to-face. communicate with each other more than they may have done in the past, whether through technology or face-to-face. communicate with each other more than they may have done in the past, whether through technology or face-to-face. In conclusion, In conclusion, I would say that I would say that while society may have changed, families remain as close as they were, aided by while society may have changed, families remain as close as they were, aided by while society may have changed, families remain as close as they were, aided by while society may have changed, families remain as close as they were, aided by technology and greater flexibility in working patterns. technology and greater flexibility in working patterns. technology and greater flexibility in working patterns. FACT BOX FACT BOX Family life in the UK Family life in the UK • 10% of people surveyed said that the last time they spent quality time* with their family was more than a year ago. • 27% of parents said they’re so busy that in an average day they often don’t spend any time whatsoever with their children. • 42% of parents are worried that social media is distracting their children from quality family time. • 48% of those taking part in the survey said they feel guilty that they don’t spend enough time with their loved ones. * Time where you give your full attention to someone. 42 REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 207 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • In Exercise 1, students discuss their findings from their home interviews to support their answers. • After Exercise 5, ask students to look back at the opinions they gave in Exercise 1 and change them into impersonal views using the phrases from the Writing box. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 36/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 44–45. 60
1 In pairs, read the Fact Box with the statistics about family life in the UK and answer the questions. 1 Is the situation similar in your country? Say why. 2 Would you agree that families have less quality time together than in the past? 3 Are families less close than they used to be? 2 Read one student’s answer to the essay question given below and compare it with your ideas from Exercise 1. Some people think that families are not as close as they used to be. Do you agree? Write about ... • mobile technology and the Internet. • changes in working life. • your own ideas. 3 Read the essay again. Which paragraphs are about the topics listed in the essay question? Which idea of their own has the writer included? 4 Study the Writing box and answer the questions. 1 What is the thesis of the essay? 2 What arguments does the writer give to support the thesis? 3 How does the thesis relate to the conclusion? WRITING | An opinion essay Content and organisation Introduction: Summarise the topic of the essay, using your own words as far as possible, and state your position (thesis) with regard to the topic. Main body: Include two or three paragraphs setting out your arguments. You must include the two topics given in the essay question, plus an idea of your own. Each paragraph should be about one main idea. Conclusion: Summarise the main points of the essay and restate your opinion or thesis on the topic. Style and register • Use semi-formal or quite formal register, depending on the context. • Give your personal opinion using phrases such as: Personally, ... /In my opinion, ... /My personal conviction is that ... /1 /2 /3 . Include more impersonal views using phrases such as: It is often argued that ... /It is often held that ... / It is widely believed that ... /4 /5 /6 . • Try to use a variety of linkers, including more formal ones, e.g . Nevertheless, ..., In addition, ..., Therefore, ... 5 Complete the Writing box with the underlined phrases from the essay. 6 CRITICAL THINKING Study Active Writing. Then underline the topic sentences in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the model essay in Exercise 2. What is the main idea in each case? ACTIVE WRITING | Creating a line of reasoning • To construct a good argument, the reader needs to be able to follow your line of reasoning. A coherent paragraph will have sentences in a logical order. • In academic writing, each paragraph has a ‘topic sentence’ which contains the main idea of the paragraph which follows. The other sentences should support the topic sentence, giving further details, reasons or examples. 7 Read sentences a–d and identify which one is the topic sentence. Then put the sentences into the correct order to make a coherent paragraph. There is one sentence which you do not need. a □ For example, it is only too common to see families eating out together with every member glued to his or her own screen. b □ Technology may have brought some benefits to society, but it has undoubtedly been bad for family life. c □ Technology has revolutionised our lives in ways that no one would ever have predicted. d □ This cannot help but contribute to the breakdown of the family, with everyone in their own little world. 8 How do the sentences you chose in Exercise 7 support the topic sentence? 9 Complete the phrases which can be used to support a topic sentence. 1 For , / For example, / To give just one example 2 A good/notable/ example of this is the ... 3 There are many ways to communicate with family members, social media, video calls or instant messaging. 10 For each topic sentence below, write a paragraph with two supporting sentences. Use the statistics in the Fact Box as examples. 1 Social media is often seen as a key reason people are interacting less face-to-face. 2 Working parents are simply too busy to spend time with their family. 3 We all know that time spent with friends and family is precious. 11 Read the essay question below. Do you agree or disagree? Make notes to support your opinion. What else could be a strong influence? The friends you choose are more influential in your life than the family you are born into, or any other influence. Do you agree? Write about ... • how families influence us. • how friends influence us. • your own ideas. 12 WRITING TASK Write your essay. Use the Writing box, include topic sentences and examples. Don’t forget to give your personal opinion and some impersonal views. 03 43 □ I can write an opinion essay. 3G WRITING | An opinion essay Exercise 3 Paragraph 4 is about mobile technology and the Internet. Paragraph 2 is about changes in working life. Paragraph 3 includes the writer’s own idea: how modern labour-saving technology allows family members to spend more time together. Exercise 4 1 Families remain as close as they ever were. 2 Greater work-life balance means parents are more available to their children and able to spend more quality time together. Greater automation of housework has had a similar effect. The Internet and social media give more opportunities for families to communicate with each other when at a distance. 3 The conclusion restates the thesis: ... while society may have changed, families remain as close as they were, aided by technology and greater flexibility in working patterns. Exercise 5 1 I would argue that ... 2 I believe that ... 3Iwouldsaythat... 4 Many people today feel that ... 5 It is commonly accepted that ... 6...canbeseenas... Exercise 6 Paragraph 2: The main idea is that parents have more availability for their family nowadays because of flexible working practices. Paragraph 3: The main idea is that technology has made running a household less time-consuming than in the past, allowing more family time. Paragraph 4: The main idea is that mobile technology and the Internet can connect families more, rather than pulling them apart. Exercise 8 The second sentence gives an example of how technology has been bad for the family. The third sentence clarifies how the example relates to the topic sentence. instance striking such as 2 1 3 61
REMEMBER MORE 1 Complete the text with words from the word list. It is sometimes 1h that my that my generation (Gen Z) is a bunch of snowflakes who 2l their lives online and tend to burst into 3t when they when they 4f any any exam. And I could not disagree more! By and 5l , we're actually a 6s example for example for the younger generation. We want to make the world a 7b place. Unlike Millennials, we give everything a lot of 8t , especially the environment. We are compassionate and speak up for our 9v . 2 Complete the sentences with the correct particles. Then check with the word list. 1 Ilook to people who have achieved something all the odds. 2 After she had split with her husband, her life turned upside . 3 I’m lost thoughts when I’m plugged . 4 After the accident, he tried to live day- -day, one day a time. 3 Match the two parts of the collocations which describe rows and arguments. Then check with the word list. 1 lose 2 get 3 fall 4 resolve 4 Complete the phrases with make or do. Then check with the word list. 1 fun of somebody 2 connections 3 somebody a favour 4 up with somebody (end a quarrel) ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Short story or article To learn phrases, use them in short stories or mini newspaper articles similar to the one in Exercise 1. By placing the new phrases in your own ’world’ of ideas, you help your brain to remember them. a out with sb b an argument c your temper d fedupwithsb 3A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.15 blow things out of proportion /ˌbləʊ ˌθɪŋs ˈaʊt əv prəˈpɔːʃən/ burst into tears /ˌbɜːst ˌɪntə ˈtɪəz/ catch up (phr v) /ˌkætʃ ˈʌp/ empathise with sb /ˈempəθaɪz wɪð ˌsʌmbɒdi/ fall out with sb /ˌfɔːl ˈaʊt wɪð ˌsʌmbɒdi/ get attention for sth /ˌget əˈtenʃən fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ get on with sb /ˌget ˈɒn wɪð ˌsʌmbɒdi/ get the joke /ˌget ðə ˈdʒəʊk/ give sb a compliment /ˌɡɪv ˌsʌmbɒdi ə ˈkɒmpləmənt/ go off (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈɒf/ have a go at sb /ˌhəv ə ˈɡəʊ ət ˌsʌmbɒdi/ have a lie-in /ˌhəv ə ˈlaɪ-ɪn/ let sb down (phr v) /ˌlet ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈdaʊn/ lose your temper /ˌluːz jə ˈtempə/ make a fuss of sb /ˌmeɪk ə ˈfʌs əv ˌsʌmbɒdi/ make fun of sb /ˌmeik ˈfʌn əv ˌsʌmbɒdi/ make up with sb /ˌmeɪk ˈʌp wɪð ˌsʌmbɒdi/ mess about (phr v) /ˌmes əˈbaʊt/ middle child /ˌmɪdl ˈtʃaɪld/ naughty (adj) /ˈnɔːti/ only child /ˌəʊnli ˈtʃaɪld/ peacemaker (n) /ˈpiːsmeɪkə/ put sth off (phr v) /ˌpʊt sʌmθɪŋ ˈɒf/ put up with sb/sth (phr v) /ˌpʊt ˈʌp wɪð ˌ sʌmbɒdi/sʌmθɪŋ/ raw cake mixture /ˌrɔː ˌkeɪk ˈmɪkstʃə/ rebel (v) /rɪˈbel/ resolve an argument /rɪˌzɒlv ən ˈɑːɡjəmənt/ show off (phr v) /ˌ ʃəʊ ˈɒf/ sympathetic (adj) /ˌsɪmpəˈθetɪk/ talk behind sb’s back /ˈtɔːk bɪˌhaɪnd ˌ sʌmbɒdiz ˈbæk/ tell sb off about sth (phr v) /ˌtel ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈɒf əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ Victoria sponge (n) /vɪkˈtɔːriə ˌspʌndʒ/ wind sb up (phr v) /ˌwaɪnd ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈʌp/ 3B LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 55.16 academically gifted /ˌækəˌdemɪkli ˈɡɪftɪd/ be challenged enough /bi ˈtʃæləndʒd ɪˌnʌf/ clash between you and a parent /ˈklæʃ bɪˌtwiːn ˌjə ənd ə ˈpeərənt/ colic (n) /ˈkɒlɪk/ do sb a favour /ˌduː ˌsʌmbɒdi ə ˈfeɪvə/ flunk an exam /ˌflʌŋk ən ɪɡˈzæm/ handle a situation /ˌhændl ə ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃən/ have a hard time /ˌhəv ə ˌhɑːd ˈtaɪm/ in the long run /ɪn ðə ˌlɒŋ ˈrʌn/ make connections /ˌmeɪk kəˈnekʃəns/ misunderstanding (n) /ˌmɪsʌndəˈstændɪŋ/ neuroscience (n) /ˈnjʊərəʊˌsaɪəns/ newborn baby /ˌnjuːbɔːn ˈbeɪbi/ prevent sb from doing sth /prɪˈvent ˌsʌmbɒdi frəm ˈduːɪŋ ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ recent findings /ˈriːsənt ˌfaɪndɪŋz/ relocate to a different place /ˌriːləʊkeɪt tə ə ˌdɪfərənt ˈpleɪs/ row with sb (v) /ˈraʊ wɪð ˌsʌmbɒdi/ shape (v) /ʃeɪp/ split up with sb (phr v) /ˌsplɪt ˈʌp wɪð ˌsʌmbɒdi/ stick at sth (phr v) /ˈstɪk ət ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ teach sb the value of sth /ˈtiːtʃ ˌsʌmbɒdi ðə ˈvæljuː əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ tease sb (v) /ˈtiːz ˌsʌmbɒdi/ to my mind /tə ˌmaɪ ˈmaɪnd/ turn out (phr v) /ˌtɜːn ˈaʊt/ turn sth upside down /ˈtɜːn ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˌʌpsaɪd ˈdaʊn/ 3C VOCABULARY 5.17 admire (v) /ədˈmaɪə/ bad influence (on sb) /ˌbæd ˈɪnfluəns (ɒn ˌsʌmbɒdi)/ bigoted (adj) /ˈbɪɡətɪd/ capable (adj) /ˈkeɪpəbəl/ charming (adj) /ˈtʃɑːmɪŋ/ compassionate (adj) /kəmˈpæʃənət/ conceited (adj) /kənˈsiːtɪd/ decent (adj) /ˈdiːsənt/ dedicated (adj) /ˈdedɪkeɪtɪd/ defensive (adj) /dɪˈfensɪv/ despise (v) /dɪˈspaɪz/ find sb inspirational /ˌfaɪnd ˌsʌmbɒdi ˌɪnspəˈreɪʃənəl/ follow in sb’s footsteps /ˌfɒləʊ ɪn ˌsʌmbɒdiz ˈfʊtsteps/ good/shining example of sth /ˌɡʊd/ˌ ʃaɪnɪŋ ɪɡˈzɑːmpəl əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ hypocritical (adj) /ˌhɪpəˈkrɪtɪkəl/ idealistic (adj) /aɪˌdɪəˈlɪstɪk/ idolise (v) /ˈaɪdəlaɪz/ immature (adj) /ˌɪməˈtʃʊə/ in the public eye /ˌɪn ðə ˌpʌblɪk ˈaɪ/ inspirational (adj) /ˌɪnspəˈreɪʃənəl/ 44 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • In pairs, students write a conversation about a word or phrase in the word list but without mentioning the word itself. They can then act out the conversation to another pair for them to guess the word/phrase. If the second pair can’t guess, the first pair can give them a clue by saying which section the word is in. If students still can’t guess, the original pair can role play their conversation for the class to guess at the end of the activity. • Write Phrases relating to behaviour on the board. Dictate short definitions of phrases from Lesson 3A, e.g . suddenly start crying (burst into tears). Students supply the correct phrase for each definition. To make the activity easier, you could let students refer to the word eld ive ears lunk arge hining etter hought alues up against up down in in to at c a d b make make do make 62
loathe (v) /ləʊð/ look down on sb (phr v) /ˌlʊk ˈdaʊn ɒn ˌsʌmbɒdi/ look up to sb (phr v) /ˌlʊk ˈʌp tə ˌsʌmbɒdi/ modest (adj) /ˈmɒdɪst/ passionate (adj) /ˈpæʃənət/ personal qualities /ˌpɜːsənəl ˈkwɒlətis/ public figure /ˌpʌblɪk ˈfɪɡə/ pushy (adj) /ˈpʊʃi/ put sb on a pedestal /ˌpʊt ˌsʌmbɒdi ɒn ə ˈpedəstəl/ role model /ˈrəʊl ˌmɒdl/ set a good example /ˌset ə ˌgʊd ɪɡˈzɑːmpəl/ sincere (adj) /sɪnˈsɪə/ speak up for sth /ˌspiːk ˈʌp fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ tough (adj) /tʌf/ trustworthy (adj) /ˈtrʌstˌwɜːði/ 3D READING AND VOCABULARY 55.18 adoptive mother /əˌdɒptɪv ˈmʌðə/ against all the odds /əˌɡenst ɔːl ði ˈɒdz/ anxious about sth /ˌbi ˈæŋkʃəs əˈbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ beg (v) /beg/ blow up (phr v) /ˌbləʊ ˈʌp/ blurb (n) /blɜːb/ brass ornament /ˌbrɑːs ˈɔːnəmənt/ deprivation (n) /ˌdeprəˈveɪʃən/ distressed by sth /dɪˈstrest baɪ ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ feel at home /ˌfiːl ət ˈhəʊm/ figurine (n) /ˌfɪɡjəˈriːn/ gather together /ˈɡæðə təˌɡeðə/ gaze at sth (v) /ˈɡeɪz ət ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ go hungry /ˌɡəʊ ˈhʌŋɡri/ grubby (adj) /ˈɡrʌbi/ huddle together /ˈhʌdl təˌɡeðə/ immense (adj) /ɪˈmens/ intrigued by sth /ɪnˈtriːɡd baɪ ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ keep sb company /ˌkiːp ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈkʌmpəni/ let alone /ˌlet əˈləʊn/ live day-to-day /ˌlɪv ˌdeɪ tə ˈdeɪ/ live hand-to-mouth /ˌlɪv ˌhænd tə ˈmaʊθ/ live one day at a time /ˌlɪv ˈwʌn ˌdeɪ ət ə ˈtaɪm/ locate (v) /ləʊˈkeɪt/ lost in the thought /ˌlɒst ɪn ðə ˈθɔːt/ make ends meet /ˌmeɪk ˈends ˌmiːt/ malnourished (adj) /ˌmælˈnʌrɪʃt/ nothing out of the ordinary /ˈnʌθɪŋ ˌaʊt əv ði ˈɔːdənəri/ oddly enough /ˌɒdli ɪˈnʌf/ pick up a language /ˌpɪk ˈʌp ə ˌlæŋɡwɪdʒ/ play peekaboo /ˌpleɪ ˌpiːkəˈbuː/ retrace (v) /rɪˈtreɪs/ sense of belonging /ˌsens əv bɪˈlɒŋɪŋ/ sense of security /ˌsens əv sɪˈkjʊərəti/ skinny (adj) /ˈskɪni/ stare at sth (v) /ˈsteə ət ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ subcontinent (n) /ˌsʌbˈkɒntɪnənt/ subsistence (n) /səbˈsɪstəns/ teem with sth /ˈtiːm wɪð ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ understandably (adv) /ˌʌndəˈstændəbəli/ utterly lost /ˌʌtəli ˈlɒst/ well-being (n) /ˌwel- ˈbiːɪŋ/ 3E GRAMMAR 5.19 carbon copy (n) /ˌkɑːbən ˈkɒpi/ carbon paper (n) /ˌkɑːbən ˈpeɪpə/ cc an email /ˌsiːˈsiː ən ˈiː meɪl/ dial a number /ˌdaɪəl ə ˈnʌmbə/ get a connection /ˌget ə kəˈnekʃən/ get fed up with sth /ˌget ˌfed ˈʌp wɪð ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ go online /ˌɡəʊ ˌɒnˈlaɪn/ hang up the phone /ˌhæŋ ˈʌp ðə ˌfəʊn/ origin (n) /ˈɒrɪdʒɪn/ stream a video /ˌstriːm ə ˈvɪdiəʊ/ take ages to do sth /ˌteɪk ˈeɪdʒəs tə ˌduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ the elderly (n) /ði ˈeldəli/ 3F SPEAKING 5.20 baby boomer (n) baby boomer (n) baby boomer /ˈbeɪbi ˌbuːmə/ bargain (n) /ˈbɑːɡɪn/ be into sth /ˌbi ˈɪntə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ be typical of sb/sth /ˌbi ˈtɪpɪkəl əv ˌsʌmbɒdi/ ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ broadly speaking /ˌbrɔːdli ˈspiːk ɪŋ/ by and large /ˌbaɪ ənd ˈlɑːdʒ/ characteristic (n) /ˌkærəktəˈrɪstɪk/ entrepreneurial (adj) /ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜːriəl/ full pension /ˌfʊl ˈpenʃən/ generalisation (n) /ˌdʒenərəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/ generalise (v) /ˈdʒenərəlaɪz/ generation gap (n) /ˌdʒenəˈreɪʃən ˌɡæp/ Generation X (n) /ˌdʒenəˌreɪʃən ˈeks/ Generation Z (n) /ˌdʒenəˌreɪʃən ˈzed/ material possession /məˌtɪəriəl pəˈzeʃən/ millenial (adj) /mɪˈleniəl/ more often than not /ˌmɔː ˈɒfən ðən ˌnɒt/ on the whole /ɒn ðə ˈhəʊl/ onwards (adv) /ˈɒnwədz/ overgeneralisation (n) /ˌəʊvəˌdʒenərəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/ overgeneralise (v) /ˌəʊvəˈdʒenərəlaɪz/ personality (n) /ˌpɜːsəˈnæləti/ phone-in programme /ˌfəʊn-ɪn ˈprəʊɡræm/ sweeping statement /ˌswiːpɪŋ ˈsteɪtmənt/ take a risk /ˌteɪk ə ˈrɪsk/ take offence /ˌteɪk əˈfens/ 3G WRITING 55.21 advent of technology /ˌædvent əv tekˈnɒlədʒi/ alter (v) /ˈɔːltə/ breakdown (n) /ˈbreɪkdaʊn/ bring benefits /ˌbrɪŋ ˈbenəfɪts/ coherent (adj) /kəʊˈhɪərənt/ conviction (n) /kənˈvɪkʃən/ decrease (v) /dɪˈkriːs/ distraction (n) /dɪˈstrækʃən/ ensure (v) /ɪnˈʃʊə/ flexibility (n) /ˌfleksəbɪləti/ humble (adj) /ˈhʌmbəl/ impersonal (adj) /ɪmˈpɜːsənəl/ it is held that /ˌɪt ˌəz ˈheld ˌðæt/ labour-saving device /ˈleɪbə ˌseɪvɪŋ dɪˈvaɪs/ liberate (v) /ˈlɪbəreɪt/ line of reasoning /ˌlaɪn əv ˈriːzənɪŋ/ live apart /ˌlɪv əˈpɑːt/ notable (adj) /ˈnəʊtəbəl/ prior to sth /ˈpraɪə tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ quality time /ˈkwɒləti ˌtaɪm/ register (n) /ˈredʒɪstə/ restate (v) /ˌriːˈsteɪt/ revolutionise (v) /ˌrevəˈluːʃənaɪz/ run a household /ˌrʌn ə ˈhaʊshəʊld/ semi-formal (adj) /ˌsemi ˈfɔːməl/ set out (phr v) /ˌset ˈaʊt/ state (v) /steɪt/ statistician (n) /ˌstætəˈstɪʃən/ striking (adj) /ˈstraɪkɪŋ/ survey (v) /səˈveɪ/ thesis (n) /ˈθiːsɪs/ undoubtedly (adv) /ʌnˈdaʊtɪdli/ working life /ˌwɜːkɪŋ ˈlaɪf/ work-life balance /ˌwɜːk-ˈlaɪf ˌbæləns/ 45 03 list for Lesson 3A during the activity. As a follow-up, you could ask students to write an example sentence for each phrase. • Divide the class into teams. Give each team in turn a word of phrase from the word list. They have to use it correctly in a sentence. Each correct sentence gives each team one point, and the team with the most points at the end are the winners. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 37/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 3. 63
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Complete the text with the words/phrases from the box. There are two extra words. compassionate decent despise idolize immature influence making a fuss modest pushy showing split up News stories about 1 citizens who help old women citizens who help old women across the road, and 2 individuals who are concerned about others do make the news from time to concerned about others do make the news from time to concerned about others do make the news from time to time. 3 people who perform heroic acts without people who perform heroic acts without people who perform heroic acts without 4 and telling everyone about it can be interesting, and telling everyone about it can be interesting, and telling everyone about it can be interesting, especially if they are charming too and know how to talk especially if they are charming too and know how to talk especially if they are charming too and know how to talk especially if they are charming too and know how to talk especially if they are charming too and know how to talk to the camera. However, the stories in some types of newspapers and However, the stories in some types of newspapers and However, the stories in some types of newspapers and websites are often about websites are often about 5 , attention-seeking , attention-seeking individuals, who simply love individuals, who simply love 6 off. Some of these off. Some of these ‘celebrities’ even have their own TV shows giving ‘celebrities’ even have their own TV shows giving detailed information about their lives and relationships. detailed information about their lives and relationships. detailed information about their lives and relationships. Why should the public be interested in who they Why should the public be interested in who they 7 or row with? People like this are a bad or row with? People like this are a bad 8 on young on young people. Surely, we shouldn’t people. Surely, we shouldn’t 9 them and give them and give them celebrity status! 2 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. 1 I lost my temper / empathised with my sister last night. I usually control myself. 2 He’s the peacemaker / capable and always does his best to resolve arguments. 3 A good friend should never talk about / fall out with you behind your back. 4 She doesn’t earn much money and finds it hard to make ends meet / live hand-to-mouth. 5 They are both very defensive / sincere and always tell the truth. 6 I admire / loathe people who behave like that. What she did was unacceptable and shocking! 7 You can always count on her. She’s the most trustworthy / compassionate person I know. 8 It’s important that your friends huddle together / huddle together / huddle together feel at home when they visit. 3 Complete the sentences. Use the Present Continuous or Past Continuous, will, used to or would. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1 My sister forever (borrow) my clothes without asking me. It’s very irritating! 2 WhenIwasachild,we (live) in a house by the sea, but now we live in a city. 3 My brother can’t keep a secret. He (post) anything you tell him on his blog immediately. 4 When they were children, his older sister constantly (criticise) him, but they’re best friends now. 5 A few years ago, we (go out) every Saturday night, but we don’t any more. 6 My computer always (send) me error messages I don’t understand! 4 Rewrite the sentences as one sentence using a defining or non-defining relative clause. In which sentences can the pronouns be omitted? 1 My neighbours have a new-born baby. They are moving to a bigger house. My neighbours . 2 That boy’s mum is Japanese. He’s fluent in five languages. That boy . 3 My grandma’s house has no wi-fi. It’s very annoying. My . 4 They go to that beach in summer. It’s their favourite place. The beach . 5 She bought a camera yesterday. It’s an antique. The camera . 6 I just saw a girl. My brother used to be friends with her. I just saw the . 7 He lost his wallet. It was very worrying. He . 5 Replace the underlined phrase with a participle clause. 1 People who want to make an appointment should do so online. 2 Did you see that car which was parked which was parked next to ours? 3 They were behind a woman in the queue who was complaining complaining about the service. 4 The advertisement which was recently posted which was recently posted on the site is very interesting. 5 Teenagers who grew up who grew up in the 1970s and 80s didn’t have mobile phones. USE OF ENGLISH 6 Complete the text with one word in each gap. You might think this is an overgeneralisation but on 1 whole I believe that people don’t change much. Take my old school friend, Jackie MacDougall. Jackie was a quiet girl who everyone looked 2 to because she always did the right thing. She was a dedicated student who 3 always come top of the class in everything. When she was fourteen, she seemed to be very grown up in relation to the rest of us. She never behaved badly and always behaved badly and always behaved badly and always 4 a good example. a good example. a good example. Jackie never went out much but was a very popular girl. Jackie never went out much but was a very popular girl. Jackie never went out much but was a very popular girl. Jackie never went out much but was a very popular girl. Byand5 , most of us put her on a pedestal. , most of us put her on a pedestal. I didn’t hear much about Jackie after we left school. I didn’t hear much about Jackie after we left school. I didn’t hear much about Jackie after we left school. I didn’t hear much about Jackie after we left school. I didn’t hear much about Jackie after we left school. I didn’t hear much about Jackie after we left school. I didn’t hear much about Jackie after we left school. Many years later, I was picking up my eleven-year-old Many years later, I was picking up my eleven-year-old Many years later, I was picking up my eleven-year-old Many years later, I was picking up my eleven-year-old daughter from her new school one day. She said, ‘Look, daughter from her new school one day. She said, ‘Look, daughter from her new school one day. She said, ‘Look, daughter from her new school one day. She said, ‘Look, that’s the new teacher who I was talking that’s the new teacher who I was talking that’s the new teacher who I was talking 6 . I want to be like her when I grow up.’ I looked up and I want to be like her when I grow up.’ I looked up and I want to be like her when I grow up.’ I looked up and I want to be like her when I grow up.’ I looked up and saw Jackie MacDougall! I was delighted my daughter saw Jackie MacDougall! I was delighted my daughter saw Jackie MacDougall! I was delighted my daughter saw Jackie MacDougall! I was delighted my daughter wanted to 7 in her footsteps. in her footsteps. Use of English > page 192 Role model? 46 03 Revision FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 192 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 3 and Self-check 3, Workbook pages 38–39/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening ASSESSMENT • Unit 3 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 3 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 3 Writing Test Exercise 1 1 decent/compassionate 2 compassionate/decent 3 Modest 4 making a fuss 5 pushy 6 showing 7 split up 8 influence 9 idolise Exercise 3 1 is (forever) borrowing 2 used to live / lived 3 will post / is posting 4 was (constantly) criticising 5wouldgoout/usedto go out 6 is (always) sending Exercise 4 (Pronouns which can be omitted are in brackets.) 1 My neighbours, who have a newborn baby, are moving to a bigger house. 2 That boy, whose mum is Japanese, is fluent in five languages. 3 My grandma’s house has no wi-fi, which is very annoying. 4 The beach where they go in summer is their favourite place. / The beach (which) they go to in summer is their favourite place. 5 The camera (which/that) she bought yesterday is an antique. 6 I just saw the girl (who) my brother used to go out with. 7 He lost his wallet, which was very worrying. Exercise 5 1 wanting to make 2 parked 3 complaining 4 recently posted 5 growing up the up would set large about follow 64
It is often held that technology in general does little to help family relationships as, in many cases, family members are more interested in their smartphones, and the TV than they are in each other. In the days before smartphones, the TV was blamed the most for breakdowns in communication between parents and children. It was argued that not only did ‘the box’ stop them from talking to each other, but clashes between family members over what programmes to watch created barriers and caused resentment. Some people still believe this is true today, ignoring the fact that TV programmes can be informative as well as just entertaining. In fact, TV programmes often provide topics for families to discuss, bringing them closer together rather than driving them further apart. What’s more, twenty-first century families don’t need to all watch the same programme at the same time, and they certainly don’t need to gather round a traditional television in the living room. The number of people watching TV online is increasing all the time. The fact that people can watch what they want, when and where they want should result in more time for families to be together rather than less, providing it is well-planned. The smartphone has perhaps taken over nowadays from the TV as the major reason given for a lack of communication between family members. Parents are often heard saying things like, ‘My teenage children never talk to me because they are playing games on their phones or messaging their friends,’ or, ‘My teenage son flunks his exams because he’s always chatting online.’ Parents often don’t see why their sons and daughters spend so much time online and fail to see the importance of having an online identity while most teens feel their online image is part of who they are. Nine times out of ten, they criticise the amount of time their children spend online rather than attempting to understand why they do it and manage it. In fact, adults are often not very good examples themselves. Who hasn’t witnessed a table at a restaurant where all the family members, young and old, are silently focused on their mobile devices? My personal conviction is that, broadly speaking, smartphones do have some negative effects on family relationships. One important reason for this is that this technology is still relatively new, and many families haven’t yet learned how to deal with it. However, with time everyone will understand the communication problems associated with our online lives better. Parents and children should discuss how they use technology to help them all make the most of technology instead of blaming it for their problems. READING 7 Read the article above and complete the notes with 1–3 words in each gap. STRATEGY | Note completion Read the sentences carefully and underline the key words in each of them. The text may include the same key words or their synonyms. Try to predict what kind of information is missing. Then scan the reading text to find the missing information. 1 Some people think that families are less interested than they are in the TV and smartphones. 2 Before smartphones existed, TV was thought to be responsible for a responsible for a between family members. 3 Some people today don’t realise that TV shows are often not just entertaining but are also often not just entertaining but are also . 4 A family’s viewing habits should be so they can spend time together. 5 is one reason given by parents for failure at school. 6 Parents frequently don’t understand why it’s important for young people to have . 7 Smartphones are , whichiswhyalotof families don’t know how to manage their use yet. SPEAKING 8 ‘Modern technology leads to increasing isolation rather than creating a sense of belonging.’ What do you think? Discuss in pairs. Use the arguments below to help you. For the statement: • We interact with technology, not people, and end up feeling lonely. • Technology can’t help solve our problems. Against the statement: • Technology can be used to strengthen our relationships with our friends and family. • Club or school websites and forums connected to our interests make us feel we belong. WRITING 9 Read the task below. ‘We learn more from our school environment than we do from our friends and family.’ Do you agree? Write about ... 1 values such as honesty. 2 skills. 3 your own idea. Write your essay. FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS HOW TECHNOLOGY AFFECTS 47 Exercise 7 1 in each other 2 breakdown in communication 3 informative 4 well-planned 5 Chatting online / Spending time online / The smartphone 6 an online identity 7 (still) (relatively) new 65
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Paul McCartney 1 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 What is a conspiracy theory? 2 What conspiracy theories have you heard of? 3 What conspiracy theories do you think the photos relate to? 2 2.10 Listen to a podcast about conspiracy theories and check your ideas from Exercise 1. Do you think there is any truth in these theories? Say why. 3 Check you understand the words from the podcast in the box. Find two synonyms for each word 1–8 below. abduct assassinate bizarre capture claim clues eliminate enigma expose fraud hints hoax maintain puzzle reveal weird 1 fake (n) 2 kidnap 3 kill 4 mystery 5 signs 6 state (v) 7 strange 8 uncover Amelia Earhart Beyoncé Elvis Presley 48 4A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY VOCABULARY Conspiracy theories, news reporting, collocations, noun suffixes GRAMMAR Narrative tenses, Past Perfect Simple and Continuous, negative inversion Use of English > page 192 SPEAKING Telling anecdotes WRITING A story VIDEO Grammar Documentary Inside story 04 4 22.10 Complete the questions with words from Exercise 3. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. Then listen again and answer the questions. 1 What possible solutions to the of Amelia Earhart’s disappearance are mentioned? 2 According to conspiracy theorists, who or what her and held her prisoner? 3 According to the podcast, about which conspiracy theory are hidden in Beatles songs? 4 What did the video about CERN, recently as a hoax, claim to show? 5 Which of the conspiracy theories mentioned do you think is the strangest or most ? REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 220 VIDEO SCRIPT page 241 CULTURE NOTES page 208 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Do this activity at the beginning of the lesson. Draw students’ attention to the photos on page 48 and ask them what they know about the people/ object shown. Elicit students’ answers and share some information from the Culture notes with them. Tell students that they are going to find out more about these people/object later in the lesson. • Do this activity after Exercise 9. Put students in pairs and ask them to write two sentences in the Past Simple on a piece of paper, then give them to another pair. They should then write Exercise 4 1 enigma/puzzle 2 abducted/captured 3 hints/clues 4 exposed/revealed 5 bizarre/weird 1 that her plane crashed somewhere in the ocean, leaving no evidence; that she was an undercover intelligence agent who had been spying on Japan for the US government and that her plane was shot down and she was captured; that she landed on a remote island and was never rescued; that she was abducted by aliens 2 aliens 3 the idea that Paul McCartney died in 1966 4 a human sacrifice the idea that a group/groups of people are working secretly to create a particular event or outcome fraud, hoax clues, hints abduct, capture claim, maintain assassinate, eliminate bizarre, weird enigma, puzzle expose, reveal 66
WATCH OUT! • We use the Past Perfect Continuous when we want to focus on the duration of an activity or when we are explaining a past result, e.g . She was tired because she had been flying for hours. • We do not use the Past Perfect Continuous with repeated actions when we say how many times something happened, e.g . She had been visiting him regularly. 9 Complete the article with the correct past tense forms of the verbs in brackets. Narrative tenses; Past Perfect Simple and Continuous 5 THINK BACK Which past tense is used in each of the underlined parts of the extract from the podcast? Can you explain the difference in meaning between them? 6 Match the underlined phrases in the extracts to the descriptions. 1 □ In the years following her Atlantic achievement, she had set seven women’s speed and distance aviation records. 2 □ But some people suspect she was an undercover intelligence agent who had been spying spying on Japan for the US government. a This is an action in progress in the past. b This is a completed action. 7 Complete the rules by writing Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect Continuous or both. 1 Weuse to make clear that a past action happened earlier than another past action. 2 Weuse to talk about an earlier completed action. 3 Weuse to talk about a situation or action which continued up to a certain time in the past. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 178 8 Study Watch out! Then complete the short text about Watch out! Then complete the short text about Watch out! Amelia Earhart with the Past Perfect Simple or Past Perfect Continuous forms of the verbs in brackets. 10 2.11 PRONUNCIATION Listen to the sentences from the text. What do you notice about the way that the words had, was and been are pronounced? 1 Diana herself had often expressed a belief that someone was planning to kill her. 2 They had certainly been driving dangerously. 11 2.11 Listen again. Use a weak pronunciation for had /həd/, was /wəz/ and been /bin/. In pairs, practise reading the text in Exercise 9 aloud. 12 REFLECT | Society Why do you think people believe conspiracy theories? Give reasons for your answer. 13 SPEAKING In pairs, invent your own conspiracy theory. Go to page 197. 8 Read the sentence below and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, ask and answer the question. Tell us about a surprising event in your life. G R A M M A R V I D E O On the night of 31 August 1997, Princess Diana 1 (die) tragically in a car crash in Paris. Was it an accident or 2 (someone/arrange) for her to be assassinated? Many people believed in such a conspiracy partly because Diana herself 3 (often/express) a belief that someone (often/express) a belief that someone 4 (plan) to (plan) to kill her in a car crash, making it look like an accident. The rumours were so disturbing that in 2004 the Metropolitan Police in London 5 (decide) to launch an investigation into what 6 (happen) that night. Did the paparazzi following Diana cause the crash on purpose? They 7 (certainly/drive) dangerously, but was it possible that they 8 (actually/try) to kill her? After months of investigations, the police finally 9 (conclude) that it had simply been an accident, but many people still maintain it was not, and that she was killed to prevent her exposing secrets about the British royal family. WAS DIANA’S DEATH REALLY AN ACCIDENT On 2 July 1937, Amelia Earhart’s plane disappeared. She 1 (try) to fly around the world. She 2 (already/complete) about 22,000 miles of the journey, with 7,000 miles left to go. She 3 (travel) for just over three weeks and 4 (visit) Brazil, Dakar, Khartoum and Bangkok when she lost radio contact. We know that Earhart 5 ( just/run out) of fuel when she disappeared. It’s possible that she landed on a nearby island. In 1998, bones which a British expedition 6 (find) on an island in the Pacific in 1940 were analysed again. Scientists 7 (think) they belonged to a man, but they recently changed their minds and linked them to a tall white female who 8 (die) in around 1937. Could the bones be the remains of Amelia Earhart? The mystery of Amelia Earhart 49 04 □ I can use narrative tenses to talk about past events. In 1932, Amelia Earhart 1b ecame the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic. Five years later, she set out to fly around the globe. In the years following her Atlantic achievement, she 2had set seven women’s speed and distance aviation records and she was more than ready to take on this challenge. However, while she 3was flying was flying over the Pacific O cean, she disapp eared disappeared without a trace, never to be seen again. a Past Perfect Continuous sentence about an event that took place before the Past Simple event they now have. Pairs can then swap sentences for checking. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 4, page 271 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 178 • Workbook pages 40–41/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 14: We never went to the moon?, pages 280, 303 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 4A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 4A Exercise 5 1 Past Simple 2 Past Perfect Simple 3 Past Continuous 4 Past Simple The Past Simple is used to talk about a completed action at a specific time in the past, whereas the Past Continuous describes an ongoing or interrupted past action. The Past Perfect is used to indicate that something happened before another event or action in the past. Exercise 7 1 both 2 Past Perfect Simple 3 Past Perfect Continuous Exercise 8 1 had been trying 2 had already completed 3 had been travelling 4 had visited 5 had just run out 6 had found 7 had thought 8 had died Exercise 9 1 died 2 had someone arranged / did someone arrange 3 had often expressed 4 was planning to 5 decided 6 had happened / happened 7 had certainly been driving 8 had actually tried / actually tried 9 concluded Exercise 10 The words had, was and been are all pronounced using a weak form. b a 67
4 22.12 Complete the sentences with the words from the box to make collocations. Listen again and check. attention awareness clickbait corruption generates go hit light present public verify 1 I’m responsible for creating all those headlines that attract attention. that attract attention. 2 If the posts I write viral, that could mean hundreds of thousands of page views, which more advertising revenue for the news site. for the news site. 3 Articles published online need to be very brief because everyone has such a short span these days. 4 I’m helping to raise of important issues. 5 The articles I write rarely shed much on the key issues that have the headlines. 6 I’d love to cover traditional news stories which are in the interest, where I could expose . 7 I’d also prefer to have the time to my sources or the space to both sides of the story. 5 Complete the sentences with collocations from Ex. 4. 1 The video was so amazing that it . 2 A news article should because a balanced view is vital. 3 They say that most people’s is fourteen minutes on average. 4 A good journalist should be able to on what is happening in the world. 6 The court decided that it was not for the story to be published. 6 Match the adjectives from the box with their definitions 1–10 . Are the adjectives related to clickbait viral news stories or more traditional journalism? balanced exclusive hard-hitting heartbreaking heartwarming newsworthy off the record quirky sensational topical 1 Includes strong criticism of someone or something. 2 Unusual in an interesting way. 3 Very sad. 4 Interesting enough to be reported. 5 Considering all sides equally. 6 Related to things that are happening at the moment. 7 Not meant to be publicly reported. 8 Shocking and exciting, not serious. 9 (a news story) Published only in one place. 10 Causing feelings of happiness. 7 SPEAKING Would you like to work as a journalist? What do you think are the good and bad things about this job? 9 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 165. Watch the documentary Making the news and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 1 In pairs, look at the headlines and discuss the questions. 1 Why do you think news sites write these kinds of headlines? 2 Why do you think people want to click on them and share the story? 3 Do you think the information in these kinds of stories is reliable? Say why. 2 22.12 Listen to a clickbait journalist talking about his work. Why does he think news sites write these kinds of headlines? 3 Study Active Vocabulary and find two more examples of collocations in the headlines in Exercise 1. ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Collocations A collocation is a combination of two or more words that often go together, e.g. take someone hostage (NOT make make someone hostage someone hostage.) The most common structures for collocations are: • adjective + noun, e.g. a bizarre theory • verb + noun, e.g. reveal the truth • adverb + adjective, e.g. potentially embarrassing • verb + adverb, e.g. discuss calmly Trending now A father and son from Cardiff tried out their device to protect swimmers from shark attacks. You won’t believe what happened next! SHARK SURPRISE! Hurricane Harvey brings kindness as well as destruction. This story will melt your heart. HARVEY DEVELOPS EMPATHY The devastating truth behind those delicious prawns. SECRETS OF SHRIMP FARMING 50 □ I can talk about the news. 4B VOCABULARY | News reporting REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 221 VIDEO SCRIPT page 241 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity after Exercise 6. Ask students to write a short fake news article in pairs or groups of three. Give students 5 minutes for this, then ask them to swap articles with another pair/group. The new pair/group should give the article a headline and also choose as many words/ phrases from Exercises 4 and 6 as they can to describe it to the class. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 42/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 15: Newsflash!, pages 280, 304 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 4 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 4 Exercise 2 Because each page view is worth money in terms of advertising revenue. People want to click on the headlines and share the stories because they make us feel good or look better to other people. Exercise 3 melt your heart, devastating truth Exercise 4 1 clickbait 2 go, generates 3 attention 4 awareness 5 light, hit 6 public, corruption 7 verify, present Exercise 5 1 went viral 2 present both sides of the story 3 attention span 4 shed light 5 public interest hard-hitting quirky heartbreaking newsworthy balanced topical off the record sensational exclusive heartwarming clickbait viral news stories 68
1 Look at the different types of text you can find in a print or online newspaper. Which kind do you enjoy reading? Say why. gossip column human interest story news item opinion piece celebrity profile book/film review 2 Read the newspaper article. What type of text is it? How do you know? 3 Read the text again. In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Do you find the examples of intuition in the article convincing? Say why. 2 Tell us about a situation where you used your intuition. Negative inversion 4 Look at sentences a–b from the article and answer questions 1–2. Then study the Grammar box and check. Find more examples of negative adverbials in the text. a Not only had he been Not only had he been looking forward to it, but he had also told all his friends. b Little did he imagine Little did he imagine that he would come to thank his mum a week later. 1 What do you notice about the word order in these sentences after the negative adverbials? 2 What effect does using negative adverbial phrases like these have on the reader? Negative inversion We use negative inversion to add emphasis (special meaning) to a sentence. After a negative adverb or phrase the word order changes: negative adverbial + auxiliary verb + subject + clause I had never felt so afraid. → Never had I felt so afraid. Some common adverbs and adverbial phrases are: • seldom/rarely • hardly/barely/scarcely ... when ... • never/at no time • under no circumstances/in no way • no sooner • notonly...butalso... • little (did I/they know/imagine ...) Grammar Reference and Practice > page 178 5 Rewrite the sentences without changing their meaning. Start with the words in brackets. 1 They had only just left when the house exploded. (Scarcely) 2 You should not approach the suspect, who is armed and dangerous. (Under) 3 As well as stopping the mugger, he also drove the victim home. (Not only) 4 He didn’t imagine that his wife was a spy! (Little) 5 There has never been such a poor election turnout! (Never) 6 There is rarely a disaster on such a large scale as this. (Rarely) 6 2.13 Listen and write the sentences. Then rewrite each of them using a negative adverbial. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 7 2.14 Listen and check your answers. 8 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the sentences you wrote in Exercise 6. Imagine each one is part of a different news story. What could each news story be about? Have you ever had a moment where you ‘just knew’ what was going to happen, or what you should do? Intuition is when we know something without having to work it out, from deep inside our subconscious mind. Take Megan Smith’s story, for example. When she was little, she went with her dad and little sister to the toyshop. Her dad bought her a toy she had been longing for and she was so excited when they got home that she stayed in the car to play with it while the others went inside. ‘Suddenly,’ she said, ‘I had an overwhelming urge to get out of the car and go into the house. ’ So she did. Just as well, because no sooner had she gone inside than the wind started blowing so hard that an enormous tree branch fell onto the car, exactly where she had been sitting only moments before! Dan Crossland had a similarly narrow escape, but this was due to his mum’s intuition. The family had been planning a trip to Australia. Everything was organised, but then, just a week before they were due to leave, Dan’s mum suddenly decided that under no circumstances should they go. ‘T here was no good reason for it that I could see,’ Dan said. ‘She just said that she couldn’t ignore the bad feeling she had. ’ He was furious. Not only had he been looking forward to it, but he had also told all his friends. He felt stupid. Little did he imagine that he would come to thank his mum a week later ... when the plane they were supposed to travel on crashed! Some might say these were just bizarre coincidences but in fact, there is some evidence that intuition really exists and that we can trust it. In no way should we abandon our logical conscious mind but we should perhaps also use the power of the unconscious. Meet two readers who believe they’ve experienced it. DOES INTUITION REALLY EXIST? REALLY EXIST? REALLY 04 51 □ I can use negative inversion to add emphasis. 4C GRAMMAR REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 208 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS As a follow-up to Exercise 8, ask students to choose one news story to write, in class or as homework. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 178 • Workbook page 43/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 16: Little did I know ... , pages 280, 305 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 4C ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 4C NEXT CLASS Ask students to look online for two news stories reported by different sources. They should screenshot or print the stories if possible, and make notes on any differences between the sources. Exercise 2 It’s a human interest story. It talks about personal incidents which don’t have a wider social or political impact/interest. ( ... readers who believe they’ve experienced it.) Exercise 4 1 The word order changes – words are inverted. 2 It has a stronger effect and attracts more attention as it carries a stronger meaning/ emphasis. Exercise 5 1 Scarcely had they left when the house exploded. 2 Under no circumstances should you approach the suspect, who is armed and dangerous. 3 Not only did he stop the mugger, but he also drove the victim home. 4 Little did he imagine that his wife was a spy! 5 Never has there been such a poor election turnout! 6 Rarely is there a disaster on such a large scale as this. Exercise 6 1 The film had only just begun when people started to walk out. 2 I have seldom seen anything more shocking. 3 He definitely didn’t intend to offend anyone. 4Heisrichaswellas attractive. 5 He had absolutely no intention of doing it again. 6 They had no idea who he really was. Exercise 7 1 Scarcely/Hardly/Barely had the film begun when / No sooner had the film begun than people started to walk out. 2 Rarely/Seldom have I seen anything more shocking. 3Innowayhadhe intended / did he intend to offend anyone. 4 Not only is he rich, but he is also attractive. 5 Under no circumstances would he do it again. 6 Little did they know who he really was. 69
The battle started in Rustlings Road, a leafy neighbourhood in the city of Sheffield. Residents of the street were woken in the middle of the night and ordered to get out of bed and move their cars, or have them taken away. 1 Several of the residents, many elderly, were arrested, and, Several of the residents, many elderly, were arrested, and, Several of the residents, many elderly, were arrested, and, by the time they returned to their homes the following day, the council had seized the opportunity and the trees had been cut down. The eight trees were just the first to fall. Two cherry trees commemorating WWII heroes were chopped down with no warning, and all over the city other trees started to disappear. The council released a statement about their ‘ improvement scheme’, claiming that replacement trees would be planted and that all the trees that they had cut down were diseased or blocking the pavement in a dangerous way. 2 Only a few of the trees really seemed to fit the criteria published by the council. Concerned individuals put in a Freedom of Information request, which eventually revealed a secret operation to cut down a shocking total of 17,500 trees. 3 These weren’t political activists, simply local residents, the majority elderly or middle-aged, who wanted a say on what was happening in their own streets. Undoubtedly, there was tension between the council workers and the residents, but to send in private security guards and police wearing riot gear seems excessive. 4 Such an overreaction is surely laughable. To date, almost 6,000 trees have been chopped down, but in the face of pressure, not just from the protesters, but also from the government, it now looks likely that the massacre will stop, thanks to the bravery of these protesters and their musical instruments! 5 10 15 20 25 30 How locals fought to protect one of Europe’s greenest cities GLOSSARY accusation – a statement saying that someone is guilty of a crime or of doing something wrong assault – attacking someone physically commemorate – to do something to show that you remember and respect someone important or an important event in the past Freedom of Information request – a petition asking for access to recorded information held by public sector organisations obstruction – when someone or something prevents or delays a legal or political process riot gear – a set of equipment or tools the police need for a situation in which people are behaving in a violent way, especially when they are protesting about something A controversial £2.2 billion scheme to improve roads and footpaths in Sheffield has been paused after claims that innocent workmen may have been POISONED by local residents. Suspiciously, the road where the alleged incident took place is at the centre of year-long protests about trees being cut down. The three workmen say that they were given cups of tea by residents in the neighbourhood and that they later became violently ill. 5 Their symptoms were severe enough for them to report the incident to the police. Locals living on the street at the centre of the police investigation laughed off the accusation. ‘W hat a joke,’ said one woman from the street in question. 6 In fact, there have been several ar rests for obstruction and even assault. Perhaps the local council and residents can take advantage of this suspension in the work to sit down and try to work out a solution. They'd better do it before the situation gets blown even more out of proportion. CONTRACTORS HALT SHEFFIELD ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT SCHEME AFTER ALLEGATIONS OF INTIMIDATION AND ASSAULT 5 10 15 SECRET PLAN TO MASSACRE 17,500 TREES REVEALED: 2.15 52 REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 209 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 5, put students in groups of three and ask them to look at the news stories they researched at home. They should study the differences between them to try to locate any bias in either story, using the Active Reading box as a reference point. If students find any bias, they should consider the source of the story and try to determine why there might be bias. After 5 minutes, elicit any findings from the groups. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook pages 44–45/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 17: Your word against mine, pages 280, 306 E F A B D G 70
6 Find examples of nouns in the news reports with the suffixes in the table. Which suffixes are used to refer to people? Suffixes Nouns -ment statement, ... - tion information, ... - sion/-cion tension, ... - ist - er/-or worker, ... - ity opportunity, ... - hood - dom 7 Complete the sentences with the correct noun forms of the words from the box. active allege improve replace solve tense 1 The political between the two countries continues. 2 The two sides need to sit down and find a(n) . 3 It will be difficult to find a suitable for Emma when she leaves her post. 4 The against him are shocking, but he denies all of them. 5 There has been a(n) in the standard of living in in the standard of living in my country. 6 Human rights have protested against the prisoners’ treatment. 8 Complete the collocations from the articles with the correct verbs from the box. Then check your answers in the text. come up with laugh off laugh off laugh off put in release report reveal seize 1 Their symptoms were severe enough for them to the incident to the police. 2 Locals living on the street the accusation. 3 Perhaps they can try to a solution. 4 The council had their opportunity. 5 The council a statement about their ‘improvement’ scheme. 6 Concerned individuals a request, which eventually a secret operation. 9 REFLECT | Society Do you think that it is the job of a journalist to avoid any bias in their reporting? Is this even possible? Say why. 1 In pairs, look at the photos from two news reports. What do you think the reports are about? 2 Read the news reports and answer the questions. 1 What happened in Rustlings Road? 2 Why did the council say they needed to cut down the trees? 3 Who did the council send to protect the workers from the residents? 4 Why were some protesters accused of assault? 5 What is the current situation in this battle? 3 Read the reports again. Match sentences A–H with gaps 1–6 in the texts. There are two extra sentences. A However, despite her lack of sympathy, she did admit that the confrontations between the workers and the angry protesters had become more heated in recent weeks. B However, suspicion grew that perfectly healthy and safe trees were also being cut down. C A newly planted tree is much cheaper to maintain than a larger, older tree. D People were furious and took to the streets in protest. E They had been trying to save eight trees in their street for over a year, and, it seems, the council had finally lost patience with the campaigners. F When they realised that all three of them had been taken ill at the same time, they became convinced that they had been poisoned. G In recent weeks, one woman was arrested for blowing a toy horn, while a vicar was taken into custody for obstructing the road and playing his tambourine. H She stressed it was ridiculous to believe the residents could be guilty of harming the workers. 4 Look at the articles again. Which side in the dispute is each writer taking? How do you know? Underline the appropriate parts of the texts. 5 CRITICAL THINKING Study Active Reading. Then read the news reports again and find examples which demonstrate bias. Why is it important to recognise bias? ACTIVE READING | Recognising bias Very few texts are completely balanced or objective, and even the topic someone chooses to write about – or to ignore – can show their bias. However, there are some key indicators that a text is more strongly biased: • facts are exaggerated or distorted, • there are stereotypes and overgeneralisations, • there is little or no respect for different opinions, • the language is very dramatic or emotive, • there are quotation marks to indicate that the writer does not agree with a different opinion, • key facts which might undermine the writer’s view are missing. 04 53 □ I can recognise bias in news reports and talk about protests. 4D READING AND VOCABULARY NEXT CLASS Ask students to find a famous photo that they know of and bring to the next class, either as a print-out or saved on their phone. Ask them to consider what made the photo famous. Exercise 2 1 The residents of the streets were trying to save eight trees in their street for over a year after the local council released a statement about their improvement scheme. 2 The trees needed to be cut down as they were either diseased or were blocking the pavement. 3 The council sent security guards and police. 4 The residents were furious and took to the streets in protest; they were obstructing the road and playing musical instruments. Also, the residents were accused of poisoning the workers with tea. 5 Almost 6,000 trees have been chopped down, but the massacre is about to stop. Now the residents and the council are likely to work out a solution. Exercise 5 First article Emotive language such as massacre, seized their opportunity and with no warning is used. Quotation marks are set around improvement scheme. Nothing is mentioned about the suspected poisoning or any aggression on the part of the protesters. The protesters are twice described as elderly, which makes them seem more innocent. Second article The workmen are described as innocent and the protesters as angry. Capitals are used for POISONED. There is little or no respect for different opinions; the women interviewed about the suspected poisoning is portrayed as not caring. The author doesn’t mention what the people arrested for obstruction were actually doing, because that would make their actions seem less serious. Exercise 6 - ment: improvement, replacement, pavement, government, instrument - tion: operation, reaction, allegation, intimidation, question, confrontation, obstruction, solution, situation, proportion - sion/-cion: suspension, suspicion - ist: activist - er/-or: campaigner, protester, contractor - ity: majority, security - hood: neighbourhood - dom: freedom Exercise 8 1 report 2 laughed off 3 come up with 4 seized 5 released 6 put in, revealed Exercise 7 1 tension 2 solution 3 replacement 4 allegations 5 improvement 6 activists - ist and -er/-or Exercise 4 The first article seems to be on the side of the protesters, while the second seems to be more on the side of the council. 71
2 Check you understand the highlighted words. Then look at photos A–D and match them with these descriptions. 1 Sometimes the shot also shows his companions in the back of a car; sometimes it’s cropped to show just his likeness. 2 This works well as a landscape photo because the eye goes across the photo from left to right. The subject matter might even evoke a feeling of dizziness in some people, so brilliantly does it illustrate the long drop below them. 3 The image really captures the close relationship she developed with all the animals she worked with over her long career. 4 The men are shown having their lunch break; they look very natural, not as if they were posing. 5 This poignant photo is carefully composed; it doesn’t show the people shouting and throwing rocks at the little girl – just her and her security guards. 3 Which photo do you find most striking? Say why. 4 2.16 Listen to four people (1–4) talking about famous photos. Match each speaker with their statement (a–g). There are three extra statements. Speaker: 1□ 2□ 3□ 4□ a The photographer knew immediately that the photo would become iconic. b The photo was one of many images taken that day. c Someone in the photo was about to change history. d The photo was taken as a kind of positive propaganda. e Someone in the photo was later killed. f The subject of this photo only became well-known after it was taken. g The subject of the photo was embarrassed about the image. 5 22.16 Listen again and answer the questions. 1 Why is the year that the photo of the workers was taken significant? 2 Where did Ruby go to school? What had just happened to change her life? 3 How did Ruby’s parents feel about her going to school? 4 Why was Jane’s relationship with David Greybeard particularly important? 5 Why did Einstein stick out his tongue? 6 What evidence did the editors hear that proved Einstein loved the photo? 6 What effect do photos like these have on the world? Can you think of any other examples of iconic photos? 7 SPEAKING In pairs, share some of your favourite photos on your phones. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Who or what is the subject matter of the photo? 2 What does the photo mean to you and what does it capture? 3 What had happened just before the photo was taken? 1 In pairs, answer the question. A picture is worth a thousand words. Do you think this saying is true? Say why. D C B A 54 □ I can identify specific details in a radio programme and talk about photos. 4E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 221 CULTURE NOTES page 209 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • In Exercise 6, students can support their discussion with the photos they brought in from home. • As an extension to Exercise 7, students comment on their partner’s photo(s) using vocabulary from Exercise 2. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 46/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 18: Famous photos, pages 281, 307 NEXT CLASS Ask students to think of something funny, embarrassing or scary that has happened to them and make notes. Exercise 5 1 Because it was in the middle of the Great Depression. 2 In New Orleans, USA. The law had just changed to allow her, and other black children, to attend previously all-white schools. 3 Her father was afraid she would be attacked and didn’t want her to go. Her mother felt it was important for her to go to help all African-American children. 4 Because once he had accepted her, the rest of the tribe followed. This enabled her to carry out important research. 5 Because he was fed up with smiling for the photographer. 6 He had already bought several copies to send to his friends. D A C A B d c f b 72
5 2.17 Listen again and tick the phrases in the Speaking box that you hear. 6 Choose the most suitable comment adverb to complete the sentences. In pairs, explain your choices. 1 Obviously, / Theoretically, you don’t need any help with this – you’re doing brilliantly! 2 Disappointingly, / Foolishly, I forgot to take an umbrella. I should have known it would rain. 3 Presumably, / Apparently, attention spans are getting shorter – I read that somewhere. 4 Surely, / Fortunately, you don’t expect me to believe that? 5 Presumably, / Unbelievably, he doesn’t like vegetable; I’ve never seen him eating any. 6 Personally, / Surely, I like him, but a lot of people can’t stand him. 7 Theoretically, / Clearly, your job is not important to you, or you wouldn’t keep turning up late. 8 Unbelievably, / Surely, she was rude to a customer not just once, but four times! 9 Fortunately, / Theoretically, you can buy a ticket at the station, but the machine is always broken. 10 Personally, / Disappointingly, we lost the football match, even though we had a strong team. 7 Plan an anecdote that could become an urban myth. Use an incident that happened to you or someone you know, or the ideas below. Use the phrases from the Speaking box and the adverbs in Exercise 6. a stranger a wild animal on the loose someone embarrassing themselves the supernatural unusual or disgusting ingredients in a certain food 8 In pairs, tell your anecdotes. Is your partner’s story false or are there some elements of truth in it? 1 What is an urban myth? Read the short explanation and check your ideas. 2 Look at the photos. How do you think they are connected to three urban myths? What do you think happens in these stories? 3 2.17 Listen and check your ideas. Which of these stories do you think are true, false or partly true? Then go to page 197 to check the answer. 4 Study the Speaking box and complete it with the phrases from the box. Guess what? I was travelling down to London from Oxford on the train ... It was probably the most embarrassing moment of my life! Obviously, I was a bit taken aback. You’ll never believe what happened to me the other day. SPEAKING | Telling an anecdote Anecdotes tend to have quite specific and predictable stages. Saying that an anecdote is about to start □1 □ That reminds me of (a time when) ... . □ Have I ever told you about ...? □ A friend of a friend told me this story. Giving background information (people, time, place) □2 □ Well, I’m not sure if you know ..., but ... □ There was this guy who had been working there ... Introducing a turning point in the sequence of events □ Anyway, to cut a long story short, ... □ Suddenly, ... □Nosoonerhad...than... □Hardlyhadwe...when... □ It turned out that ... □ Before we knew what was happening ... □3 Showing the speaker’s attitude (this can happen at any point, and more than once) □4 □ I couldn’t believe what was happening. □ Obviously,/Presumably,/Unbelievably,/Apparently,/etc. □Andthen,totopitall, ... □ I mean – I’ve done it, haven’t you? □Nowordofalie! □ Would you believe it? Rounding off the anecdote □5 □ I’ll never forget ... □ I’ll never ... again. An urban myth is a modern story that is usually completely An urban myth is a modern story that is usually completely false, though it may be based on some truth. It usually has false, though it may be based on some truth. It usually has some elements of humour and/or horror. For example, some elements of humour and/or horror. For example, that there are alligators living in the New York sewer that there are alligators living in the New York sewer system. These stories are often reported as having system. These stories are often reported as having happened to ‘a friend of a friend’ and they spread widely. happened to ‘a friend of a friend’ and they spread widely. A B C 04 55 □ I can tell an anecdote. 4F SPEAKING REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 222 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Students can use the notes they made at home either as a warm-up activity by sharing them with a partner, or as material for their anecdote in Exercise 7, changing some details if required. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 47/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to make notes on their favourite story or novel and say what makes it interesting: how does the author keep the reader interested? Exercise 4 1 You’ll never believe what happened to me the other day. 2 I was travelling down to London from Oxford on the train. 3 Guess what? 4 Obviously, I was a bit taken aback. 5 It was probably the most embarrassing moment of my life! ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 73
1 Work in pairs. Read the writing task and the story. The last paragraph of the story is missing. What do you think happens at the end? Write a story for a magazine beginning with the sentence: ‘Hey, come here!’ he yelled. 2 Now, read the last paragraph and check your predictions. A Villain in Brighton 3 Study the Writing box and discuss the questions. 1 How does the writer make the start of the story interesting? 2 What is the plot twist in this story? 3 Find an example of negative inversion in the story. 4 What different verbs to describe speaking, looking and moving can you find in the story? And now here I was, out of breath and scared. Suddenly, I felt a hand grab my ar m. It was all over for me. The man had brought a policeman with him and I was being arrested – for stealing his briefcase. I thought I’d got away with it, as I had many times before. But not this time. Shame flooded through me. Now I was going to get my just desserts. ‘ Hey, come here!’ he yelled yelled. I turned and ran. a My heart was pounding furiously in my chest as I My heart was pounding furiously in my chest as I raced raced through through the narrow lanes. I wasn’t even sure if he was following me, but I wasn’t about to find out. Finally, completely out of breath, I stopped, with my back to the wall and quickly glanced glanced around. I couldn’t see him. b I let out a sigh of relief a sigh of relief. c The day had started so well The day had started so well. d I had been wandering wandering wandering wandering wandering aimlessly around the city, aimlessly around the city, taking photographs, stopping occasionally for an ice cream or a coffee here and there, without a care in the world – doing what I always did occasionally for an ice cream or a coffee here and there, without a care in the world – doing what I always did every weekend in the parks and streets of the city. Little did I know that my life was about to change forever. every weekend in the parks and streets of the city. Little did I know that my life was about to change forever. I first spotted spotted him walking along the beach. He looked out of place among the families and young couples. him walking along the beach. He looked out of place among the families and young couples. him walking along the beach. He looked out of place among the families and young couples. e He was wearing a black suit and carrying a briefcase He was wearing a black suit and carrying a briefcase He was wearing a black suit and carrying a briefcase He was wearing a black suit and carrying a briefcase. He was muttering muttering into a mobile phone, paying no attention to the flowers or the beautiful sunny weather. attention to the flowers or the beautiful sunny weather. I had the bizarre thought that maybe he was a spy. I watched him as he sat down heavily I had the bizarre thought that maybe he was a spy. I watched him as he sat down heavily I had the bizarre thought that maybe he was a spy. I watched him as he sat down heavily on a bench. He peered peered curiously at me as I walked past him, but his attention was soon distracted by another call on his mobile. A few minutes later, I heard shouting behind me. ‘You!’ he bellowed bellowed angrily. ‘I ’m going to get you!’ I started running. ‘ Hey, come here!’ he yelled. 5656 4G WRITING AND VOCABULARY | A story REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 209 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Use this activity to lead in to Exercise 1. Put students in pairs or small groups and refer them to the notes they made at home. Get them to tell their partner/ group about their favourite story/ novel, reminding them to say why it is particularly interesting to them. As feedback, invite a few students to share their answers with the class. • Before students do the writing task in Exercise 10, put them in pairs to plan and make notes on their story. They should think about the points in the Writing and Watch out! boxes, the details of the story and their discussions in the Lead-in about their own favourite story and what made it interesting. When they have finished writing, they can swap stories with a partner for them to check the story adheres to all the points in the Writing and Watch out! boxes. Exercise 3 1 By starting in the middle of the story. 2 That the writer, and not the mysterious man, is the criminal, or ‘baddie’. 3 Little did I know that my life was about to change forever. 4 speaking: yelled, muttering, bellowed; looking: glanced, spotted, peered; moving: raced, wandering 74
WRITING | A story Title Give your story a catchy/interesting title. Structure Your story should have a beginning, middle and end. You could also try starting the story in the middle of the action for dramatic effect, or by using a twist, where the ending is very different from what is expected. Language • Make sure you use a variety of past tenses. • Use time linkers to show when things happened, e.g. before, after, when. • Use direct speech to make your story more interesting, e.g. ‘Hey! Come here!’ he yelled. • Use negative inversion to add emphasis, e.g. No sooner had ... • Use a range of vocabulary including a different verbs to describe ways of speaking, looking and moving, and adverbs to add extra description to the verbs in your story. 4 Read underlined sentences a–e in the story. Which past tenses are used in each example? 5 Now match sentences a–e in the story with functions 1–5 below. 1 □ Describing an ongoing action that forms the background to a story. 2 □ Contrasting an event in progress with a single action that interrupts it. 3 □ Describing an action which was completed before a time in the past. 4 □ Describing a single completed action in the past. 5 □ Describing a situation or action which was in progress up to a time in the past. 6 Work out the meaning of the highlighted words in the story. Then match them with their definitions. 1 Look at something closely and carefully. 2 Take a quick look at something. 3 Notice something or someone. 4 Shout angrily in a low deep voice (like a bull). 5 Shout loudly, usually because you are excited or angry. 6 Speak so quietly that you cannot be heard easily. 7 Go somewhere as quickly as possible. 8 Walk in a casual way, often in no particular direction. 7 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs from the box. gaze mumble shriek shuffle snap stare tiptoe 1 The dress looked wonderful. She at herself in the mirror, pleased beyond words. 2He in his sleep so I couldn’t understand him. 3 I didn’t want to wake her, so I out of the room. 4 ‘Aargh!’ she . ‘You frightened me to death!’ 5 ‘Stop it!’ she . ‘What on earth are you doing?’ 6 She at me as if she had seen a ghost. 7He slowly along the pavement, like an old man. slowly along the pavement, like an old man. 8 Complete the word map with the adverbs and adverbial phrases from the box. aimlessly angrily completely out of breath curiously aimlessly angrily completely out of breath curiously for hours furiously heavily here and there later occasionally on a bench quickly with my back to the wall ADVERBS Manner , , , , , , Place , , Time , , 9 Study Watch out! Then put the words in the correct order to make sentences. Sometimes more than one option is possible. 1 he/inmyear/yelledloudly 2 she / blankly / at him / for several seconds / stared 3 they / worked / all day / very hard / in the factory 4 I / on the bench / sat / for over two hours / patiently 5 she / proudly / the winner / announced / at midnight 6 inthetaxi/I/suddenly/realisedthatIhadleft/mybag 7 she / curiously / before her exam / felt 8 began to drive / around London / he / aimlessly WATCH OUT! There are three common positions for adverbs within a clause. 1 At the end of a clause (for adverbs of manner, place and time), e.g. I ran away quickly. / I’m sitting here. / I’ve been waiting for ages. 2 Before the main verb (adverbs of manner can go in this position), e.g . I quickly ran away. quickly ran away. quickly 3 At the beginning of a clause to add emphasis (adverbs of place and time can go in this position), e.g. With my back to the wall, I waited. • If all three types of adverb (manner, place, time) are used in the same clause, the order is: manner → place → time I had been wandering aimlessly around the city for hours. 10 WRITING TASK Complete the writing task. Use the Writing box and Watch out! to help you. Write a story for a magazine beginning or ending with the sentence: Julia had never imagined that her day would turn out to be such a disaster. 04 57 □ I can write a story. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 48/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 58–59. Exercise 4 a Past Continuous and Past Simple b Past Simple c Past Perfect d Past Perfect Continuous e Past Continuous Exercise 6 1 peer 2 glance 3 spot 4 bellow 5 yell 6 mutter 7 race 8 wander Exercise 8 Manner: aimlessly, angrily, completely out of breath, curiously, furiously, heavily, quickly Place: here and there, on a bench, with my back to the wall Time: occasionally Exercise 9 1 He yelled loudly in my ear. 2 She stared at him blankly for several seconds. / For several seconds, she stared blankly at him. 3 They worked very hard in the factory all day. / They worked very hard all day in the factory. 4 I sat patiently on the bench for over two hours./ I patiently sat on the bench for over two hours. 5 She proudly announced the winner at midnight. / At midnight, she proudly announced the winner. 6 I suddenly realised that I had left my bag in the taxi. 7 She felt curiously before her exam. / Before her exam, she felt curiously. 8 He began to drive around London aimlessly. / He began to aimlessly drive around London. e a c b d gazed mumbled tiptoed shrieked snapped stared shuffled 75
4A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.22 abduct (v) /əbˈdʌkt/ assassinate (v) /əˈsæsəneɪt/ aviation (n) /ˌeɪviˈeɪʃən/ aviator (n) /ˈeɪvieɪtə/ bizarre (adj) /bəˈzɑː/ capture (v) /ˈkæptʃə/ cause a crash /ˌkɔːz ə ˈkræʃ/ claim (v) /kleɪm/ clue (n) /kluː/ conclude (v) /kənˈkluːd/ disappear without a trace /ˌdɪsəˈpɪə wɪðˌaʊt ə ˈtreɪs/ disappearance (n) /ˌdɪsəˈpɪərəns/ disturbing (adj) /dɪˈstɜːbɪŋ/ eliminate (v) /ɪˈlɪməneɪt/ enigma (n) /ɪˈnɪɡmə/ expose a secret /ɪkˌspəʊz ə ˈsiːkrɪt/ fake (adj, n) /feɪk/ fraud (n) /frɔːd/ hint (n) /hɪnt/ hoax (n) /həʊks/ hold sb prisoner /ˌhəʊld ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈprɪzənə/ intelligence agent (n) /ɪnˈtelədʒəns ˌeɪdʒənt/ Large Hadron Collider /ˌlɑːdʒ ˈhædrɒn kəˈlaɪdə/ launch an investigation /ˌlɔːntʃ ən ɪnˌvestɪˈɡeɪʃən/ maintain (v) /meɪnˈteɪn/ puzzle (n) /ˈpʌzəl/ reveal (v) /rɪˈviːl/ run out of fuel /ˌrʌn ˈaʊt əv ˈfjuːəl/ set a record /ˌset ə ˈrekɔːd/ set out to do sth (phr v) /ˌset ˈaʊt tə ˌduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ suspect (v) /səˈspekt/ take on a challenge /ˌteɪk ɒn ə ˈtʃæləndʒ/ uncover (v) /ʌnˈkʌvə/ undercover (adj) /ˌʌndəˈkʌvə/ weird (adj) /wɪəd/ 4B VOCABULARY 5.23 attention span (n) /əˈtenʃən ˌspæn/ balanced view /ˌbælənst ˈvjuː/ bizzare theory /bəˌzɑː ˈθɪəri/ clickbait headlines /ˈklɪkˌbeɪt ˌhedlaɪnz/ cover a story /ˌkʌvə ə ˈstɔːri/ discuss calmly /dɪˈskʌs ˌkɑːmli/ exclusive (adj) /ɪkˈskluːsɪv/ expose corruption /ɪkˌspəʊz kəˈrʌpʃən/ generate revenue /ˌdʒenəreɪt ˈrevənjuː/ go viral /ˌɡəʊ ˈvaɪərəl/ hard-hitting (adj) /ˌhɑːd- ˈ hɪtɪŋ/ heartbreaking (adj) /ˈhɑːtˌbreɪkɪŋ/ heartwarming (adj) /ˈhɑːtˌwɔːmɪŋ/ hit the headlines /ˌhɪt ðə ˈhedlaɪnz/ in the public interest /ɪn ðə ˈpʌblɪk ˌɪntrɪst/ kindness (n) /ˈkaɪndnəs/ melt (v) /melt/ newsworthy (adj) /ˈnjuːzˌwɜːði/ off the record /ˌɒf ðə ˈrekɔːd/ potentially embarrassing /pəˌtenʃəli ɪmˈbærəsɪŋ/ present both sides of the story /prɪˈzent ˌbəʊθ ˌsaɪdz əv ðə ˈstɔːri/ quirky (adj) /ˈkwɜːki/ raise awareness /ˌreɪz əˈweənəs/ reveal the truth /rɪˌviːl ðə ˈtruːθ/ sensational (adj) /senˈseɪʃənəl/ shed light on something /ˌ ʃed ˈlaɪt ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ take sb hostage /ˌteɪk ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈhɒstɪdʒ/ topical (adj) /ˈtɒpɪkəl/ verify sources /ˌverɪfaɪ ˈsɔːsəs/ viral news /ˈvaɪərəl ˌnjuːz/ 4C GRAMMAR 5.24 abandon (v) /əˈbændən/ celebrity profile /səˈlebrəti ˌprəʊfaɪl/ coincidence (n) /kəʊˈɪnsɪdəns/ conscious (adj) /ˈkɒnʃəs/ election turnout (n) election turnout (n) election turnout /ɪˈlekʃən ˌtɜːnaʊt/ gossip column (n) /ˈɡɒsɪp ˌkɒləm/ human interest story (n) /ˌhjuːmən ˈɪntrɪst ˌstɔːri/ look forward to sth /ˌlʊk ˈfɔːwəd tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ long for sth /ˈlɒŋ fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ narrow escape /ˌnærəʊ ɪˈskeɪp/ news item (n) /ˈnjuːz ˌaɪtəm/ opinion piece /əˈpɪnjən ˌpiːs/ subconscious (adj) /sʌbˈkɒnʃəs/ suspect (n) suspect (n) suspect /ˈsʌspekt/ under no circumstances /ˌʌndə nəʊ ˈsɜːkəmstænsəz/ urge (n) /ɜːdʒ/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Choose the correct words. Then check with the word list. 1 Newspapers use clickbait / hit headlines to grab readers’ attention. 2 The mysterious creatures captured / maintained the child on his way to school. 3 The £10 note he used was fake / fraud. 4 I was shocked by that documentary, it was really heartwarming / hard-hitting. 2 Complete pairs of sentences with one word from the word list. 1 This is strictly off the . It cannot be made public. The swimmer broke the for the 100m butterfly. 2 The media is more likely to cover a if it’s attention-grabbing. To cut a long short, two months later we finally published the book. 3 Complete the text with the correct form of the words in brackets. Then check with the word list. In my dream, I was walking 1 (aim) around my (aim) around my 2 (neighbour) for hours. (neighbour) for hours. The 3 (pave) were wet and (pave) were wet and slippery. 4 (presume), (presume), it was raining but it didn’t seem to bothermeat all. 5 (sudden), (sudden), I saw a crowd of strange looking 6 (campaign) who were (campaign) who were causing an 7 (obstruct) (obstruct) in the road. I didn’t want to risk 8 (confront) them so (confront) them so I turned around to go home. Then I woke up. 4 Match the two parts of the collocations. Then check with the word list. 1 attention 2 election 3 gossip 4 narrow a column b span c escape d turnout 5 Do the task below. Write 2–3 standard and clickbait headlines for events that happened globally or locally. Remember that the clickbait headlines must grab the reader’s attention. 58 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS • Ask pairs to choose 6–8 verb + noun collocations from the word list for Lesson 4B. Get them to fold an A4 piece of paper in half four times, to give them sixteen small rectangles. Ask them to tear the paper down the lines to make sixteen bits of paper. On them they should write the collocations, putting the first half of each collocation in one pile and the second half in another pile. They can then swap piles with another pair to match up. Finally, they should check their answers with the other pair. • Individually, students write gap-fill sentences using the collocations they matched in the previous activity. They should only gap one word from each collocation. To make the exercise easier, they could supply the first letter of each word. Then, in new pairs, they swap sentences, complete them and check their answers with their partner. record record story story Exercise 3 1 aimlessly 2 neighbourhood 3 pavements 4 Presumably 5 Suddenly 6 campaigners 7 obstruction 8 confronting b d a c 76
4D READING AND VOCABULARY 55.25 accusation (n) /ˌækjəˈzeɪʃən/ activist (n) /ˈæktɪvɪst/ allegation (n) /ˌælɪˈɡeɪʃən/ alleged (adj) /əˈledʒd/ assault (n) /əˈsɔːlt/ bias (n) /ˈbaɪəs/ bravery (n) /ˈbreɪvəri/ campaigner (n) /kæmˈpeɪnə/ chop sth down (phr v) /ˌtʃɒp ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈdaʊn/ come up with sth (phr v) /ˌkʌm ˈʌp wɪθ ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ commemorate (v) /kəˈmeməreɪt/ concerned (adj) /kənˈsɜːnd/ confrontation (n) /ˌkɒnfrənˈteɪʃən/ contractor (n) /kənˈtræktə/ council (n) /ˈkaʊnsəl/ excessive (adj) /ɪkˈsesɪv/ fit the criteria /ˌfɪt ðə kraɪˈtɪəriə/ footpath (n) /ˈfʊtpɑːθ/ freedom of information /ˌfriːdəm əv ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃən/ get blown out of proportion /ˌget ˈbləʊn ˌaʊt əv prəˈpɔːʃən/ halt (v) /hɔːlt/ heated (adj) /ˈhiːtɪd/ horn (n) /ˌhɔːn/ human rights (n) /ˌhjuːmən ˈraɪts/ improvement scheme (n) /ɪmˈpruːvmənt ˌskiːm/ intimidation (n) /ɪnˌtɪməˈdeɪʃən/ lack of sympathy /ˌlæk əv ˈsɪmpəθi/ laugh sth off (phr v) /ˌlɑːf ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈɒf/ laughable (adj) /ˈlɑːfəbəl/ leafy (adj) /ˈliːfi/ lose patience /ˌluːz ˈpeɪʃəns/ massacre (n, v) /ˈmæsəkə/ neighbourhood (n) /ˈneɪbəhʊd/ obstruct (v) /əbˈstrʌkt/ obstruction (n) /əbˈstrʌkʃən/ overreaction (n) /ˌəʊvəriˈækʃən/ pavement (n) /ˈpeɪvmənt/ poison (v) /ˈpɔɪzən/ put sth in (phr v) /ˌpʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈɪn/ release a statement /rɪˌliːz ə ˈsteɪtmənt/ replacement (n) /rɪˈpleɪsmənt/ report sth to the police /rɪˈpɔːt ˌsʌmθɪŋ tə ðə pəˈliːs/ request (n) /rɪˈkwest/ resident (n) /ˈrezɪdənt/ reveal a secret operation /rɪˌviːl ə ˌsiːkrɪt ˌɒpəˈreɪʃən/ riot gear (n) /ˈraɪət ˌɡɪə/ seize an opportunity /ˌsiːz ən ˌɒpəˈtjuːnəti/ severe (adj) /səˈvɪə/ solution (n) /səˈluːʃən/ suspension (n) /səˈspenʃən/ suspicion (n) /səˈspɪʃən/ suspiciously (adv) /səˈspɪʃəsli/ take advantage of sth /ˌteɪk ədˈvɑːntɪdʒ əv ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ take into custody /ˌteɪk ˌɪntə ˈkʌstədi/ take to the streets /ˌteɪk tə ðə ˈstriːts/ tambourine (n) /ˌtæmbəˈriːn/ tension (n) /ˈtenʃən/ to date /tə ˈdeɪt/ vicar (n) /ˈvɪkə/ violently ill /ˈvaɪələntli ˌɪl/ want a say on sth /ˌwɒnt ə ˈseɪ ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ 4E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 5.26 capture an image /ˌkæptʃə ən ˈɪmɪdʒ/ composed (adj) /kəmˈpəʊzd/ cropped (adj) /krɒpt/ dizziness (n) /ˈdɪzinəs/ evoke (v) /ɪˈvəʊk/ iconic (adj) /aɪˈkɒnɪk/ landscape photo (n) /ˌlændskeɪp ˈfəʊtəʊ/ likeness (n) /ˈlaɪknəs/ poignant (adj) /ˈpɔɪnjənt/ pose (v) /pəʊz/ propaganda (n) /ˌprɒpəˈɡændə/ reluctant (adj) /rɪˈlʌktənt/ shot (n) /ʃɒt/ significant (adj) /sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt/ stick out (phr v) /ˌstɪk ˈaʊt/ subject matter (n) /ˈsʌbdʒɪkt ˌmætə/ 4F SPEAKING 55.27 be taken aback (phr v) /ˌbi ˌteɪkən əˈbæk/ car park attendant /ˌkɑː ˌpɑːk əˈtendənt/ clearly (adv) /ˈklɪəli/ crackling noise /ˈkræklɪŋ ˌnɔɪz/ disappointingly (adv) /ˌdɪsəˈpɔɪntɪŋli/ foolishly (adv) /ˈfuːlɪʃli/ obviously (adv) /ˈɒbviəsli/ on the loose /ɒn ðə ˈluːs/ personally (adv) /ˈpɜːsənəli/ presumably (adv) /prɪˈzjuːməbli/ remind sb of sth /rɪˈmaɪnd ˌsʌmbɒdi əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ sewer system (n) /ˈsjuːə ˌsɪstɪm/ spread widely /ˈspred ˌwaɪdli/ surely (adv) /ˈʃɔːli/ theoretically (adv) /θɪəˈretɪkli / to cut a long story short /tə ˈkʌt ə ˌlɒŋ ˈstɔːri ˌ ʃɔːt/ unbelievably (adv) /ˌʌnbəˈliːvəbəli/ urban myth (n) /ˌɜːbən ˈmɪθ/ 4G WRITING AND VOCABULARY 5.28 aimlessly (adv) /ˈeɪmləsli/ bellow (v) /ˈbeləʊ/ completely out of breath (adv phr) /kəmˈpliːtli ˌaʊt əv ˈbreθ/ curiously (adv) /ˈkjʊəriəsli/ furiously (adv) /ˈfjʊəriəzli/ gaze (v) /ɡeɪz/ get away with sth (phr v) /ˌget əˈweɪ wɪθ ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ get your just desserts /ˌget jər ˌdʒəst dɪˈzɜːts/ glance (v) /ɡlɑːns/ here and there (adv phr) /ˌhɪə ənd ˈðeə/ mumble (v) /ˈmʌmbəl/ mutter (v) /ˈmʌtə/ occasionally (adv) /əˈkeɪʒənəli/ peer (v) /pɪə/ pound (v) /paʊnd/ race (v) /reɪs/ shriek (v) /ʃriːk/ shuffle (v) /ˈʃʌfəl/ snap (v) /snæp/ spot sth (v) /ˈspɒt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ stare (v) /steə/ tiptoe (v) /ˈtɪptəʊ/ wander (v) /ˈwɒndə/ yell (v) /jel/ 59 04 • Students choose one or two words/ phrases from each lesson that they want to remember and write example sentences. Tell them to try to think of sentences about themselves or people they know if possible. This will help them remember the words/phrases. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 49/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 4. 77
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. 1 The spy exposed / claimed his story was true, although it is difficult to believe him. 2 The millionaire who disappeared had probably been abducted / captured by gangsters. 3 She spent four years in prison for hoax / fraud. 4 No one will ever know what really happened. It remains a clue / an enigma. 5 They were arrested on suspicion / allegation of drug dealing. 6 I love taking landscape / composed photos of the countryside. 7 What I’m about to tell you is off the record / hard-hitting. You mustn’t tell anyone I told you! 8 This photo captures / evokes a feeling of nostalgia. 2 Complete the dialogue with the missing words. A I’d like to work in journalism. I think it would be very rewarding to help 1e _ _ _ _ _ corruption. B I agree, although it depends what type of a journalist you are! Some don’t work in the 2p _ _ _ _ _ interest. Theyloveexaggeratingandwrite3s__________ stories about things that aren’t really very important at all, just to get people to read their reports. People seemtoloveclickingontheirclickbait4h________, whatever the story. A True. What makes a story worth publishing depends on the newspaper or site. Some of them seem to think that storiesaboutabsoluterubbishare5n_________ . I’d like to write 6b _ _ _ _ _ _ _ articles presenting both 7s____ofastory.I’dreallyliketoshed8l____on issues of real importance that people should know about. B What if you had to write a really sad, 9h____________story?Couldyoudoit? A I guess so, but I’d like to work on happy, 10 h___________onestoowhichhelpreaders feel good. 3 Circle the odd one out. 1 glance / race / spot / peer 2 shuffle / snap / wander / tiptoe 3 bellow / yell / shriek / whisper 4 shriek / mumble / mutter / gaze 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 They were delighted as they (just / solve) the puzzle. 2 Julian (break) his leg last week. Before he (fall), he (try) to climb to the top of the mountain. 3 The concert was great, but when the band (play) their second song, the lights (go) out. It was a shame because it is my favourite song! 4 The protesters (stand) outside the council building for two hours when the reporters (arrive). 5 The airport (close) two days ago because someone (phone) to say there (be) a bomb in the terminal building. Luckily, it (be) only a hoax. 6I (travel) to a football match on a train when suddenly I (realise) it was going in the wrong direction! 7 He explained he was late because he (work) all night and was very tired. He added that it was the second time that week that he (not have) any sleep. 8 It was only after the photographer (take) the photo that I (realise) what he (do)! 5 Complete the sentences with the phrases from the box. Little did Never have I heard No sooner had Not only did Rarely do Scarcely had Seldom do I see Under no circumstances 1 such a weird story! 2 should you leave the building. 3 such poignant photos. 4 he run a marathon, but he did it alone! 5 she made the statement than she realised she had made a big mistake. 6 he know what a lucky escape he had had. 7 she started reading when she realised it was a hoax. 8 they publish stories as interesting as this one. USE OF ENGLISH 6 Complete the text on page 61 with the correct words formed from the verbs in bold. Use of English > page 192 04 Revision 60 REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 222 FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 192 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 4 and Self-check 4, Workbook pages 50–51/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening ASSESSMENT • Unit 4 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 4 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 4 Writing Test • Units 3–4 Cumulative Review Test • Units 3–4 Exam Speaking Exercise 4 1 had just solved 2 broke, fell, had been trying 3 was/were playing, went 4 had been standing, arrived 5 closed, had phoned, was, was 6 was travelling, realised 7 had been working, hadn’t had 8 had taken, realised, had been doing/had done Exercise 5 1 Never have I heard 2 Under no circumstances 3 Seldom do I see 4 Not only did 5 No sooner had 6 Little did 7 Scarcely had 8 Rarely do Exercise 6 1 majority 2 improvement(s) 3 organisations 4 Clearly 5 unbelievably 6 replacement 7 freedom The others are related to looking. The others are ways of moving. The others are loud. The others are related to talking. xpose ublic ensational eadlines ewsworthy alanced eartbreaking eartwarming ight ides 78
LISTENING 7 2.18 You are going to hear part of a radio You are going to hear part of a radio Y interview with a journalist. Read questions 1–6 and the possible answers. Then listen and choose the correct answer. STRATEGY | Multiple choice In this task, you need to listen for specific information to choose the correct answer. You won’t hear exactly the same words that are in the options. While listening, pay attention to the meaning, not individual words. 1 Who or what influences people the most? a the Internet b the mass media c people we know and respect 2 Why does Ray tell the story about The War of the Worlds broadcast? a To show what a good writer Orson Welles was. b To demonstrate people usually trust the media. c To show that Americans still believe in aliens. 3 What opinion about the media does Ray express? a It should keep people informed about important subjects and people. b Journalists should be better trained. c It is often deliberately biased. 4 What does Ray say about fake news? a The social media is responsible for it. b People enjoy passing round untrue stories. c It is passed round because people believe it. 5 How does Ray feel about people’s attitude to news? a confused b worried c frustrated 6 Why does Ray mention crowdfunding? a To show how the media can be used to do positive things. b To explain how to use it to start a new business. c To draw attention to some social issues. SPEAKING 8 Look at the photos showing news stories. Compare the pictures and say what you think the stories are. Then say which of the news stories would you prefer to read. A B WRITING 9 You read this advertisement on your college website about a competition and decide to enter. Enter our competition for new authors! Write a story beginning or ending with the sentence: It was the most unusual day Jeremy had ever had! The best three entries will be posted on this website next week. We look forward to reading your story! Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Writing Club Write your story. 61 By the year 2000, online news sites had begun to spread, By the year 2000, online news sites had begun to spread, although the vast 1 (MAJOR) of people still read their news in a traditional print newspaper. Soon after, their news in a traditional print newspaper. Soon after, many people switched to online news sites because of rapid many people switched to online news sites because of rapid many people switched to online news sites because of rapid 2 (IMPROVE) in mobile Internet technology and the in mobile Internet technology and the digital media itself. Many employees of print media 33 (ORGANISE) in the UK lost their jobs due to the widespread closures of local the UK lost their jobs due to the widespread closures of local and regional press offices. In order to survive, the national and regional press offices. In order to survive, the national daily print newspapers took the opportunity to develop daily print newspapers took the opportunity to develop digital media alternatives. 4 (CLEAR), this strategy worked as it pleased both readers who preferred print and worked as it pleased both readers who preferred print and THE DEATH OF THE THE DEATH OF THE PRINT MEDIA PRINT MEDIA? the new online readership. However, and perhaps the new online readership. However, and perhaps 5 (BELIEVE), not only are the big printed dailies still here, but , not only are the big printed dailies still here, but they rely on their print versions for profit, generating revenue they rely on their print versions for profit, generating revenue through advertising. In fact, 18- to 34-year-olds spend much through advertising. In fact, 18- to 34-year-olds spend much more time reading paper newspapers than they do their more time reading paper newspapers than they do their online equivalent! So, we can perhaps conclude that digital media isn’t simply So, we can perhaps conclude that digital media isn’t simply So, we can perhaps conclude that digital media isn’t simply a6 (REPLACE) (REPLACE) for old-fashioned print media, but for old-fashioned print media, but rather a compliment. Anyway, surely it is the rather a compliment. Anyway, surely it is the 7 (FREE) (FREE) of the press that matters, rather than the way information is of the press that matters, rather than the way information is of the press that matters, rather than the way information is presented to us? presented to us? 79
1 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 How is a debate different from a conversation? 2 What is a typical structure of a formal debate? Put the points below in the correct order. a □ The debate is summed up and winner announced. b □ The speakers for the proposition and opposition present the main arguments. c □ Teams hear the statement for the debate and in their groups come up with arguments. d □ Speakers from both teams present their rebuttals. 2 Read some advice on a student Debating Club website on how to be good at debating. Choose the three pieces of advice you find most useful. Compare your ideas with a partner. R o u n d h i l l s R o u n d h i l l s D e b a t i n g C l u b D e b a t i n g C l u b A r e y o u r e a d y f o rt h e R o u n d h ill s D e b a ti n g C l u b m e e ti n g n e x t T h u r s d a y ? I n c a s e y o u a r e s t ill w o r k i n g o n y o u r t a l k s, w e ’ v e a s k e d o u r l a s t m o n t h ’s d e b a t e c h a m p io n s I n c a s e y o u a r e s t ill w o r k i n g o n y o u r t a l k s, w e ’ v e a s k e d o u r l a s t m o n t h ’s d e b a t e c h a m p io n s t o g i v e so m e t i p s. Martin Preparation is really important. Take some time to think through all Preparation is really important. Take some time to think through all your arguments really well. Do you have any evidence to support your arguments really well. Do you have any evidence to support what you’re saying? Think of some good examples you can give; what you’re saying? Think of some good examples you can give; it can be hard to think of these on the spot. Are you sure that the it can be hard to think of these on the spot. Are you sure that the point you want to make is really relevant or logical? Be sure that point you want to make is really relevant or logical? Be sure that your opponent can’t easily find flaws in what you’re saying. your opponent can’t easily find flaws in what you’re saying. Huan If you want to be good at debating, you have to learn to put If you want to be good at debating, you have to learn to put your personal views to one side. It doesn’t really matter what your personal views to one side. It doesn’t really matter what you personally believe, you have to stay objective. It’s fine to be you personally believe, you have to stay objective. It’s fine to be passionate and try to get people on your side, but that isn’t the passionate and try to get people on your side, but that isn’t the same thing as being aggressive or bursting into tears. Sinead Sinead You have to be flexible, because you might have to argue You have to be flexible, because you might have to argue for something you don’t even agree with. It’s a good idea for something you don’t even agree with. It’s a good idea just to try and come up with lots of different arguments to just to try and come up with lots of different arguments to begin with. Then you can start to analyse them and see if they begin with. Then you can start to analyse them and see if they really are strong arguments or not. A good tip is to avoid any really are strong arguments or not. A good tip is to avoid any statements that are too extreme. As soon as you find yourself statements that are too extreme. As soon as you find yourself using language such as ‘always’ or ‘never’, it’s a clue that your using language such as ‘always’ or ‘never’, it’s a clue that your argument might not actually be that strong. argument might not actually be that strong. 62 LIFE SKILLS How to be good at debating REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 223 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After students hold their debate, get them to discuss their experience in groups or as a whole class. Did they use language from the Speaking box? Did they follow the tips from the lesson? Were they helpful? What did they find easy/difficult? What do they think went well? What would they do differently next time? If appropriate, students can also provide positive feedback on each other’s performance. Exercise 1 1 The exact format of a debate can vary, but it is much more formal than a conversation, with each ‘side’ in the debate having a set opportunity to put forward their arguments, or to argue against the other ‘side’s’ arguments. 4 2 1 3 80
3 Study the Life Skills box and match tips 1–6 with texts A–C. Some texts match with more than one tip. LIFE SKILLS | How to be good at debating 1 □ Think of lots of possible arguments to support your statement. 2 □ Analyse the arguments to see how strong they are, and adapt them as needed. 3 □ Back up your arguments with good reasons and examples or research. 4 □ Make your arguments persuasive, but avoid being too overly emotional. 5 □ Keep your points relevant. 6 □ Don’t exaggerate or make wild claims. 4 Read the statement below and the counterargument to it. Which do you agree with most? Say why. Statement: There is too much explicit footage of violence, crime and war shown on television news. Counterargument: The use of such footage is justified. People need to see exactly what is going on in the world, so they can do something about it. 5 2.19 Listen to two students starting to debate on the topic from Exercise 4. Match arguments a–f below to each speaker, in the order they are mentioned. Speaker1 1□2□3□ Speaker2 1□2□3□ a Watching violence on TV creates more violence. There have been cases where seeing news items about brutal crime has led to copycat crimes being carried out. b There is little research evidence to back up the idea that watching violence makes you aggressive. c Watching war, crime and violence on TV news has a negative impact on our emotions. There was research carried out on this at the University of Sussex. d People have always been interested in violence, e.g. Shakespeare’s plays are sometimes violent. e The speaker doesn’t enjoy watching violence and feels it is unnecessary to show it on the news. f Watching upsetting news items can make people care more, not less. Research shows that it may make people give more to charity. 6 Look again at the arguments in Exercise 5. Which of them are the strongest/weakest? Which Speaker will be more successful at the debate? Say why. 63 03–04 7 2.19 Study the Speaking box. Listen again and complete the phrases with the words from the box. case conclude evidence point reinforces several support vital SPEAKING | Supporting your arguments in a debate Explaining why your argument is valid Itis1 to realise that ... The crucial 2 is that ... It is clearly the 3 that ... I would argue that ... that ... I would argue that ... Referring to research/statistics In4 of this, I could point to ... of this, I could point to ... In a recent study, researchers found that ... According to ... It has been found that ... There is some 5 that ... Giving examples to back up your argument It is easy to think of many instances of this in daily life. For instance, ... There have been 6 cases where this has happened ... cases where this has happened ... Summarising/Linking your argument to what has already been said So, as we have seen ... therefore we must 7 that ... This clearly 8 everything I have said up until everything I have said up until this point. In light of what was said earlier, we can see that ... 8 Work in pairs. Choose one of the topics and make a list of arguments for and against the statement. The media does not have the right to report on the private lives of well-known people. The government should have some control over what is published by the media. Friends are more important in life than family. Teenagers should share the responsibility for running the household with their parents. 9 Do the task below. LIFE SKILLS | Project Work in groups of four. Prepare for a debate in the next class. Use the tips from the lesson and the language from the Speaking box to help you. • Find a pair who have chosen the same topic as you in Exercise 8. Decide which pair will argue for and which against. • With your partner, analyse your arguments and find the best two. • In each pair, Student A presents the first argument. • Then Student B in each pair presents the second argument. • Listen to the arguments of the other pair and think of some counterarguments. • At the end of the debate, assess your arguments and decide who won the debate. vital point case support evidence several conclude reinforces c b a f e d B B C A C B 81
1 The human finger is so sensitive that it is capable of detecting a surface bump only 0.0001 mm high – the diameter of a bacterial cell. By contrast, the human eye cannot detect anything smaller than 0.01 mm. 2 Rhinoceroses are so short-sighted short-sighted that they are unable to tell a person and a tree apart apart from a distance of five metres. 3 Men have a keener sense of smell than women. 4 Around twenty-five percent of people are ‘supertasters’. Supertasters have more taste buds than the average person, which means they have a particularly sensitive palate palate and tend to dislike bitter foods. 5 For the Ongee people of the Andaman Islands, smell is the most important sense. When greeting When greeting an Ongee, instead of asking asking, ‘How are you?’ it is usual to ask, ‘How is your nose?’ 6 Touch is the first sense to develop first sense to develop in babies and the last to fade at the end of our lives. 7 If you sit too close to a television screen, you risk damaging risk damaging your eyesight eyesight. 8 Standing Standing close to loudspeakers at concerts (where sound levels can reach 120 decibels) can cause hearing hearing loss in 7.5 minutes. 9 It is not possible to perceive perceive smells while you are asleep. 10 Elephants use infrasonic sound to communicate. These low frequency sounds, which are not audible to humans, enable elephants to make out sounds from 285 kilometres away. 11 Males are much more likely to be colour-blind than females. 12 Seeing sounds, hearing colours and tasting words are examples of what happens when somebody has synaesthesia, a brain condition which creates connections between the senses. Fascinating facts about the Fascinating facts about the Fascinating facts about the Fascinating facts about the Fascinating facts about the Fascinating facts about the FIVE SENSES FIVE SENSES FIVE SENSES FIVE SENSES FIVE SENSES FIVE SENSES FIVE SENSES FIVE SENSES 64 Making sense of the senses 05 VOCABULARYThe senses, words with more than one meaning, food and cooking GRAMMAR Gerunds and infinitives, used to, be/get used to, verbs with gerunds and infinitives (change in meaning) Use of English > page 193 SPEAKING Asking and answering about preferences WRITING A review VIDEO Grammar Documentary REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 242 CULTURE NOTES page 209 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • After Exercise 7, put students in pairs and ask them to take turns to say one thing they used to do, one thing they are used to doing and one thing they are getting used to. When they have finished, invite different students to tell the class what they found out about their partner. • As an extension to Exercise 8, put students in groups according to which sense they said they would find most difficult to live without. They should brainstorm ways to adapt to make living without that sense easier. Allow 2–4 minutes for this, then invite students from different groups to share their ideas with the class. 82
5A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 6 2.20 Complete the text above with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Then listen and check. 7 Study Watch out! Then complete the sentences with the correct forms of used to, be used to or get used to. 1 My contact lenses felt weird at first, but I (wear) (wear) them eventually. 2I (not like) eating fish, but I love it now. 3He (sleep) on a hard mattress – it doesn’t bother him. (sleep) on a hard mattress – it doesn’t bother him. 4 How people (deal) with poor eyesight before the invention of glasses? 5 I’mfull–I (not eat) so much food. 6 Itcanbehardto (balance) on a skateboard. WATCH OUT! • We use be/get used to + -ing to say we are accustomed to doing something: I’m used to wearing glasses. (= This is normal for me.) I’m getting used to wearing glasses. ( = This is slowly becoming normal for me.) • We use used to + infinitive when we refer to things in the past which are no longer true: I used to wear glasses wear glasses wear . (= I don’t wear them now.) 8 SPEAKING In pairs, ask and answer the questions. 1 Which sense would you find it most difficult to live without? Say why. 2 If you could have one super-heightened sense, what would it be and what could it help you to do? 10 Read the question below and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, ask and answer the question. What are you used to doing on Saturday morning? G R A M M A R V I D E O 1 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 What are the names of the five senses? 2 Which is your strongest sense? Say why. 3 How are animal senses different to human senses? Give some examples of animals with powerful sensory abilities. 2 Read the fact sheet on page 64. In pairs, identify two facts which are not true. Go to page 198 to check your answers. 3 Complete the sentences with the highlighted words and phrases from the fact sheet. 1 Your is your ability to see. 2 Ifyouare , you can’t tell the difference between some colours. 3 Ifyou something , you can see, hear, or understand someone or something with difficulty. 4 Ifyouhavea , you have a good sense of taste. 5 Youhavea if you are better than other people at detecting smells. 6 is another word for ‘notice’. 7 You are if you are only able to see things that are close to you. 8 You things when you distinguish between two or more things. 9 are the tiny bumps on your tongue that allow you to recognise flavours. 10 is another way of saying ‘deafness’. Gerunds and infinitives 4 Match the underlined phrases in the fact sheet with the rules. We use the infinitive: 1 after certain verbs, e.g. 2 after many adjectives, e.g. 3 to express purpose, e.g. 4 after first, second, third, last, etc., e.g . We use the gerund: 5 after certain verbs, e.g. 6 after prepositions, e.g. 7 as the subject of a sentence, e.g. 8 after conjunctions like when, before, after, while, e.g . 5 Write the verbs and verb phrases from the box under the correct headings. can’t help encourage fail feel like force happen have difficulty let make + gerund risk, ... + infinitive tend, ... + object + infinitive with to enable, ... + object + infinitive without to help, ... Grammar Reference and Practice > page 179 If you share the common belief that there are five senses, it’s time to think again! It was Aristotle who was responsible for 1 (encourage) us (encourage) us 2 (believe) that we have (believe) that we have five of them, but common sense suggests we possess more than that number. In fact, the current scientific consensus is that we have a further five senses. One of these is ‘proprioception’ – the sense of 3 (know) which parts (know) which parts of our body are where. This enables us 4 (type) (type) without 5 (look) at the keyboard or walk around (look) at the keyboard or walk around without having to watch our feet. Try this experiment 6 (test) your proprioception: close your eyes and (test) your proprioception: close your eyes and slowly move your finger 7 (touch) your nose. If you (touch) your nose. If you have difficulty 8 (do) this, then your proprioception (do) this, then your proprioception is unlikely 9 (be) as good as it could be. (be) as good as it could be. The myth of the five senses 65 05 □ I can use gerunds and infinitives to talk about different actions. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 5, page 271 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 179 • Workbook pages 52–53/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 19: Pelmanism, pages 281, 308 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 5A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 5A NEXT CLASS Ask students to read the questions in Exercise 1 in Lesson 5B and make notes on them for the next lesson. Exercise 7 1 got used to wearing 2 didn’t use to like 3 is used to sleeping 4 did (people) use to deal 5 am not used to eating 6 get used to balancing Exercise 6 1 encouraging 2 to believe 3 knowing 4 to type 5 looking 6 to test 7 to touch 8 doing 9tobe Exercise 3 1 eyesight 2 colour-blind 3 make (something) out 4 sensitive palate 5 keener/keen sense of smell 6 Perceive 7 short-sighted 8 tell (things) apart 9 Taste buds 10 Hearing loss Exercise 2 Items 3 and 7 are not true. Women have a keener sense of smell than men. Contrary to popular myth, sitting too close to a TV will not damage your eyes, but it may cause eyestrain. Exercise 1 1 sight/eyesight, smell, taste, touch, hearing tend to dislike usual to ask to communicate first sense to develop risk damaging instead of asking Standing When greeting can’t help, feel like, have difficulty tend to, fail, happen encourage, force let, make 83
4 2.21 2.21 Listen and number the sounds in the order that you hear them. a □ the crunching of snow b □ bubble gum popping c □ the rustling of paper d □ meat sizzling e □ birds chirping f □ a washing machine humming g □ the thud of something falling h □ a parrot screeching i □ the roar of an engine j □ a bee buzzing 5 Study Watch out! Then choose two sounds from Exercise 4 and write your own sentences. Use the same word as a noun and a verb. WATCH OUT! Many words for sounds, e.g . crunch, crash, pop, rustle, hum, thud, screech, buzz are both verbs and nouns/gerunds: buzz are both verbs and nouns/gerunds: buzz I can hear the hum/humming of a washing machine. The computers were humming softly in the office. 6 Check the meaning of the words in the box and match them with the pictures. Some words can be matched with more than one picture. coarse fluffy prickly silky smooth spiky squishy sticky 1 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 What are your favourite sounds and smells? 2 Are there any sounds or smells you really dislike? 3 Did you have a favourite toy or something else to comfort you when you were young? What did it feel like? 4 Do you hold an object to help with stress? What does it feel like? 2 Read the post. Are any of the sounds or smells the same as your ideas in Exercise 1? 3 Use the highlighted words from the post in Exercise 2 to answer the questions. 1 Which adjective describes the smell of something delicious cooking? 2 Which adjective describes a mild smell which may be difficult to detect? 3 Which adjective describes a smell which is too strong? 4 Which adjective describes a bad/unpleasant smell? 5 Which verb means ‘smell horrible’? 6 Which noun describes a horrible smell? 7 Which noun describes a pleasant smell of food? 8 Which noun describes a pleasant smell of flowers? 7 SPEAKING In pairs, think of items to match the descriptions. 1 a perfume / aftershave that you find overpowering 2 a flower with a subtle scent 3 food that has a mouth-watering aroma when it’s cooking 4 something that stinks when it goes off 5 an animal that makes a high-pitched noise 6 something that crunches when you step on it 7 a machine which sounds deafening 8 a fruit or vegetable with coarse skin 9 an animal that’s fluffy when it’s young love_my_life_16 says: Sounds I love : waves crashing on the seashore, the crunching of snow, bubble wrap popping, leaves rustling in the wind, meat sizzling on a barbecue, birds chirping, cats purring, the thudding sound of my dog’s tail wagging against the wall. pete_against_noise says: Sounds I hate : the high-pitched noise of a dentist’s drill or a knife scraping against a plate, the buzzing of flies, the deafening noise of motorbikes revving their engines outside my window. busy_bee_17 says: Smells I love : the scent of roses, bacon, the delicious scent of roses, bacon, the delicious scent aroma of bread baking in the oven, ... mm m .. . totally mouth-watering mouth-watering, aftershave or perfume (as long as it’s subtle and not too overpowering overpowering). nosy_neighbour_101 says: Smells I hate : the stench of drains and bins on a hot day, smelly smelly socks, public toilets – they socks, public toilets – they stink stink! Yuck! What are your favourite and least favourite sounds and smells? Join the discussion eloise_loves_rain_2005 says: A D C F B E 66 □ I can talk about the senses. 5B VOCABULARY | The senses 66□ EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Start the class by referring students to the notes they made at home and getting them to compare and discuss in pairs. Encourage them to elaborate and give reasons. If time allows, invite a few students to share their answers with the class. • As a follow-up to Exercise 6, get students to think of one more object for each of the adjectives in the box. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 54/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 20: You name it, pages 281, 309 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 5 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 5 Exercise 6 A fluffy B spiky, prickly C silky, smooth D sticky E coarse F squishy Exercise 3 1 mouth-watering 2 subtle 3 overpowering 4 smelly 5 stink 6 stench 7 aroma 8 scent 7 1 6 3 3 5 10 9 8 2 84
5 Complete the pairs of sentences with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Give reasons for your answers. 1 a Itried (give) my cat some medicine, but it didn’t make her better. b I tried (give) my cat some medicine, but she wouldn’t swallow it. 2 a Remember (take) your swimming kit. b I remember (bring) my swimming kit, but now I can’t find it. 3 a Becoming a perfumer means (give) up spicy food. b Oops! I didn’t mean (put) so much chilli sauce on my chips! 4 a I’ll never forget (taste) ice cream for the first time. b Don’t forget (put) the ice cream in the freezer. (put) the ice cream in the freezer. 5 a We regret (inform) you that the restaurant has closed down. b I regret (not study) harder last year. 6 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs from the box. burn crash drive get land practise score sign wash 1 I could smell something when I walked into the house. 2 Hesawtheman into the car and off. 3 I can hear my neighbour his violin. 4 She felt the mosquito on her leg. 5 I love listening to waves on the shore. 6 Did you see him the winning goal? 7 Do these grapes need ? 8 These documents require . 7 2.24 In pairs, listen to the sounds and say what you heard. 1 I heard someone whistling. 2 I heard a door slam. 8 SPEAKING In pairs, talk about something ... 1 you meant to do, but haven’t had time for. 2 that needs cleaning regularly. 3 you remember doing when you were a child. 4 you sometimes try doing when you can’t sleep. 1 In pairs, think of jobs which require a very good sense of smell, hearing, touch, taste or very good eyesight. A physiotherapist needs a good sense of touch. A sound engineer has to have very good hearing. 2 2.22 Listen and match speakers 1–4 with photos A–D . Verbs with gerunds and infinitives 3 22.23 Complete the extracts from the listening with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Use a gerund or an infinitive (with or without to). Then listen and check. 1 Obviously, the animal would need (have) an X-ray for confirmation, but you can diagnose a lot just by touch. 2 You need good hearing too because if someone is trapped in a building, you need to be able to hear them (shout). 3 In an emergency, you can’t stop (ask) questions. 4 Or worse – they’ll stop (come) here to eat! 5 My job requires me to have excellent hearing, so that when I listen to my students (sing), I can work out (sing), I can work out exactly what needs (improve). (improve). 4 Look at the sentences in Exercise 3. Then complete rules a–d below with words infinitive and gerund or choose the correct word. a Some verbs like forget, go on, mean, regret, remember, stop and try can be followed by try can be followed by try 1 or2 , but the meaning changes depending on which form we use. b To talk about a completed action after the verbs feel, hear, listen to, see and watch, we use object + 3 . c To talk about an action in progress after those verbs, we use object + 4 . d After the verbs need, deserve and require the gerund has 5a passive / an active sense. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 179 □A □C □B □D 05 67 □ I can use verbs with gerunds and infinitives to talk about different actions. 5C GRAMMAR 67 □ I can use verbs with gerunds and infinitives to talk about different actions. REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 223 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity at any point after Exercise 6. Ask pairs to prepare sixteen small pieces of paper. On each piece they should write a verb from Exercises 3, 4, 5 or 6. Students put the cards face down on the table and take turns to turn them over and make a sentence using either a gerund or an infinitive. Their partner then has to make a sentence with the same word using the form their classmate didn’t use (gerund or infinitive). FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 179 • Workbook page 55/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 21: Fifteen- second rule, pages 282, 310 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 5C ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 5C 4 3 1 2 improving to have shouting to ask infinitive infinitive gerund gerund coming sing Exercise 5 1 a giving (try + gerund = do something as an experiment to see if it works) b to give (try + infinitive = attempt to do something) 2 a to take (remember + infinitive = you remember first, then you do it) b bringing (remember + gerund = you do something and then you remember this) 3 a giving (mean + gerund = involve, result in) b to put = (mean + infinitive = intend) 4 a tasting (forget + gerund = do something first, then forget you did it) b to put (forget + infinitive = not do something because you didn’t remember) 5 a to inform (regret + infinitive = a way of offering an apology) b not studying (regret + gerund = regret a past action) Exercise 6 1 burning 2 get, drive 3 practising 4 land/landing 5 crashing 6 score 7 washing / to be washed 8 signing / to be signed Exercise 8 3 I heard (some) children laughing. 4 I heard a man cough. 5 I heard a woman scream. 6 I heard a dog barking. 7 I heard people clapping. 8 I heard someone whistle. 85
7 Look at the highlighted words in the article and discuss what other meanings each word could have in a different context. Then complete the pairs of sentences using the highlighted words. 1 a Hediditinamomentof panic. b She trains guide dogs for the . 2 a Weneedtotake action. b Heisher boss. 3 a Iwouldliketo a career in journalism. b The police didn’t the speeding car as it was going too fast. 4 a The new head teacher explained her for the future of the school. b Cats have very good night . 5 a Her accident her riding horses. bHe his degree for a year. 6aShe her ambition of becoming a pilot. b She no one was listening. 7 a He found the exam very . b She’s a very person. She isn’t easily defeated. 8 Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions from the box. Then check your answers with the text. about (x2) ofofof to (x2) with 1 Her vision has been to educate sighted people sighted people what it means to be blind. 2 It wasn’t until she went to boarding school for the blind that she finally came to terms her blindness. 3 She decided to travel to rural Tibet, to spread the word her Braille system. 4 Sabriye wanted to prove the world that she was as capable doing things as anyone else. 5 Sabriye explains that to adjust her blindness, she had to make herself focus on what she could rather than couldn’t do. 6 Desperate fit in, she did all she could to hide her blindness. 9 REFLECT | Society In pairs, ask and answer the questions. 1 What kind of challenges and prejudices do disabled people face in your country? 2 What do you think of the Paralympic Games? Have they improved attitudes towards disability? Say why. 11 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 166. Watch the documentary Making sense of synesthesia and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos on page 69 and describe what you can see. 2 Read the article quickly and explain how the photos are related to the text. 3 Read the quote by Sabriye Tenberen on page 69. What does it tell you about her personality? 4 Read the article again and answer the questions. 1 What was the cause of Sabriye’s blindness? 2 How did her classmates treat her before she changed schools? 3 Why was it difficult for Sabriye to read Tibetan texts when she first went to university? 4 What is the main reason for the high incidence of blindness in Tibet? 5 What was her parents’ reaction to her decision to travel to Tibet? 6 Why are many Tibetans ashamed of blindness? 7 How does the school founded by Sabriye and Paul help children? 8 According to Sabriye, what helped her to accept her blindness? 9 What personal skills does Sabriye attribute to her blindness? 10 In what sense does Sabriye think being blind is a positive thing? 5 CRITICAL THINKING Study Active Reading. Then Look at the statements below and decide if they are true or false. Find the corresponding underlined sections in the text (1–6) and explain why you think the information is implied. 1 Sabriye used to feel ashamed of being blind. We can make a guess that this sentence is true, because it says ‘she did all she could to hide her blindness’. However, this is implied, not stated directly. 2 She felt better when she changed schools because she no longer felt isolated. 3 While at Bonn University, Sabriye wanted to study the Tibetan language but wasn’t able to. 4 Tibetans believe that we have more than one life. 5 Sabriye founded ‘Braille without Borders’ on her own. 6 Sabriye won the Nobel Peace Prize. ACTIVE READING | Making inferences Sometimes writers do not state information directly. They leave out details which they think are unnecessary. You can work out the missing information by making guesses or inferences. Inferences are made based on clues in the text and on our background knowledge and experience. 6 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the question. Do you agree with Sabriye’s philosophy that ‘it’s a blessing not to have too many options in life’? Give reasons for your answer. 68 □ I can identify clues in a text and talk about disabilities. 5D READING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 242 CULTURE NOTES page 210 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • As a Lead-in, ask students if they know of anyone who has overcome a disability to achieve something great. Invite any students who volunteer to share their answers with the class. If there is time and if students have Internet access, you could ask them to do a quick Internet search. • After Exercise 7, put students in pairs and ask them to try to think of at least two more homonyms to add to the seven in Exercise 7 and put them into sentences. You could let them use their dictionaries if they need help. Exercise 2 Suggested answers Photo 1: This photo shows Sabriye riding her horse. This is how she was travelling in Tibet. Photo 2: These are children from the school that Sabriye and Paul set up in Tibet. Exercise 4 1 She was born with an eye disease. 2 They teased her and excluded her. 3 Because there was no Braille for the Tibetan language. 4 The high altitude means that people are exposed to sun rays which cause eye damage. 5 They were supportive of her decision. 6 They believe blindness is a punishment for bad deeds committed in an earlier life. 7 Children are taught how to read, write and speak in Tibetan, Chinese and English, but also learn skills that enable them to be independent. 8 She made herself focus on the things she could do rather than the things she couldn’t. 9 Developing good communication skills and becoming good at solving problems. 10 It’s good not to have too many choices in life, since this forces you to focus on the important things. Exercise 7 (The underlined meaning is the one used in the text.) 1 a seeming to be unreasonable, out of control; b not able to see 2 a without delay; b nearest in relationship or rank 3 a try to achieve something over a period of time; b chase 4 a dream for the future; b ability to see 5 a make somebody lose interest in something; b delay, postpone 6 a achieve something you want to do; b become aware of something about blind blind immediate immediate pursue pursue vision vision off put put realised realised tough tough off with about of to to Exercise 5 2 True – She was no longer isolated when she went to a school for the blind. It’s implied that she felt better because ‘she came to terms with it,’ which means she accepted it. 3 True – It ’s implied because there was no Braille writing system in Tibet, although it doesn’t mention a reading system. 4 True – It mentions ‘in their past life’. 5 False – Paul Kronberg, her partner ... set up ‘Braille Without Borders’ with Sabriye. 6 False – She has achieved a ‘n omination for the Nobel Peace Prize’ but does not say if she won this. 86
Sabriye Tenberken was just twenty-six years old when, Sabriye Tenberken was just twenty-six years old when, in 1997, she rode horseback into Tibet to in 1997, she rode horseback into Tibet to in 1997, she rode horseback into Tibet to pursue pursue her dream of founding a school for visually impaired children. of founding a school for visually impaired children. Born in Germany, with poor vision because of an eye disease, Sabriye had once been able to make out faces, colours and landscapes, but by the age of twelve she was totally blind. At school she was teased and left out by her classmates and patronised by her teachers in a way that set her apart from the other children. 1Desperate to fit in, she did Desperate to fit in, she did all she could to hide her blindness and prove to the world all she could to hide her blindness and prove to the world that she was as capable of doing things as anyone else. that she was as capable of doing things as anyone else. 2But not accepting her blindness made her miserable and it But not accepting her blindness made her miserable and it wasn’t until she went to a boarding school for the blind that, wasn’t until she went to a boarding school for the blind that, surrounded by people like herself, she finally came to terms surrounded by people like herself, she finally came to terms with it. At the school, students were taught Braille, horse riding, swimming, whitewater kayaking and downhill skiing, and most importantly, self-confidence and self-reliance. 3 When, a few years later, Sabriye studied Tibetology at Bonn When, a few years later, Sabriye studied Tibetology at Bonn University, she discovered that the Braille writing system University, she discovered that the Braille writing system did not exist in Tibetan, but she didn’t let that did not exist in Tibetan, but she didn’t let that put her off put her off put her off put her off. Instead, she devised her own Tibetan Braille system. Instead, she devised her own Tibetan Braille system. This gave her the idea of going to Tibet to introduce her new system to the local people. She had also learned through her studies that there was a particularly high occurrence of visual impairment in Tibet, partly due to poor diet and inadequate medical care in remote areas, but mostly because of eye damage caused by the sun’s rays at high altitude. So just before her final year, despite a lack of support from everyone apart from her immediate family, she decided to family, she decided to travel to rural Tibet, to spread the word about her Braille system and the school she was planning to set up. She figured that the best way to travel was on horseback, so this is what she did, accompanied by three companions, two of whom were Tibetan. The journey was tough tough, but for Sabriye the hardest part was seeing the way blind children are treated. Some were abandoned or left in the streets, and almost all were illiterate and uneducated. 4The reason for this neglect is that many The reason for this neglect is that many Tibetans believe blindness is a punishment for bad acts Tibetans believe blindness is a punishment for bad acts committed in their past life. committed in their past life. When the local people saw Sabriye walking and riding a horse, they refused to believe she was blind at first. But she managed to persuade them that through her school their children too would be able to ride horses, read and write. 5During her travels, Sabriye met Paul Kronenberg who During her travels, Sabriye met Paul Kronenberg who During her travels, Sabriye met Paul Kronenberg who During her travels, Sabriye met Paul Kronenberg who During her travels, Sabriye met Paul Kronenberg who During her travels, Sabriye met Paul Kronenberg who became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, became her partner both personally and professionally, and together they set up ‘Braille Without Borders’, a school and together they set up ‘Braille Without Borders’, a school and together they set up ‘Braille Without Borders’, a school and together they set up ‘Braille Without Borders’, a school where children were taught how to read, write and speak where children were taught how to read, write and speak in Tibetan, Chinese and English, and lear nt skills which in Tibetan, Chinese and English, and learnt skills which would enable them to live independently. would enable them to live independently. From there students have been able to establish their own businesses and earn a living. They have since also opened Kanthari, an International Leadership Training Institute in Kerala. Its aim is to help people situated on the margins of society to start their own social projects. Sabriye may be blind, but she does not lack vision. Her vision has been to help blind people integrate themselves into their communities and educate sighted people about what it means to be blind. In a magazine interview, Sabriye explains that to adjust to her blindness, she had to make herself focus on what she could rather than couldn’t do. She admits it took her a few years to realise the gifts that blindness had given her. For example, it has forced her to develop good communication skills, to become a good problem-solver, and given her a stronger and more colourful imagination. It is often assumed that all blind people can see is darkness, but she says her world is colourful as she can colour it however she likes. In the same interview, when asked what her life would have been like had she not become blind, she replied, ‘This may sound surprising, but I think it’s a blessing not to have too many options in life. Limits can be very fortunate. They let you focus on what is necessary, on what is meaningful. ’ 6Sabriye’s work has achieved worldwide recognition, Sabriye’s work has achieved worldwide recognition, including a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. including a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. In 2006, she was awarded two Mother Theresa Awards, one for herself and one for ‘Braille Without Borders’ – the only time the same person has received this honour twice in the same year. Sabriye shared her inspiring story in her book My Path Leads to Tibet. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 2.25 05 69 SABRIYE SABRIYE TENBERKEN TENBERKEN A blind woman with a vision A blind woman with a vision Sabriye teaching in her school for visually impaired children in Lhasa, Tibet “ A lot of people say I can’t do it because I’m blind, or I have red hair, or my feet are too big. Get the right team around you, don’t set boundaries and go for it. ” FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook pages 56–57/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 22: The longest 200 metres, pages 282, 311 NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about their favourite food and why they like it. They should make some notes for the next class. 87
5 Match the words 1–5 with their opposites a–e . 1 □ thick a sweet 2 □ crunchy b runny/watery 3 □ savoury c tasty 4 □ bland d mild 5 □ spicy e smooth 6 Use the words and phrases in Exercise 5 to describe the condiments (sauces, pickles, etc.) in the pictures. 1 Do you like tomato ketchup? If so, what food do you like to eat it with? 2 Complete the recipe for tomato ketchup with the words from the box. boil chill food processor pan peel puree simmer slice stir whizz 3 2.26 Listen to a podcast about ketchup and tick the topics that are mentioned. 1 □ the origins of ketchup 2 □ the meaning of ‘ketchup’ 3 □ attitudes to tomatoes 4 □ ketchup bottles 5 □ ketchup sales 6 □ different countries’ tastes in ketchup 7 □ where to store ketchup 4 2.26 In pairs, read the sentences and decide what kind of words might fit in each gap. Then listen again and complete the sentences. Use no more than three words in each gap. 1 Ketchup was first created in in the sixth century. in the sixth century. 2 The first British ketchup recipes contained fish, mushrooms and , but not tomatoes. 3 In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Europeans thought that tomatoes were . 4 Tomato-based ketchup recipes didn’t gain popularity until . 5 The was invented in 1983. 6 Scientists have recently developed a substance that could prevent ketchup from at the bottom of a bottle. 7 In the UK and Venezuela, ketchup is than the ketchup in the USA. 8 Although ketchup in the Philippines is made from , it doesn’t taste like it. 9 Consumer research shows that young people like food more than their parents do. 7 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 What food have you discovered through travelling abroad or within your country, which you now eat regularly? 2 Do you agree that young people prefer spicier food? Is this true in your family? 3 Are there any tastes that you dislike? What do you think has influenced your dislike? 8 22.27 PRONUNCIATION Listen and underline the stressed syllable in the international food words. Listen again and repeat. croissant falafel gnocchi guacamole lasagne mayonnaise meringue mustard pretzel quiche schnitzel yoghurt 9 REFLECT | Culture Why do you think some tastes are universal and some are specific to a particular country? Take 2kg of tomatoes and 1 them in half (no need to 2 them). Place in a large 3 ,then4 in 500ml of vinegar, 300g of sugar and some salt and pepper. Bring to the 5 , then reduce the heat and 6 gently for about 20 to 25 minutes. Transfer to a blender or 7 and 8 until you have a smooth 9 . 10 before serving. EASY TOMATO TOMATO KETCHUP KETCHUP mustard barbecue sauce pickled gherkins curry mango sauce mayonnaise chilli sauce 70 □ I can identify specific details in a podcast and talk about food and cooking. 5E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 223 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • After Exercise 6, put students in pairs to tell each other about their favourite food they made notes on at home, using the vocabulary in Exercise 6. • Students make their own thirty-second podcast about their favourite food, using the one in Exercise 3 as a model. If they have access to the Internet in class, they can research their food with a partner. They can then record their podcasts on their phones at home, to share with the class in the next lesson. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 58/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 23: The Taste Podcast, pages 282, 312 slice peel pan boil simmer food processor whizz puree chill stir Exercise 4 1 Asia 2 nuts 3 poisonous 4 the 1870s 5 plastic squeeze bottle 6 getting stuck 7 sweeter 8 bananas / a banana base 9 spicy ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ b e a c d 88
4 Study the Speaking box and Watch Out! Then complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. 1 I don’t want to eat too late. I’d rather . 2 I like home-cooked meals more than takeaways. I prefer . 3 Would you rather eat inside or outside? Which ? 4 I really don’t mind. I’m . 5 If I could choose, I’d prefer to go somewhere quiet. Given . 6 I don’t like one more than the other. I like . 7 I don’t mind where we go. I’ll go . 8 I would prefer you not to complain about the food. I’d rather . WATCH OUT! • We use an infinitive without to after would rather and would rather and would rather would sooner: I’d rather eat something light. d rather eat something light. d rather eat I’d rather not go out tonight. out tonight. out I’d sooner sit outside. d sooner sit outside. d sooner sit (This is more formal.) • We use I prefer + gerund to talk about general I prefer + gerund to talk about general I prefer preferences: I prefer eating home cooked food. • We use would prefer + infinitive with would prefer + infinitive with would prefer to for a specific situation: I would prefer to eat at home this evening. would prefer to eat at home this evening. would prefer to eat • We use would rather + subject + past tense to say that would rather + subject + past tense to say that would rather we don’t want somebody to do something: I’d rather you didn’t tell me what to order! Grammar Reference and Practice > page 179 5 In pairs, ask and answer questions about the topics below. Give examples and reasons for your preferences. • sweet / savoury food • eating with the family / eating in front of the TV • Italian food / Chinese food • getting a takeaway / eating out • informal cafés / traditional restaurants A Which do you prefer: sweet or savoury food? B I favour savoury over sweet food, because I don’t have a sweet tooth. So, if I’m hungry between meals, given the choice, I’d rather have some nuts than a biscuit. 6 In groups of three, look at the restaurant adverts on page 198. Role play the conversation and decide which of the restaurant you would like to go to. Discuss the options, explaining your preferences. • Student A, go to page 196. • Student B, go to page 200. • Student C, go to page 200. 1 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 What is your favourite savoury dish? 2 What is your favourite dessert? 3 Which is your favourite restaurant? 4 What do you usually order there? 2 2.28 Listen to a conversation. What do the friends choose to eat? 3 2.28 Study the Speaking box. Then listen again and tick the phrases in the box which the friends use in their conversation. SPEAKING | Asking and answering about preferences Asking about preferences □ Which do/would you prefer? ... or ...? □ What would you rather do? ... or ...? Expressing general preferences □ I prefer ... (gerund) to ... (gerund). □ I don’t like either of them. □ I like them both equally. □ I generally favour ... over ... Making a choice □ I’d prefer (to) ... rather than ... □ I’d rather ... □ I’d sooner (do) ... than ... □ Given the choice, ... □ I’d go for ... any day/every time. □ I have a (slight) preference for (+ noun/gerund) Giving someone else the choice □ It’s up to you. □ It’s your call. □ I’m easy. □ Whatever/Wherever/Whichever you prefer. 05 71 □ I can ask and answer questions about preferences. 5F SPEAKING REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 224 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 6, students write three or four true sentences using phrases from the Speaking and Watch out! boxes – they can be about any topic they like. They then work in pairs or groups to share their sentences and find out if their partner/group agree with them. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 59/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about a café, a computer game, a music album, a restaurant or an exhibition they feel strongly about, and make notes on what they particularly liked/didn’t like about it. Mexican food ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Exercise 4 1 not eat too late 2 home-cooked meals to takeaways 3 would you rather do, eat inside or outside? 4 easy 5 the choice, I’d prefer to go somewhere quiet 6 them both equally 7 wherever you prefer/ like/want 8 you didn’t complain about the food 89
I happened to come across this gem of a museum last week on a family trip to Prague, so we decided to check it out. I’m so glad we did as it turned out to be a thoroughly enjoyable experience. The exhibits in the museum are designed to challenge your senses. There are lots of optical and other sensory illusions, which are totally mind-blowing. You start by walking through a dark tunnel, where you can just about make out a stream of water, then you see it flowing upwards. Seriously freaky! Everything’s accompanied by scents so you can actually smell the water (even though it’s not real) and then you get the odour of stinky drains. That was pretty gross! Next you walk through a (virtual) park where you can hear birds chirping, then you suddenly walk through a vortex tunnel, which is a sort of rotating cylinder with flashing lights that makes you feel completely disorientated. What I particularly liked was the room where you seem to be walking along a rope between two skyscrapers. That was super scary! You really feel like you’re about to fall. Another highlight was the bed of 3,000 spiky nails which you lie on – without feeling any pain. I was also impressed by an intriguing machine called a Chladni Frequency Generator, which lets you turn sounds into visual patterns of fine powder. My only criticism of the museum is that the experience just went by too fast. I really enjoyed all the exhibits, but would love to have been able to see and experience even more. Despite that, I’d definitely recommend going if you’re in Prague because not only is it informative and fun, it’s highly instagrammable so you’ll definitely come away with some invaluable souvenirs in the form of funny pics! of the Senses review by Isaac Rogers The Museum 72 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Students use the notes they made at home to help them write a review in Exercise 7. Before they begin their review, ask them to add to their notes in pairs, including all the information they need from the Writing and Watch out! boxes. They can then swap notes with a new partner for them to comment on anything they might have missed or any mistakes they might have made. Ask students to refer to the adjectives in Exercise 5 and include one or two in their review, if possible, along with an intensifier for each from the Watch out! box. • When students have written their review, they can swap answers with a partner for peer correction. While reading their partner’s review, they should pay special attention to any errors in content and organisation, style and register and use of intensifiers. They can use the Writing and Watch out! boxes as guides. 90
4 Study Watch Out! Then find six more examples of intensifiers in the review. WATCH OUT! We can use an intensifier (e.g. very, extremely, absolutely) before an adjective to make its meaning stronger. Use a range of intensifiers to make your writing more interesting. • Very, extremely, super, hugely, highly, incredibly can only be used with gradable adjectives, e.g. The sound effects were extremely loud. • Absolutely, completely, totally and utterly can only be utterly can only be utterly used with non-gradable adjectives, e.g. The exhibition was absolutely fascinating. • Pretty, really and really and really seriously can be used with both types seriously can be used with both types seriously of adjectives. (These adverbs are for informal use.) 5 Complete the sentences with the adjectives from the box. bad deafening fascinating gross impressive interesting loud mind-blowing petrified ridiculous scared silly 1 a The stench of drains was really . b You’re right. It was absolutely . 2 a I was seriously when we walked across the tight rope. b I was totally . 3 a The sound effects were incredibly . b Yes, they were really ! 4 a I look completely in this photo. How embarrassing! b Yes, you do look pretty . 5 a The Chladni Frequency Generator was utterly . b Yes, I found it very too. 6 a The optical illusions were extremely . b I thought they were totally . 6 Complete the sentences with intensifiers. Use a different word in each sentence. 1 The museum was packed. 2 The special effects mind-blowing. 3 There were some noisy kids there. 4 Some the photos I took were hilarious. 5 The entry tickets were expensive. 6 The museum staff were helpful. 7 WRITING TASK Write a review of one of the items in the box. Use the Writing box and Watch out! to help you. a café a computer game a music album a restaurant an exhibition • Write about something you know well. • Before you begin, make notes about what you liked/ didn’t like. • Use a lively, informal style. • Use a range of adjectives and adjective intensifiers to emphasise your opinions • Give a clear recommendation at the end. It can be positive or negative. 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos from The Museum of the Senses in Prague and discuss the questions. 1 What can you see in the photos? 2 What aspect of the senses do the photos illustrate? 2 Read a review of the museum and answer the questions. 1 Was the reviewer’s overall impression positive or negative? Which words tell you this? 2 Would you describe the tone of the review as formal or informal? Say why. 3 What was the reviewer most impressed by? 4 Was there anything he didn’t like about it? 3 Study the Writing box. Then complete the gaps in the box with examples from Isaac’s review. WRITING | A review Introduction Give brief details of where and when you went, and your overall impression. First main paragraph Describe the event/exhibition/museum/show, etc. Include information of what you did and what you saw/heard. Second main paragraph Describe the positive aspects. Use phrases such as: WhatI1 liked was ... The/A/One/Another 2 was ... I was (also) 3 /blown away by ... Third main paragraph Write about any negative aspects. Use phrases such as: My only 4 is... If I have one criticism, it’s ... It didn’t live up to my expectations. Ifeelthisletit5 a bit. I was (also) disappointed by ... Conclusion Make recommendations with phrases such as: I’d 6 recommend going ... I don’t recommend seeing ... I would give this museum a miss if ... It’s (not) worth visiting ... Style and register • Use an informal, personal style. • Use informal, conversational vocabulary, e.g. lots of, mind-blowing, gross, etc. • Use phrasal verbs, e.g. come across, check out, etc. • Share your personal feelings, e.g. What I liked was ..., I was disappointed by ... • Use exclamation marks, e.g. That was super scary! 05 73 □ I can write a review. 5G WRITING AND VOCABULARY | A review FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 60/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 74–75. Exercise 2 1 positive (gem, enjoyable, mind-blowing, my only criticism, definitely recommend) 2 informal; use of: vocabulary (mind-blowing, freaky, gross, instagrammable); phrasal verbs (check it out); exclamation marks and abbreviations; informal intensifiers (pretty, super, seriously) 3 the room with illusion of walking between skyscrapers, the spiky bed, the Chladni Frequency Generator 4 He felt he didn’t spend enough time there, so he couldn’t enjoy all the exhibits. Exercise 6 Suggested answers 1 absolutely/totally/utterly 2 absolutely/totally/utterly 3 extremely/incredibly/ seriously 4 absolutely/totally/utterly 5 extremely/incredibly/ seriously 6 extremely/incredibly/ seriously Exercise 3 1 particularly 2 highlight 3 impressed 4 criticism 5 down 6 definitely thoroughly, totally, seriously, pretty, super, highly Exercise 5 1abad bgross 2 a scared b petrified 3 a loud b deafening 4 a ridiculous b silly 5 a fascinating b interesting 6 a impressive b mind-blowing 91
5A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.29 audible (adj) /ˈɔːdəbəl/ be capable of (doing) sth /ˌbi ˈkeɪpəbəl əv (ˈduːɪŋ) ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ brain condition (n) /ˈbreɪn kənˌdɪʃən/ bacterial cell /bækˌtɪəriəl ˈsel/ colour-blind (adj) /ˈkʌlə-ˌblaɪnd/ common sense (n) /ˌkɒmən ˈsens/ contact lenses (n) /ˈkɒntækt ˌlenzəs/ deafness (n) /ˈdefnəs/ decibel (n) /ˈdesəbel/ detect (v) /dɪˈtekt/ distinguish (v) /dɪˈstɪŋɡwɪʃ/ eyesight (n) /ˈaɪsaɪt/ flavour (n) /ˈfleɪvə/ hearing loss (n) /ˈhɪərɪŋ ˌlɒs/ infrasonic (adj) /ˌɪnfrəˈsɒnɪk/ keen sense of smell /ˌkiːn ˌsens əv ˈsmel/ low frequency /ˌləʊˈfriːkwənsi/ make out (phr v) /ˌmeɪk ˈaʊt/ perceive (v) /pəˈsiːv/ possess (v) /pəˈzes/ proprioception (n) /ˌprəʊpriəˈsepʃən/ sensitive palate /ˌsensətɪv ˈpælət/ sensory ability (n) /ˌsensəri əˈbɪləti/ short-sighted (adj) /ˌ ʃɔːt-ˈsaɪtɪd/ super-heightened (adj) /ˌsuːpə-ˈhaɪtnəd/ synaesthesia (n) /ˌsɪnəsˈθiːziə/ taste bud (n) /ˈteɪst ˌbʌd/ tell sb/sth apart /ˌtel ˌsʌmbɒdi/ˌsʌmθɪŋ əˈpɑːt/ tell sb/sth apart /ˌtel ˌsʌmbɒdi/ˌsʌmθɪŋ əˈpɑːt/ tell sb/sth apart 5B VOCABULARY 5.30 aroma (n) /əˈrəʊmə/ bee buzzing /ˈbiːˌbʌzɪŋ/ birds chirping /ˈbɜːds ˌtʃɜːpɪŋ/ bubble gum popping /ˈbʌbəl ˌgʌm ˌpɒpɪŋ/ coarse (adj) /kɔːs/ comfort sb (v) /ˈkʌmfət ˌsʌmbɒdi/ crunching of snow /ˈkrʌntʃɪŋ əv ˌsnəʊ/ deafening (adj) /ˈdefənɪŋ/ fluffy (adj) /ˈflʌfi/ go off (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈɒf/ high-pitched (adj) /ˌhaɪ- ˈpɪtʃt/ machine humming /məˈʃiːn ˌhʌmɪŋ/ meat sizzling /ˈmiːt ˌsɪzəlɪŋ/ mouth-watering (adj) /ˈmaʊθ-ˌwɔːtərɪŋ/ overpowering (adj) /ˌəʊvəˈpaʊərɪŋ/ parrot screeching /ˈpærət ˌskriːtʃɪŋ/ prickly (adj) /ˈprɪkli/ purr (v) /pɜː/ rev (v) /rev/ roar of an engine /ˈrɔː əv ən ˌendʒɪn/ rustling of paper /ˈrʌsəlɪŋ əv ˌpeɪpə/ scent (n) /sent/ scrape (v) /skreɪp/ silky (adj) /ˈsɪlki/ smelly (adj) /ˈsmeli/ smooth (adj) /smuːð/ spiky (adj) /ˈspaɪki/ squishy (adj) /ˈskwɪʃi/ stench (n) /stentʃ/ sticky (adj) /ˈstɪki/ stink (v) /stɪŋk/ subtle (adj) /ˈsʌtl/ thud of sth falling /ˈθʌd əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˌfɔːlɪŋ/ wag (v) /wæɡ/ 5C GRAMMAR 5.31 confirmation (n) /ˌkɒnfəˈmeɪʃən/ diagnose (n) /ˈdaɪəɡnəʊz/ perfumer (n) /pəˈfjuːmə/ physiotherapist (n) /ˌfɪziəʊˈθerəpɪst/ sound engineer (n) sound engineer (n) sound engineer /ˈsaʊnd ˌendʒəˈnɪə/ swimming kit (n) /ˈswɪmɪŋ ˌkɪt/ trap (v) /træp/ 5D READING AND VOCABULARY 5.32 adjust to sth (v) /əˈdʒʌst tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ abandon (v) /əˈbændən/ attribute to sth (v) /əˈtrɪbjuːt tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ be left out /ˌbi ˌleft ˈaʊt/ blessing (n) /ˈblesɪŋ/ blind (adj) /blaɪnd/ blind panic /ˌblaɪnd ˈpænɪk/ blindness (n) /ˈblaɪndnəs/ boarding school for the blind /ˈbɔːdɪŋ ˌskuːl fə ðə ˈblaɪnd/ Braille (n) /breɪl/ capable of (doing) sth /ˈkeɪpəbəl əv (ˌduːɪŋ) ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ come to terms with sth /ˌkʌm tə ˈtɜːms wɪð ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ commit (v) /kəˈmɪt/ desperate to do sth /ˈdespərət tə ˌduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ disability (n) /ˌdɪsəˈbɪləti/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Write the missing nouns from the noun compounds. Then check with the word list. 1 I don’t like wearing glasses so I switched to contact a year ago. 2 You can test your eye online to see how good your vision is. 3 This model of food is a perfect combination of a blender, mixer and chopper. 4 The taste for something for something sweet are on the tip of the tongue. 2 Complete the phrases with no article, a/an or the. Then check with the word list. 1 Ihave sweet tooth which is bad for my figure. 2 We need to make sure that blind are given equal opportunities. 3 Given choice, I prefer the scent of roses to the smell of violets. 4 It’s not easy to earn living with a degree in literature. 3 Choose the right verb. Then check with the word list. 1 My teacher tells me to always find / pursue my dreams. 2 Ifoundithardtocome/goto terms with the fact that I had been rejected. 3 It comes / goes without saying that exams generate stress. 4 Tomorrow the student council will do / make / make / a recommendation for their candidate. ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Word puzzles A good and amusing way to remember some phrases is to replace the words with photos or drawings and glue them to a piece of paper. For example, you could use these pictures for the for the phrase ‘blind panic’. 74 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Students choose an adjective from the word list for Lesson 5B for their partner to guess, but can only describe it using nouns which the adjective describes, e.g . cat, hat, jumper, cloud (fl u ff y ). • Ask students to choose 3–4 words or phrases from the word list and write each word/phrase on a piece of paper. Collect all the pieces of paper, put them in a bag and get each student to take out 3–4 pieces of paper. They must write one sentence with each of the words/phrases they picked. To make the activity more challenging, you could ask students to use the words/ phrases in such a way that they form a cohesive piece of writing. lenses sight processor buds a the the a 92
disabled (adj) /dɪsˈeɪbəld/ downhill skiing /daʊnˌhɪl ˈskiːɪŋ/ earn a living /ˌɜːn ə ˈlɪvɪŋ/ educate sb about sth /ˈedjʊkeɪt ˌsʌmbɒdi əˌbaʊt ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ enable sb to do sth /ɪˈneɪbəl ˌsʌmbɒdi tə ˈduː ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ establish a business /ɪˌstæblɪʃ ə ˈbɪznəs/ eye damage (n) /ˈaɪ ˌdæmɪdʒ/ fit in (phr v) /ˌfɪt ˈɪn/ force sb to do sth /ˈfɔːs ˌsʌmbɒdi tə ˈduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ found a school /ˌfaʊnd ə ˈskuːl/ high altitude /ˌhaɪ ˈæltɪtjuːd/ illiterate (adj) /ɪˈlɪtərət/ immediate family /ɪˌmiːdiət ˈfæməli/ imply sth (v) /ɪmˈplaɪ ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ inadequate (adj) /ɪnˈædəkwət/ incidence (n) /ˈɪnsɪdəns/ integrate (somebody) into sth /ˈɪntɪɡreɪt (ˌsʌmbɒdi) ˌɪntə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ make inferences /ˌmeɪk ˈɪnfərənsɪz/ meaningful (adj) /ˈmiːnɪŋfəl/ miserable (adj) /ˈmɪzərəbəl/ neglect (v) /nɪˈɡlekt/ occurrence (n) /əˈkʌrəns/ Paralympic Games (n) /ˌpærəˈlɪmpɪk ˈɡeɪmz/ patronise sb (v) /ˈpætrənaɪz ˌsʌmbɒdi/ prejudice (n) /ˈpredʒədɪs/ problem-solver (n) /ˈprɒbləm ˌsɒlvə/ pursue a dream /pəˌsjuː ə ˈdriːm/ put sb off (phr v) /ˈpʊt ˌsʌmbɒdi ˈɒf/ realise (v) /ˈrɪəlaɪz/ recognised (adj) /ˈrekəɡnaɪzd/ recognition (n) /ˌrekəɡˈnɪʃən/ remote (adj) /rɪˈməʊt/ ride horseback /ˌraɪd ˈhɔːsbæk/ rural (adj) /ˈrʊərəl/ self-confidence (n) /ˌself ˈkɒnfɪdəns/ self-reliance (n) /ˌself rɪˈlaɪəns/ set sb apart (phr v) /ˌset ˌsʌmbɒdi əˈpɑːt/ sighted (adj) /ˈsaɪtɪd/ spread the word about sth /ˌspred ðə ˈwɜːd əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ surround (v) /səˈraʊnd/ the blind (n) /ðə ˈblaɪnd/ Tibet (n) /tɪˈbet/ Tibetan (adj, n) /tɪˈbetn/ tough (adj) /tʌf/ uneducated (adj) /ʌnˈedjəkeɪtɪd/ vision (n) /ˈvɪʒən/ visual impairment /ˈvɪʒuəl ɪmˈpeəmənt/ visually impaired /ˈvɪʒuəli ɪmˈpeəd/ whitewater kayaking (n) /ˌwaɪtˌwɔːtə ˈkaɪækɪŋ/ 5E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 5.33 bland (adj) /blænd/ boil (v) /bɔɪl/ bring to the boil /ˌbrɪŋ tə ðə ˈbɔɪl/ chill (v) /tʃɪl/ condiment (n) /ˈkɒndəmənt/ croissant (n) /ˈkwɑːsɒŋ/ crunchy (adj) /ˈkrʌntʃi/ decline (v) /dɪˈklaɪn/ falafel (n) /fəˈlæfəl/ food processor (n) /ˈfuːd ˌprəʊsesə/ gain popularity /ˌɡeɪn ˌpɒpjəˈlærəti/ gnocchi (n) /ˈnjɒki/ guacamole (n) /ˌɡwɑːkəˈməʊli/ lasagne (n) /ləˈzænjə/ mayonnaise (n) /ˌmeɪəˈneɪz/ meringue (n) /məˈræŋ/ mild (adj) /maɪld/ mustard (n) /ˈmʌstəd/ pan (n) /pæn/ peel (v) /piːl/ pickled gherkins /ˌpɪkəld ˈɡɜːkɪnz/ pretzel (n) /ˈpretsəl/ puree (n) /ˈpjʊəreɪ/ quiche (n) /kiːʃ/ runny (adj) /ˈrʌni/ savoury (adj) /ˈseɪvəri/ schnitzel (n) /ˈʃnɪtsəl/ simmer (v) /ˈsɪmə/ slice (v) /slaɪs/ spicy (adj) /ˈspaɪsi/ stir (v) /stɜː/ suspicious of sth (adj) /səˈspɪʃəs əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ tasty (adj) /ˈteɪsti/ thick (adj) /θɪk/ thump (v) /θʌmp/ vinegar (n) /ˈvɪnɪɡə/ watery (adj) /ˈwɔːtəri/ whizz (v) /wɪz/ 5F SPEAKING 5.34 complain about sth /kəmˈpleɪn əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ contemporary (adj) /kənˈtempərəri/ favour sth over sth /ˈfeɪvə ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈəʊvə ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ given the choice /ˌɡɪvən ðə ˈtʃɔɪs/ have a sweet tooth /ˌhəv ə ˌswiːt ˈtuːθ/ home-cooked meal /ˈhəʊmˌkʊkt ˌmiːl/ It’s your call. /ˌɪts jə ˈkɔːl/ takeaway (n) /ˈteɪkəweɪ/ 5G WRITING AND VOCABULARY 55.35 accompanied by /əˈkʌmpənid baɪ/ come across (phr v) /ˌkʌm əˈkrɒs/ come away (phr v) /ˌkʌm əˈweɪ/ deafening (adj) /ˈdefənɪŋ/ disorientated (adj) /dɪsˈɔːrientɪd/ drain (n) /dreɪn/ even though /ˈiːvən ˌðəʊ/ fine powder /ˈfaɪn ˌpaʊdə/ flashing lights /ˌflæʃɪŋ ˈlaɪts/ freaky (adj) /ˈfriːki/ frequency generator (n) /ˈfriːkwənsi ˌdʒenəreɪtə/ gem (n) /dʒem/ gross (adj) /ɡrəʊs/ highlight (n) /ˈhaɪlaɪt/ impressive (adj) /ɪmˈpresɪv/ informative (adj) /ɪnˈfɔːmətɪv/ instagrammable (adj) /ˈɪnstəɡræməbəl/ intriguing (adj) /ɪnˈtriːɡɪŋ/ invaluable (adj) /ɪnˈvæljuəbəl/ mind-blowing (adj) /ˈmaɪndˌbləʊɪŋ/ nail (n) /neɪl/ odour (n) /ˈəʊdə/ petrified (adj) /ˈpetrɪfaɪd/ ridiculous (adj) /rɪˈdɪkjələs/ rotating cylinder /rəʊˌteɪtɪŋ ˈsɪləndə/ sensory illusion (n) /ˌsensəri ɪˈluːʒən/ stinky (adj) /ˈstɪŋki/ thoroughly (adv) /ˈθʌrəli/ tight rope /ˌtaɪt ˈrəʊp/ upwards (adv) /ˈʌpwədz/ utterly (adv) /ˈʌtəli/ vortex (n) /ˈvɔːteks/ 75 05 • In teams and with books closed, students list as many cooking verbs and adjectives from Lesson 5E as they can in a given time limit. When the time is up, the team with the most words write them on the board in two lists (Verbs and Adjectives). The other teams take it in turns to add more words to each list. They all get one point for each correct word on their list and the team with the most points are the winners. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 61/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 5. 93
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Choose the correct words to complete the text. As soon as I walked into the empty restaurant, I suspected it wasn’t going to be a good evening. I have a keen sense of 1aroma / smell and I could tell something was burning in the kitchen. Not a good start. Unfortunately, my friend and I were seated at a table near to the toilets. The 2stench / scent when someone opened the door was so 3subtle / overpowering that we immediately moved over to a window seat. Then, my friend told me the colour scheme wasn’t very attractive either. I am 4short-sighted / colour-blind, so I couldn’t 5tell / see the loud red and sickly green everywhere apart. But she assured me it was enough to put you 6o ff / away from your food. I don’t like strong, I don’t like strong, I don’t like strong, 7savoury savoury // spicy spicy food so I ordered a mild food so I ordered a mild food so I ordered a mild food so I ordered a mild spicy food so I ordered a mild spicy spicy food so I ordered a mild spicy curry. It looked 88tasty / sweet enough, but the reality was enough, but the reality was enough, but the reality was sweet enough, but the reality was sweet disappointing. It was disappointing. It was 9bland / mouth-watering mouth-watering and had very and had very little taste. After, I ordered a chocolate mousse for dessert, little taste. After, I ordered a chocolate mousse for dessert, little taste. After, I ordered a chocolate mousse for dessert, little taste. After, I ordered a chocolate mousse for dessert, little taste. After, I ordered a chocolate mousse for dessert, little taste. After, I ordered a chocolate mousse for dessert, little taste. After, I ordered a chocolate mousse for dessert, which was very 10runny / thick, like chocolate water. , like chocolate water. 2 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1 His immediate family encouraged him to perceive / pursue / make out his dreams. out his dreams. out 2 Don’t touch that cactus. It’s super prickly / silky / squishy. 3 The child’s hands are very sticky / coarse / spiky because she has been playing with glue. 4 We could smell the subtle scent / aroma / stink of roses as we entered the room. 5 The Maths exam was really smooth / tough / bland but I managed to get a good grade. 6 There was no noise except for the humming / buzzing / rustling of paper as the students began the test. 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 My grandma always encourages me (try) new recipes. 2 If you listen to very loud music, you risk (damage) your hearing. 3 You should never use your phone while (drive). (drive). 4 Look at this cool gadget. It’s for (wake) you up in the morning. 5 My aunt can’t see very well, but she won’t let me (help) her. 6 His grandpa used (have) good eye-sight but now he’s totally blind. 7 I quickly got used (live) in the city centre although I didn’t like it at first. 8 I make my family dinner every day so I am used (cook) for other people. 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 Soon after the car stopped (make) a funny noise, I stopped (buy) some petrol. 2 Look at that boy (leave) the shop! I saw him (steal) some chocolate from the shop counter! 3 A This wardrobe needs (sort) out. It’s full of old clothes! B Sorry. I meant (do) it last week! 4 A Did you remember (bring) the tickets? B Oh no! I remember (put) them in my wallet but I can’t find them now! 5 This email says, ‘We regret (inform) you that your job application arrived too late to be considered. 6 A Shall we go to the new photography exhibition on Thursday? B I’d prefer (go) on Sunday if that’s OK. A Actually, I’d rather not (go) at the weekend. I prefer (go) to exhibitions during the week when it’s quieter. USE OF ENGLISH 5 Choose the correct words a–d to complete the text. noise noise More people than we realise suffer from insomnia. They just can’t get to sleep or stay asleep. Their 1 family suffer too as people who can’t sleep aren’t usually good company. Some insomniacs trytoput2 going to bed and when they are eventually ready, they do the most bizzare things just to fall asleep, such as counting sheep. They think it’s worth 3 anything! Others 4 thinking of a place they love. Well, help may be at hand! Scientists have found that gentle sound simulation, when synchronised to the rhythm of your brain waves, can significantly improve deep sleep. This is called ‘pink noise’. We can make 5 the low frequency sounds while sleeping, but they aren’t loud enough to wake us up. Ocean waves, waterfalls, heart beats and even traffic are natural examples. Listening to pink noise is6 safe so there’s no need to worry about potential hearing loss. Pink Pink 1 anext b near c direct d immediate 2 aon bup coff d down 3 a making b suggesting c trying d recommending 4 akeep b would c prefer d are 5 aup b out coff d through 6 a finally b absolutely c utterly d hugely Use of English > page 193 05 Revision 76 FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 193 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 5 and Self-check 5, Workbook pages 62–63/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening ASSESSMENT • Unit 5 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 5 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 5 Writing Test to try damaging driving waking help to have to living to cooking Exercise 4 1 making, to buy 2 leaving, stealing 3 sorting / to be sorted, to do 4 to bring, putting 5 to inform 6 to go, go, going 94
SPEAKING 7 In pairs, role play the situation below. Then change roles and do the task again. Student A You are going to cook a birthday dinner for a friend with Student B. Your friend likes eating most things. Personally, you love fish, vegetables and healthy food. You don’t think people should eat sugary desserts. You don’t want to spend too long cooking. Persuade your friend you should cook a healthy dish that is economical and easy. Student B You are going to cook a birthday dinner for a friend with Student A. Your friend likes eating most things. You’d like to cook a sophisticated dinner, no matter how long it takes. You’d love to try out a new recipe you’ve seen for a chocolate cake. You start first. • So, what kind of a meal would you prefer to cook? • To be honest, given the choice I’d rather cook something special. • I’d go for (meat) any time! • Whatever you prefer is fine by me. WRITING 8 You have read this advertisement on a student website. We’re looking for reviews of the best places for student s to hang out and to eat in town. Tell us about your experiences! We’d love to know! • Describe your favourite places. • Tell us why you recommend them. • Is there anywhere you would advise against? We look forward to hearing from you! WHAT’S ON IN TOWN? Write your review. READING 6 Read the article and choose the correct answers. 1 What does ’gastronomy’ mean? a the knowledge involved in preparing or eating good food b a field of study on food c a technique used by famous cooks and foodies d a kind of sophisticated recipe 2 The information on the Yale University Babylonian tablets tells us a how to cook dishes. b what people ate every day. c what dishes were popular with the wealthy. d meat stews were similar to stews today. 3 What happened in the 1800s? a The French studied the science of food preparation. b People started to enjoy food more. c Gastronomy began in France. d People started to consider eating as a sensual experience. 4 The author thinks restaurant owners and cooks should a pay more attention to the chemical aspects of cooking. b introduce molecular cuisine. c consider the diner’s whole sensory experience. d read more books about gastronomy. 5 The writer’s purpose is to a criticise the use of science in food preparation. b show how gastronomy has changed over time. c explain why our senses are important when we eat. d teach us about molecular gastronomy. The art and science of choosing, preparing and appreciating food is known as ‘gastronomy’. We tend to associate this concept with top chefs and food connoisseurs who spend their time fine dining and writing reviews of their eating experiences. In fact, it covers such diverse areas as food science, cultural food studies and food manufacturing. science, cultural food studies and food manufacturing. Gastronomy itself has been around as long as food has. Cookery books from different periods in time reveal a lot not only about the food people liked to eat then, but also about society. The oldest ‘cookery’ books are in fact three tablets from Yale University Babylonian collection dating back to 1700 BCE. They show us the kinds of things the rich liked to eat: mainly meat-based stews and different kinds of breads. Interestingly, only the ingredients are listed and there are no cooking instructions. It was in the 1800s that gastronomy began to emerge as a field of study that went beyond food preparation and simple enjoyment. Led by the French, gastronomists began to view dining as an experience in which all of the senses interacted, enabling us to fully enjoy a meal. From that time on, our understanding of how our senses work and interact with our environment increased hugely. One interesting scientific development that made a big impact on the world of restaurant and home cooking at the end of the twentieth century was molecular gastronomy. This concerns the physical and chemical transformations that occur during cooking. Chefs who understand this can create mouth-watering and unusual dishes. For instance, create mouth-watering and unusual dishes. For instance, they can make fruit look and taste like meat! Gastrophysics, or the science of flavour perception, is another fascinating scientific approach to food. Its followers know that tasting with the tongue is only part of the overall pleasure of eating. Charles Spence, in The New Science of Eating, explains that noise interferes The New Science of Eating, explains that noise interferes The New Science of Eating with our ability to taste sweetness. He provides lots of other examples, such as the fact that food eaten off a red plate tastes worse, and that we think crisps with a noisy crunch are better than quieter ones. This is all something to be taken into account by restaurant owners and chefs. The world of gastronomy today is, without a doubt, strongly influenced by science. However, there are some people who believe that fresh ingredients and well-prepared food served with respect for the consumer are the most important things of all. FOOD AND SCIENCE 77 95
Modal and related verbs 3 THINK BACK Complete the table with the modal verbs. be able to can can’t could couldn’t don’t have to have to may must mustn’t need to need to needn’t ought to should shouldn’t Obligation and necessity need to No obligation / No necessity Prohibition Duty and advice need to Ability / Lack of ability Permission 1 In pairs, look at the photos and answer the questions. 1 What do you know about these places? If you could go to one of these places to study for six months, which would you choose? Say why. 2 What challenges might you face? What aspects of your home country might you miss? 2 3.1 Listen to Joshua and Alice talking about moving to a different country. Which of these topics do they mention? What do they say about those topics? □ food □ language □ local laws □ missing friends □ people’s behaviour □ weather Alberta, Canada Stockholm, Sweden Dubai, United Arab Emirates Singapore 78 Where we live 06 VOCABULARYWords and phrases for comparing and contrasting, nomadic lifestyle, size and space, household problems and solutions GRAMMAR Modal and related verbs, articles Use of English > page 193 SPEAKING Giving instructions WRITING A report VIDEO Grammar Documentary 6A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 224 VIDEO SCRIPT page 242 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • As an extension to Exercise 1, students could do an Internet search for the study opportunities in the country they chose in question 1 and present them in pairs or groups of four. • Do this activity as an extension to Exercise 3. Put students in pairs and ask them to discuss what different things they need to / don’t need to / mustn’t do, etc. when moving to a new country to study (e.g . You have to learn the language otherwise you won’t be able to communicate with people.) . Encourage them to use as many of the modal verbs from the table as they can. ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ have to don’t have to, needn’t must, mustn’t could, ought to, should, must, mustn’t be able to, can’t, could, couldn’t may, mustn’t 96
4 3.2 Complete these extracts from the recording with the words from the box. Listen and check. allowed forbidden managed obliged permitted required succeeded supposed 1 I’ve to settle in pretty well. 2 I’ve in making quite a few friends. 3 Even my younger sister, who’s only fourteen, is to drive. 4 Obviously, she’s to have an adult driver with her. 5 It’s to chew gum in Singapore. 6 When you use a public toilet, you’re by law to flush it afterwards. 7 Whereas at home, I’m not to stay out after 10 p.m. 8 If you really need to blow your nose, you’re to go to the bathroom. 5 Match each sentence in Exercise 4 with meanings a–e below. a □ □ ability b □ □ permission c □ □ obligation d □ prohibition e □ duty and advice 6 Study Watch out! Then choose the best option to complete Watch out! Then choose the best option to complete Watch out! the sentences. Sometimes both options are correct. 1 Hattie could / was able to pass her driving test. 2 I couldn’t / wasn’t able to cope with the heat. 3 Ann could / was able to speak four languages. 4 My sister didn’t want to move to Germany at first, but my parents could / managed to persuade her. 5 He wanted to check what was behind the cupboard, but wasn’t able to / couldn’t move it away from the couldn’t move it away from the couldn’t wall as it was too heavy. 6 How did you manage to / could you stay so slim when living at your grandma’s? She’s an excellent cook! 7 I somehow managed to / could make him believe me. 8 Manchester United could / were able to score two goals in the last ten minutes! WATCH OUT! • For ability on a specific occasion, we use be able/managed to (NOT could), e.g. My parents were able to/managed to find a nice apartment. Not My parents could find a nice apartment. My parents could find a nice apartment. • In negative sentences, we can use couldn’t for both couldn’t for both couldn’t general and specific ability, e.g. I couldn’t settle in. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 181 8 Replace the underlined words with words and phrases from the box. There are several alternatives for each underlined part. Which phrases sound more formal? a lot considerably far marginally miles nothing like nowhere near significantly slightly way 1 Winter in Canada is much colder than in Singapore, but only a bit colder than in Sweden. 2 Winter in Singapore is not nearly not nearly as cold as in Canada. 9 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1 Singapore is very safe compared with / to / from other countries. 2 Dubai is expensive in / by / by/ by on comparison with many countries. 3 In Sweden, the days are very long in summer whereas / wherever / wherever / wherever but in winter they are very short. but in winter they are very short. but 10 SPEAKING Use the words and phrases from Exercises 8 and 9 to make comparisons between the places in the photos on page 78 and your own country. 12 Read the question below and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, ask and answer the question. What were you supposed to do recently but didn’t manage to? G R A M M A R V I D E O Shopping You 1 jump the queue in shops. You jump the queue in shops. You 2 get get a ticket from the machine and wait for your number to be called. Also, don’t bring too much cash. You 3 use it in most places. And don’t wait for the cashier to pack your bags – you’re 4 pack your own! pack your own! The environment Swedes are really green. Littering is 5 everywhere, and everywhere, and if you’re caught dropping even the tiniest bit, you 6 pay pay a fine. You are also 7 by law to sort out your recycling. by law to sort out your recycling. Social etiquette Don’t expect Swedes to be chatty. They don’t talk to you if they 8 . Punctuality is important though. You 9 turn up late or early. In some other ways they’re quite informal: at school, you 10 call your teacher call your teacher Professor orMror Mr or Mr Mrs as they prefer to be called by their first names. Things you should know before moving to Sweden 7 Complete the text with the words and phrases from the box. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. don’t have to (x2) forbidden mustn’t need to obliged shouldn’t supposed to will have to won’t be able to 79 06 □ I can use modal and related verbs to talk about obligation, necessity, prohibition, advice, ability or permission. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 6, page 271 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 181 • Workbook pages 64–65/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 24: Read my mind, pages 283, 313 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 6A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 6A NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about what jobs you can do from anywhere in the world using just a laptop, and make notes for the next lesson. Exercise 7 1 mustn’t/shouldn’t 2 need to 3 won’t be able to 4 supposed to 5 forbidden 6 will have to 7 obliged 8 don’t have to 9 shouldn’t/mustn’t 10 don’t have to Exercise 8 1 much: a lot, considerably, far, miles, significantly, way; a bit: slightly, marginally 2 not nearly as: nothing like, nowhere near Exercise 4 1 managed 2 succeeded 3 permitted 4 required 5 forbidden 6 obliged 7 allowed 8 supposed 1 3 4 5 8 2 7 6 97
4 33.4 Study Active Listening. Listen and repeat the phrases. ACTIVE LISTENING | Understanding fast speech (1) When English is spoken at a fast speed, sounds can change. • Whenawordendsin-tor -t or -t -d and the next word begins with a consonant, we don’t say the t or t ort d, e.g. 1 permanent home sounds like ‘permanenhome’ 2 good job sounds like ‘goojob’ • This sometimes happens with t or tor t d with in a single word, d with in a single word, d e.g . 3 friends sounds like ‘friens’ • When a word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound, we add a y, w or wor wr sound to link the words, e.g. 4 be a nomad sounds like ‘beyanomad yanomad y ’ 5 go away sounds like ‘ go away sounds like ‘ go away gowaway’ 6 China and India sounds like ‘ChinarandIndia’ 5 33.5 PRONUNCIATION Read sentences 1–5 out loud. Then underline the features of fast speech. Listen, check and repeat. 1 He lives in an apartment. 2 She wants to be a digital nomad. 3 I’ve worked in Australia and New Zealand. 4 He goes to an Internet café to work. 5 He changed location last month. 6 3.6 3.6 Listen and write the phrases. Which features of fast speech can you hear? Listen again and repeat. 7 Complete phrases which you heard in the radio programme with the words from the box. comforts down move remotely roots space to one place 1 onthe 2 home 3 work 4 put down 5 co-working 6 settle 7 tied down 8 Complete the sentences with the phrases from Exercise 7. 1 Does the idea of a life appeal to you? 2 Would you prefer to or in a company office? 3 Would you prefer to work from home or in a ? 4 If you became a digital nomad, which of your would you miss the most? 5 What do you think is a suitable age to with a partner? 6 If you had to move to another country, what would help you to in the new place? 7 Why do you think some people hate being ? Why do they prefer a nomadic lifestyle? 9 SPEAKING In pairs, take turns to ask and answer the questions in Exercise 8. Give reasons for your answers. 1 In pairs, read the advert for a radio programme and discuss the questions. 1 What do you understand by the phrase ‘digital nomad’? 2 What do you imagine are the advantages and disadvantages of this lifestyle? 2 3.3 Listen to the programme and answer the questions. 1 What is Dan Hoyle’s job? 2 Where is he working from at the moment? 3 Is he successful in his job? 4 Is he generally happy with his lifestyle? Say why. 3 3.3 Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 What did Dan most dislike about his life before becoming a digital nomad? a Not enough holidays. b The repetitive work routine. c The long commute to work. 2 How did Dan’s parents feel about his decision to adopt the nomad lifestyle? a They were concerned he might never come back. b They were worried he wouldn’t earn enough money. c They feared he might get homesick. 3 When choosing a new location, Dan is most interested in places a which offer an exciting lifestyle. b which are by the sea. c where there are a range of shared working spaces. 4 What does Dan say about life on the move? a It can be hard to meet like-minded people. b It’s not easy to maintain relationships with his circle of friends. . c He occasionally misses his home comforts. 5 For Dan, what is the biggest challenge of working remotely? a The inability to switch off from work. b Poor Internet connectivity in some places. c Feeling like you’re on holiday and not wanting to work. A growing number of people are becoming digital nomads, who can do their job from anywhere in the world. Find out more about this mobile lifestyle in today’s programme. 9 P.M. 18 AUGUST MAKING THE WORLD YOUR HOME 80 □ I can understand fast speech and talk about mobile lifestyle. 6B LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 225 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Students use the notes they made at home to support their discussions in Exercise 1. • After Exercise 7, put students in groups and ask them to choose one of the phrases each. They take it in turns to describe the phrase without saying the phrase itself and avoiding giving a definition of the word, e.g . I don’t have time to sit down for lunch. I usually eat a sandwich while I’m travelling on the underground. (on the move). The other students in the group try to guess the phrase. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 66/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 25: Making the world your home, pages 283, 314 Exercise 8 1 on the move 2 work remotely 3 co-working space 4 home comforts 5 put down roots 6 settle down 7 tied down to one place Exercise 6 1 from one location to another (toowanaother) 2 the idea of working remotely. (theyidearof ... remoly) 3 to be affordable (beyaffordable) 4 a permanent base (permanentbase) 5 make new friends (friens) Exercise 1 1 A digital nomad is a person who uses telecommunications technologies to earn a living and, more generally, conducts their life in a nomadic manner. They often work remotely from foreign countries, coffee shops, public libraries, co-working spaces, etc. Exercise 2 1 He’s a website designer. 2 He’s in Bali. 3 Yes. (His business is going well.) 4 Yes. (He wouldn’t give it up for anything.) Exercise 5 1 He lives in an apartment. (aparment) 2 She wants to be a digital nomad. (wanstebeya) 3 I’ve worked in Australia and New Zealand (australiarandnewzealand) 4 He goes to an Internet café to work. (towaninternecafé) 5 He changed location last month. (changelocationlasmonth) move space comforts down remotely to one place roots 98
6 Write sentences, adding Write sentences, adding Write sentences, adding a/an or the where necessary. where necessary. 1 I/live/in/flat/near/citycentre/in/Dublin I/live/in/flat/near/citycentre/in/Dublin I/live/in/flat/near/citycentre/in/Dublin I/live/in/flat/near/citycentre/in/Dublin 2 I / have / dream / of climbing / Mount Kilimanjaro I / have / dream / of climbing / Mount Kilimanjaro I / have / dream / of climbing / Mount Kilimanjaro 3 I/prefer/mountains/to/sea I / prefer / mountains / to / sea 4 I/once/went/to/hospital/for/operation 5 I/wouldlike/togo/to/college/in/USA 6 I/geton/well/with/people/who/live/nextdoor 7 I/go/to/Bahamas/on/holidays/once/year 8 I live near / River Thames / which flows through / London 9 riveris/second/longest/river/in/UK 7 SPEAKING In pairs, rework the sentences in Exercise 6 so they are true for you. 8 Go to page 198. Use the notes to write a paragraph. Leaving home comforts to enjoy nature Leaving home comforts to enjoy nature Leaving home comforts to enjoy nature At the age of sixteen, Zeki Basan decided to give up his At the age of sixteen, Zeki Basan decided to give up his At the age of sixteen, Zeki Basan decided to give up his At the age of sixteen, Zeki Basan decided to give up his home comforts and live alone in home comforts and live alone in 1 tent. At the time, he was 2 youngest student doing a two-year youngest student doing a two-year youngest student doing a two-year course at the School of Adventure Studies on course at the School of Adventure Studies on course at the School of Adventure Studies on the Isle of Skye in 3 Scotland. Scotland. 4 tent was in a remote tent was in a remote tent was in a remote tent was in a remote part of 5 island and almost impossible to find island and almost impossible to find island and almost impossible to find island and almost impossible to find island and almost impossible to find without 6 detailed directions. Every morning, detailed directions. Every morning, detailed directions. Every morning, detailed directions. Every morning, hewouldget up at6a.m., wash in hewouldget up at6a.m., wash in hewouldgetupat6a.m., washin7 river, light river, light 88 fire and drink fire and drink 9 cup of tea before going cup of tea before going cup of tea before going tototo 1010 college. He had very little contact with his college. He had very little contact with his college. He had very little contact with his college. He had very little contact with his friends and his mother, who he only saw once friends and his mother, who he only saw once friends and his mother, who he only saw once friends and his mother, who he only saw once friends and his mother, who he only saw once friends and his mother, who he only saw once 1111 month. His love of month. His love of 12 nature had begun at an nature had begun at an nature had begun at an nature had begun at an early age as he had grown up in early age as he had grown up in early age as he had grown up in 13 Cairngorm Cairngorm Cairngorm Mountains in a very remote home. In the winter, he Mountains in a very remote home. In the winter, he Mountains in a very remote home. In the winter, he Mountains in a very remote home. In the winter, he sometimes had to ski to and from sometimes had to ski to and from sometimes had to ski to and from 14 school! school! While studying at the Adventure School, he also gave While studying at the Adventure School, he also gave While studying at the Adventure School, he also gave While studying at the Adventure School, he also gave 15 lessons to 1616 conservation experts about conservation experts about conservation experts about conservation experts about conservation experts about how to survive in how to survive in how to survive in 17 wild. wild. 4 Write the categories from the box under the correct headings. Use the place names below to help you. buildings/locations that include the name of a town cities continents countries with plural names countries containing a noun like Republic, Kingdom monuments mountains mountain ranges oceans, seas and rivers regions Use the with ... Use no article (ø) with ... rivers cities 1 In pairs, describe the house in the photo. Would you like to stay in a house like this? Say why. 2 Read the article. What do you think about the lifestyle that Emma has chosen? Articles 3 Complete rules 1–9 with a/an, the or no article (ø). Then match the underlined examples in the text above with the rules. 1 □Weuse when we mention a thing, place, etc. for the first time. 2 □Weuse when we mention the same thing, place, etc. for a second time. 3 □Weuse to say that a thing is one of many. 4 □Weuse in general statements with plural □ countable or uncountable nouns. 5 □Weuse when we know what thing or person it is because it is unique or refers to something specific. 6 □Weuse with superlatives. 7 □Weuse to relate two different measures, e.g. twice a day, £3 a kilo. 8 □Weuse to talk about the physical environment, e.g. the town, the country, the sea. 9 □Weuse with words like prison, hospital, school, college, etc. when we are talking about their purpose as an institution. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 182 5 Complete the article with a, the or no article (ø). In pairs, explain your choices. Europe the Mediterranean the Danube the Netherlands the Alps Oxford University Mount Everest the Eiffel Tower the Czech Republic Bangkok the Middle East Meet Mrs BILBO BAGGINS: BILBO BAGGINS: A an Oxford graduate an Oxford graduate who quit society to live a hobbit-style who quit society to live a hobbit-style existence in a mud roundhouse in Bthe Welsh hills. Emma Orbach lives without Celectricity electricity, gas or running water in D a self-made roundhouse in rural Wales. The daughter of a wealthy musician, she grew up in an old castle. She was educated at one of Ethe most expensive the most expensive boarding schools in England. She also studied Chinese F at university at university. After such a privileged start, she could have done anything she wanted with her life, but for her the key to happiness was being in the natural world. G The house is made from wood, mud and straw. She lives there all year round, sourcing as much food as possible from the land. She gets eggs from her chickens, milk from her goats and keeps horses, which she uses for transport. Technology is banned from her home. ‘Electricity makes me feel weird,’ and ‘H microwaves are not good for the Earth,’ says Emma. She has an outdoor bathtub, which she heats over an open fire about Ionce a month. She rarely goes into Jthe local village village, but when she does, she either goes on foot or on horseback, but never uses motorised transport. 06 81 □ I can use articles to talk about general and specific things. 6C GRAMMAR REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 210 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 4, write a list of nouns on the board, some which take the and some which take no article. Split the class into two teams and have one student from each team take a turn. Call out a word and invite the students to say the article. The first student to say the correct article gets a point for their team. Continue until all the words have been read. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 182 • Workbook page 67/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 26: Geography quiz, pages 283, 315 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 6C ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 6C Exercise 4 Use the with: countries containing a noun like Republic, Kingdom, countries with plural names, monuments, mountain ranges, oceans, seas and rivers, regions Use no article (ø) with: buildings and locations that use the name of a town, cities, continents, mountains Exercise 6 1Iliveinaflatnearthecity centre in Dublin. 2 I have a dream of climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. 3 I prefer (the) mountains to the sea. 4 I once went to hospital for an operation. 5 I would like to go to college in the USA. 6Igetonwellwiththe people who live next door. 7IgototheBahamason holidays once a year. 8 I live near the River Thames which flows through London. 9 The river is the second longest river in the UK. D G A C H J E I B F a/an the a/an ø the the a/an the ø a The the ø the ø the/a a a ø the ø ø ø the ø a 99
5 Complete the questions with words from Exercise 4. Then ask and answer the questions in pairs. 1 What are some of the largest and most cities in the world? 2 How do you feel about being in a space like a lift? 3 Would you describe your room as small, large or ? 4 If you lived in a location where space was non-existent, which of your items would you throw away? Say why. 5 Do you prefer large, cafés or small, cosy ones? Say why. 6 Is your room enough to fit in a desk, bed and closet, or is it and allows for doing cartwheels in it? 7 Is there a window in your bathroom that makes it and light? 8 Have you ever slept in uncomfortable conditions, with a lot of people in one room? Tell about it. 9 Would you like to live in a 90m2 studio flat in which the living room, kitchen and bathroom are in one open space? Say why. 6 SPEAKING In pairs or small groups, discuss the questions. Give reasons and examples. 1 In what way is ‘living small’ a more environmentally friendly way of living? 2 Do you agree that living in a very large home might have disadvantages? Say why. 3 Has reading this article changed your views about how much space people need? Say why. 4 Do you think the space where we live affects our well-being? Say why. 5 Ratethethingsintheboxbelowfrom1to5(1=very important, 5 = not at all important). having your own room space a friendly community location a nice view 7 REFLECT | Culture Do you think people from different cultures have different expectations about how much living space they need? Say why. 13 13 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 167. Watch the documentary Sailing your dreams and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos on page 83 and answer the questions. 1 How would you feel about living in a house or flat as small as those shown in the photos? 2 When you are at home, how much time do you like to spend alone? 3 Do you share or have you shared a bedroom with a sibling? How do/did you feel about that? 4 When you are in a space with other people, e.g . in a library or on public transport, how do you feel if someone sits too close to you? How close is ‘too close’? 2 Read the article and match questions 1–7 with paragraphs A–G. In which paragraph does the author ... 1 □ give examples of ways to design a home to make the most of limited space? 2 □ discuss the factors leading to a move towards smaller properties in some countries? 3 □ refer to a person who feels nostalgic about a time when he/she had less space? 4 □ summarise the answer to the question asked in the title? 5 □ describe the negative social impact of living in an outsized home? 6 □ explain that in some cultures too much privacy is seen as a negative concept? 7 □ outline the findings of an investigation into the implications of living with others in an enclosed space? 3 In pairs, read the article again and answer the questions. 1 What advantages of living in a tiny home are mentioned? 2 What suggestions for maximizing space in a small home are mentioned? 3 What were the findings of the HI-SEAS experiment? 4 What aspect of his life in Kenya does Simon Okelo miss? 5 According to Ellen Prader, what are the advantages of sharing a space with others? 6 According to Dak Kopec, how can living in a very large home be harmful? 4 Match the highlighted words and phrases from the article with their definitions. 1 Additional and not needed because there is already enough of something. 2 With lots of room. 3 Very small and restricted, surrounded by walls. 4 Small, but arranged so that everything fits neatly into the space available. 5 (In a city) having a lot of people living close together. 6 with plenty of fresh air. 7 Extremely large. 8 Not having enough space. 9 Neither small, nor large. 82 □ I can identify specific details in an article and talk about houses and space. 6D READING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 242 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity after Exercise 7. Put students in pairs or small groups and ask them to design the ideal compact home. Ask them to draw a floor plan on an A4 piece of paper. It should be no more than 30 m2 in size. Ask students to include everything people would need to live, e.g . a kitchen, bathroom, eating area, living space and sleeping space, and any special features they can think of. They should think about the inside and the outside. Give students 5–6 minutes to design their homes, then ask them to present their ideas to another pair or to the class if there is time. Alternatively, students can pin their plans up around the classroom for other students to read and comment on. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook pages 68–69/Online Practice Exercise 3 1 more affordable, more ecological, less wasteful, encourages you to engage with rest of the world 2 folding bedding into deep closets so rooms can be used for different purposes, sliding doors 3 People need some personal space, but they get on better if they spend some time socialising, instead of always going to their private space. 4 He misses the sense of community and being close to others. 5 It encourages you to respect others and to learn to negotiate. 6 Living in a large home prevents you from going outside because all your needs are met within the home. You don’t get to mix with people who aren’t your friends, so you don’t learn how to deal with conflict. Exercise 4 1 excess 2 spacious 3 confined 4 compact 5 densely populated 6 airy 7 vast 8 cramped 9 medium-sized Exercise 5 1 densely populated 2 confined 3 medium-sized 4 excess 5 spacious 6 compact, spacious 7 airy 8 cramped 9 vast B A D G F E C 100
D So is there a benefit to sharing smaller spaces with a number of people? Simon Okelo believes so. Brought up in a crowded slum in Kenya, he shared a house with twenty-four others and people would often just cram into one room. He often slept in a storeroom next to the living room because it was cool and airy airy. Now Simon has settled down in Seattle with his wife and two children, in a three-bedroom house, with a kitchen, living room, study and playroom. But while he appreciates the space, he misses the sense of community and being close to others. He claims that whenever he goes back to his childhood home, he sleeps better. E Professor Ellen Pader from the University of Massachusetts, who has published research on the impact of space on relationships, believes a major benefit of sharing space with others is that you learn respect for other people, and you also learn to negotiate with people, instead of just withdrawing when things get difficult. In the USA and other western countries, there is an assumption that we all need privacy, but this is not a universally shared belief. In Mexico for example, according to Pader’s research, people often prefer to share bedrooms and bathrooms because being alone feels like a punishment. F Is it possible that living in larger, spacious environments can actually be harmful? Environmental psychologist Dak Kopec, of the University of Las Vegas, has concerns about the number of vast mansions being built in the area, which have parental suites on one side of the house and children’s suites on the other. He fears that such arrangements could limit social interaction between parents and children. He also points out that there isn’t a need for children to go outside because they have everything they need at home. G So why is living space important? We need to get the right balance of having enough of it to allow some privacy, but not so much that we no longer interact with others. Whilst everyone needs some personal space, shared areas may be equally important. A Could you live in a home that is only thirty-seven square metres in size? That is the size of a so-called ‘tiny home’, which has become a big craze in some parts of the world, giving rise to a new social trend: the ‘tiny house movement’. These compact properties have become considerably more popular as people recognise the benefits of ‘living small’. For some, it’s the only way to afford a home, but for others it’s a positive lifestyle choice, offering a way of living more ecologically and less wastefully. Living in a small space means that you have to get rid of your excess possessions. It also forces you to go out and engage with the rest of the world. B Living small requires careful planning and creativity and who better to turn to for inspiration than the Japanese, the masters in the art of saving space. In densely populated cities like Tokyo, many people live in apartments smaller than ten square metres. They have managed to come up with ingenious space-saving solutions to make the apartments feel less cramped, such as the use of deep wardrobes and cupboards for storage. In this way, bedding can be folded and put away every day, allowing the room to be used for purposes other than sleeping. Another method is the use of sliding doors which can divide the room into different living areas as and when required. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 LIVING small How much living space do we really need? really need? really C Living in a compact home might work for one, or even two people, but what about when you are obliged to compete for space with several others? This is a question being investigated by the HI-SEAS project in Hawaii – a NASA-funded Mars simulation experiment. HI-SEAS is a ‘habitat’ located on the slopes of a volcano in the Pacific Ocean, and its goal is to understand how people can successfully live and work together on trips into space. Six crew members share a space which is eleven metres in diameter, i.e. the size of a medium- sized, one-bedroom apartment. They each have their own personal space, big enough for a tiny bed and chair. They are not permitted to leave the capsule unless they are wearing a spacesuit, so ‘popping outside for a breath of fresh air’ is not an option. There have been five ‘missions’ so far, lasting between six and twelve months. The experiment shows that although some privacy is essential, people in confined spaces get on better when they spend more time together rather than retreating to their own private or personal space. 3.7 06 83 NEXT CLASS Ask students to think of a task in the home which they don’t know how to do and to research how to do it, either by asking a family member or by searching online for a tutorial. They should make notes in order to explain how to do the task to a partner in the next lesson. 101
5 Study Active Vocabulary and complete the text with the correct forms of the phrasal verbs from the box. break down come across deal with do up mop up sweep up wipe down The other day I went into the kitchen and 1 a puddle of water a puddle of water on the kitchen floor. It turned out that the freezer 2 and was leaking. So I 3 the water. Shortly afterwards, my brother went into the kitchen and slipped on the wet floor. Unfortunately, he was carrying a cup of coffee, which he dropped and it smashed into pieces, and the coffee splashed all over the wall, covering it with brown stains! The worst thing was that the kitchen had only recently been 4 and the walls were freshly painted (white, of course!). So I 5 the wall with a damp cloth while my brother 6 the bits of broken coffee cup. broken coffee cup. Luckily, we managed to 7 all the mess before our parents came home. ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Phrasal verbs A phrasal verb is made up of a verb and a particle (adverb or preposition). • Some phrasal verbs have no object, e.g. The freezer broke down. The door handle has come off. has come off. has come off • When a phrasal verb has an object, sometimes the verb and particle can be separated, e.g . Switch the light on. / Switch on the light. • If the object is a pronoun, it must go between the verb and particle, e.g . Switch it off it off it .off. off (NOT Switch off it Switch off it.) Other separable phrasal verbs include: wipe down/o ff , off, off mopup,doup,sweepup, clear up, carry out. • With some phrasal verbs, the verb and particle cannot be separated, e.g. We’ve run out of run out of run out toilet paper. (NOT We’ve run toilet paper out of . (NOT We’ve run toilet paper out of.) We’ve run toilet paper out of.) We’ve run toilet paper out of Other inseparable phrasal verbs include: deal with, go with, keep up with, come across. 6 Replace the underlined parts in Exercise 5 with pronouns. Change the word order where necessary. 7 SPEAKING In pairs, talk about similar household disasters. Use words and phrases from this lesson. 8 REFLECT | Society Do you think that some jobs around the house are still considered men’s or women’s jobs, or has this changed? Give reasons for your answer. 1 THINK BACK In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Are you a practical person? Do you how know to: • change change a bulb? • remove a carpet stain? • fi x a leaking pipe? • repair repair a flat tyre? 2 Have you ever helped to decorate your house (with paint or wallpaper)? 3 Have you ever climbed a high ladder? What for? 2 Replace the underlined verbs in Exercise 1 with the verbs from the box. Use one of the verbs twice. do up get rid of mend replace 3 Look at the photos. Have you ever had any of these problems? If so, how did you deal with them? If not, how would you deal with them? 4 Check you understand the highlighted words. Read the online article. Match hacks 1–6 below with problems a–f in Exercise 3. Which of the hacks do you like best? Which might you try? 1 □ First sweep it up with a dustpan and brush. Then press a slice of bread onto the floor to pick up the remaining tiny pieces. 2 □ Fill a bag with vinegar, tie it round the head and fix it with a rubber band. Leave until all the dirt dirt has dissolved. dirt has dissolved. dirt 3 □ Blow hot air on the area with a hairdryer until the mark fades. Rub with olive oil to polish the surface. 4 □ Rub toothpaste on it and then wipe down with a damp with a damp dishcloth. 5 □ Arrange the cables and label them with folded masking tape. 6 □ Soak it in warm soapy water. Then gently pull it until it regains its original size and shape. Deal with common household problems using these great hacks! Have you got ... a a blocked showerhead? c a water stain on on a wooden table? e clothes which have shrunk in the tumble-dryer? ff a scratched screen? d shattered glass on the floor? b tangled leads and wires? 84 □ I can talk about household problems and solutions. 6E VOCABULARY | Household problems and solutions EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 6, ask students to use the notes they made at home to explain the household task they have learnt to a partner. When they have finished, ask each student from each pair to explain their partner’s task to the class in order to check that they have understood. They should incorporate any relevant new vocabulary from Exercises 2, 4 or 5. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 70/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 27: Mend it, fix it, rent it, pages 283, 316 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 6 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 6 NEXT CLASS Ask students to find and watch online a simple origami (paper model making) video, e.g . for a cat, bird or plane, and learn how to make the paper model. They should make notes so that they can show a partner in the next lesson. Exercise 2 change – replace remove – get rid of fix/repair – mend decorate – do up Exercise 5 1 came across 2 had broken down 3 mopped up 4 done up 5 wiped down 6 swept up 7 deal with Exercise 6 1 came across it 3 mopped it up 5 wiped it down 6 swept them up 7 deal with it d a c f b e 102
4 Study Watch out! Then rewrite the sentences starting with the words given. 1 You just need some scissors and masking tape. All . 2 You turn on the oven by pressing this switch. The way . 3 I used a damp dishcloth to remove the stain. What . 4 Next you soak it in water. What . 5 I only touched the glass and it shattered! All . 6 He’s really good at DIY. What . 7 Rub the surface with some olive oil. What . 8 You start a car by turning the key in the ignition. The way . WATCH OUT! • We can make a sentence more emphatic by beginning with What ..., e.g . Slide the door to the right. → What you do is slide the door to the right. I covered it with tape. → What I did was cover it with tape. • We can use All (that) ... in the same way, e.g. Press the button. → All you do is press the button. He just turned the handle and it came off. → All he did was turn the handle and it came off. • We can use ... the way (that) ... to emphasise how something is done, e.g. Thewaythatyoudoitisto.../by+-ing... Thewaythatyoudoitisto.../by+-ing... The way that The way it works is ... The way it works is ... The way 5 In pairs, go to page 198 and explain how to make a speaker. Use phrases from the Speaking box and Exercise 4. 6 In pairs, discuss how to carry out these DIY tasks. Use the phrases from the Speaking box and Watch out! to help you. • Putting up a picture. • Changing a light bulb. • Decorating your room. 1 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Have you ever decorated your room? 2 How do you personalise your room to make it your own space? 3 Have you ever assembled flat-pack furniture? Did you enjoy it? Say why. 2 3.8 Listen to Tom and Natalie giving DIY (Do It Yourself) instructions. Who mentions the following things? Write T (Tom), N (Natalie) or B (Both). a □ parents b □ following instructions c □ cleaning d □ using a screwdriver 3 3.8 Study the Speaking box. Listen again and complete the phrases with one word in each gap. SPEAKING | Giving instructions Explaining what to do It’s advisable to ... The first 1 youdois... When/2 you’ve done that, ... Whatyoudois... 3 youhavetodois... The key/main thing to remember is ... It’s vital/essential 4 you ... 5 sure the ... The next 6 isto... Thewayyou...itis... Explaining what not to do Make sure you don’t ... Be careful 7 to... Try to avoid (+ -ing) ... I’d advise you not to ... There’s no need to ... 8 you do, don’t ... Finishing the instructions And that’s it. And that’s all there is 9 it! 85 □ I can give instructions. 6F SPEAKING REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 225 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity after Exercise 5 or 6. Put students in pairs or groups and get them to show each other how to make the paper model they learnt at home, using language from the Speaking box. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 71/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about things they would like to change about their school or college. Does it need any new facilities or repairs? Ask them to make notes on how they would set about making these changes. Exercise 4 1 you need are some scissors and masking tape. 2youturnontheovenisby pressing this switch. 3Ididwas(to)useadamp dishcloth to remove the stain. 4 you do next is (to) soak it in water. 5 I did was touch the glass and it shattered! 6 he’s really good at is DIY. 7youneedtodoisrubthe surface with some oil. 8 you start the car is by turning the key in the ignition. T T N B thing Once All Make step not Whatever to that 103
1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos of a school common room and discuss the questions. 1 Does your school have a common room where students can study, socialise and relax between lessons? If so, how does it compare with the ones in the photos? 2 What would your ideal common room be like? Think about the ideas in the box. décor entertainment facilities food light seating space Aims The aim of this report is to identify areas for improvement in the student common room and make suggestions for how to achieve this. The report is based on a survey of fifty students. A Seating Nearly all students felt that the chairs and sofas were in bad condition. Several cushions are stained and many chairs legs are badly scratched. Many students also complained that the chairs were heavy and should be replaced with ones that were easy to move around. B Entertainment All of the students were of the opinion that there should be some form of entertainment. Several suggested a table tennis table. Opinions were divided about whether there should be a smart TV. Approximately half felt this would be beneficial, whereas the other half expressed concern that this might distract from study and conversation. C Décor Regarding wall colour, whilst a few expressed a preference for bright colours, around three quarters of students had no strong feelings on the matter. D Space A few students expressed a wish for the common room to contain storage lockers where they could place their bags. The vast majority of students, however, were concerned this would make the room feel cramped. E Food facilities Very few students were satisfied with the current food preparation facilities, namely, a toaster. A significant number complained they were obliged to go to the nearby supermarket to get food. A few suggested installing a vending machine. However, a considerably larger number wanted to be able to use a fridge and microwave. Conclusion and recommendations In conclusion, it seems that the priority is to replace the seating, provide a table tennis table, repaint the walls and install a fridge and microwave. Regarding the unresolved question of installing a smart TV, I would recommend asking all students in Years 11 and 12 to vote on this. report: Student Common Room Renovation 2 Read the Writing task below and the report. What kinds of problems are described? What are the solutions? The director of a school wants to renovate and update the school common room to make it a better place to study, socialise and relax. You have been asked to conduct a student survey and write a report about what needs to be improved, and make suggestions. 86 6G WRITING | A report EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS • Start the class by referring students to the notes they made at home and getting them to discuss the ideas and their reasons. This can be done in pairs, small groups or as a class. • Before students attempt the writing task in Exercise 8 on their own, ask them to plan another report in pairs, using the ideas from the notes they made at home. They should follow the steps in the Writing box, then swap their plan with another pair for peer checking. Students could then write the report at home, using their notes. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 72/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 88–89. Exercise 2 Problems: seating, entertainment, décor, space, food facilities Suggested solutions: replace the seating, provide a table tennis table, repaint the walls, install a fridge and microwave 104
On the street (37%) At a friend’s house (26%) Shopping centre (15%) Fast food outlet (13%) Sports centre (9%) h a n g o u t wit h f r i e n d s ? W h e r e d oy o u m o s t l y WATCH OUT! • Weuseofafter( of after ( of a) few, (a) little, much, many, some, several, most when they are followed by a pronoun most when they are followed by a pronoun most (it, them) or another determiner (a, the, this, my), e.g. Some of the students ... (NOT Some the students ... Some the students ...) • When they are followed by a noun, we do not use of, e.g. of, e.g. of Some students (NOT Some of students Some of students) • After (nearly) all or both, we often drop of before of before of a determiner, e.g. All (of)of)of the students ... • We always use of after long quantifying phrases, e.g. of after long quantifying phrases, e.g. of a number of ... the majority of ... 7 Write four sentences about what is happening in your classroom at the moment. Use a different quantifier in each sentence. 8 WRITING TASK Read the Writing task, study the survey results and write a report. Use the Writing box to help you. Your local council wants to address the problem of a lack of recreational facilities where young people can meet up with their friends. You have been asked to write a report about the situation and make suggestions. You have already done the survey and the results are shown below. 3 Complete the Writing box with examples from the report. WRITING | A report Organisation • Give your report a simple and concise title. • Begin with an introduction explaining the purpose of the report and how you obtained the information, e.g. The 1 /purpose of this report is to ... The report is intended to ... The report is 2 onasurveyof... Twenty-five students took part in the survey. • Use headings and bullet points. • Use linkers like regarding or with regard to to announce a change of topic. Style • Use an impersonal, semi-formal style. • Include your personal opinion in the final paragraph. Body • Report the opinions Some...3 a wish for/preference for/ concern that ... a wish for/preference for/ concern that ... Many ... were 4 the opinion/view that ... the opinion/view that ... ... had no strong 5 onthe6 Opinions were 7 about ... Some people commented that ... • Use quantifiers to express people’s opinions Just over half ... 8 half ... The majority of ... Some/Several/Many/All/None/Hardly anybody ... A few/A large/A 9 number of ... • Conclusion and recommendations In conclusion, it 10 /appears that ... Taking everything into consideration, ... I would strongly recommend ... The best solution would seem to be ... 4 Complete the diagram with quantifiers from the report. 100% 0% All 1 /Almost all Most/2 Many/3 Many/3 Many/ /Several (of)/Much /Several (of)/Much Some/Just over half/4 Some/Just over half/4 Some/Just over half/ /Around half A handful of/5 A handful of/5 A handful of/ /A small number of 6 /Hardly any/Very little /Hardly any/Very little None 5 Which of the quantifiers in Exercise 4 can be used with ... a countable nouns? b uncountable nouns? c both countable and uncountable nouns? 6 Study Watch out! Then read the sentences and correct the mistakes. 1 A few of the floorboards are loose. 2 Nearly all the stains have been removed. 3 Most the chairs need repairing. 4 The majority us use the common room every day. 5 Several of light bulbs weren’t working. 6 There’s very little storage space. Survey results based on interviews with 40 young people. RECREATIONAL FACILITIES SURVEY No (90%) Yes (9%) No opinion (1%) y o u n g p e o ple a d e q u a t e ? A r e t h e facilit i e s f o r Youth café (28%) Youth cinema (9%) Swimming pool, AstroTurf* (25%) Under 18, alcohol-free discos, karaoke live bands (21%) Dance, drama and music classes (17%) y o u m o s t lik e t o s e e ? W h a t f a c ilitie s w o u l d * an artificial surface like grass that sports are played on 06 87 □ I can write a report. Exercise 3 1 aim 2 based 3 expressed 4of 5 feelings 6 matter 7 divided 8 Approximately 9 significant 10 seems Exercise 4 1 Nearly all 2 The vast majority of 3 A significant number 4 Approximately half 5Afew 6 Very few Exercise 5 a many, several, a significant number of, a handful of, a small number, a few, very few b much, very little c all, nearly all, almost all, most, some, the vast majority, just over half, around half, hardly any, none Exercise 6 1 correct 2 correct 3 Most of the chairs need repairing. 4 The majority of us use the common room every day. 5 Several light bulbs weren’t working. 6 correct 105
6A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.36 be supposed to do sth /bi səˈpəʊzd tə ˌdu: ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ blow your nose /ˌbləʊ jə ˈnəʊz/ chatty (adj) /ˈtʃæti/ considerably (adv) /kənˈsɪdərəbli/ duty (n) /ˈdjuːti/ embrace the differences /ɪmˌbreɪs ðə ˈdɪfərənsəz/ flush a toilet /ˌflʌʃ ə ˈtɔɪlɪt/ forbid (v) /fəˈbɪd/ jump the queue /ˌdʒʌmp ðə ˈkjuː/ marginally (adv) /ˈmɑːdʒənəli/ nothing like /ˈnʌθɪŋ ˌlaɪk/ nowhere near /ˈnəʊweə ˌnɪə/ obligation (n) /ˌɒbləˈɡeɪʃən/ oblige (v) /əˈblaɪdʒ/ pay a fine /ˌpeɪ ə ˈfaɪn/ permission (n) /pəˈmɪʃən/ permit (v) /pəˈmɪt/ prohibition (n) /ˌprəʊhəˈbɪʃən/ punctuality (n) /ˌpʌŋktʃuˈæləti/ settle in (phr v) /ˌsetl ˈɪn/ significantly (adv) /sɪɡˈnɪfɪkəntli/ slightly (adv) /ˈslaɪtli/ sniff (v) sniff (v) sniff /snɪf/ social etiquette (n) /ˌsəʊʃəl ˈetɪket/ stay out (phr v) /ˌsteɪ ˈaʊt/ strict rule /ˌstrɪkt ˈruːl/ succeed (v) /səkˈsiːd/ 6B LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 55.37 adopt a lifestyle /əˌdɒpt ə ˈlaɪfstaɪl/ annual holiday /ˌænjuəl ˈhɒlədi/ commute (n, v) /kəˈmjuːt/ connectivity (n) /ˌkɒnekˈtɪvəti/ co-working space /ˌkəʊˈwɜːkɪŋ ˌspeɪs/ digital nomad (n) /ˌdɪdʒətl ˈnəʊmæd/ home comforts (n) /ˈhəʊm ˌkʌmfəts/ like-minded (adj) /ˌlaɪkˈmaɪn ˌdɪd/ maintain relationships /meɪnˌteɪn rɪˈleɪʃənʃɪps/ mobile lifestyle /ˌməʊbaɪl ˈlaɪfstaɪl/ nomad lifestyle /ˌnəʊmæd ˈlaɪfstaɪl/ on the move /ɒn ðə ˈmuːv/ put down roots /ˌpʊt ˈdaʊn ˌruːts/ settle down (phr v) /ˌsetl ˈdaʊn/ shared working space /ˌ ʃeəd ˈwɜːkɪŋ ˌspeɪs/ switch off from work /ˌswɪtʃ ˈɒf frəm ˌwɜːk/ (be) tied down to one place /(bi) ˌtaɪd ˈdaʊn tə wʌn ˌpleɪs/ work remotely /ˌwɜːk rɪˈməʊtli/ 6C GRAMMAR 5.38 Cairngorm Mountains, the /ˈkeənɡɔːm ˌmaʊntɪnz/ conservation expert (n) /ˌkɒnsəˈveɪʃən ˌekspɜːt/ Danube, the /ˈdænjuːb/ go on foot /ˌɡəʊ ɒn ˈfʊt/ Isle of Skye, the /ˌaɪl əv ˈskaɪ/ Mediterranean, the /ˌmedətəˈreɪniən/ Netherlands, the /ˈneðələndz/ Oxford graduate (n) / ˈɒksfəd ˌɡrædʒuət/ privileged (adj) /ˈprɪvəlɪdʒd/ quit (v) /kwɪt/ roundhouse (n) /ˈraʊndˌhaʊs/ running water /ˈrʌnɪŋ ˌwɔːtə/ source (v) /sɔːs/ 6D READING AND VOCABULARY 5.39 afford sth (v) /əˈfɔːd ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ airy (adj) /ˈeəri/ appreciate (v) /əˈpriːʃieɪt/ arrangement (n) /əˈreɪndʒmənt/ bedding (n) /ˈbedɪŋ/ capsule (n) /ˈkæpsjuːl/ compact (adj) /kəmˈpækt/ compete for sth (v) /kəmˈpiːt fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ confined (adj) /kənˈfaɪnd/ cram (v) /kræm/ cramped (adj) /kræmpt/ craze (n) /kreɪz/ densely populated (adj) /ˌdensli ˈpɒpjəleɪtəd/ diameter (n) /daɪˈæmɪtə/ enclosed (adj) /ɪnˈkləʊzd/ engage with sth (v) /ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ wɪð ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ environmental psychologist (n) /ɪnˌvaɪrənmentl saɪˈkɒlədʒɪst/ environmentally friendly /ɪnˌvaɪrənmentli ˈfrendli/ excess (adj) /ˈekses/ finding (n) /ˈfaɪndɪŋz/ fold (v) /fəʊld/ get on (phr v) /ˌget ˈɒn/ have concerns about sth /ˌhəv kənˈsɜːns əˈbaʊt ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Add more words and phrases from the word list to the vocabulary map. PROBLEMS puddle of water ACTIVITIES change a bulb DOMESTIC CHORES 2 Find three phrases to describe living in one place. 3 Complete the phrases in the text with up or down. Then check with the word list. If a vacuum cleaner breaks 1 , I sweep the floors. If my guest spills something, I wipe it 2 . If my younger brother dropsatoy,Ipickit3 . It seems that I’m the only one in this house who has any duties! Ievenhavetodo4 my my own room. When I graduate, I’ll be on the move so I won’t be tied 5 to any place that needs to any place that needs cleaning. As soon as it gets dirty or messed 6 , I’ll be gone! 4 Write the opposites. Then check with the word list. 1 lacking – 2 spacious (house) – 3 urban (surroundings) – 4 (environmentally) harmful – 5 Match the two parts of the adjectives. Then check with the word list. 1 like- 2 densely 3 space- 4 medium- 6 Do the task below. Look at the word list and choose five phrasal verbs that you would like to learn. Write a short story with them similar to the one in Exercise 2 above or use the phrases in sentences. Remember to make your sentences meaningful, e.g. I always stand up for my stand up for my stand up for friends when they are in trouble. a populated b sized c saving d minded 88 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Put students in pairs and assign one category from Exercise 1 to each student (Domestic chores – problems and Domestic chores – activities). Each student writes anagrams with words/phrases from their category, then both students close their books. Point out that they should not show their anagrams to their partner. Students then swap lists and the first student to solve all the anagrams is the winner. • Put students in pairs or small groups and ask them to choose ten words from the word list to make a story with. They have 5 minutes to write their story, then share it with another pair/ group. The other pair/group should try to write down the ten words they think are from the word list. down down up up down up excess cramped rural environmentally friendly c a d b Exercise 1 Problems: blocked showerhead, carpet stain, dirt, leaking pipe, scratched screen, shattered glass, tangled leads, water stain Activities: clear up, do up, decorate a room, mend, mop up, polish a surface, sweep up Exercise 2 put down roots settle down be tied down to one place 106
ingenious (adj) /ɪnˈdʒiːniəs/ limit (v) /ˈlɪmɪt/ living small /ˈlɪvɪŋ ˌsmɔːl/ living space (n) /ˌlɪvɪŋ ˈspeɪs/ mansion (n) /ˈmænʃən/ maximize (v) /ˈmæksəmaɪz/ medium-sized (adj) /ˈmiːdiəmˌsaɪzd/ nostalgic (adj) /nɒˈstældʒɪk/ outline (v) /ˈaʊtlaɪn/ outsized (adj) /ˈaʊtsaɪzd/ parental (adj) /pəˈrentl/ plenty (pron) /ˈplenti/ point sth out (phr v) /ˌpɔɪnt ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈaʊt/ pop outside /ˌpɒp aʊtˈsaɪd/ property (n) /ˈprɒpəti/ punishment (n) /ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/ put sth away (phr v) /ˌpʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ əˈweɪ/ restricted (adj) /rɪˈstrɪktɪd/ retreat (v) /rɪˈtriːt/ room (n, uncountable) /ruːm/ sense of community /ˌsens əv kəˈmjuːnəti/ sliding door (n) /ˌslaɪdɪŋ ˈdɔː/ slope (n) /sləʊp/ slum (n) /slʌm/ so-called (adj) /ˌsəʊˈkɔːld/ social interaction /ˌsəʊʃəl ˌɪntərˈækʃən/ space-saving (adj) /ˈspeɪsˌseɪvɪŋ/ spacious (adj) /ˈspeɪʃəs/ storage (n) /ˈstɔːrɪdʒ/ storeroom (n) /ˈstɔːrʊm/ suite (n) /swiːt/ vast (adj) /vɑːst/ wastefully (adv) /ˈweɪstfəli/ withdraw (v) /wɪðˈdrɔː/ whilst (conj) /waɪlst/ 6E VOCABULARY 5.40 arrange (v) /əˈreɪndʒ/ blocked showerhead /ˌblɒkt ˈʃaʊəhed/ break down (phr v) /ˌbreɪk ˈdaʊn/ brush (n) /brʌʃ/ carpet stain (n) /ˈkɑːpɪt ˌsteɪn/ carry out (phr v) /ˌkæri ˈaʊt/ change a bulb /ˌtʃeɪndʒ ə ˈbʌlb/ clear up (phr v) /ˌklɪə ˈʌp/ come off (phr v) /ˌkʌm ˈɒf/ decorate a room /ˌdekəreɪt ə ˈruːm/ dirt (n) /dɜːt/ dishcloth (n) /ˈdɪʃklɒθ/ dissolve (v) /dɪˈzɒlv/ do up (phr v) /ˌduː ˈʌp/ door handle (n) /ˌdɔː ˈhændl/ dustpan (n) /ˈdʌstpæn/ fade (v) /feɪd/ fi x (v) /fɪks/ flat tyre /ˌflæt ˈtaɪə/ hack (n) /hæk/ keep up with (phr v) /ˌkiːp ˈʌp ˌwɪð/ label (v) /ˈleɪbəl/ leak (v) /liːk/ leaking pipe /ˈliːkɪŋ ˌpaɪp/ masking tape /ˈmɑːskɪŋ ˌteɪp/ mend (v) /mend/ mop up (phr v) /ˌmɒp ˈʌp/ pick up (phr v) /ˌpɪk ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈʌp/ polish a surface /ˌpɒlɪʃ ə ˈsɜːfɪs/ puddle (n) /pʌdl/ regain (v) /rɪˈɡeɪn/ remove (v) /rɪˈmuːv/ replace (v) /rɪˈpleɪs/ rub (v) /rʌb/ rubber band (n) /ˌrʌbə ˈbænd/ scratched screen /ˌskrætʃt ˈskriːn/ shattered glass /ˌ ʃætəd ˈɡlɑːs/ shrink (v) /ʃrɪŋk/ slip on sth (v) /ˈslɪp ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ smash into pieces /ˌsmæʃ ˌɪntə ˈpiːsəz/ soak (v) /səʊk/ soapy (adj) /ˈsəʊpi/ sweep up (phr v) /ˌswiːp ˈʌp/ switch on (phr v) /ˌswɪtʃ ˈɒn/ switch off (phr v) /ˌswɪtʃ ˈɒf/ tangled leads /ˌtæŋɡəld ˈliːdz/ tumble dryer (n) /ˌtʌmbəl ˈdraɪə/ water stain /ˌwɔːtə ˈsteɪn/ wipe down (phr v) /ˌwaɪp ˈdaʊn/ wipe off (phr v) /ˌwaɪp ˈɒf/ 6F SPEAKING 55.41 assemble (v) /əˈsembəl/ cut out (phr v) /ˌkʌt ˈaʊt/ diagonally (adv) /daɪˈæɡənəli/ DIY /ˌdiː aɪ ˈwaɪ/ fitting (n) /ˈfɪtɪŋ/ flat pack /ˈflætˌpæk/ follow instructions /ˌfɒləʊ ɪnˈstrʌkʃənz/ It’s advisable to /ˌɪts ədˈvaɪzəbəl tə/ horizontally (adv) /ˌhɒrəˈzɒntli/ ignition (n) /ɪɡˈnɪʃən/ personalise (v) /ˈpɜːsənəlaɪz/ put up (phr v) /pʊt ˈʌp/ rectangle (n) rectangular (adj) slide (v) /slaɪd/ screw sth in /ˌskruː ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈɪn/ screwdriver (n) /ˈskruːˌdraɪvə/ switch plate /ˈswɪtʃ pleɪt/ vertically (adv) /ˈvɜːtɪkli/ unscrew (v) /ʌnˈskruː/ washi tape /ˈwɒʃi ˌteɪp/ 6G WRITING 55.42 adequate (adj) /ˈædɪkwət/ AstroTurf (n) /ˈæstrəʊtɜːf/ common room (n) /ˈkɒmən ˌruːm/ conduct a survey /kənˌdʌkt ə ˈsɜːveɪ/ décor (n) /ˈdeɪkɔː/ express a wish/a preference /ɪkˌspres ə ˈwɪʃ/ə ˈprefərəns/ facility (n) /fəˈsɪləti/ fast food outlet (n) /ˈfɑːst ˌfuːd ˌaʊtlet/ floorboard (n) /ˈflɔːbɔːd/ handful (n) /ˈhændfʊl/ hang out (phr v) /ˌhæŋ ˈaʊt/ have strong feelings on sth /ˌhəv ˌstrɒŋ ˈfiːlɪŋz ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ loose (adj) /luːs/ priority (n) /praɪˈɒrəti/ recreational (adj) /ˌrekriˈeɪʃənəl/ regarding (prep) /rɪˈɡɑːdɪŋ/ seating (n) /ˈsiːtɪŋ/ socialise (v) /ˈsəʊʃəlaɪz/ storage locker /ˈstɔːrɪdʒ ˌlɒkə/ table tennis table /ˈteɪbəl ˌtenɪs ˌteɪbəl/ take sth into consideration /ˈteɪk ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˌɪntə kənˌsɪdəˈreɪʃən/ unresolved (adj) /ˌʌnrɪˈzɒlvd/ vast majority /ˌvɑːst məˈdʒɒrəti/ vending machine (n) /ˈvendɪŋ məˌ ʃiːn/ 89 06 • Put students in groups of four and divide each group into two pairs. Ask each pair to choose three words from the word list which they think the other pair might not know the meaning of. They should write a definition for each word – two should be correct, and one incorrect. When they are ready, they should read out their words and definitions, for the other pair to guess the incorrect definition. If any pairs had definitions which weren’t guessed correctly as false, they can share them with the class to guess at the end of the activity. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 73/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 6. 107
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. There are two extra words. co-working space cramped far nothing like nowhere near on the move settle down spacious tied down Flo used to work in an office and unlike her friends, she had never wanted to travel the world. She had always wanted to buy a house and 1 with her husband, Mark, who was also keen to stay in the town where they were living. He didn’t like being 2 all the time as he found living in different places stressful. They both agreed that staying in one place was a3 better option than travelling. However, one day Flo decided to leave her office job as the regular nine to six schedule made her feel very 4 . She wanted to feel free! Getting another job was 5 as easy as she had thought it would be. Finally, she came to a decision: she would set up her own company. As their home was small and quite 6 , she found a7 in their area where she could base her office and meet other independent workers at the same time. 2 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. 1 Comfortable, medium-sized / confined room for rent in shared house with storage. 2 Animals in zoos often suffer because they have to live in confined / vast spaces. 3 Can you change / repair this light bulb, please? repair this light bulb, please? repair This one’s stopping working. 4 They live on a remote / densely populated island in the north of England which does not have many inhabitants. 5 You need a dustpan and brush / dishcloth to sweep up that shattered glass. 6 Oh no! There’s a stain / soak on the new soak on the new soak carpet. I hope I can remove it. 7 All the leads behind the TV are blocked / tangled. 3 Replace the object with a pronoun. Change the word order where necessary. 1 I’ll wipe down the table. I’ll wipe it down. I’ll wipe it down. 2 We’re doing up the kitchen. 3 I came across this ring when I was vacuuming. 4 Get rid of these empty bottles, please. 5 Can you pick up the fork, please? 6 They can’t deal with so much work. 7 You need to mop up that water. 4 Choose two correct options to complete the sentences. 1 We have to / mustn’t / ought to call the plumber. I can’t fix this leaking pipe myself. 2 Luckily, I could / was able to / managed to make new friends quickly at university. 3 You needn’t / don’t have to / can’t repair the flat tyre can’t repair the flat tyre can’t today. We can do it tomorrow. 4 The shop isn’t obliged to / mustn’t / mustn’t / mustn’t doesn’t have to remove the scratches from your smartphone screen free of charge, but you can ask. 5 You aren’t permitted to / aren’t forbidden to / mustn’t bring pets on the train. You’ll have to go by bus. 6 When I moved to Madrid, I wasn’t able to / couldn’t / didn’t manage to understand Spanish, but now I’m fluent. 7 You are not allowed to / not permitted to / not obliged to work unless you have a visa. 8 People driving a car are required to / are able to / should carry a driving licence. 5 Complete the text with ø (no article), a/an or the. Although some people in Although some people in Although some people in Although some people in Although some people in Although some people in Although some people in 1 UK live in flats, 2 awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more awful lot of people prefer houses. They tend to be more spacious and often have spacious and often have spacious and often have 33 garden. My uncle and garden. My uncle and garden. My uncle and garden. My uncle and garden. My uncle and aunt live in aunt live in 4 small house in small house in small house in small house in small house in small house in small house in small house in small house in 555 country. country. country. country. country. The view from The view from The view from 66 top of top of top of topof7 nearby cliffs over nearby cliffs over nearby cliffs over nearby cliffs over 8 North Sea is North Sea is North Sea is North Sea is 9 most amazing one I have most amazing one I have most amazing one I have most amazing one I have ever seen! I’ve been to visit them four or five times ever seen! I’ve been to visit them four or five times ever seen! I’ve been to visit them four or five times ever seen! I’ve been to visit them four or five times ever seen! I’ve been to visit them four or five times ever seen! I’ve been to visit them four or five times ever seen! I’ve been to visit them four or five times 10 year ever since I can remember and we often year ever since I can remember and we often year ever since I can remember and we often year ever since I can remember and we often year ever since I can remember and we often year ever since I can remember and we often year ever since I can remember and we often drive to drive to 11 Pennines and go hiking. Now that I’m at Pennines and go hiking. Now that I’m at Pennines and go hiking. Now that I’m at 12 college, I can’t visit so often. college, I can’t visit so often. Next year, I’m going to study in Next year, I’m going to study in 13 USA at 14 Washington University, and after that I want to travel Washington University, and after that I want to travel round round 15 South America. But I know I’ll always South America. But I know I’ll always South America. But I know I’ll always come and visit my aunt and uncle in their beautiful home come and visit my aunt and uncle in their beautiful home come and visit my aunt and uncle in their beautiful home come and visit my aunt and uncle in their beautiful home come and visit my aunt and uncle in their beautiful home come and visit my aunt and uncle in their beautiful home come and visit my aunt and uncle in their beautiful home near the sea. near the sea. near the sea. 6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets. Add extra words were necessary. 1 Do you think it’s true that there’s an old law in Scotland saying that if a stranger knocks on your door, asking to use the toilet, you (suppose/let/ they) in? 2 My parents would like (I/settle) and get married, and I feel like travelling the world! 3 Because of her father’s job, her family had to move a lot and (able/put) roots anywhere. 4 When I finish school, I’m going to live like a digital nomad because I don’t want (be/tie) (be/tie) one place. 5 Back then, he (be/always/the move), never staying in one town more than a few days. Snapshots Snapshots of My of My of My Life Life Life BY PETE BY PETE 06 Revision 90 REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 226 FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 193 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 6 and Self-check 6, Workbook pages 74–75/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening ASSESSMENT • Unit 6 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 6 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 6 Writing Test • Units 5–6 Cumulative Review Test • Units 5–6 Exam Speaking Exercise 6 1 are supposed to let them 2 me to settle down 3 wasn’t able to put down roots 4tobetieddownto 5 was always on the move Exercise 3 2 We’re doing it up. 3 I came across this/it when I was vacuuming. 4 Get rid of them, please. 5 Can you pick it up, please? 6 They can’t deal with it. 7 You need to mop that/it up. Exercise 1 1 settle down 2 on the move 3 far 4 tied down 5 nowhere near 6 cramped 7 co-working space the a a the the the the the a the the ø ø ø an 108
USE OF ENGLISH 7 Complete the second sentence using the word in bold so that it means the same as the first one. Use no more than five words, including the word in bold. STRATEGY | Transformations Do not change the key word. Remember that there is a word limit so always check the number of words. 1 It’s a lot colder in England in winter than in the south of France. SIGNIFICANTLY in the south of France in winter than it is in England. 2 I managed to find somewhere to study German as soon as I arrived. ABLE somewhere to study German as soon as I arrived. 3 You’re allowed to ride a bike on local roads. PERMITTED Bike riders on local roads. 4 In Spain you should eat an orange with a knife and fork. SUPPOSED In Spain an orange with a knife and fork. an orange with a knife and fork. 5 I think Maths is slightly more difficult than Physics. MARGINALLY I think Physics . 6 How many bags can I take on the plane? ALLOWED How many bags on the plane? 7 I was able to pick up the language quickly. SUCCEEDED the language quickly. 8 In the UK, it isn’t necessary to carry an ID card. REQUIRED You an ID card in the UK. Use of English > page 193 LISTENING 8 3.9 You are going to listen to an international student called Stephanie talking about her life. Complete the notes below with 1–3 words in each gap. • Stephanie says people who have grown up in different cultures are known as 1 . • Many of Stephanie’s new friends want to 2 . • Stephanie speaks 3 fluently. • It is neither 4 nor fancy for Stephanie to pop over to see her family just for a weekend. • The most important factor in keeping up friendships at a distance is 5 . • Stephanie will complete her university course in 6 . SPEAKING 9 Look at the photos. In pairs, turns to describe the photos and then discuss the questions below. STRATEGY | Photo comparison Do not describe each photo individually. Find some things which are similar and some things that are different. A B 1 Would you prefer to live in the house or the apartment block? Say why. 2 Some people believe that getting rid of unnecessary things in your house makes you happier. How far do you agree with this opinion? 3 Some people say that the location of a house is more important than its size. Do you agree? Say why. WRITING 10 Your local government wants to improve the town centre and make it better for people. Your college principal has asked students to write a report on the situation to send to the local government. In your report, you should: • describe some of the problems in the town centre, • suggest what improvements should be made to solve these problems. Write your report. 91 Exercise 8 1 third culture kids 2 travel the world 3 Spanish and English 4 cheap 5 (having) (a) routine 6 2022 Exercise 7 1 It’s significantly colder 2Iwasabletofind 3 are permitted to ride 4 you are supposed to eat 5 is marginally easier than Maths 6 am I allowed to take 7 I succeeded in picking up 8 are not required to carry 109
A B Giant Beach Clean-up Giant Beach Clean-up Giant Beach Day C Last year the annual Giant Beach Clean-up Day saw volunteers collect nearly 65 tonnes of plastic and other litter from beaches around the country! Join us for a day of fresh air, fun with others and a real sense of achievement in making the beach a cleaner and safer place for local wildlife, as well as nicer for us. Contact your local Giant Beach Clean-up organiser and turn up on the day with your own bin bags and gloves. Send any photos you take on the day to us, and we’ll post them online to encourage even more people to join us in cleaning up our beaches. Derwick Hot Meals provides around 30,000 hot meals a year for homeless and vulnerable people. We are looking for volunteers to join our outreach team who go out onto the streets every Monday, Thursday and Sunday evening, delivering hot food – and friendship – from the vans. A driving licence would be helpful. We are seeking people with good communication skills, enthusiasm and understanding. You would need to be available for at least one evening a week, for three or four hours. Become a befriender As a befriending volunteer you will be visiting an elderly person either in their own home, or in a care home, spending time with them and doing the things they want to do. You will be helping to reduce their social isolation by giving them some contact with the world outside their home. It’s a direct way to make a difference to someone’s life, and you might make a new friend. You will be expected to call or visit the older person for between 30 and 60 minutes once a week, over an extended period of time. Agreed expenses are paid. PROVIDE HOT MEALS AND FRIENDSHIP 92 LIFE SKILLS How to make the most of volunteering REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 226 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS If students have access to the Internet in class, they could do a search for volunteering opportunities in their area in small groups. They can then present one volunteering opportunity to the class, with the aim of selling the idea to them. At the end of the presentations, have a class vote on which presentation was the most effective. 110
1 In pairs, look at the photos showing different volunteering opportunities and discuss the questions. 1 How are the volunteers in each picture helping others, or the environment? What other kinds of volunteering can you think of? 2 Have you done any volunteering? If so, tell your partner what you did and what you learned from the experience. 2 Read notices A–C on a volunteering website. Match them with questions 1–6. Some texts match more than one question. Which volunteering opportunity ... 1 □ would pay any costs involved? 2 □ asks for a specific qualification? 3 □ asks you to bring your own equipment? 4 □ does not involve working in a team? 5 □ requires the least commitment in terms of time? 6 □ uses social media accounts to recruit volunteers? 3 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 How would volunteering at these places benefit other people or the local community? 2 What kind of commitment does each volunteering opportunity require? 3 Which opportunity appeals to you the most/the least? Say why. 4 3.10 Listen to a radio programme about the personal benefits of volunteering. Using the headings below, list the benefits the speaker mentions. • Social life • Personal development • Career development 5 3.10 Listen to the recording again and complete the sentences with the missing words. 1 A lot of volunteering involves working in a team so you get a chance to required to work closely with others. 2 Volunteering can be a good way to people. 3 You might also within an area that you hope to build a career in when you’re a bit older. 4 Volunteering has been shown to of stress and anxiety, and that it can help with depression too. 5 We know that being helpful to others to produce ‘feel good’ chemicals. 6 others, and doing something meaningful is pretty powerful. 6 Work in pairs. Look back at your notes in Exercise 4. For each project on page 92, discuss possible personal benefits in terms of the volunteer’s personal development, social life and career development. 7 Study the Life Skills box and think about your answers to the questions. Then, interview your partner using the box. Discuss what kind of volunteering projects would suit each of you. LIFE SKILLS | How to make the most of volunteering It’s important to remember than volunteering is a commitment. When applying to be a volunteer, make responsible decisions about the project you want to be involved in. Ask yourself these questions: 1 What can I offer? • What causes are important to me? • What skills do I have that I could offer? • What experience do I have that will help me to be a volunteer? 2 What can I realistically commit to? • How much time can I afford to give? • Am I better at working alone or in a team? • Would I rather work from home or face-to-face? • Could I organise a smaller project myself (in school or local community)? 3 What can I learn? • What skills would I like to learn? • What experience can I get? • What else could I learn from volunteering? 8 Read a statement below. In small groups, make a list of arguments for and against that you could use in a debate. It is better to donate money to established charities than to volunteer your time as an inexperienced amateur? 9 In pairs, discuss the question. What smaller volunteer projects could you set up (e.g. holding a bake sale, delivering meals or books to patients in a local hospital)? Make a list of possible projects. 10 Do the task below. LIFE SKILLS | Project Work in pairs or small groups. • Choose one of the projects you listed in Exercise 9. • Think about what the aims of your project are specifically – to raise money/awareness, help the community, other? • Decide on the scale of your project – is it a one-off event, or something that happens regularly? • Make a list of the skills you would need from your volunteers. • Decide if there is anyone you need to ask for permission. • Consider how you will gather your volunteers – asking individuals, word of mouth, poster, social media? • Present your ideas to the class. 93 05–06 Exercise 2 1 A (expenses are paid) 2 B (a driving licence would be helpful) 3 C (bring your own bin bag and gloves) 4 A (working one to one with an elderly person) 5 C (it’s one day a year) 6 C (it mentions sharing photos online) Exercise 4 Possible answers Social life: a way to meet new people and make friends; good if you are shy Personal development: reduces stress and anxiety; improves symptoms of depression; makes you happier; pleasure from doing something meaningful Career development: learn to work in a team; develop ‘soft skills’, s uch as communication skills, problem-solving or project planning; learn specific skills such as doing the accounts, building or making something; gain experience relevant to a future career, e.g. events planning Exercise 5 1 develop the skills 2 get to know 3 get some experience 4 reduce the effects 5 stimulates the brain 6 Connecting with 111
1 SPEAKING In pairs, read the quote. What do you think it means? Give reasons for your answers. 3 Use the words in the box to complete the phrases and collocations from the news reports in Exercise 2. cause chant lobby for put pressure on rally against stage take to wave 1 a protest 2 a change 3 gun violence 4 placards 5 slogans 6 the government 7 the streets 8 a public outcry 2 3.11 Listen to three news reports about different protests. What is each protest about? Which one is shown in the photo above? Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter. matter. matter Mar tin L uther King 94 7A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY Is it fair? 07 VOCABULARYLanguage to describe protest, social issues, easily confused words, online abuse, common prefixes and suffixes, dependent prepositions GRAMMAR Reported speech, reporting verb patterns Use of English > page 194 SPEAKING Expressing your opinion and challenging somebody else’s opinion WRITING An article VIDEO Grammar Documentary REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 227 VIDEO SCRIPT page 243 CULTURE NOTES page 210 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS This activity can be done before or after Exercise 10. Put students in pairs and ask them to write a short news report using reported speech. However, they have to try to get in all the phrases in Exercise 4. Ask pairs to raise their hands when they have finished. When the first pair has finished, invite them to read out their report to the class and invite the class to check for reported speech and all the phrases in Exercise 4. Alternatively, join pairs together into groups of four to check their reports. Exercise 2 1 students’ rally against gun violence 2 environmentalists’ protest against the government’s decision to allow further construction in the National Park 3 students’ march against tuition fees The photo shows protest 2. Exercise 3 1 stage 2 lobby for 3 rally against 4 wave 5 chant 6 put pressure on 7 take to 8 cause Exercise 4 1 rally against 2 took to the streets, stage a protest, lobby for a change 3 chanting the slogan, waving placards, causing a public outcry, put pressure on the government 112
9 Look at examples a–c from the recording in Exercise 8. What do you notice about the use of tenses? Match the examples with rules 1–3 below. a ‘She said she’s going to go to the one next week as well.’ b ‘She says it’s really important to keep protesting until something changes.’ c ‘She says she’s really determined.’ 1 □ We do NOT change direct speech into reported speech when the reporting verb is in the present tense. 2 □ We may choose NOT to change direct speech into reported speech when the action in the direct speech is still happening or is going to happen. 3 □ We may also choose NOT to change direct speech into reported speech when the direct speech describes a general truth or fact that is unlikely to change. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 183 10 Rewrite each statement in reported speech. Factory workers staged a rally yesterday to lobby for higher pay. They were chanting slogans and waving banners. The factory has been a major employer in the area for many years. I spoke to an employee who had been working at the factory for thirty years. 1 The journalist said that . The pay is so bad now that we can’t survive on it. Everyone has the right to enough money to live on. I ’d like the management to take this situation seriously. Why is no one listening to us? 2 The factory employee said that . 11 SPEAKING In pairs, each choose one of the questions below and ask your partner for their opinion. Listen to their answer. Then find a new partner and report what your first partner said. 1 What are some situations that have caused a public outcry in your country? 2 Is it better to take to the streets or to sign a petition? 3 What can you do to protest, other than staging a rally? 14 Read the sentence below and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, tell your stories. Tell us about a situation when you needed someone’s help. G R A M M A R V I D E O 4 3.11 Listen again. In which news story (1, 2 or 3) did you hear each phrase? 5 In pairs, describe what happened at each of the three protests using the phrases in Exercise 3. Reported speech 6 3.12 THINK BACK Look at these sentences reporting what people said in Exercise 2. Write what they said originally in direct speech. Listen and check. 1 She said that approximately 250 students were gathering at that time. gathering at that time. ‘Approximately .’ 2 She said that there had been more than 520 shootings in the city that year that year. ‘There .’ 3 He asked why lawmakers couldn’t understand how gun violence impacted their lives. ‘Why ?’ 4 He asked lawmakers to come and see what it was like to live there. ‘If any lawmakers are listening, .’ 5 She said that could lead to as much as forty-eight percent of the park being destroyed. 'This .’ 6 He said it seemed unlikely that day’s that day’s demonstration would make any difference. ‘It .’ 7 He said that education should clearly be free. ‘It .’ 8 He ordered the cameraman to stop filming there. ‘ !’ 7 In pairs, discuss the questions, giving examples in each case from Exercise 6. 1 What usually happens to tenses in reported speech? 2 How does the word order change when we report a question? Think about Wh- and Yes/No questions. 3 What verb could you use to report a command? 4 How do will and can change in reported speech? 5 How do could and should change in reported speech? Do you know any other modal verbs which also behave like this? 6 What happens to pronouns, place and time phrases in reported speech? 7 What verb(s) do we use to report requests? 8 3.13 Listen to two students discussing a friend who joined the protest against tuition fees and answer the questions. 1 Did Kathy think the protest was a success? 2 What does she plan to do next? Say why. 95 07 □ I can use reported speech to talk about what someone else said. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 7, page 272 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 183 • Workbook pages 76–77/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 28: There’s no Planet B, pages 284, 317 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 7A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 7A NEXT CLASS Students finish and/or illustrate their reports and upload them to the online classroom space if you have one, or pin them up around the classroom at the beginning of the next class for other students to read and comment on. Exercise 6 1 250 students are gathering right now 2 have been more than 520 shootings in the city this year 3 can’t they/lawmakers understand how gun violence impacts our lives 4 come and see what it’s like to live here 5 could lead to 48 percent of the park being destroyed 6 seems unlikely that today’s demonstration will make any difference 7 should clearly be free 8 Stop filming here Exercise 7 1 Tenses shift backwards (e.g . 1 are gathering → were gathering; 2 have been → had been; 6 seems → seemed). 2 In Wh- questions, the word order changes to be the same as a statement (e.g. 3 Why can’t lawmakers understand → why lawmakers couldn’t understand). In Yes/No questions, we use if in the reported question and the word order of a statement. 3 tell, order, demand, etc. (e.g. 8 He ordered the cameraman to stop ...) 4 will → would (e.g. 6 will make → would make); can → could (e.g . 3 Why can’t ...? → Why ... couldn’t) 5 They don’t change (e.g . 5 that could lead to → that could lead to; 7 should clearly be → should clearly be). Might, need, ought to and would do not change in reported speech. 6 These also change in reported speech (e.g . 2 this year → that year; 6 today’s → that day’s; 3 our lives → their lives; 8 here → there). 7 We use ask/request to report a request (e.g. 4 come and see → He asked lawmakers to come and see) Exercise 10 1 The journalist said that factory workers had staged a rally the day before / the previous day to lobby for higher pay. They had been chanting slogans and waving banners. The factory has been a major employer in the area for many years. I spoke to an employee who had been working at the factory for thirty years. 2 The factory employee said that he pay was so bad now that they couldn’t survive on it. Everyone has the right to enough money to live on. He’d like the management to take this situation seriously. He asked why no one was listening to them. She said she was going to keep protesting until something changed. She was going to go to another protest the following week. yes c a b 113
ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Word building A suffix added to the base form of a word can often indicate what class of word it is. To form nouns we commonly use: • -ism (sexism) • -dom (freedom) • -ment ( ment ( ment government) • -sion/tion/cion (suspicion, population) • -ity ( ity ( ity brutality) • -ness (weakness) • -ance/ence (defence, reliance) • -ice (practice). To form verbs we commonly use: • -ate (complicate) • -ify (ify (ify clarify) • -ise (victimise) • -en (shorten) • -ute (commute) or the base form of the word. To form adjectives we commonly use: • -able/ible (flexible) • -al (formal) • -ful (useful) • -ive (productive) • -less (homeless) • -ous (nervous) • -ory( ory ( ory contradictory) or the past participle form. 6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of words from Exercise 5. 1 Harry felt that there was a good reason for what he did and that his actions were . 2 Feminism aims to overcome the of women by society. 3 The government completely crushed the and re-established order. 4 She felt she had been against because of the colour of her skin. 5 Criminal networks are constantly finding new ways to people and force them to work for nothing. 6 We need to find the criminals and bring them to . 7 Everything is being done to ensure of opportunity for everyone. 8 Does your lawyer think the contract is ? 7 3.14 3.14 PRONUNCIATION Listen to eight pairs of words from the same family. Write S (same) when the main stress in both words is on the same syllable, and D (different) when the word stress changes. 1 □ equality equalise 2 □ discrimination discriminatory 3 □ institution institutionalise 4 □ enforcement enforceable 5 □ exploitation exploitative 6 □ justify justifiable 7 □ rebel rebel 8 □ persecution persecute 8 SPEAKING In small groups, discuss which of the facts in the fact file about social issues you found most shocking. Say why. 15 15 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 168. Watch the documentary Driving social change and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 1 THINK BACK Work in pairs. Which of these social issues are a particular problem in your country? Say why. homelessness immigration petty crime racism unemployment vandalism 2 Check you understand the phrases in the box. Which of these social issues have you read/heard about lately? domestic violence gender equality hate crime institutional racism juvenile delinquency modern slavery organised crime relative poverty 3 Read the fact file about current social issues worldwide and choose the correct numbers from the box to complete it. Check your answers on page 198. 43 million 77% 16 100 19.1% $150 billion 4 Find nouns in the text which are from the same word family as the root words in the box. What other words in the same families do you know? discriminate enforce equal expand exploit persecute 5 Study Active Vocabulary and complete the table. Verb Noun Adjective enforce 1 enforceable 2 3 equal 4 expansion expansive exploit 5 6 7 discrimination 8 institutionalise institution 9 10 11 justifiable/justified oppress 12 13 14 rebel/rebellion 15 persecute 16 17 18 victimised The exploitation of workers, sometimes called modern slavery, generates around 1 each year. each year. Women in Australia still only earn about 2 of the salary their male counterparts receive, which is a clear example of gender inequality. Studies into law enforcement in the US show institutional racism with African Americans who receive sentences on average 3 longer than white Americans receive for the same crimes. More than 4 people around the world have been forced to leave their homes as a result of conflict and persecution. Statistics from the US show that more than half of all juvenile delinquency court cases involved juveniles under the age of 5 . The police in England and Wales receive around 6 calls an hour related to domestic violence. 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 SHOCKING WAYS the world needs to change! the world needs to change! 6 96 □ I can talk about social issues. 7B VOCABULARY | Social issues REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 243 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 2, ask students to close their books and dictate only the first or second part of each of the compound nouns in Exercise 2. Students try to complete them as quickly as they can. The first student to do so is the winner. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 78/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 29: It’s an issue, pages 284, 318 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 7 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 7 NEXT CLASS Ask students to think of (or do an Internet search for) a film which addresses a particular social issue and make notes on it. Exercise 3 1 $150 billion 2 77% 3 19.1% 4 43 million 516 6 100 Exercise 4 discriminate – discrimination (discriminatory) enforce – enforcement (enforceable, unenforceable) equal – inequality (equality, equalise) expand – expansion (expanse, expansive, expandable) exploit – exploitation (exploitative) persecute – persecution (persecutor) Exercise 6 1 justified 2 oppression 3 rebellion 4 discriminated 5 exploit 6 justice 7 equality 8 enforceable D D S S D D D D equalise (in)equality enforcement exploitation exploitative expand discriminate discriminatory institutional justify justification rebel rebellious victimise victim persecution oppression oppressive 114
A B C 4 3.15 3.15 Listen again and decide if statements 1–7 are true (T) or false (F), or if the information is not given (NG). 1 □ Leandro Firmino, who plays L’il Ze, lived in the area called Cidade de Deus (City of God) before starring in the film. 2 □ The City of God area of the city was too dangerous to be made safe. 3 □ Jess’s parents thought that football was not a suitable game for a girl. 4 □ Morgan Spurlock was a vegan before he started filming Super Size Me. 5 □ The fast food company ended up thanking the film maker for his intervention. 6 □ Sean McElwee always wanted to be on television or in a film. 7 □ People now approach Sean McElwee in the street because they recognise him from TV. 5 In pairs, compare sentences a from the audioscript in Exercise 2 with sentences b. Work out the differences in meaning of the highlighted words. Check your ideas on page 198. Then write your own sentences with these words. 1 a The area is probably somewhere for a tourist to avoid. b The escaped prisoner will not be able to evade capture for long! 2 a He consumed over 5000 calories a day. b It was two degrees above zero. 3 a Spurlock set out to prove the harm caused by eating fast food. b They tested his blood for glucose. 4 a The diet raised his cholesterol significantly. b The magic carpet rose up into the air. 5 a At the end of the film, the hero dies. b We were thinking of moving house, but in the end we decided against it. 6 SPEAKING In pairs or small groups, discuss the questions. 1 What social issues did you hear discussed in the audio? 2 What other films or TV series can you think of that have tried to raise awareness of social issues? How successful were they in this? 1 SPEAKING Look at the photos. Have you seen any of these films? Do you like it when films have a serious message? Say why. 2 Read the descriptions of four films/TV series. What social issues do they touch? 1 City of God is a Brazilian film which depicts the growth of violence in the poverty-stricken suburbs of Rio de Janeiro from the 1960s to the 1980s. The main character, Rocket, accidentally starts documenting the life of the gangs there. 2 Super Size Me is a documentary film which follows the film maker, Morgan Spurlock, as he spends thirty days eating only fast food and measuring the impact on his physical and mental health. 3 Born This Way is an American reality TV series Born This Way is an American reality TV series Born This Way which features seven young adults with Down syndrome as they navigate relationships and jobs, and grow more independent. 4 Bend It Like Beckham is a British-Indian romantic comedy which tells the story of an eighteen- year-old British-Asian girl whose parents have forbidden her from playing her beloved football. 3 3.15 Listen to four people talking about the films and TV series in Exercise 1. Match Speakers 1–4 with what they say about the film/series (a–g). There are three extra options. Speaker:1□ 2□ 3□ 4□ a It had little to no effect on the situation as a whole. b It featured someone who put their own life in danger to tell the world about a situation. c It was probably part of a general shift in how society felt about something. d It helped reduce poverty in a particular city. e It has helped people to be more accepting of others. f It aimed to encourage greater cultural awareness. g It led to a short-lived but dramatic improvement in the situation. Bend It Like Beckham City of God Super Size Me 07 97 □ I can identify specific details and talk about social issues in films. 7C LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 227 CULTURE NOTES page 210 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • After Exercise 4, students, in pairs, make two more sentences for two or three of the easily confused pairs of words. They can then swap with another pair for checking. • Students can use the notes they made at home to support their discussions in Exercise 6. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 79/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 30: Films and social issues, pages 284, 319 d c b e Exercise 2 1 organised crime, poverty, violence, homelessness, drug abuse, relative poverty 2 fast food, obesity, unhealthy lifestyle 3 intolerance 4 gender equality Exercise 4 1T 2 F (It was made safe in 2009.) 3T 4 NG (We only know his girlfriend was a vegan.) 5 F (They denied that his film it had any impact on their policies.) 6NG 7T 115
5 Choose the correct answers. 1 What is the writer emphasising in the first paragraph? a Sean was old enough to have developed some self-confidence. b It was nothing new for Sean to be ridiculed for his weight. c Being humiliated online was far worse than being mocked in person. d Internet trolls hide their identities online because they are cowardly. 2 What is Sean’s attitude towards the people who posted the video of him online? a He feels very sorry for them. b He tries not to think about them at all. c He thinks they probably feel bad about themselves. d He is grateful to them for what happened. 3 What is the writer’s main point in the final paragraph? a If you ignore bullies, they usually give up and go away. b The bullies made a big mistake doing what they did. c Sean’s case was rather different from other cases of bullying. d We all have a responsibility to take a stance against bullying. 4 What do we learn about Sean’s character from reading this article? a He would like the bullies to suffer themselves. b He is quite sensitive to criticism. c He wants to give something back to society. d He enjoys being the centre of attention. 6 Work out the meaning of the words from the article. Then match their prefixes with correct meanings 1–7. overweight unaware immature nonsense rethought extra-special anti-bullying multi-talented insecurities unfortunately discovered unsafe illegal distress impossible misjudged uncomfortable disagree unacceptable 1 against 2 wrongly or badly 3 more than expected 4 more than is wanted 5 again 6 many 7 a negative meaning (6 prefixes) 7 Think of other words with the prefixes and write sentences with them. 8 REFLECT | Society In pairs or small groups, discuss the question. Think of another situation where it was difficult to do the right thing, but you managed to do it. What factors helped you to do this? Tell your partner/group about it. 1 SPEAKING In pairs, read the title. What do you think might have happened? Read the article and check your ideas. 2 Match the highlighted words and phrases from the news story with their definitions. 1 To make somebody feel bad about their weight. 2 In a way which is intended to hurt someone. 3 To treat something as unimportant and not worry about it. 4 To finally be successful after other people have criticised you. 5 To laugh at someone and try to make them look stupid by saying unkind things about them. 6 To stand up for what you believe. 7 To make someone feel ashamed or stupid, especially when other people are present. 3 Study Active Reading. Then look at the underlined sentences (1–3) in the text and separate out the clauses in the same way. ACTIVE READING Understanding complex and compound sentences Long sentences often include a mixture of dependent and independent clauses, e.g. A group of women in Los Angeles, who were campaigning to encourage everyone to have a positive body image, decided to take action. • A clause which makes sense on its own is known as an independent clause, e.g. A group of women in Los Angeles decided to take action. • A clause which doesn’t make sense on its own is known as a dependent clause, e.g. ... , who were campaigning to encourage everyone to have a positive body image, ... Breaking the sentence down into its separate elements can help you understand the meaning better, e.g. But this time, as well as laughing at him in person, someone decided to publicly fat-shame him by posting the video online, with a hurtful comment. 1 Someone laughed at Sean in person. 2 They decided that this time they would also post a video of Sean online. 3 They added a hurtful comment. 4 Read the article again and complete the notes with 1–3 words in each gap. 1 Sean O’Brien was targeted by after a video of him dancing was posted online. 2 A message to Sean was posted on Twitter by a group of Californian women who believed that a positive body image should not depend on your . 3 With celebrity support, the movement despite Sean’s initial assumption that people would quickly lose interest. 4 Sean had thought that not many people would go to the party, but when he saw a long line of people at the door. 5 is illegal in the UK. 6 The fact that online bullies often use makes them harder to prosecute. 98 □ I can understand complex and compound sentences in articles. 7D READING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 210 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Do this activity after Exercise 6. Put students in pairs and tell them the class is going to have a race to see who can be the first to come up with one new word for each of the prefixes in the box in Exercise 6. Ask students to put their hands up when they have finished. Allow most of the class to finish, then check the words of the first pair. If the words are all correct, congratulate them as being the winners. If not, check the answers of the second pair and so on. • As a follow-up to Exercise 8, ask students to also discuss other ways in which people can be bullied and what can be done to tackle it. Exercise 3 1 a The forty-seven -year-old (Sean) knew that people sometimes mocked him for being overweight. b Sean is head of finance for a chain of hotels. c Sean was usually able to shrug off people mocking him. 2 a Sean wasn’t aware of the fact that the people laughing at him had posted a video. b The post about Sean was shared widely. c The post prompted a wave of abuse from other internet trolls. 3 a The women raised $40,000 in just a few days. b The money was both to finance the trip and to support a number of anti-bullying charities. c Sean was soon on his way to California. Exercise 4 1 (immature) internet trolls 2 size 3 got bigger 4 realised his mistake / was surprised 5 Sending malicious communications 6 fake profiles Exercise 6 1 anti- (anti-bullying) 2 mis- (misjudged) 3 extra- (extra-special) 4 over- (overweight) 5 re- (rethought) 6 multi- (multi-talented) 7 dis- (disagree, discovered, distress); un- (unaware, unfortunately, unsafe, uncomfortable, unacceptable); il- (illegal); in- (insecurities); im- (immature, impossible); non- (nonsense) Exercise 2 1 fat-shame 2 maliciously 3 shrug it off 4 had the last laugh 5 mocked 6 took a stance against 7 humiliate 116
‘DANCING MAN’ ‘DANCING MAN’ ‘DANCING MAN’ ‘DANCING MAN’ ‘DANCING MAN’ Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh Sean O’Brien, shamed by online bullies, has the last laugh they had been bullied or victimised could receive support. The ‘dancing man’ himself has become a fundraiser for several anti-bullying charities. Sean commented in an interview at the time that he was amazed that something which started out so badly, had become such a positive movement. He said that he had actually never really thought about the people who posted the original images, concluding that they must have their own insecurities, to put the spotlight on someone else so maliciously. Sean certainly had the last laugh. We will probably never know exactly why they decided to try and publicly humiliate Sean, but unfortunately, it is certainly the case that the Internet is full of such bullies. A recent UK survey discovered that forty-two percent of people under twenty-five had felt unsafe online and fifty-six percent said they had witnessed online bullying. In the UK at least, cyberbullying itself is not illegal, but sending ‘malicious communications’ for the purpose of causing anxiety or distress is punishable by up to six months in prison. Unless the bully is known to the victim, however, it can be almost impossible to find them and enforce the law, as they usually hide behind fake profiles. However, in this particular case, the bullies completely misjudged the impact their actions would have in the end. We are often told that the best idea is not to give bullies any attention, but it may be that the best way to deal with cyberbullying is to act as these women did and be brave enough to make it clear that we are uncomfortable with this kind of behaviour, that we disagree with what is being said and that bullying is completely unacceptable. For Sean O’Brien, it was just an ordinary night out with friends. 1 The forty-seven-year-old head of finance for a chain The forty-seven-year-old head of finance for a chain of hotels, knew that people sometimes of hotels, knew that people sometimes mocked him for being him for being him for being him for being him for being overweight, and he was usually able to overweight, and he was usually able to shrug it off shrug it off shrug it off. But this time, as well as laughing at him in person, someone decided to publicly fat-shame him by posting a video of him dancing him by posting a video of him dancing online, with a hurtful comment. 2 Sean was completely Sean was completely unaware of it, but the post about him was shared widely, and unaware of it, but the post about him was shared widely, and it prompted a wave of abuse from immature Internet trolls prompted a wave of abuse from immature Internet trolls. However, as well as the cyberbullies, other people were watching. A group of women in California, who were campaigning to encourage people to have a positive body image whatever their size, decided to take action. They put out a message on Twitter, inviting Sean on an all-expenses- paid trip from London to Los Angeles, to meet and dance with them. There was just one problem: they had no idea who he was! They started a hashtag #FindDancingMan. When Sean’s friends first told him about the search for ‘dancing man’, he figured it was a bit of nonsense which would soon blow over, and decided not to bother doing anything about it. But the movement got bigger and bigger, and was soon joined by celebrities such as Ellie Goulding and Pharrell Williams. So, Sean rethought his decision, made contact, and the women – all 1,700 of them – started raising money to throw him an extra-special party in LA. 3 In just a few In just a few days, they had raised $40,000, both for the trip and to support days, they had raised $40,000, both for the trip and to support a number of anti-bullying charities, and Sean was on his way a number of anti-bullying charities, and Sean was on his way. First stop was New York, where he appeared on the Today show, dancing with the singer-songwriter, Meghan Trainor, famous for her body positive anthem, ‘All About That Bass’. Then it was off to the party in California. Sean had assumed that just a few people would turn up, but he realised his mistake as soon as he saw over 1,000 people queuing to get into the nightclub! The event was deejayed by the multi- talented musician, record producer, singer, songwriter and photographer, Moby, and guests included a number of other celebrities. Sean danced all night and the story of how he and the women’s group in California took a stance against cyberbullying was reported around the world. As a result of the event, some of the women set up Dance Free Movement, an online forum where anyone who felt Free Movement, an online forum where anyone who felt Free Movement of hotels, knew that people sometimes of hotels, knew that people sometimes 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 GLOSSARY anxiety – an uncomfortable feeling of nervousness or worry about something blow over – If an argument or unpleasant situation blows over, it ends or is forgotten. distress – a feeling of extreme worry, sadness, or pain insecurity – a feeling of lacking confidence and not being sure of your own abilities wave of abuse – a sudden increase in cruel or violent treatment of someone 3.16 07 99 FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook pages 80–81/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 31: Cyberbullying – don’t stand for it, pages 285, 320 NEXT CLASS Ask students to report a short conversation they hear on the day before the next lesson. They should write it in their notebooks. 117
5 Study the Grammar box and complete it with the verbs from the sentences in Exercise 4. Reporting verbs Reporting verbs are used to summarise what someone said. They follow these patterns: • verb + that + clause, e.g. that + clause, e.g. that agree, deny, explain, promise, regret, suggest, 1 • verb + object + that clause, e.g. that clause, e.g. that advise, remind, warn • verb + to-infinitive, e.g. offer, promise, regret, 2 , 3 • verb + object + to-infinitive, e.g. encourage, remind, warn, 4 , 5 • verb + gerund, e.g. admit, advise, deny, recommend, suggest, 6 • verb + preposition + gerund, e.g. apologise for, 7 • verb + preposition (+ object) + gerund, e.g. 8 • verb + object + preposition + gerund, e.g. accuse sb of, congratulate sb on, praise sb for, warn sb aginst/about 9 Grammar Reference and Practice > page 183 6 Rewrite the sentences in reported speech, using reporting verbs from the Grammar box. 1 Kate: ‘It was that man who stole the money!’ 2 Callum: ‘I didn’t break Tim’s phone!’ 3 Harry: ‘I’ll help you with the boxes.’ 4 Adele: ‘You should get more exercise, Lee.’ 5 Peter: ‘I’ll leave you if you do that, Maria!’ 6 Michael: ‘I’ll always remember you!’ 7 Jenny: ‘I hear you’ve got engaged, Sandra. Congratulations!’ 8 Amal: ‘I’m really sorry I forgot your birthday, Kerry.’ 7 SPEAKING In pairs, report unfair situations. Student A, go to page 196. Student B, go to page 200. 1 Read the news headlines. What do you think happened in the stories? 2 Now read the reports. Do you agree that the situations were unfair? Do you think the outcome in each case was the right one? Say why. 3 3.17 Listen to some students discussing the news 3.17 Listen to some students discussing the news 3.17 reports. Whose opinion do you agree with more in each case? Say why. Reporting verbs 4 3.18 Complete these extracts from the recording with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Listen and check. 1 The school refused (let) them wear shorts in a heat wave, didn’t they? 2 They insisted on them (wear) really hot trousers. 3 It’s not surprising that the boys objected to objected to (do) that, is it? 4 Well, I heard that they successfully persuaded the persuaded the school (change) the uniform policy. 5 The company admitted that (make) a mistake in hiring her. 6 But they agreed agreed (give) her the job in the first place, didn’t they? 7 How can they then criticise her for (be) young? 8 Maybe they regretted regretted (give) her the job. 9 It’s a pity someone didn’t advise them (not fire) her for being too young. SKIRTING ROUND THE RULES A heatwave in Britain this week caused a rebellion at a school in Exeter aer boys were told that they were not allowed to wear shorts despite soaring temperatures. The young rebels decided to stage a protest, arguing that it was discriminatory for girls to be allowed to wear skirts or trousers, when they did not have this choice. To make the point about equality, the boys turned up wearing skirts. As a result, the school has changed its uniform policy to allow the wearing of shorts. SACKED FOR BEING TOO YOUNG! Megan Thomas, aged twenty, from Surrey, has become the first person to win a discrimination claim when she was fired aer being told she was too young to do her job properly. Under age discrimination laws, it is illegal to discriminate in any way on the basis of age. The London club where Megan was employed justified their actions by saying that she did not have the necessary maturity for the role. She was awarded a sum of £10,000 . 100 □ I can use reporting verbs to summarise what someone said. 7E GRAMMAR REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 228 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 5, in pairs, students swap the conversations they wrote at home and rewrite them, but this time using a variety of reporting verbs. Students can then swap back conversations for marking. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 183 • Workbook page 82/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 32: Tell me what they said, pages 285, 321 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 7E ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 7E NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about any new laws they would like to make and why, and make notes. Exercise 5 1 admit 2 refuse 3 agree 4 persuade 5 advise 6 regret 7 object to 8 insist on 9 criticise sb for Exercise 6 Suggested answers 1 Kate accused him / the man of stealing the money. 2 Callum denied breaking / that he had broken Tim’s phone. 3 Harry offered to help me/her/ him/us/them with the boxes. 4 Adele suggested getting / that Lee should get more exercise. / Adele advised Lee to get / that Lee should get more exercise. 5 Peter warned Maria that he would leave if she did that. 6 Michael promised that he would always remember / to always remember him/her. 7 Jenny congratulated Sandra on getting engaged. 8 Amal apologised for forgetting Kerry’s birthday. to let wearing doing to change had made to give being giving not to fire 118
5 Look again at the phrases in the Speaking box. What makes the phrases stronger or more tentative? 6 3.20 Listen to three pairs of sentences. Which speaker in each pair sounds as if they have a strong (S) opinion? Which speaker sounds more tentative (T)? Say why. 1 Speaker 1 Speaker 2 2 Speaker 1 Speaker 2 3 Speaker 1 Speaker 2 7 3.20 Listen again and practise saying the sentences with the correct intonation. 8 Complete the conversation with phrases from the Speaking box. Then practise reading it in pairs. Al Do you think the law should be changed to make punishments for shoplifting more severe? Bob 1 that people would be less likely to shoplift if they knew they’d get an automatic prison sentence. 2 it would be much more effective than banning them from the shop, for example. Al3 , but studies have shown that a lot of shoplifters are shoplifting food and clothes because they can’t afford to buy them. How would sending them to prison help? Bob 4 we should just let them steal, then? Al No, but it isn’t as simple as you say. 5 we need to look at each case and see why they did it: if they’ve done it before, if they’re likely to do it again and so on. Bob I can see what you mean, but 6 that we need to have a strong deterrent, to stop people from doing it at all. 9 REFLECT | Society In groups, discuss the questions. 1 What is your opinion about the suggested ‘new laws’ discussed on the message board? Are any of them appealing or practical? 2 What new laws do you think should be introduced? 1 Do you think that rules and laws are always right? Give reasons for your answer. 2 Read the message board discussion. Which suggestions do you agree or disagree with? Say why. 3 3.19 Listen to Kyle, Anna and Lauren discussing the suggested laws. Make notes about their opinions. Law discussed Kyle’s opinion Anna’s opinion Lauren’s opinion 1 Playing loud music on public transport 2 No automatic right to treatment 3 Hunting and fishing 4 3.19 Study the Speaking box. Listen again and complete the phrases with the words from the box. concerned debatable entitled saying expert frankly goes inclined principle see shadow tend SPEAKING | Expressing and challenging opinions Expressing your opinion Strong opinion It1 without saying that ... I really think/don’t think that ... Without a 2 of a doubt, ... 3 , I think it’s obvious that ... Less strong opinion My impression is that ... I’m of the opinion that ... As far as I’m 4 ,... Counter opinion It’s a good idea in 5 ,but... Ican6 where they’re/you’re coming from, but ... Tentative opinion I’m no 7 ,but... I8 to think (that) ... I’m 9 to think (that) ... Challenging somebody else’s opinion That’s 10 , isn’t it? You’re 11 to your opinion, but ... Are you 12 that ...? Dreamer4U added a question Jul 19, 2019 I’m curious: can you think of any laws that don’t exist, but really should? For example, people who play loud music on public transport should be fined. 1010man added an answer Jul 19 I’ve got loads of ideas: people who don’t look after their health shouldn’t get free medical treatment. Also, people who shoplift should be banned from shopping centres. JulieJools added an answer Jul 20 Wow, @1010man, you’re tough! I think we should do more to protect animals. All forms of hunting and fishing should be banned. It’s unnecessary and cruel. 07 101 □ I can express and challenge opinions. 7F SPEAKING REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 228 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS To support their discussion in Exercise 8, students can refer to the notes they made at home. Encourage them to agree or disagree using the language in the Speaking box. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 83/Online Practice Exercise 3 1 Kyle: This should be a law, but maybe it’s not practical. Anna: It’s not practical. Who would enforce the law? Lauren: Thinks the bus driver could enforce the law. 2 Kyle: How would you decide who should be subject to this law? Anna: It wouldn’t work. Lauren: It’s impractical because it would not be possible to work out who was responsible for what. 3 Kyle: Hurting animals is always wrong. Anna: People should decide for themselves. Lauren: Hunting should be banned, but maybe not fishing as fish don’t feel pain. Exercise 5 The more tentative expressions are less firm/direct. The speaker qualifies his/her opinion with words such as tend, but, I’m no expert, etc. Exercise 6 1 Speaker 1 S (She uses highly, which makes her sound more sure of her opinion.) Speaker 2 T (He uses Well, a common way of making something sound less direct. He uses a a question tag to invite agreement. The intonation also expresses a much less decided view.) 2 Speaker 1 T (She uses Well and probably. The intonation is also more tentative.) Speaker 2 S (The utterance is very plain, with no qualifying phrases, adverbs, etc. which makes it more direct and stronger.) 3 Speaker 1 S (The utterance is very plain, which makes it more direct and stronger.) Speaker 2 T (He uses Well, and probably. He uses a question tag to invite agreement. The intonation is also tentative.) Exercise 8 Suggested answers 1 I think 2 As far as I’m concerned 3 I can see where you’re coming from, 4 Are you saying that 5 I’m of the opinion that 6 I’m inclined to think goes shadow Frankly concerned principle see expert tend inclined debatable entitled saying 119
1 SPEAKING What is a ‘cat café’? Have you ever been to one? Read the article and compare it with your ideas or experience. 2 Read the Writing task. In which paragraph of the article does the writer address the two underlined parts of the task? You recently found out about an initiative to help stray animals. Write an article for a youth magazine in which you describe this initiative you describe this initiative and express your opinion on express your opinion on how worthwhile such actions are. Pws ws for thought for thought for thought for thought Did you know that there are at least nine million stray cats living wild in the UK, surviving on scraps? In the UK at least, local councils have no legal responsibility to deal with them, and their numbers are growing. But there is one initiative that is trying to help. All across the country, people are setting up ‘cat cafés’ and I visited one last month. From the outside it looked like any other café, but once I was inside I saw why it’s called a cat café. Curled up on every piece of furniture were a dozen or so cats, just hoping for us to make a fuss of them. I ordered a cup of tea and a cake (with absolutely no cat hairs in it!) and the owner explained that the Cat Café was a way of introducing people to stray cats and that they might then choose to adopt one and take it home. I love cats, but it would be impractical for me to have one. I discovered though, that there are lots of other things the people 3 Study the Writing box and discuss the questions. 1 Which tip from the Writing box does the writer use in the title? 2 Which tips in the Writing box does the writer use to make the introduction engaging? 3 How does the conclusion emphasise the ideas in the introduction? who run the café are doing to help. For example, there is a scheme that they’re running to build shelters for other stray cats, to protect them against the weather. I had no idea of the scale of the problem before visiting the Cat Café and my visit really opened my eyes to this situation, and to everything that is being done to help. Participating in such projects is, without a shadow of a doubt, worthwhile because they educate the public as well as helping individual animals. If you want to get a kitten, think carefully about what you will need to do in order to look after it properly. Don’t just think about how cute the kitten looks: ‘paws for thought’! Consider the time, energy and expense involved before you get a cat. I don’t want to discourage you from adopting a cat, but remember that once you have taken it into your home, you are responsible for its well-being and safety. 102 7G WRITING AND VOCABULARY | An article EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • After Exercise 4, play a quick dictation game with the class. Ask students to close their books. Read out some of the words in the table randomly for students to write down the correct dependent preposition. To check answers, ask students to swap papers with a partner for marking, and give the class the correct answers. The student with the most correct answers wins. • After Exercise 10, put students in pairs and ask them to read each other’s articles and give their partner feedback. Has their partner followed the tips in the Writing box? Have they included a range of dependent prepositions? What have they done well? What could be improved? FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 84/Online Practice Exercise 1 A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with. Some cat cafés even offer living-room-like areas where you can play with the cats while enjoying a drink. Exercise 3 1 The writer uses a pun: Paws (pause) for thought. 2 The writer asks a rhetorical question and gives a surprising statistic. 3 It returns to the problem stated in the introduction (millions of stray cats) and appeals to people to think carefully before getting a cat; it also repeats the pun from the title. paragraph 3 120
6 Complete the sentences with a correct preposition in each gap. 1 If they keep increasing money paid to a university, students may rebel the high cost of education. 2 People sometimes feel they don’t want to interfere someone else’s relationship. 3 Although it is difficult, people need to speak out racial discrimination. 4 People need to be discouraged throwing litter on the streets. 5 Women need to negotiate equal pay with men. equal pay with men. 6 The growth in organised crime is related increased poverty. 7 Older people may find it more difficult to cope long working hours. 8 How are students expected to survive so little money? 7 Match the sentences in Exercise 6 with some of the issues from the box. □ age discrimination □ animal rights □ domestic violence □ gender equality □ gun violence □ racism □ the environment □ □ tuition fees 8 Read the Writing task and choose a topic from the box in Exercise 7, or your own idea, to write about. Use the Writing box to help you. Write a topic sentence for each paragraph. You recently took part in a demonstration about an issue you feel strongly about. Write an article in which you describe the protest, explaining why it was important and what you hoped to achieve. 9 Read two possible introductions for the Writing task in Exercise 8. Rewrite them in a more suitable style using the ideas in the Writing box to help you. 1 Women have become more equal over the last few decades, but it’s still difficult for them to succeed professionally. They also often don’t earn the same salary. 2 Universities are planning to increase their fees to more than £10,000 a year. I think this isn’t fair. Students whose families are on a low income won’t be able to attend university. 10 WRITING TASK Write your article. Use the Writing box to help you. • Use your notes and topic sentences from Exercise 8. • Use a lively, informal style. • Don’t forget to include a range of dependent prepositions. WRITING | An article Title Attract your reader’s attention with a catchy/interesting title. You could: • use a question form, e.g. Can we save stray cats? • use a pun, e.g. Paws for thought, • use alliteration, e.g. Captivating Cat Café. Introduction Clearly define what your article is about. You could: • address your readers directly, • give a surprising fact or statistic, • tell a personal anecdote, • ask a rhetorical question. Main paragraphs • Each paragraph should have a clear topic. • Use an informal, chatty style throughout. • Use informal punctuation, e.g. exclamation marks. Conclusion Return to the main idea from the introduction; leave the reader with something to think about. You could: • repeat the words form the title, • make a suggestion, • give a personal opinion, • ask a thought-provoking question. 4 Many verbs are often followed by a specific preposition. Complete the table with examples from the article on page 102. against A defend, 1 B campaign, rebel, fight back, demonstrate, speak out for C2 , lobby, beg, wish, negotiate from Dban,3 , prohibit in E engage, intervene, interfere, 4 on F exist, get by, live, 5 to G6 , connect, join, relate with H7 , cope, struggle 5 Verbs with similar meanings often use the same dependent preposition. Look at the groups of verbs A–H in the table in Exercise 4 and match them with the general meanings 1–8 below. 1 be involved 2 stop someone or something 3 make connections 4 manage a situation (well or badly) 5 take care of someone or something 6 want or try to get something 7 manage to live on few resources 8 oppose someone or something 07 103 □ I can write an article. NEXT CLASS • Students illustrate their articles using photos and create a poster. The posters can then be displayed around the classroom for other students to read. • Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 104–105 . protect hope discourage participate survive introduce deal E A G F D C H B 7 2 5 6 3 4 18 against in against from for to with on 121
7A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.43 cause a public outcry /ˌkɔːz ə ˌpʌblɪk ˈaʊtkraɪ/ chant slogans /ˌtʃɑːnt ˈsləʊɡənz/ clashes with the police /ˌklæʃɪz wɪð ðə pəˈliːs/ clear majority /ˌklɪə məˈdʒɒrəti/ demonstration (n) /ˌdemənˈstreɪʃən/ environmentalist (n) /ɪnˌvaɪrən ˈmentəlɪst/ grant (n) /ɡrɑːnt/ lawmaker (n) /ˈlɔːmeɪkə/ lobby for change /ˌlɒbi fə ˈtʃeɪndʒ/ online petition (n) /ˌɒnlaɪn pəˈtɪʃən/ protestor (n) /prəˈtestə/ push for development /ˌpʊʃ fə dɪˈveləpmənt/ put pressure on the government /ˌpʊt ˈpreʃə ɒn ðə ˈɡʌvəmənt/ rally against gun violence /ˈræli əˌɡenst ˈɡʌn ˌvaɪələns/ shooting (n) /ˈʃuːtɪŋ/ social issues /ˌsəʊʃəl ˈɪʃuːz/ stage a protest /ˌsteɪdʒ ə ˈprəʊtest/ take to the streets /ˌteɪk tə ðə ˈstriːts/ troublemaker (n) /ˈtrʌbəlˌmeɪkə/ tuition fee (n) /tjuˈɪʃən ˌfiː/ wave placards /ˌweɪv ˈplækɑːdz/ 7B VOCABULARY 55.44 aim to do sth /ˈeɪm tə ˌduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ contradictory (adj) /ˌkɒntrəˈdɪktəri/ defence (n) /dɪˈfens/ discriminate (v) /dɪˈskrɪməneɪt/ discrimination (n) /dɪˌskrɪməˈneɪʃən/ discriminatory (adj) /dɪˈskrɪmənətəri/ domestic violence /dəˌmestɪk ˈvaɪələns/ enforce (v) /ɪnˈfɔːs/ enforceable (adj) /ɪnˈfɔːsəbl/ enforcement (n) /ɪnˈfɔːsmənt/ equal (adj) /ˈiːkwəl/ equalise (v) /ˈiːkwəlaɪz/ equality (n) /ɪˈkwɒləti/ expand (v) /ɪkˈspænd/ expansion (n) /ɪkˈspænʃən/ expansive (adj) /ɪkˈspænsɪv/ exploit (v) /ɪkˈsplɔɪt/ exploitation (n) /ˌeksplɔɪˈteɪʃən/ exploitative (adj) /ɪkˈsplɔɪtətɪv/ gender equality (n) /ˈdʒendə ɪˈkwɒləti/ hate crime (n) /ˈheɪt ˌkraɪm/ inequality (n) /ˌɪnɪ ˈkwɒləti/ institution (n) /ˌɪnstɪˈtjuːʃən/ institutional (adj) /ˌɪnstəˈtjuːʃənəl/ institutional racism /ˌɪnstəˈtjuːʃənəl ˌreɪsɪzəm/ institutionalise (v) /ˌɪnstəˈtjuːʃənəlaɪz/ justifiable (adj) /ˈdʒʌstəfaɪəbəl/ justification (n) /ˌdʒʌstɪfɪˈkeɪʃən/ justified (adj) /ˈdʒʌstɪfaɪd/ justify (v) /ˈdʒʌstɪfaɪ/ juvenile (adj, n) /ˈdʒuːvənaɪl/ juvenile delinquency (n) /ˌdʒuːvənaɪl dɪˈlɪŋkwənsi/ modern slavery (n) /ˌmɒdn ˈsleɪvəri/ on average /ɒn ˈævərɪdʒ/ oppress (v) /əˈpres/ oppression (n) /əˈpreʃən/ oppressive (adj) /əˈpresɪv/ organised crime /ˌɔːɡənaɪzd ˈkraɪm/ persecute (v) /ˈpɜːsɪkjuːt/ persecution (n) /ˌpɜːsɪˈkjuːʃən/ petty crime /ˌpeti ˈkraɪm/ rebel (n) /ˈrebəl/ rebel (v) rebel (v) rebel /rɪˈbel/ rebellion (n) /rɪˈbeljən/ rebellious (adj) /rɪˈbeljəs/ receive a sentence /rɪˌsiːv ə ˈsentəns/ relative poverty /ˌrelətɪv ˈpɒvəti/ reliance (n) /rɪˈlaɪəns/ suspicion (n) /səˈspɪʃən/ victim (n) /ˈvɪktɪm/ victimise (v) /ˈvɪktəmaɪz/ victimised (adj) /ˈvɪktəmaɪzd/ 7C LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 5.45 approach (v) /əˈprəʊtʃ/ as a whole /əz ə ˈhəʊl/ at the end /ət ði ˈend/ avoid (v) /əˈvɔɪd/ be accepting of others /ˌbi əkˈseptɪŋ əv ˌʌðəz/ beloved (adj) /bɪˈlʌvɪd/ cultural awareness /ˌkʌltʃərəl əˈweənəs/ depict (v) /dɪˈpɪkt/ dramatic improvement /drəˌmætɪk ɪmˈpruːvmənt/ evade (v) /ɪˈveɪd/ feature (v) /ˈfiːtʃə/ grow independent /ˌɡrəʊ ˌɪndəˈpendənt/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs from the word list. My class wanted to 1p pressure on the local authorities to build a swimming pool in our school. Last Monday we 2t action and we 3s a protest a protest outside the town hall. About 100 students 4w banners and placards. We even 5c slogans like: ‘Swimming pool in our school!’. Sadly, the school head said we shouldn't have 6t to the streets. He said we could have signed a 7p instead. 2 Complete the sentences with the correct negative words formed from the words in bold. Then check with the word list. 1 My teachers complain that my handwriting is completely (LEGIBLE). 2 The driver (JUDGE) the situation on the road and drove into the barrier. 3 Wemustdomoretofixthe problems of poverty and (EQUAL) in the world. 4 When she went to university, she was still (MATURE) and dropped out after her first year. 3 Match the two parts of the noun compounds. Then check with the word list. 1 hate 2 gender 3 gun 4 tuition 5 juvenile ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Word families If you are studying for an exam, create lists of words that belong to the same word family (e.g. justify (v) / justice (n) / justify (v) / justice (n) / justify justified (adj) / justifiable (adj), and add to them words for other parts of speech (i.e. negative adjective: unjustified or adverb: justifiably). Grouping words in this way is useful to practise for word formation type tasks. You can use an online dictionary to help you, e.g. www.ldoceonline.com. a violence b delinquency c crime d equality e fee 104 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Write the following words on the board: justify, enforce, discriminate, equal, rebel, expand, persecute, exploit, oppress. Ask students to form a noun for each word using suffixes. If there is time, you could then ask them to write an example sentence for each noun. • Divide the class into teams. Dictate to each team in turn a word from the word list to spell correctly for one point. Ensure each pair of words has similar spelling difficulty. Students get an extra point of they can use it correctly in a sentence. The team with the most points at the end are the winners. • In pairs, students take it in turns to say a word from the word list for their partner to write a definition. Allow 3–4 minutes for this, then ask pairs to say how many definitions they came up with. Ask the pair with the most words and definitions to read them out to the class. The class can decide if they are all correct. Congratulate the pair with the most correct definitions. ut ook taged aved hanted aken etition Exercise 2 1 illegible 2 misjudged 3 inequality 4 immature c d a e b 122
harm (n) /hɑːm/ in the end /ɪn ði ˈend/ insight (n) /ˈɪnsaɪt/ notorious (adj) /nəʊˈtɔːriəs/ put sb’s life in danger /ˌpʊt ˌsʌmbɒdiz ˈlaɪf ɪn ˈ deɪndʒə/ raise (v) /reɪz/ rise (v) /raɪz/ shift (n) /ʃɪft/ short-lived (adj) /ˌ ʃɔːt ˈlɪvd/ test blood for glucose /ˌtest ˈblʌd fə ˈɡluːkəʊs/ 7D READING AND VOCABULARY 55.46 abuse (n) /əˈbjuːs/ all-expenses-paid trip /ˌɔːl ɪkˈspensɪz ˌpeɪd ˈtrɪp/ anthem (n) /ˈænθəm/ anti-bullying charity /ˌæntɪˈbʊliɪŋ ˈtʃærəti/ anxiety (n) /æŋˈzaɪəti/ blow over (phr v) /ˌbləʊ ˈəʊvə/ chain of hotels /ˌtʃeɪn əv həʊˈtelz/ cowardly (adj) /ˈkaʊədli/ cyberbully (n) /ˈsaɪbəˌbʊli/ cyberbullying (n) /ˈsaɪbəˌbʊliɪŋ/ deejay (v) /ˈdiːdʒeɪ/ distress (n) /dɪˈstres/ fat-shame sb (v) /ˈfætˌ ʃeɪm ˌsʌmbɒdi/ have the last laugh /ˌhəv ðə ˌlɑːst ˈlɑːf/ head of finance (n) /ˌhed əv ˈfaɪnæns/ humiliate sb (v) /hjuːˈmɪlieɪt ˌsʌmbɒdi/ hurtful comment /ˌhɜːtfəl ˈkɒment/ illegal (adj) /ɪˈliːɡəl/ immature (adj) /ˌɪməˈtʃʊə/ indecisive (adj) /ˌɪndɪˈsaɪsɪv/ insecurity (n) /ˌɪnsɪˈkjʊərəti/ maliciously (adv) /məˈlɪʃəsli/ misjudge (v) /ˌmɪsˈdʒʌdʒ/ mock sb (v) /ˈmɒk ˌsʌmbɒdi/ multi-talented (adj) /ˌmʌltiˈtæləntɪd/ prompt sth /ˈprɒmpt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ prosecute (v) /ˈprɒsɪkjuːt/ punishable (adj) /ˈpʌnɪʃəbəl/ put the spotlight on sb /ˌpʊt ðə ˈspɒtlaɪt ɒn ˌ sʌmbɒdi/ receive support /rɪˌsiːv səˈpɔːt/ rethink (v) /riːˈθɪŋk/ ridicule sb (v) /ˈrɪdəkjuːl ˌsʌmbɒdi/ sensitive to sth /ˈsensətɪv tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ shrug sth off (phr v) /ˌ ʃrʌɡ ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈɒf/ start a hashtag /ˌstɑːt ə ˈhæʃtæɡ/ take a stance against sth /ˌteɪk ə ˈstɑːns əˌɡenst ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ take action /ˌteɪk ˈækʃən/ target (v) /ˈtɑːɡɪt/ throw a party /ˌθrəʊ ə ˈpɑːti/ turn up (phr v) /ˌtɜːn ˈʌp/ unaware (adj) /ˌʌnəˈweə/ wave of abuse /ˌweɪv əv əˈbjuːs/ 7E GRAMMAR 55.47 apologise for (v) /əˈpɒlədʒaɪz fə/ be fired/sacked /ˌbi ˈfaɪəd/sækt/ deny (v) /dɪˈnaɪ/ discrimination claim /dɪˌskrɪməˈneɪʃən ˌkleɪm/ heatwave (n) /ˈhiːtˌweɪv/ insist on (doing) sth /ɪnˈsɪst ɒn (ˌduːɪŋ) ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ make a point /ˌmeɪk ə ˈpɔɪnt/ maturity (n) /məˈtʃʊərəti/ object to (doing) sth /əbˈdʒekt tə (ˌduːɪŋ) ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ praise sb for sth /ˈpreɪz ˌsʌmbɒdi fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ skirt round sth /ˈskɜːt ˌraʊnd ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ uniform policy /ˈjuːnəfɔːm ˌpɒləsi/ warn sb about sth /ˈwɔːn ˌsʌmbɒdi əˌbaʊt ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ 7F SPEAKING 55.48 be entitled to sth /ˌbi ɪnˈtaɪtləd tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ be inclined (to do sth) /ˌbi ɪnˈklaɪnd (tə duː ˌ sʌmθɪŋ)/ curious (adj) /ˈkjʊəriəs/ debatable (adj) /dɪˈbeɪtəbəl/ deterrent (n) /dɪˈterənt/ frankly /ˈfræŋkli/ in principle /ɪn ˈprɪnsəpəl/ loads of ideas /ˈləʊdz əv aɪˌdɪəz/ medical treatment /ˈmedɪkəl ˌtriːtmənt/ shoplift (v) /ˈʃɒpˌlɪft/ tag (n) /tæɡ/ 7G WRITING AND VOCABULARY 5.49 ban sb from (v) /ˈbæn ˌsʌmbɒdi frəm/ beg for (v) /ˈbeɡ fə/ campaign against (v) /kæmˈpeɪn əˈɡenst/ captivating (adj) /ˈkæptəveɪtɪŋ/ connect to sth (v) /kəˈnekt tə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ cope with sth (v) / ˈkəʊp wɪθ ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ curl up (phr v) /ˌkɜːl ˈʌp/ defend against sth (v) /dɪˈfend əˌɡenst ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ demonstrate against sth (v) /ˈdemənstreɪt əˌɡenst ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ discourage from (v) /dɪsˈkʌrɪdʒ frəm/ engage in (v) /ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ ɪn/ exist on (v) /ɪɡˈzɪst ɒn/ fight back against (phr v) /ˌfaɪt ˈbæk əˈɡenst/ get by on (phr v) /ˌget ˈbaɪ ɒn/ hope for (v) /ˈhəʊp fə/ interfere in (v) /ˌɪntəˈfɪə ɪn/ intervene in (v) /ˌɪntəˈviːn ɪn/ introduce sb to (v) /ˌɪntrəˈdjuːs ˌsʌmbɒdi tə/ join to (v) /ˈdʒɔɪn tə/ legal responsibility /ˌliːɡəl rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪləti/ live on sth (v) /ˈlɪv ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ negotiate for (v) /nɪˈɡəʊʃieɪt fə/ participate in (v) /pɑːˈtɪsəpeɪt ɪn/ paw (n) /pɔː/ prohibit from (v) /prəˈhɪbɪt frəm/ protect against (v) /prəˈtekt əˈɡenst/ relate to (v) /rɪˈleɪt tə/ scale of the problem /ˈskeɪl əv ðə ˈprɒbləm/ speak out against (phr v) /ˌspiːk ˈaʊt əˌɡenst/ stray (adj) /streɪ/ survive on scraps /səˈvaɪv ɒn ˈskræps/ wish for (v) /ˈwɪʃ fə/ worthwhile (adj) /ˌwɜːθˈwaɪl/ 105 07 FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 85/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 7. 123
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Choose the correct words to complete the dialogue. A Look! There must be 1above/ over a thousand over a thousand over people in the square. They look like they’re staging a 2public outcry / protest against something. They’re protest against something. They’re protest waving 3banners / slogans. B That one says, ‘Stop modern 4slavery / delinquency now!’ This type of organised 5poverty / crime is much more common than many people think. Criminals make people job offers which look good, but the money is terrible and they can’t leave! This kind of 6exploitation / discrimination of people who just want an honest job is disgusting! We really should do more to 7prevent / discourage this from happening. A I agree. More people should 8rebel / speak out against it. I think the people over there are doing a great job of 9rising / raising awareness of the problem. B I really admire people who 10 take a stance against / interfere in something that is wrong. 2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words from the box. accept discriminate enforce equal judge judge rebel victim 1He how many sandwiches he would need for the party and didn’t make enough. 2 We think some of the boss’s attitudes are as he tends to give men more opportunities than women. 3 The school called the boy’s parents because his behaviour in class was completely . 4 Bullies sometimes other people because they are jealous of them. 5 Law is hard if there are not enough police officers. is hard if there are not enough police officers. 6 means that everyone has exactly the same rights. means that everyone has exactly the same rights. 7 When I was a teenager, I was and didn’t do what my parents wanted. 3 Rewrite the sentences in reported speech, making any necessary changes. 1 ‘The report the newspaper published yesterday has caused a scandal’. Mr Jones said . 2 ‘Don’t block the doors of the building!’ We ordered them . 3 ‘They were campaigning against gun violence when they were arrested.’ She said that . 4 ‘More people live in relative poverty than we think.’ It is thought that . 5 ‘Why can’t you listen to what we are saying?’ He asked her . 6 ‘Everyone who has taken part in the rally today will come back next week.’ We told the journalists that . 7 ‘We are going to be at the rally against gun violence this afternoon.’ They said that . 4 Rewrite the sentences in reported speech, using the reporting verbs from the box. accuse advise apologise deny insist promise 1 Mark: ‘I didn’t take a photo of her!’ 2 Jenny: ‘I’ll work hard at university, honestly!’ 3 ‘I’m really sorry I mocked your idea,’ Marta said. 4 Bob: ‘You really must come to the talk next week!’ 5 The teacher: ‘I think you copied the essay from the Internet.’ 6 Aunt Susan: ‘It’s a good idea to arrive early.’ USE OF ENGLISH 5 Complete the text with the correct form of the words in brackets. STRATEGY | Word formation First, decide if you need a noun/verb/adjective, etc. in a gap. For example, if you have a determiner (e.g. the, a/an, my/ your/their, etc, whose, another, other) in a sentence, you need to form a noun. Remember that a few words in the text will be negative (e.g. favour – unfavourable). Use of English > page 194 Students’ Unions When you register at a university in the UK, you automatically become a member of its Students’ Union. It is an 1 (ORGANISE) which represents students during their time at university. In addition to providing 2 (ENTERTAIN) during the new students’ first week, the Students’ Union is perhaps best known for organising student societies which any student can join. Some students are quite 3 (MATURE) when they start their studies and need support. They can feel very awkward and 4 (COMFORT) at parties where they hardly know anyone, and might easily get depressed. The Students’ Union offers important services to help with this. Even if you simply lack confidence and your 5 (SECURE) get the better of you because of your new environment, there is always someone to talk to. And that’s not all. The Union will also help to answer questions on day-to-day matters, such as the cost of transport passes and accommodation. They will be pleased to 6 (CLEAR) any doubts you have, however small you think they are. Finally, the Union campaigns for its members’ rights on a wide range of issues. It lobbies the university and government for real change, but never engages in any 7 ((LEGAL) activities. If you wish to start a campaign for something you believe in, the Union will support you, provided your cause is 8 ((JUST (JUST (). JUST). JUST 07 Revision 106 FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 194 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 7 and Self-check 7, Workbook pages 86–87/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening ASSESSMENT • Unit 7 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 7 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 7 Writing Test Exercise 2 1 misjudged 2 discriminatory 3 unacceptable 4 victimise 5 enforcement 6 Equality 7 rebellious Exercise 3 1 (that) the report the newspaper had published the day before had caused a scandal 2 not to block the doors of the building 3 they had been campaigning against gun violence when they were arrested 4 more people live in relative poverty than we think 5 why she couldn’t listen to what they were saying 6 everyone who had taken part in the rally that day would come/go back the following week 7 they were going to be at the rally against gun violence that afternoon Exercise 4 1 Mark denied having taken a photo of her. 2 Jenny promised (that) she would work hard / to work hard at university. 3 Marta apologised for mocking my/his/her/our/ their/the idea. 4 Bob insisted on me/her/ him/us/them coming / that I/ he/she/we/they come to the talk the following week. 5 The teacher accused me/ him/her/a student of copying the essay from the Internet. 6 Aunt Susan advised me/him/ her/us/them to arrive early. Exercise 5 1 organisation 2 entertainment 3 immature 4 uncomfortable 5 insecurities 6 clarify 7 illegal 8 justifiable/just 124
READING 6 Read four texts about how some people protest. For questions 1–7, choose from texts A–D. Each text may be chosen more than once. Which person ... 1 believes you don’t need any money to protest against something? 2 changed his/her approach to protesting? 3 describes an imaginative protest? 4 has never been involved in a protest? 5 has used social media to protest? 6 is involved in a campaign that hasn’t been successful yet? 7 doesn’t see himself/herself as a leader? SPEAKING 7 Your town wants to reduce the amount of vandalism and has proposed different solutions. In pairs, talk about the different ideas and then decide which two you think will work best. heavier punishment for vandals more youth clubs so young people have something to do more police on the streets to enforce law and order talks at schools to explain why it’s wrong make offenders’ parents pay for damage WHAT ACTION SHOULD BE TAKEN TO REDUCE VANDALISM IN YOUR TOWN? 8 In pairs, take it in turns to ask and answer the questions. 1 What do you think causes juvenile delinquency and vandalism? 2 Some people think the social issues we are concerned about change as we get older. Do you agree? Say why. 3 Why do you think people do things they know are wrong? WRITING 9 You saw this advertisement on a student website. ARTICLES WANTED GENDER EQUALITY Are girls and boys treated the same at school? Are the same subjects popular with girls and boys? Are there any differences between the careers boys and girls are encouraged to follow? Write an article answering these questions. The best article will be posted on our website. Write your article. 107 Have you ever protested about something? We asked four people to tell us what they think about the different ways people make themselves heard. A I think that what you do really depends on who you want to reach with your message. It also depends on whether lots of others share your belief, and on your personality. And, of course, whether you have funding. One memorable protest that comes to mind happened a few years ago now. Some people dressed up as giant pigeons and blocked traffic near Trafalgar Square in London. They aimed to put pressure on the London authorities to lift the ban on selling pigeon food in the square. I could see where they were coming from, but I disagreed. In fact, I successfully led a campaign in favour of the ban. C As far as I’m concerned, social media is the obvious way to get your message across. Politicians know this. In fact, some rarely take to the streets! All you need to do is to pay for a good Internet connection which most people have anyway these days. On a more personal level, I let my friends know my views on social networks, but organising a campaign against something would be much harder. It isn’t something I’d feel comfortable doing as I’m much happier following others. I really don’t like being in charge as I don’t think I have the necessary skills. I’d like to support a campaign one day though. Maybe to protect animal rights. D Last year, I joined a group that wanted to clean up the town where I live. It was seriously dirty when we began. I used to go to the town centre two days a week after school, pick up litter and clean pigeon poo off old monuments, all for free! I soon realised that volunteering like this helped but didn’t solve the problem. The only way to change the town authorities’ attitude and to get them to spend more money on this kind of thing was to campaign for real, long-lasting change. So, I used networking websites to organise a petition and a small street rally. I ’m pleased to say the authorities have just confirmed they will spend more money on keeping the town clean! B Some people say you need financial support in order to organise a campaign or to lobby the authorities for change, so they do nothing. Having resources is important, but in reality all you need is determination and a little time. Even someone who isn’t very creative like me can make a simple banner or placard. I’ve been lobbying my town authorities with some friends to persuade the local government to plant more trees in our town for two years now. It still hasn’t worked but I’m sure our persistence will pay off eventually! MESSAGE ACROSS GETTING YOUR B D A C D B C 125
S M A R T H O U SE L i ght s turn on a ndo ff a uto m a t i c a l l y ; front door op e n s w i th a d i g i t a l fing e rpr i nt W E A R A B L ES S m a rt w a t c hto m e a s ur e a c t i v i t y , h e a rtr a t e , e t c SEC U R I T Y P e ttr a c k e r V E H IC L ES S e l f-dr i v i ng c a r s H E A L T H E m b e dd e dh e a rtr a t e a nd b l ood pr e s s ur e s e n s or s M a c h i n e s w h ic h g a t h e r , s t o r e a n d a n a l y s e d a t a a n d c a n u p l o a d i t t o t h e I n t e r n e t 1 In pairs, look at the infographic and discuss the questions. 1 What other examples of technology (either current or future) can you think of for each category? 2 Are you excited about the possibilities offered by the Internet of Things (IoT)? Say why. 2 Check you understand the words and phrases in the box. Then use them to complete the sentences. alert (v) embedded facial recognition software hack (v) household appliances malfunction sensors smart devices track wearables 1 and other , such as clothing, could be used to your body’s fat and water content. 2 which can monitor your heart rate could be in your body and the doctor if there are any problems. 3 Some people are concerned that it is easy to into a self-driving car, or that there might be a causing an accident. 4 Increasingly, smart devices use a digital fingerprint or rather than a PIN. 5 A smart feeder that lets you feed your pet remotely or a smart fridge that keeps grocery lists are just a few examples of . T H E I N T E R N E T O F T H I N G S 108 8A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY Digital perspectives 08 VOCABULARYThe Internet of Things, technology synonyms, phrasal verbs GRAMMAR Infinitive and gerund forms of the passive, impersonal passive structures Use of English > page 194 SPEAKING Describing trends WRITING A for-and-against essay VIDEO Grammar Documentary REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 229 VIDEO SCRIPT page 244 CULTURE NOTES page 211 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Do this activity after Exercise 7. Refer students back to the infographic on IoT on page 108 and get them to write two questions about it using the passive (e.g . What kind of people will smart watches be worn by?). In pairs, they swap questions, answer them and discuss their answers with their partner. • Do this activity after Exercise 8. Put students in small groups and ask them to prepare a short presentation on IoT using the passive. Ask them to think about what is available now and what might be available in the future. If they have access to the Internet in class, they can research what might be available in the future, otherwise they can speculate. Give students 5–6 minutes to prepare, then ask them to present their ideas to another group or to the class. Exercise 2 1 Smart devices, wearables, track 2 Sensors, embedded, alert 3 hack, malfunction 4 facial recognition software 5 household appliances 126
7 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first one, using infinitive or gerund passive forms. 1 It appears that a magic mirror is now available. A magic mirror now appears . 2 You can ask it to check the weather. The mirror can . 3 You can arrange for the mirror to turn the water on. You can arrange for the water . 4 You won’t risk a flood in the bathroom because the taps stop automatically. Because the taps stop automatically, there is no risk of the bathroom . 5 The mirror knows that if nobody is in the bathroom, it needs to turn the lights off. The mirror knows that if nobody is in the bathroom, the lights . 6 I believe most people would enjoy this kind of ‘virtual servant’ looking after them. I believe most people would enjoy this kind of ‘virtual servant’. 8 Complete the text with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets. Add by or by or by with when appropriate. 3 3.21 Listen to an extract from a podcast about the Internet of Things and discuss the questions. 1 Did the speakers talk about any of your ideas from Exercise 1? 2 Give some examples from the podcast of arguments for and against the Internet of Things. The passive 4 THINK BACK Look at the examples of the passive from the recording. Identify the tense or grammatical form (e.g . a modal) in each example. 1 The next big thing in technology is the Internet of Things, or the process by which more and more of the devices and appliances which we use every day are made ‘smart’ and connected to the Internet. 2 Within a decade or so almost every appliance in your house could be connected. 3 The fridge will be designed will be designed to reorder food as you use it. 4 Your front door will use facial recognition software to decide if you should be allowed into the house or not. 5 Studies are being carried are being carried out which claim that it will revolutionise our lives. 6 It has even been referred to as ‘the fourth Industrial Revolution’. 7 Look at the recent crash which was caused by a sensor malfunction in a self-driving car in the USA. 8 The number of humans who were required to be in the self-driving car – ready to take control of it in an emergency – had recently been reduced had recently been reduced from two to one. 9 Can you imagine how many accidents are going to be going to be caused by computer error when no one is watching the road? 10 I was regularly being kept was regularly being kept awake at night. 5 Look at the sentences in Exercise 4 again and answer the questions. 1 How do we form the passive in each of the sentences? 2 When we use the passive, are we focusing more on the action or on the person or thing doing the action? 3 The ‘agent’ (the person or thing which causes the action) is mentioned in two sentences. Why is it necessary in those cases? 4 What word do we use instead of by when we talk about by when we talk about by the material or ingredients used to do something? The cake was made gluten-free flour. gluten-free flour. 6 Some verbs are followed by the infinitive and others by a gerund form. Study sentences a–b from the recording and answer questions 1–2 about them. a The number of humans who were required to be in the self-driving car ... b I don’t really fancy being monitored at all! 1 Which sentence contains a passive infinitive and which a passive gerund? 2 Why are passive infinitives and gerunds used? Look at the words in bold. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 185 Nowadays, more and more everyday objects 1 (turn into) smart devices, often with surprising benefits. For example, have you ever considered getting a smart pillow? A friend bought me one when I told her that my wife had been complaining about 2 (keep) awake at night by my snoring! The pillow 3 (can/set) to play your favourite music to help you to get to sleep, and then the quality of your sleep 4 (will/track) throughout the night. Every time you snore, it 5 (should/detect) the pillow, which will vibrate so that you turn onto your side. You can also set a vibrating alarm to avoid 6 (wake up) a loud bell or a buzzer. The pillow is extremely comfortable too as it 7 (make) natural fibres and is very soft. When I tried it, it felt like my head 8 (support) clouds! 9 In pairs, look at the photo of smart luggage on page 199 and answer the questions. 16 Read the question and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, ask and answer the question. Would you mind being served by a robot? G R A M M A R V I D E O 109 08 □ I can use the passive to talk about actions. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 8, page 272 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 185 • Workbook pages 88–89/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 33: Find someone who ... , pages 286, 322 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 8A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 8A NEXT CLASS Ask students to bring a copy of a simple line graph to class (or save one on their phones). It can be about any topic they like. Exercise 3 2 For: it will make life easier and more efficient, leaving free time to do other things; benefits of, for example, being able to monitor your heart rate Against: safety aspects; potential for criminals to hack into systems; some devices are unnecessary Exercise 4 1 Present Simple 2 a modal 3 Future Simple 4 a modal 5 Present Continuous 6 Present Perfect 7 Past Simple 8 Past Perfect 9 (future with) going to 10 Past Continuous Exercise 5 1 with the correct form/tense of the verb be + the past participle of the main verb 2 on the action 3 Sentences 7 and 9 use an agent. The information that it was the sensor/computer error that caused the crash is the most important or newest information. To emphasise this, we use the passive and put this information at the end (the information principle). 4 with Exercise 6 1 Sentence a contains a passive infinitive; sentence b contains a passive gerund. 2 A passive infinitive is used when a is followed by an infinitive (require sb to do sth). A passive gerund is used when a verb is followed by a gerund (fancy doing sth). Exercise 7 1 to be available 2 be asked to check the weather 3 to be turned on 4 being flooded 5 need to be turned off 6 being looked after by Exercise 8 1 are being turned into 2 being kept 3canbeset 4 will be tracked 5 should be detected by 6 being woken up by 7 is made with 8 was being supported by 127
Number of IoT connected devices in billions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2007 2010 2013 2016 2019 2021 Latin America Asia Central and Eastern Europe United States and Canada Western Europe Middle East and Africa 1 In pairs, discuss the questions. Then look at the graph and check your ideas. 1 When do you think IoT devices first became available? When did they start to get really popular? 2 Where do you think IoT devices are most popular: Asia, Western Europe or the United States and Canada? 2 Study the graph and complete the sentences with the phrases from the box. grew slightly stayed the same steady rise went up quite dramatically 1 Overall, there was a in the number of IoT devices used globally. 2 In Central and Eastern Europe, the number of devices pretty much between 2013 and 2016. 3 The number of devices in the Middle East and Africa between 2016 and 2019. 4 Western Europe and the United States and Canada had a similar number of devices until 2016 when the number of devices in Western Europe . 3 3.22 Listen to somebody talking about the graph and check your answers. 4 Study the Speaking box. Then rewrite the sentences in Exercise 2 using one of the patterns from the Speaking box. Overall, there was a gradual increase in the numbers of IoT devices used globally. OR Overall, the number of IoT devices used globally rose steadily. SPEAKING | Describing trends Introducing data The graph illustrates ... In this graph, we can see ... Describing changes over time • noun + verb + adverb The number of ... /Sales ... /Users ... ➚ ... increased/rose/grew/went up ... ➘ ... declined/decreased/went down/dropped ... ... slightly/sharply/steadily/gradually/dramatically ... ➙ ... stayed the same/remained steady ... • There + is/was/has been/etc + adjective + noun There will be a ... ... slight/sharp/steady/gradual/dramatic ... ➚ ... increase/rise/growth (in the number of users/ sales/etc) ➘ ... decrease/fall/drop/decline (in the number of users/sales/etc) Summarising data Overall, the trend in ... is upwards/downwards. Between 2013 and 2018, ... During the period ... It is noticeable that ... 5 In pairs, study the (incomplete) chart below and discuss the questions. Use patterns and phrases from the Speaking box. 1 Which of these wearables do you own? 2 Which would you like to own? Say why. 3 Why do you think some wearables became popular so quickly? Did this trend continue? Say why. 4 Which type of wearable do you expect to be the most/ the least popular in the future? Say why. 6 3.23 3.23 Listen and complete the graph with a line for fitness trackers. Compare the line you have drawn with your partner. 200 150 100 50 0 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Smartwatches Fitness trackers Smart clothing Wearable cameras Smart glasses Wearable devices sold in world markets (in thousands) 7 In pairs, use your own ideas to complete the graph for the other wearables. Which kind of smart device do you think will become more or less popular? Present your completed graph to the class, using language from the Speaking Box. 110 □ I can describe trends and talk about the Internet of Things. 8B SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 229 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 7, put students in new pairs or small groups and refer them to the graphs they have brought with them. Ask them to take it in turns to present it to their partner/group using language from the Speaking box. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 90/Online Practice Exercise 4 2 In Central and Eastern Europe, the number of devices remained steady between ... 3 There was a slight increase in the number of devices in the Middle East and Africa between ... 4 Western Europe and the United States and Canada had a similar number of devices until 2016 when the number of devices in Western Europe increased/rose/grew sharply. / when there was a sharp/dramatic increase/ growth/rise in the number of devices in Western Europe. Exercise 2 1 steady rise 2 stayed the same 3 grew slightly 4 went up quite dramatically 128
Are you the kind of person who queues up all night because you can’t wait to get your hands on the latest tech gadget gadget? Do you always upgrade upgrade to the newest version of your to the newest version of your favourite device immediately? Or do you wait until your device is so old and outdated that it can’t handle new apps, new apps, or keeps crashing crashing or overheating overheating and when it needs to be backed up backed up, there isn’t enough memory memory left to do it? If you just have to have that improved functionality functionality, or try out a new trend before everyone else, then you’re what’s known as an ‘early adopter’. On the other hand, if your phone is so old that you can’t even swipe swipe on it, then you’re a ‘laggard’. Early adopters tend to be young, but not always that young, that young, that because buying state-of-the-art technology is expensive. Essentially, you’re paying more to have your device first and as soon as you’ve bought it, its value will go down, and, of course, it will eventually become obsolete. New devices often come with compatibility compatibility issues, so that you also need to buy new adaptors adaptors or cables. Being a pioneer also means dealing with any bugs bugs or or glitches glitches that the manufacturers didn’t or couldn’t predict. It's worth thinking twice before you splash out on that shiny new gadget on the day it’s released. EARLY ADOPTER OR LAGGARD? 6 Read Active Vocabulary and complete the sentences with synonyms from the boxes below. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. dated obsolete old-fashioned outdated 1 That style of trousers looks really now. 2 The software isn’t working very well because it’s rather . 3 He has what I call good manners, such as opening the door for a lady. 4 My phone is so old it’s – you can’t even get a charger for it anymore. appliance(s) gadget(s) device(s) 5 The kitchen drawer is full of handy to slice onions or peel eggs and so on. 6 The spy’s listening was hidden inside a pen. 7 We will need a van to move the kitchen , such as the freezer and cooker. ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Synonyms Synonyms are words or phrases which have exactly or nearly the same meaning as other words or phrases. • There is usually some small difference in meaning or register, e.g. an appliance is something electrical used in the house (a fridge). Gadgets and devices tend to be smaller (gadget is used in an informal register). gadget is used in an informal register). gadget • Sometimes synonyms have different connotations: dated and old-fashioned both mean ‘not modern’, but dated has a negative connotation, whereas old-fashioned can have a positive connotation if the speaker believes things were better in the past. 7 SPEAKING Tell your partner about a piece of technology you or your family own which used to be state-of-the- art and which is now outdated or even obsolete. 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the cartoon and the title of the article. What do you think an ‘early adopter’ is in terms of technology? 2 Read the short article below and check your ideas from Exercise 1. Are you an early adopter? Say why. 3 THINK BACK In pairs, explain the meanings of the underlined words in the article. 4 Match the highlighted words and phrases from the article with their definitions. 1 Not in use any more because a newer invention exists. 2 Small problems that prevent a device from working well. 3 Everything a piece of software can do. 4 Old-fashioned. 5 Most modern. 6 Using the most recent ideas and methods. 7 Deal with. 8 The ability of one piece of equipment/software to be used with another. 9 Change for something newer or better. 10 Stored on a computer/other device so it won’t be lost. 5 Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. 1 Before I turn off the computer, I always upgrade / back up all my work. 2 Upgrading the software caused some gadget / gadget / gadget compatibility problems. compatibility problems. compatibility 3 A glitch / device caused the computer to shut down. 4 The computer didn’t have enough memory to crash / handle the program. 5 If the browser is outdated, some of the functionalities / adaptors on the website may not work. 6 They replaced their outdated / state-of-the-art desktop state-of-the-art desktop state-of-the-art computers with faster, lighter tablets. That’s the That’s the trouble with being trouble with being an early adopter. an early adopter. 08 111 □ I can talk about technology and gadgets. 8C VOCABULARY | Technology, synonyms EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity after Exercise 5. Individually, students write sentences with the words from the incorrect options in Exercise 5. If there is time, you could then put them in pairs and get them to swap sentences for their partner to check for sense. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 91/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 34: Pitch it!, pages 286, 323 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 8 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 8 NEXT CLASS Ask students to do an Internet search for devices which help people with disabilities. They should choose one device and make notes. Exercises 1 and 2 Suggested answer The term early adopter refers to a person who uses a new product before others. They are likely to pay more for the product than later adopters and do it for a variety of reasons, e.g. if using the product improves efficiency, reduces cost or raises the early adopter’s social status. Companies rely on early adopters to provide feedback about product deficiencies. Exercise 4 1 obsolete 2 bugs or glitches 3 functionality 4 outdated 5 state-of-the-art/latest 6 state-of-the-art/latest 7 handle 8 compatibility 9 upgrade 10 backed up Exercise 6 1 dated/old-fashioned 2 outdated 3 old-fashioned (positive connotation) 4 obsolete 5 gadgets (devices also possible, but less likely) 6 device 7 appliances 129
1 3.24 SPEAKING Read and listen to the first paragraph of the article. Does it describe a positive or a negative experience? Why do you think the person is feeling that way? 2 Read the rest of the article and check your ideas. What other experiences are described in the article? 3 Read the article again and choose the correct answers. 1 Why does the writer describe an experience of going shopping in the first paragraph? a To explain exactly why some people suffer from ASD. b To demonstrate why having ASD can cause someone to get upset. c To emphasise the social problems created by large shopping malls. d To justify the use of Virtual Reality to help people to understand an experience. 2 Which of these statements best reflects what the writer says about ASD? a People with ASD can’t cope with noisy environments. b Many people feel upset or angry about having ASD. c Different people will experience ASD in different ways. d Public places should be better designed for people with ASD. 3 The writer cites Chris Milk to illustrate that a VR can also be a way for people to communicate over a distance. b video may actually separate us from the people we see onscreen. c VR is so powerful it could cause people to break down emotionally. d VR has the potential to alter how we interact with each other. 4 What do the examples in Paragraph 4 indicate? a That it is relatively easy to trick people into doing something. b That many people are inspired to visit the places they see through VR. c That VR can stimulate people’s willingness to take action. d That people generally believe what they want to believe. 5 What attitude towards VR is expressed by the writer in the last paragraph? a It has some value but should be treated with caution. b It is fairly pointless compared with real life experience. c It is hardly comparable to real life experience. d It is a passing fashion that will fade away. 4 Summarise the arguments in the text for and against using VR to help people ‘walk in someone else’s shoes’. Overall, do you think it is a good idea? Say why. 5 Study the words related to ASD from the text and discuss their meaning with a partner. What other situations might someone with ASD find difficult? Say why. hypersensitivity meltdown neurotypical overwhelming sensory overload a wave of anxiety 6 Replace the underlined parts of the sentences with the correct forms of the highlighted phrasal verbs from the article. 1 You can’t expect to keep keep a job if you’re always late! 2 I have never really felt part of the group felt part of the group at school. 3 Every time she thought about it, the anxiety made her feel very bad feel very bad. 4 He stopped stopped what he was doing to talk to her. 5 The noise was too much for her and she finished by finished by running from the room. 6 I didn’t expect to see you here! 7 Experiencing Experiencing something difficult can help you to grow as a person. 8 Relax – it’s going to be OK. 9 If you encounter any problems, let me know. 7 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Apart from VR, how else could technology help people with disabilities or those whose brains are not neurotypical? 2 What would you include in a VR experience to help people understand what it is like to have a disability or to be homeless? 17 17 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 169. Watch the documentary Virtual medicine and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 112 □ I can identify specific details in a text and talk about virtual reality. 8D READING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 244 CULTURE NOTES page 211 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Do this activity after Exercise 6. Individually, students write gap-fill sentences with the phrasal verbs in Exercise 6. To make the exercise easier, they could supply the first letter of both parts of the verbs. Then, in pairs, they swap sentences, complete them and check their answers with their partner. • After or during Exercise 7, students use the notes they made at home to present their chosen device to their partner. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook pages 92–93/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to do an Internet search for interesting facts/statistics about selfies and make notes. a negative experience (clues: anxious; lights are too bright; really loud; so overwhelming; anxiety) Exercise 2 Other experiences: • having problems at school or holding down a job; • a VR experience to help neurotypical people fully take in what sensory overload feels like (People can watch the video using special 3D glasses, which take them more fully into the experience.) • In another experiment, some people went through the virtual experience of chopping down a tree. • ... the experience of being in a refugee camp or being disabled or being in a war zone. Exercise 4 For: • It’s 3D, not just 2D. • It connects humans to other humans. • It can change people’s perceptions. • It can encourage people to take action. Against: It’s a voluntary experience but you can’t escape from real life. We can stop the experience any time, unlike real life. It doesn’t include feelings – just sights and sounds. We experience it for a limited time only. Exercise 5 hypersensitivity – if someone is hypersensitive to a drug, substance etc., their body reacts very badly to it meltdown – an occasion when a person becomes extremely upset and cannot deal with a situation neurotypical – without autism or Asperger’s syndrome overwhelming – having such a great effect on you that you do not know how to react sensory overload – a condition where one or more of the body’s senses experience over-stimulation from environmental elements such as urbanization, crowding, noise, mass media, technology a wave of anxiety – exhilaration and adrenaline rush that come with each rise and fall Exercise 6 1 hold down 2 fitted in 3 ate away 4 broke off from 5 ended up 6 bump inyo 7 Going through 8 Calm down 9 come up against 130
V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s V i r t u a l r e a l i t y w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s V i r t u a l r e a l i t y V i r t u a l r e a l i t y w a l k i n g i n s o m e o n e e l s e ’ s s h o e s V i r t u a l r e a l i t y The doors shut with a thud behind me as I walk into the shopping centre. Immediately, there’s a buzz of noise. I can hear two or three different types of music being played in various shops. A woman walks past me, carrying lots of shopping bags. I can hear the sound of them rubbing against each other. I try to shrug it off, but it’s made me feel a bit more anxious. The lights are too bright. A man is shaking a pot full of coins – I think he’s collecting money for charity. It’s really loud. I carry on through the shopping centre. I can smell fried food. There’s a ride-on children’s toy train playing music and spinning around. I bump into a friend, but I can’t stop to talk to her because it’s all so overwhelming. I need to calm down. A wave of anxiety overcomes me. I need to get out of here. This is a description of what it might feel like for some people with ASD (autism spectrum disorder) to go to a shopping centre. While people’s experiences vary a lot, as does the degree of their symptoms, one of the key issues for many individuals with autism is a hypersensitivity to sights, sounds, smells and tastes, which can make a simple activity, such as going shopping in a public place, extremely stressful. Some people are able to cope with this kind of sensory overload reasonably well, though the stress might eat away at them inside. But for others, it all becomes too much and they end up having a meltdown – in other words, they get upset or angry. This can make it difficult to fit in with with or even to keep friends because neurotypical people just don’t understand the pressure that has led the person with autism to act in this way. It can also lead to people with autism having problems at school or with holding down a job, as they may come across as unreliable or bad-tempered. may come across as unreliable or bad-tempered. may come across as unreliable or bad-tempered. 1 2 5 10 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 3.25 In order to help neurotypical people understand what it’s like n order to help neurotypical people understand what it’s like to have autism, could Virtual Reality (VR) help? Virtual Reality to have autism, could Virtual Reality (VR) help? Virtual Reality is a computer-generated simulation of an experience, which is a computer-generated simulation of an experience, which is seen in 3D, and which can feel almost exactly like really is seen in 3D, and which can feel almost exactly like really being in that situation. While 2D video can sometimes almost being in that situation. While 2D video can sometimes almost put up a wall between us and other people’s experiences, VR put up a wall between us and other people’s experiences, VR can help to break that wall down. According to Chris Milk in his can help to break that wall down. According to Chris Milk in his TED talk, Virtual Reality connects humans to other humans TED talk, Virtual Reality connects humans to other humans in a unique and profound way which can change people’s in a unique and profound way which can change people’s perceptions of each other. Perhaps in response to such ideas, perceptions of each other. Perhaps in response to such ideas, the National Autistic Society has developed a VR experience the National Autistic Society has developed a VR experience to help neurotypical people fully take in what sensory overload feels like. People can watch the video using special overload feels like. People can watch the video using special 3D glasses, which take them more fully into the experience. 3D glasses, which take them more fully into the experience. So far, it has had six million views, and the comments certainly indicate that it’s having a powerful effect. The potential impact of VR in helping us to understand one The potential impact of VR in helping us to understand one another and the world around us is exciting. For example, another and the world around us is exciting. For example, Greenpeace has reported that a VR experience which transported people to the Amazon rain forest doubled the transported people to the Amazon rain forest doubled the number of charitable donations. In another experiment, some number of charitable donations. In another experiment, some people went through the virtual experience of chopping down a tree. Afterwards, the researcher ‘accidentally’ spilt down a tree. Afterwards, the researcher ‘accidentally’ spilt his drink and those people who had been ‘chopping down his drink and those people who had been ‘chopping down trees’ reached for fewer paper napkins, suggesting that their trees’ reached for fewer paper napkins, suggesting that their experience had subconsciously encouraged them to stop experience had subconsciously encouraged them to stop experience had subconsciously encouraged them to stop wasting paper. VR has also been used to give people the experience of being in a refugee camp, or being disabled, or being in a war being in a refugee camp, or being disabled, or being in a war zone. But can these experiences really help us to walk in zone. But can these experiences really help us to walk in someone else’s shoes? A major difference between simulated someone else’s shoes? A major difference between simulated and actual experiences is that we volunteer to put on the and actual experiences is that we volunteer to put on the VR headset. We can break off at any time and go back to at any time and go back to our normal lives, whereas the people whose lives we’re experiencing don’t have that luxury. And, while we can experience the sounds and sights of a refugee camp, we don’t experience the sounds and sights of a refugee camp, we don’t come up against the same difficulties. There is also the fact the same difficulties. There is also the fact that trying out something for a few minutes is very different that trying out something for a few minutes is very different from experiencing it over several months, years or a lifetime. from experiencing it over several months, years or a lifetime. Virtual Reality can certainly provide another way of looking Virtual Reality can certainly provide another way of looking at the world, but ultimately, it’s still no substitute for real life at the world, but ultimately, it’s still no substitute for real life experience, and shouldn’t be considered as such. experience, and shouldn’t be considered as such. 3 4 5 08 113 131
1 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Why do people take selfies? 2 Do you ever take selfies? Say why. 2 3.26 Listen to a radio programme about selfies. What reasons for taking them are mentioned? 3 3.26 Listen to the programme again and choose the correct answers. 1 Lucy thinks the main reason selfies became so popular is because a people wanted to be able to create an ideal image of themselves. b social networking provided a reason for people to share self-portraits. c modern technology made it more straightforward to take photos of ourselves. d people like looking at photos of themselves. 2 What does Lucy think about the habit of taking group selfies on a night out? a It’s a good way to record memories. b It’s boring for other people who weren’t present at the time. c It’s a way of making people envious of your popularity. d It gets in the way of people having fun. 3 Which of the following is stated as a fact and not an opinion? a Some people don’t want photos of themselves to look like selfies. b It’s fashionable to employ a local photographer to capture perfect images. c Young people reject most of the photos which they take of themselves. d People who are bothered about what they look like, don’t worry how much they spend. 4 How does Lucy define ‘selfitis’? a Feeling compelled to constantly take and post selfies. b A modern-day version of being self-obsessed. c A made-up disorder that someone created as a hoax. d Having a constant need for other people to like you. 5 How does Lucy feel about people who take dangerous selfies? a admiring b sympathetic c excited d confused 4 Complete the extracts from the recording with the words from the box. attributes curate deceptive enhance features flattering flaws superficial People started taking selfies not just to present a 1 picture of themselves, but also to manage and 2 what they wanted to tell the world about their physical 3 , their personality, their relationships, their hobbies. Ona4 level, their holiday photos look relaxed and level, their holiday photos look relaxed and natural, but in reality they’ve been very carefully planned – and paid for. Appearances can be 5 . You can add filters to 6 how you look, remove any how you look, remove any 7 or even change the shape or size of your facial 8 . 5 3.27 3.27 Study Active Listening, then look at the 3.27 Study Active Listening, then look at the 3.27 extracts below. What do you think changes in the underlined final consonant sounds in fast speech? 1 Every third photo taken by taken by those aged 18–24 .. . 2 But more to the point. 3 It isn't a good girls' good girls' night out. 4 It's about making about making other people feel jealous. other people feel jealous. 5 But that would mean they didn't have the opportunity ... 6 For every photo that gets that gets posted ... 7 You can get can get some really great pictures great pictures. 8 ... just in case someone might judge them. 9 But for others, it could become a problem. 10 It doesn't help when people when people ‘like’ the photos. ACTIVE LISTENING | Understanding fast speech (2) When English is spoken at fast speed, the consonant sounds /t/, /d/ and /n/ at the end of a word can change to become more like the consonant sound at the beginning of the next word. Being aware of these processes will help you to understand fast English better. • before /m/, /b/ and /p/ that man sounds like ‘thapman’ good boy sounds like ‘ good boy sounds like ‘ good boy goob’boy’ in public sounds like ‘impublic’ • before /g/ and /k/ that gate sounds like ‘thak’gate’ mad cow sounds like ‘magcow’ green car sounds like ‘greengcar’ 6 REFLECT | Society In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Why do many people only post flattering pictures of themselves? Does this make other people like them more? 2 Can someone’s flaws make them more likeable? Say why. 114 □ I can understand fast speech and talk about taking selfies. 8E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 230 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Before or after Exercise 1, refer students to the notes they made at home and invite them to share any interesting information they found with the class. • Individually or in pairs, students write example sentences with the words in Exercise 6. They can then remove the words to create a gap-fill exercise and give it to another student/pair to complete. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 94/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 35: Selfies are everywhere!, pages 286, 324 NEXT CLASS Ask students to do an Internet search to find out about the invention of Solid by Tim Berners-Lee and make notes. Exercise 2 presenting a flattering picture of yourself; managing how the world sees you; changing other people’s perceptions; remembering an event; making other people feel jealous; showing off about your life Exercise 5 1 [takem’by] 2 [bup’more] 3 [goog’girls] 4 [aboup’making] 5 [woulb’mean] 6 [thak’ge’s] 7 [cangge’] , [greap’pictures] 8 [ingcase] 9 [coulb’become] 10 [whem’people] Exercise 4 1 flattering 2 curate 3 attributes 4 superficial 5 deceptive 6 enhance 7 flaws 8 features 132
Impersonal passive structures 3 Match sentences 1–3 from the text with patterns a–c in the Grammar box below. Then find five more examples of the patterns in the text. 1 □ Nearly 700,000 of users are thought to have been affected. 2 □ It is believed that Berners-Lee would now be the richest man in the world ... 3 □ His new system, called Solid, is reported to be a platform whereby users can control access ... Impersonal passive structures We can report people’s beliefs and opinions using verbs such as say, think, believe, know, claim, estimate, expect and a passive structure. There are three patterns: a for present or past belief: it + passive (be + past participle) + that clause that clause that b for present belief: subject + passive (be + past participle) + to-infinitive c for present belief about a past event: subject + passive (be + past participle) + perfect infinitive (to have been + past participle) Grammar Reference and Practice > page 185 4 Rewrite the sentences using the first pattern (a) from the Grammar box. 1 People say that Berners-Lee never made a penny from his invention. It is said that Berners-Lee never made a penny from his invention. 2 Experts expect that Internet users will lose more and more privacy. 3 Some people have suggested that the Internet should be privatised. 4 Initially people thought the Internet was just for computer geeks. 5 Experts have estimated that more than half the world can now access the Internet. 6 Some people have claimed that the Internet is a failed experiment. 5 Rewrite the sentences using patterns b and c from the c from the c Grammar box. 1 People say that Berners-Lee never made a penny from his invention. 2 Experts expect that Internet users will lose more and more privacy. 3 Initially, people thought the Internet was just for computer geeks. 4 Experts have estimated that more than half the world can now access the Internet. 5 Research has found that Facebook has more than one billion active users. SPEAKING In pairs, rewrite the sentences and discuss them. Student A, go to page 196. Student B, go to page 200. 1 SPEAKING Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Internet, famously said that being able to monitor Internet activity meant that you could get more intimate details about someone’s life than anyone they ever spoke to. Does this worry you? Say why. 2 Read the article about Tim Berners-Lee and list five potentially problematic issues with the Internet which are mentioned. How do you feel about these issues? Three decades ago, Tim Berners-Lee created something that changed the course of human history – the World Wide Web, also known as the Internet. It is believed that Berners-Lee would now be the richest man in the world if he had not decided to release the source code for free. The Internet was always expected to generate profits for big business, but perhaps even Berners-Lee could not have predicted that just a few huge corporations would come to control it. It is estimated that around seventy-five percent of Internet traffic is generated by three giant companies. Berners-Lee says that he has been ‘devastated’ at some of the uses his invention has been put to. For example, when it was revealed that hackers had influenced certain presidential elections, or when a social media site admitted carrying out secret psychological experiments – nearly 700,000 are thought to have been affected. It has often been remarked that if you’re not paying for a service or product, you’re not the customer – you’re the product! In other words, all the information you are giving away about every aspect of your life is what is valuable. Top Internet companies are thought to have already filed patent applications for devices which are designed to listen out for changes in mood or emotion in the voice, indicating that they plan to find out even more about us in the future. Berners-Lee is now working on a new idea: a way to give back control to the people. His new system, called Solid, is reported to be a platform whereby users can control is reported to be a platform whereby users can control is reported to be a platform whereby users can control is reported to be a platform whereby users can control is reported to be a platform whereby users can control access to the data and content access to the data and content access to the data and content they generate on the Internet. they generate on the Internet. they generate on the Internet. He might just change the world He might just change the world He might just change the world all over again ... all over again ... May Tim Berners-Lee change the world again? 08 115 □ I can use impersonal passive structures to talk about beliefs and opinions. 8F GRAMMAR to talk about beliefs and opinions. to talk about beliefs and opinions. REFERENCES CULTURE NOTES page 211 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Before students read the text in Exercise 2, ask them to share their notes on Solid with the class so that everyone has the benefit of the shared knowledge. • After Exercise 5, ask students to write 2–3 statements about Solid using impersonal passive structures. They should use the information they shared as a class to help them. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 185 • Workbook page 95/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 36: An impersonal auction, pages 287, 325 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 8F ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 8F Exercise 2 1 It is largely controlled by just four companies. 2 Hackers have used it to interfere with elections. 3 A social media site carried out secret experiments on users. 4 People using free sites give away data that can be used or sold. 5 Some companies are planning to listen to people’s mood and emotions. Exercise 4 2 It is expected that Internet users will lose ... 3 It has been suggested that the Internet ... 4 Initially it was thought that the Internet ... 5 It has been estimated that more than ... 6 It has been claimed that the Internet ... Exercise 5 1 Berners-Lee is said to have never made a penny ... 2 Internet users are expected to lose more ... 3 Initially, the Internet was thought tobejustfor... 4 More than half the world has been estimated to be able to access the Internet now. 5 Facebook has been found to have more than ... c a b 133
1 What kind of information about yourself might you be giving away? Do the quiz then check your answers on page 199. 2 Read the Writing task. In pairs, make a note of some possible arguments for and against tracking Internet users’ personal data. Nowadays many companies track Internet users’ personal data using ‘cookies’ in order to deliver personalised content or advertising. Write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of this practice. 3 Read one student’s essay. List the arguments for and against tracking online personal data. Are you giving away too much information? You do an online quiz to find out more about the characteristics of your sign of the zodiac. What could happen as a result? You go on holiday and tag your location on social media. What might you then notice online? You fill in a form online and give the day and month of your birth, but not the year. Is this risky? 1 2 3 Q U I Z THE PROS AND CONS OF TRACKING OUR PERSONAL DATA These days it is extremely common for companies to track Internet users’ data in order to target them with personalised content or advertising. 1Some people feel quite comfortable with Some people feel quite comfortable with this, and may even find this, and may even find it helpful, whereas others consider it an it helpful, whereas others consider it an invasion of privacy. invasion of privacy. It is estimated that seven in ten Internet users are happy to give away personal data while browsing online. There may be some clear benefits to doing this. 2Although most people are careful Although most people are careful with data such as online banking details, many actually prefer with data such as online banking details, many actually prefer more personalised marketing personalised marketing and feel that their search results are likely to be more accurate and relevant if the search company better understands their needs. Another positive aspect of data tracking is that people can be automatically logged onto a site, rather than having to enter a password. 3This is clearly far more This is clearly far more convenient, even though it is, of convenient, even though it is, of course, less secure. course, less secure. 4In spite of these potential benefits, a significant number of In spite of these potential benefits, a significant number of people are choosing to use ad-blocking software in order people are choosing to use ad-blocking software in order to avoid digital advertising altogether. to avoid digital advertising altogether. In some cases, In some cases, this is simply because they find the adverts annoying or intrusive, but it is also because of a desire to avoid being tracked online. In most cases, this is probably harmless. 5Nevertheless, a surprising amount of information can Nevertheless, a surprising amount of information can be collected: what you have bought, where you have been, what you have ‘liked’ on social media, and a great deal more. Most people really have very little idea how much data is being given away every time they click, or what that data will be used for. In conclusion, it seems obvious that while people remain largely unaware and unable to make informed choices, the ability of companies to collect data should be limited or they should be required to specifically ask for permission. 116 8G WRITING | A for-and-against essay EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Before students do Exercise 6, put them in pairs or groups of three to discuss possible arguments for and against sharing data. Give groups a few minutes for discussion, then elicit some ideas from different groups. Write any valid ideas on the board for the whole class to have available for their essays. • Do this activity after Exercise 9. Put students in pairs and ask them to read each other’s essays and give their partner feedback. Is the information organised into four clear paragraphs? Are the ideas expressed clearly? Has their partner contrasted ideas using the ways set out in the Writing box? What have they done well? What could be improved? FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 96/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to study the word list and do the Remember More exercises on Student’s Book pages 118–119. Exercise 3 For: search results are likely to be more accurate and relevant if the search company better understands their needs; people can be automatically logged onto a site, rather than having to enter a password Against: some adverts are annoying or intrusive; desire to avoid being tracked online 134
4 Complete the Writing box with examples from the text. WRITING | A for-and-against essay Introduction • Summarise the topic of the essay, using your own words: 1 it is extremely common for companies to ... In recent years, it has become more and more common ... • Outline points of view which you are going to discuss: 2 feel ... whereas others ... Main body • In your first main paragraph, give arguments in favour of the situation from the task: There may be some clear 3 to doing ... Another positive 4 of...is... Note: We often use tentative language when presenting the arguments: There may be some clear benefits to doing ... • In your second main paragraph, give arguments against the situation from the task: In spite of these 5 benefits many people ... Nevertheless, many people feel ... Note: When you are giving other people’s opinions, use a mixture of impersonal passive forms and more direct ways of describing what people feel or think: Itis6 that ... It is commonly believed that ... It is argued by some people that ... Many people are of the opinion that ... Conclusion • Summarise the main points and give your opinion: In conclusion, it seems 7 that ... (indirectly) In my considered opinion ... (directly) 5 In pairs, study sentences 1–5 in the essay and the linkers (words or phrases used to link ideas) in the table. Then answer the questions below. Conjunctions of contrast while, whereas Conjunctions of concession although, even though Prepositions of contrast despite, in spite of Adverbs of contrast however, nevertheless, nonetheless 1 In sentence 1, is while also possible with no change of meaning? Which option is more formal? 2 In sentence 2, which conjunction, although or even though, adds more emphasis? 3 Is it possible to change the order of the clauses in sentence 3 with although and even though? 4 In sentence 4, is it possible to replace in spite of with in spite of with in spite of despite without making any other changes? 5 In sentence 5, is there any difference in meaning or formality between nevertheless, however and nonetheless? 6 Combine sentences 1–5 with sentences a–e using the words in brackets. 1 Many cookies are harmless. 2 There were several major cyber attacks last year. 3 Many people are aware that cookies are embedded in websites. 4 Internet searches which use facial recognition software will soon be possible. 5 Good cookies make websites more user-friendly. a Most of us have no idea what they do. (while) b People will need to actively agree to this. (although) c Some are designed to steal private information. (however) d It should be possible to use the sites without accepting them. (nevertheless) e Most companies have not changed their security systems. (in spite of) 7 Rewrite the sentences in Exercise 6 using different phrases of contrast in Exercise 5. 8 CRITICAL THINKING Study Active Writing and read the essay topic below. Make a note of different perspectives on the topic that you could use in your essay. Nowadays, young people have the ability to create their presence on social media through the photos, updates and comments they post. Write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of this practice. ACTIVE WRITING | Evaluating other people’s views A for-and-against essay needs to introduce different perspectives, and critically evaluate them, considering in what ways they may have good arguments as well as any flaws. In your essay, explain how arguments made by others are strong as well as point out any weaknesses in them. 9 WRITING TASK Write your essay. Use the Writing box to help you. • Make an outline plan and notes for each paragraph. Use your ideas from Exercise 8. • Make sure you consider both sides of the argument. • Use impersonal passive structures where possible. • Don’t forget to include phrases of contrast where appropriate. 08 117 □ I can write a balanced for-and-against essay. Exercise 4 1 These days 2 Some people 3 benefits 4 aspect 5 potential 6 estimated 7 obvious Exercise 5 1 yes; whereas is a little more formal. 2 even though 3 yes 4 yes 5 no difference in meaning, but nevertheless and nonetheless are more formal than however Exercise 6 1 (c) Many cookies are harmless. However, some are designed to steal private information. 2 (e) In spite of there having been / In spite of the fact that there were several major cyber attacks last year, most companies have not changed their security systems. 3 (a) While many people are aware that cookies are embedded in websites, most of us have no idea what they do. / Many people are aware that cookies are embedded in websites, while most of us have no idea what they do. 4 (b) Internet searches which use facial recognition software will soon be possible although people will need to actively agree to this. / Although internet searches which use facial recognition software will soon be possible, people will need to actively agree to this. 5 (d) Good cookies make websites more user-friendly. Nevertheless, it should be possible to use the sites without accepting them. Exercise 7 Possible answers 1 Many cookies are harmless. Nevertheless/Nonetheless, some are designed to steal private information. 2 Although there were several major cyber attacks last year, most companies have not changed their security systems. 3 Whereas/Although many people are aware that cookies are embedded in websites, most of us have no idea what they do. 4 While internet searches which use facial recognition software will soon be possible, people will need to actively agree to this. 5 Good cookies make websites more user-friendly. Nonetheless/ However, it should be possible to use the sites without accepting them. 135
8A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 5.50 alert your doctor /əˌlɜːt jə ˈdɒktə/ analyse (v) /ˈænəlaɪz/ detect (v) /dɪˈtekt/ digital fingerprint /ˌdɪdʒətl ˈfɪŋɡəˌprɪnt/ embedded in your body /ɪmˌbedəd ɪn jə ˈbɒdi/ facial recognition software /ˌfeɪʃəl ˌrekəɡˈnɪʃən ˌ sɒftweə/ gluten-free flour /ˌɡluːtən ˈfriː flaʊə/ hack into something /ˈhæk ˌɪntə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ heart rate (n) /ˈhɑːt ˌreɪt/ household appliance (n) /ˈhaʊshəʊld əˌplaɪəns/ Internet of Things /ˌɪntənet əv ˈθɪŋz/ malfunction (n) /mælˈfʌŋkʃən/ monitor (v) /ˈmɒnɪtə/ natural fibre /ˌnætʃərəl ˈfaɪbə/ pillow (n) /ˈpɪləʊ/ remotely (adj) /rɪˈməʊtli/ reorder (v) /riˈɔːdə/ require sb to do sth /rɪˈkwaɪə ˌsʌmbɒdi tə ˈduː ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ revolutionise (v) /ˌrevəˈluːʃənaɪz/ self-driving car /ˌselfdraɪvɪŋ ˈkɑː/ sensor (n) /ˈsensə/ set an alarm /ˌset ən əˈlɑːm/ smart device /ˌsmɑːt dɪˈvaɪs/ snore (v) /snɔː/ tap (n) /tæp/ track your body’s fat and water content /ˌtræk jə ˌbɒdis ˈfæt ənd ˈwɔːtə ˌkɒntent/ use a wearable /ˌjuːz ə ˈweərəbəl/ vibrate (v) /vaɪˈbreɪt/ virtual servant /ˌvɜːtʃuəl ˈsɜːvənt/ 8B SPEAKING AND VOCABULARY 5.51 decline (n,v) /dɪˈklaɪn/ decrease (n) /ˈdiːkriːs/ decrease (v) /dɪˈkriːs/ downwards (adv) /ˈdaʊnwədz/ drop (n,v) /drɒp/ fall (n,v) /fɔːl/ fitness tracker (n) /ˈfɪtnəs ˌtrækə/ go down (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈdaʊn/ go up dramatically /ˌɡəʊ ˈʌp drəˈmætɪkli/ gradual (adj) /ˈɡrædʒuəl/ gradually (adv) /ˈɡrædʒuəli/ graph (n) /ɡrɑːf/ grow slightly /ˌɡrəʊ ˈslaɪtli/ growth (n) /ɡrəʊθ/ illustrate (v) /ˈɪləstreɪt/ increase (n) /ˈɪnkriːs/ increase (v) /ɪnˈkriːs/ noticeable (adj) /ˈnəʊtəsəbəl/ overall (adj) /ˌəʊvərˈɔːl/ pretty much /ˈprɪti mʌtʃ/ remain steady /rɪˈmeɪn ˌstedi/ rise steadily /ˌraɪz ˈstedili/ sharply (adv) /ˈʃɑːpli/ slightly (adv) /ˈslaɪtli/ smart clothing (n) /ˈsmɑːt ˌkləʊðɪŋ/ smart glasses (n) /ˈsmɑːt ˌɡlɑːsɪz/ stay the same /ˌsteɪ ðə ˈseɪm/ steadily (adv) /ˈstedəli/ steady rise /ˈstedi ˌraɪz/ upwards (adv) /ˈʌpwədz/ wearable camera /ˌweərəbəl ˈkæmərə/ 8C VOCABULARY 5.52 adaptor (n) /əˈdæptə/ appliance (n) /əˈplaɪəns/ back up (phr v) /ˌbæk ˈʌp/ browser (n) /ˈbraʊzə/ bug (n) /bʌɡ/ compatibility (n) /kəmˌpætəˈbɪləti/ crash (v) /kræʃ/ dated (adj) /ˈdeɪtɪd/ early adopter /ˌɜːli əˈdɒptə/ functionality (n) /ˌfʌŋkʃəˈnæləti/ glitch (n) /ɡlɪtʃ/ handle /ˈhændl/ handy (adj) /ˈhændi/ laggard (n) /ˈlæɡəd/ latest (adj) /ˈleɪtɪst/ obsolete (adj) /ˈɒbsəliːt/ old-fashioned (adj) /ˌəʊld ˈfæʃənd/ outdated (adj) /ˌaʊtˈdeɪtɪd/ overheat (v) /ˌəʊvəˈhiːt/ release (v) /rɪˈliːs/ shut down (phr v) /ˌ ʃʌt ˈdaʊn/ splash out on sth (phr v) /ˌsplæʃ ˈaʊt ɒn ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ state-of-the-art technology /ˌsteɪt əv ðiː ˈɑːt tekˈnɒlədʒi/ REMEMBER MORE 1 Choose the correct words. Then check with the word list. 1 What prevents something from working as well as it should? glitch / laggard 2 What do you do when you move your finger across a touch screen in order to activate a function? handle / swipe 3 What do you call a thing which is no longer useful, because something newer and better has been invented? latest / obsolete 4 What do you call someone who is very interested in a particular subject and knows a lot about it? adopter / geek 2 Make nouns from these verbs. Then check with the word list. 1 wear– 2 apply – 3 function – 4 browse – 3 Complete the phrasal verbs with the prepositions up, o ff and down. Then check with the word list. 1 shrug it (and don’t worry) 2 calm (after a fight) 3 break (a conversation) 4 end (living in the middle of nowhere) 4 Choose the correct verbs in the phrases. Then check with the word list. 1 fall / break down emotionally break down emotionally break 2 launch / generate profits 3 track / spill your body’s fat 4 walk / wear in someone else’s walk / wear in someone else’s walk / wear shoes 5 Do the task below. Are mobile phones a threat or a blessing when in hands of small children? Write three sentences using impersonal passives in which you present some facts and/or opinions. Start your sentences with phrases from section 8G, e.g . It is argued by some people that ... It is argued by some people that ... It is argued by some people that 118 Word List EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • Write the following words on the board: functional, track, sense, browse, compatible. Ask students to find nouns in the word list which are formed from these verbs, and to write an example sentence for each one. • Put students in groups of four for a game of word association. Ask a student to choose a word from the word list. The student says the word, then the next student should say a word they associate with the first word. It is then that student’s turn to choose a word for the next person in the group, etc. The group continues in this way until one student can’t think of a word. They are out and the game continues until there is a winner. • Write anagrams of 6–8 words from the word list on the board. Individually or in pairs, students try to solve the anagrams as quickly as they can. The first student/pair to do so wins. To make the activity easier, you could give them the first letter of each word (e.g . by circling or underlining it in the anagrams). wearable appliance functionality browser off down off up 136
swipe (v) /swaɪp/ tech gadget (n) /ˈtek ˌɡædʒɪt/ upgrade (v) /ʌpˈɡreɪd/ 8D READING AND VOCABULARY 5.53 5.53 alter (v) /ˈɔːltə/ ASD (autism spectrum disorder) /ˌeɪ es ˈdiː (ˌɔːtɪzəm ˈspektrəm dɪsˈɔːdə)/ bad-tempered (adj) /ˌbæd ˈtempəd/ break down emotionally (phr v) /ˌbreɪk ˈdaʊn ɪˌməʊʃənəli/ break off (phr v) /ˌbreɪk ˈɒf/ bump into sth (phr v) /ˌbʌmp ˈɪntə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ buzz of noise /ˌbʌz əv ˈnɔɪz/ calm down (phr v) /ˌkɑːm ˈdaʊn/ charitable donation /ˌtʃærətəbəl dəʊˈneɪʃən/ come up against sb/sth (phr v) /ˌkʌm ˈʌp əˌɡenst ˌ sʌmbɒdi/ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ comparable (adj) /ˈkɒmpərəbəl/ computer-generated simulation /kəmpjuːtə ˌ dʒenəreɪtəd ˌsɪmjəˈleɪʃən/ despair (n) /dɪˈspeə/ disabled (adj) /dɪsˈeɪbəld/ eat away at sb/sth (phr v) /ˌiːt əˈweɪ ət ˌsʌmbɒdi/ ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ emphasise (v) /ˈemfəsaɪz/ encounter a problem /ɪnˌkaʊntə ə ˈprɒbləm/ end up doing sth (phr v) /ˌend ˈʌp ˌduːɪŋ ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ fade away (v) /ˌfeɪd əˈweɪ/ fit in (phr v) /ˌfɪt ˈɪn/ go through sth (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈθruː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ headset (n) /ˈhedset/ hold sth down (phr v) /ˌhəʊld ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈdaʊn/ hypersensitivity (n) /ˌhaɪpəsensəˈtɪvəti/ key issue /ˌkiː ˈɪʃuː/ meltdown (n) /ˈmeltdaʊn/ neurotypical (adj) /ˌnjʊərəʊˈtɪpɪkəl/ onscreen (adv) /ˈɒnskriːn/ overcome (v) /ˌəʊvəˈkʌm/ overwhelming (adj) /ˌəʊvəˈwelmɪŋ/ paper napkin (n) /ˈpeɪpə ˌnæpkɪn/ passing fashion /ˌpɑːsɪŋ ˈfæʃən/ passing glimpse /ˌpɑːsɪŋ ˈɡlɪmps/ pointless (adj) /ˈpɔɪntləs/ profound (adj) /prəˈfaʊnd/ put up a wall /ˌpʊt ˈʌp ə ˌwɔːl/ reasonably well /ˌriːzənəbli ˈwel/ reasonably well /ˌriːzənəbli ˈwel/ reasonably well refugee camp (n) /ˌrefjʊˈdʒiː ˌkæmp/ rub against sth /ˈrʌb əˌɡenst ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ sensory overload (n) /ˌsensəri ˈəʊvəˈləʊd/ shrug sth off (phr v) /ˌ ʃrʌɡ ˌsʌmθɪŋ ˈɒf/ spill sth (v) /ˈspɪl ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ spin around (v) /ˈspɪn əˌraʊnd/ stimulate (v) /ˈstɪmjəleɪt/ subconsciously (adv) /sʌbˈkɒnʃəsli/ substitute (n) /ˈsʌbstɪtjuːt/ take in (phr v) /ˌteɪk ˈɪn/ thud (n) /θʌd/ treat with caution /ˌtriːt wɪθ ˈkɔːʃən/ trick sb into doing sth /ˈtrɪk ˌsʌmbɒdi ˌɪntə ˌduːɪŋ ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ ultimately (adv) /ˈʌltəmətli/ unreliable (adj) /ˌʌnrɪˈlaɪəbəl/ vary (v) /ˈveəri/ VR (Virtual Reality) /ˌviː ˈɑː (ˌvɜːtjuəl riˈælɪti)/ walk in someone else's shoes /ˌwɔːk ɪn ˌsʌmwʌn ˈelsəs ˌ ʃuːz/ war zone (n) /ˈwɔː ˌzəʊn/ wave of anxiety /ˌweɪv əv æŋˈzaɪəti/ willingness (n) /ˈwɪlɪŋnəs/ 8E LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 5.54 affect (v) /əˈfekt/ appearance (n) /əˈpɪərəns/ attribute (n) /ˈætrəbjuːt/ bother about sth (v) /ˈbɒðə əˌbaʊt ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ capture an image /ˌkæptʃə ən ˈɪmɪdʒ/ curate (v) /ˈkjʊərət/ deceptive (adj) /dɪˈseptɪv/ enhance (v) /ɪnˈhɑːns/ envious (adj) /ˈenviəs/ feature (n) /ˈfiːtʃə/ feel compelled to do sth /ˌfiːl kəmˈpeld tə ˌduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ flattering (adj) /ˈflætərɪŋ/ flaw (n) /flɔː/ likeable (adj) /ˈlaɪkəbəl/ self-obsessed (adj) /ˌself əbˈsest/ self-portrait (n) /ˌself ˈpɔːtrɪt/ straightforward (adj) /ˌstreɪtˈfɔːwəd/ superficial (adj) /ˌsuːpəˈfɪʃəl/ 8F GRAMMAR 5.55 carry out an experiment /ˌkæri ˈaʊt ən ɪkˈsperəmənt/ change the course of sth /ˌtʃeɪndʒ ðə ˈkɔːs əv ˌ sʌmθɪŋ/ devastated (adj) /ˈdevəsteɪtɪd/ file a patent application /ˌfaɪl ə ˈpeɪtnt ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃən/ generate profits /ˌdʒenəreɪt ˈprɒfɪts/ geek (n) /ɡiːk/ give sth away (phr v) /ˌɡɪv ˌsʌmθɪŋ əˈweɪ/ have control over sb/sth /ˌhəv kənˈtrəʊl ˌəʊvə ˌ sʌmbɒdi/ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ intimate details /ˌɪntəmət ˈdiːteɪlz/ Internet traffic (n) /ˈɪntənet ˌtræfɪk/ listen out for sth (phr v) /ˌlɪsən ˈaʊt fə ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ make a penny of sth /ˌmeɪk ə ˈpeni əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ privacy (n) /ˈprɪvəsi/ privatise (v) /ˈpraɪvətaɪz/ remark (v) /rɪˈmɑːk/ self-portrait (n) /ˌself ˈpɔːtrɪt/ source code /ˈsɔːs ˌkəʊd/ whereby (adv) /weəˈbaɪ/ 8G WRITING 5.56 accurate (adj) /ˈækjərət/ ad-blocking software /ˈæd ˌblɒkɪŋ ˌsɒftweə/ altogether (adv) /ˌɔːltəˈɡeðə/ as a result of sth /əz ə rɪˈzʌlt əv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ convenient (adj) /kənˈviːniənt/ deliver personalised content /dɪˌlɪvə ˈpɜːsənəlaɪzd ˌkɒntent/ digital advertising /ˌdɪdʒətl ˈædvətaɪzɪŋ/ informed choice /ɪnˌfɔːmd ˈtʃɔɪs/ intrusive (adj) /ɪnˈtruːsɪv/ invasion of privacy /ɪnˈveɪʒən əv ˌprɪvəsi/ nevertheless (adv) /ˌnevəðəˈles/ notice (v) /ˈnəʊtɪs/ nowadays (adv) /ˈnaʊədeɪz/ relevant (adj) /ˈreləvənt/ search company (n) /ˈsɜːtʃ ˌkʌmpəni/ tag a location /ˌtæɡ ə ləʊˈkeɪʃən/ target sb (v) /ˈtɑːɡɪt ˌsʌmbɒdi/ whereas (conj) /weərˈæz/ zodiac (n) /ˈzəʊdiæk/ 119 08 FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 97/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to revise Unit 8. 137
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 1 Choose the correct words to complete the text. Many young people spend a lot of time working on their online image. Some of them 1feature / curate their image like this for fun, others feel it is an important part of who they are, and some just want to 2fit in / hold down with a certain group of friends. Teens use their smart 3gadgets / devices to blog, comment and communicate their ideas and often post photos that have been 4embedded / enhanced with the 5latest / outdated app installed on their phones. Many people feel that posting only 6flattering / superficial photos is 7deceptive / hypersensitive as these aren’t the real person. Not only this, but it can lead to negative body image, with many teens 8 ending up / going through with mental health issues. 2 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. There are two extra words. alert bug dated device embedded handle household malfunctioning outdated overheating track wearables 1 This software is very . Itcan’t this new programme. That’s why it’s crashing all the time. 2 Wepaidalotforthis appliance and now it’s . I’m going to take it back to the shop. 3 People use , such as smartwatches at the gym, to measure how their body reacts to training. 4 Her computer is . I t’s so hot you can’t even touch it! I think she should back up all her data and buy a new . 5 My smartphone still works, but is already . I bought it three years ago. 6 I think that in the future everyone will have a sensor in their body which will their body’s fat and water content. 3 Complete the sentences with the passive form of the verbs in brackets and by/y/y with where necessary. 1 The number of smart devices that (use) globally is going up all the time. 2I (wake up) the neighbour’s faulty burglar alarm again last night. 3 They didn’t remember they (ask) to write a review of the new app. 4 The factory (just / automate) so some people have lost their jobs. 5 I think all our houses (control) powerful computers soon. 6 Our dishes (prepare) the highest quality natural ingredients. 7 I didn’t enjoy (speak) to like that. That woman was very rude. 4 Rewrite the sentences in the passive. 1 More people are buying smart household appliances these days. More smart household appliances . 2 People claim that virtual reality experiences are exactly the same as the real thing. It . 3 People expect self-driving cars will reduce the number of traffic accidents. It . 4 They require you to have proof of identity to get in. You . 5 We believe that at least twenty companies have lost important data due to the recent computer virus. Important data . 6 People think that shoppers bought over five hundred fake smartwatches here last month. It . USE OF ENGLISH 5 Complete the second sentence using the word in bold so that it means the same as the first one. Use no more than five words, including the word in bold. 1 The number of users increased dramatically. DRAMATIC There the number of users. 2 I met an old friend by chance yesterday. BUMPED an old friend yesterday. 3 Someone revealed the organisation didn’t have a software licence. REVEALED the organisation didn’t have a software licence. 4 There has been a slight drop in the number of sales recently. DROPPED The number of sales . 5 Some people find it difficult to keep a job. DOWN Some people find it difficult to . 6 They make the appliance with the latest state-of-the-art material. MADE The appliance the latest state-of-the-art material. 08 Revision 120 REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 230 FURTHER PRACTICE • Use of English, Student’s Book page 194 • Class debates pages 268–269 • Self-assessment 8 and Self-check 8, Workbook pages 98–99/Online Practice • Extra digital activities: Use of English, Reading, Listening ASSESSMENT • Unit 8 Language Test (Vocabulary, Grammar, Use of English) • Unit 8 Skills Test (Dictation, Listening, Reading, Communication) • Unit 8 Writing Test • Units 7–8 Cumulative Review Test • Units 7–8 Exam Speaking Exercise 3 1 are used 2 was woken up, by 3 had been asked 4 has just been automated 5 will be controlled by 6 are prepared with 7 being spoken Exercise 2 1 outdated, handle 2 household, malfunctioning 3 wearables 4 overheating, device 5 dated 6 embedded, track Exercise 4 1 are being bought these days 2 is claimed that virtual reality experiences are ... 3 is expected that self-driving cars will reduce ... 4 are required to have proof of identity to get in 5 is believed to have been lost by at least ... 6 is thought that over five hundred fake smart watches were bought here last month (by shoppers) Exercise 5 1 was a dramatic increase in 2 I bumped into 3 It was revealed (that) 4 has dropped slightly recently / has recently dropped slightly / has slightly dropped recently 5 hold down a job 6 is made with 138
SPEAKING 8 The photos show technology being used in public places. Take it in turns to compare the photos. Then ask the questions below. A B Questions to ask your partner: Student A: Where do we have security cameras? Say why. Student B: Some people are against security cameras. Say why. WRITING 9 Young people spend a lot of time curating their online profiles. Write an essay providing arguments for and against this practice. 6 Choose the correct words a–d to complete the text. MOOC stands for Massive Open Online Course. There has been a 1 growth in their number since they appeared early this century. In fact, paper and envelope-based distance-learning courses are rarely found these days and are considered 2 . MOOCs use Internet-based learning platforms, whose 3 is improving all the time. Glitches are unusual. Students rarely come 4 against technical issues provided the device they are using to access their course isn’t outdated. 5 in the past educational opportunities were in the past educational opportunities were limited by financial resources and geographical location, anyone anywhere can study on a MOOC as long as they have Internet access. It is 6 believed that education is being revolutionised by MOOCs, as the vast majority are free and qualifications are not required to register for them. They are usually taken by people genuinely interested in improving their knowledge, or by those who wish to see if they are sufficiently interested in a subject to study it in more depth. 7 , MOOCs currently have no formal assessment system or certification. 1 a slight b dramatic c short d forward 2 a upgraded b declined c embedded d obsolete 3 a functionality b appliance c use d function 4 adown bon cup d back 5 a Nevertheless b Despite c However d Whereas 6 a obviously b very c much d commonly 7 a Though b Although c However d Despite Use of English > page 194 LISTENING 7 3.28 You are going to hear five short extracts in which people are talking about how they make money from the Internet. Match speakers 1–5 with questions a–h . There are three extra questions. STRATEGY | Listening for gist First, skim through the questions to find out what information is needed. Sometimes you will be asked to get the gist – the whole picture – and not details so listen out for words that create that picture. 1□2□3□4□5□ What is the most difficult: a hosting people you don’t like? b having an old computer? c unequal pay for men and women? d dealing with the unexpected? e not earning much money? f online sales and marketing? g finding enough time? h not selling things he/she likes? 121 f g h a c 139
Silence and respect Silence and respect MEME SCHEME MEME SCHEME It’s many students’ dream, an offer of a place at Harvard, one of the most prestigious universities in the world. But for ten students, that dream crashed and burnt after university administrators discovered a private group chat. The administrators were horrified to find a number of very offensive memes being posted by the group of friends, who had found each other through an official university group for upcoming students. The private group chat had been created specifically to post shocking memes, and only those who could come up with something truly offensive were admitted as members. No doubt, these students believed that the private nature of the group meant that no one would ever see what they posted. Unfortunately, they were wrong, and all of them had their offers of a place at Harvard withdrawn. Lindsey Stone was a carer working with a group of adults with Lindsey Stone was a carer working with a group of adults with learning difficulties. She and her friend and colleague Jamie learning difficulties. She and her friend and colleague Jamie often took the group on day trips and holidays. The two friends often took the group on day trips and holidays. The two friends had something of a running joke going on. When they were had something of a running joke going on. When they were out and about, they would often take and post silly photos of out and about, they would often take and post silly photos of themselves online. themselves online. One day they visited Arlington National Cemetery in Washington. One day they visited Arlington National Cemetery in Washington. Many famous people are buried there, as well as a great Many famous people are buried there, as well as a great number of war veterans. Lindsey and Jamie saw a sign saying number of war veterans. Lindsey and Jamie saw a sign saying ‘Silence and Respect’ and thought it would be funny to take a ‘Silence and Respect’ and thought it would be funny to take a photo of Lindsey pretending to shout. They posted the photo, photo of Lindsey pretending to shout. They posted the photo, had a giggle ... and didn’t think much more about it. had a giggle ... and didn’t think much more about it. They really had never thought about their privacy settings or They really had never thought about their privacy settings or who might be sharing the photo until Lindsey woke up one day who might be sharing the photo until Lindsey woke up one day who might be sharing the photo until Lindsey woke up one day to find reporters and camera crews outside her door. 12,000 to find reporters and camera crews outside her door. 12,000 people had signed an online petition to have her fired from her people had signed an online petition to have her fired from her job, because of the lack of respect shown by her photo. Soon job, because of the lack of respect shown by her photo. Soon she was one of the most hated women in America – and she did she was one of the most hated women in America – and she did indeed lose her job as a result of her negative online presence. indeed lose her job as a result of her negative online presence. Just because of one thoughtless post on social media. Just because of one thoughtless post on social media. 122 LIFE SKILLS How to manage your online image REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 231 CULTURE NOTES page 211 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS As a follow-up to Exercise 6 or during Exercise 7, students Google their own name to find out what information is stored about them on the Internet. Students discuss in pairs or small groups how the information available about them makes them feel. Are they happy with the amount of information available? Do they think it’s too much or not enough? What can they do to change it? 140
1 In pairs, read the definition and discuss the questions. digital footprint – the information about a particular person that exists on the Internet as a result of their online activity 1 Give some examples of how someone could create a negative digital footprint. 2 In what ways could a negative digital footprint affect your life? 2 Work in pairs. Read two newspaper articles about the consequences of a negative digital footprint. Student A read Silence and Respect and Student B read Silence and Respect and Student B read Silence and Respect Meme Scheme. Then answer the questions. Text 1 1 What was Lindsey’s intention in posting the photo? 2 Why did the photo provoke such a strong reaction? 3 Do you think Lindsey deserved to lose her job? Say why. Text 2 1 Why were the university administrators horrified? 2 Why did the students think no one outside the group would see what they had posted? 3 What was the outcome of them posting the memes? 3 Tell your partner what happened in the incident you read about and discuss the questions. 1 Do you think what happened in each case was too harsh? Say why. 2 How do you think the people’s lives were affected in the years after the incident. 3 What could they have done differently? 4 In pairs, decide if the following statements are true or false. 1 What you post online stays online forever. 2 Once you have a negative online reputation, you can’t do anything about it. 3 It’s better to have no online profile at all. 4 What you post in a private message cannot be seen by others. 5 3.29 Listen to a radio podcast with the author of a book about online etiquette and check whether the speaker agrees with your answers to Exercise 4. 6 Study the Life Skills box and match tips 1–6 with extra information a–f. LIFE SKILLS | How to manage your online image 1 Don’t post anything online without thinking about its consequences first. 2 Take steps to remove or hide anything negative. 3 The same rules apply online as in real life. 4 Do a search on your name every six months or so. 5 Check your privacy settings regularly. 6 Don’t avoid an online presence altogether. a Remember that posting something privately doesn’t necessarily protect you. b Ask yourself if you would be comfortable with your grandmother seeing or reading it. c Set up an alert to let you know when someone tags you, or mentions you online. d Add a lot of new posts to move something you don’t want people to see to the third or fourth page of search results. e Employers actively look for employees who are comfortable in the online world. f Don't download or share anything that belongs to anyone else without permission. 7 In pairs, discuss the questions. Could someone else access and impact your digital footprint? How well do you guard your privacy? 8 DEBATE In pairs or small groups, discuss this statement. Adults should not be allowed to post pictures of their children on social media without their explicit permission. 9 Do the task below. LIFE SKILLS | Project Work in pairs. Make a plan to improve your online presence. • Look at your current online presence and consider if anything should be removed. • Think about what you could add to make a good impression on universities or future employers. • Write down at least five actions you will take in the next few weeks. • Share some of your ideas with the class. 123 07–08 Exercise 1 Possible answers 1 everything you have said or posted online and everything that has been said or posted about you online; images where you are tagged; social media profiles; reviews you’ve posted; comments you’ve made 2 relationships with others; employability; credit rating; having to adhere to a professional code of conduct Exercise 2 Text 1 1 She thought it was funny and would make her friends laugh. It was for fun. 2 Because it was seen as being highly disrespectful to the war veterans buried at Arlington Cemetery. Text 2 1 They found a lot of offensive memes. 2 It was a private group, so they thought nobody else would read their posts.. 3 Their offers of a place at Harvard were withdrawn. Exercise 5 1 Basically true. Even if you delete it, you don’t know who may have saved it to re-post. 2 False. In many countries, you can file a ‘right to be forgotten’ request. You can also ‘bury’ the problem by posting a lot of positive stuff about yourself. 3 False. It’s better to have a positive online presence than no presence. 4 False. People may screenshot it and then share, or the app may be hacked. f d b a c e 141
Conditionals 4 THINK BACK Match the conditional sentences 1–4 with their types and functions a–d . 1 □ If his father hadn’t broken his ankle, Schultz’s life might have turned out differently. 2 □ If Natalia wasn’t beautiful, she wouldn’t be a model. 3 □ If you work hard, you’ll get rich. 4 □ Anyone can be successful if they’re determined enough. a zero conditional (A situation that the speaker considers is always or generally true.) b first conditional (A situation that the speaker considers is likely to happen in the future.) c second conditional (A hypothetical or improbable situation in the present or future.) d third conditional (A hypothetical situation in the past.) 5 Look at the sentences in Exercise 4 again and answer the questions. 1 Which two modal verbs (other than will/would) are used? 2 In which sentence can you replace if with if with if when? 3 Rewrite Sentence 3 using unless instead of if. 1 What do you think the phrase ‘rags-to-riches’ means? Do you know any rags-to-riches stories? 2 4.1 Listen to a radio programme about some real-life rags-to-riches stories. Whose opinions do you agree with most, Andrea’s or Dominic’s? Say why. 3 4.1 Complete the sentences using the words in the box. Then listen again and check your answers. In some cases more than one answer is possible. affluent costly extravagant hardship inheritance lucrative put aside splash out well-off 1 Lots of successful business people used to live in , but became very through their own hard work, through their own hard work, rather than through a family . 2 Some people are born into families, and there’s families, and there’s no doubt that makes life easier. 3 Natalia Vodianova started out poor, but by the age of 17 she had a modelling contract. modelling contract. 4 She doesn’t seem to have a particularly lifestyle for lifestyle for a millionaire, apart from all the clothes of course. 5 All these rags-to-riches stories, which encourage people to on designer clothes and so on! I’d like to hear on designer clothes and so on! I’d like to hear more stories about people who money to deal money to deal with unexpected bills or decided to invest their money. 124 9A GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY Highs and lows 09 VOCABULARYWords related to money, failure and success, binomials, collocations GRAMMAR Zero, first, second and third conditionals, mixed conditionals, wish and if only, past modals for regrets Use of English > page 195 SPEAKING Discussing advantages and disadvantages WRITING A competition entry/Letter of application VIDEO Grammar Documentary Natalia Vodianova REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 231 VIDEO SCRIPT page 244 CULTURE NOTES page 212 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS Do this activity after Exercise 10. Put students in pairs and ask them to imagine what their life would be like now if they had had more opportunities, fewer opportunities or different ones. Ask students to share their ideas with a partner using mixed conditionals. Give an example about yourself if necessary. FURTHER PRACTICE • Photocopiable extra Grammar Video activity 9, page 272 • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 187 • Workbook pages 100–101/Online Practice Exercise 3 1 hardship, well-off/affluent, inheritance 2 affluent/well-off 3 lucrative 4 extravagant, costly 5 splash out, put aside Exercise 5 1 might, can 2 sentence 4 3 Unless you work hard, you won’t get rich. when someone goes from poverty to being very rich d c b a 142
6 Study pairs of sentences (a–b) of the same meaning. Why are sentences a known as mixed conditionals? Which two types of conditionals do they mix? Study the Grammar box and check your answers. 1 a If Natalia Vodianova hadn’t become a model, she wouldn’t be famous now. b Natalia Vodianova became a model, so she is famous now. 2 a If she wasn’t a supermodel, she wouldn’t have raised so much money for charity. b She raised so much money for charity because she is a supermodel. Mixed conditionals Mixed conditionals combine clauses from both second and third conditionals. There are two types: • If + Past Perfect, would(n’t) + infinitive We use this to talk about the present consequences of a hypothetical past situation: If I’d gone to university, I would have a better job. • If + Past Simple, If + Past Simple, If would(n’t) + perfect infinitive We use this to talk about the effects of a hypothetical present situation in the past: If she wasn’t smart, she wouldn’t have earned all that money. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 187 7 Use the information to write two conditional sentences: one second or third conditional, and one mixed. 1 Natalia Vodianova likes children. She has five children of her own. She decided to have a large family. 2 Howard Schultz visited Italy. He decided to start selling Italian-style coffee in the USA. Italian-style coffee is very popular in the USA today. 3 Starbucks now has over 28,000 stores in seventy- seven countries. Shultz earned billions of dollars in his role as CEO. Starbucks wouldn’t be such a famous brand. 8 Choose the correct verb forms to complete the sentences. Which type of conditional is used in each sentence? 1 If his father didn’t break / didn’t break / didn’t break hadn’t broken his ankle, he would / wouldn’t have lost his job. wouldn’t have lost his job. wouldn’t 2 You would have to / will have to work for a living unless you will inherit / will inherit / will inherit inherit a lot of money. inherit a lot of money. inherit 3 If you don’t go / hadn’t gone in to work today, you may / may / may can get fired. 4 You won’t have any money left if you keep / kept splashing out like that. 5 If you could do anything, which job will / would you choose? 6 If you didn’t / didn’t / didn’t hadn’t have a lucrative job, you might hadn’t have a lucrative job, you might hadn’t not be able to afford that car. 7 It can be difficult to put money aside if you weren’t / weren’t / weren’t aren’t well-off. aren’t well-off. aren’t 8 What would she have done if she didn’t / didn’t / didn’t hadn’t become a model? 9 4.2 PRONUNCIATION Listen and check your answers from Exercise 8. What happens to the intonation in sentences where the clauses are divided by a comma? 10 Read the article about Oprah Winfrey and complete the sentences with correct conditional structures. 1 Ifshe so poor, she so motivated to succeed. 2 Ifshe in East Nashville High, she decided to pursue a career in media. 3 She America’s first black female news presenter before she was twenty if she so determined. 4 Ifshe so determined to get ahead, she might when she was fired. 5 Ifshe such drive and determination, she her own media empire today. 6 Ifshe for president, she the first female American president ever. OPRAH WINFREY’S RAGS-TO-RICHES RAGS-TO-RICHES STORY STORY 11 SPEAKING In pairs, take it in turns to tell rags-to-riches stories. Student A, go to page 196. Student B, go to page 200. 18 Read the question below and watch the video. Say what the speakers answer. Then in pairs, ask and answer the question. How would your life be different now if you had chosen a career you dreamt about as a child? G R A M M A R V I D E O Oprah Winfrey is a TV personality, actress, entrepreneur, Oprah Winfrey is a TV personality, actress, entrepreneur, Oprah Winfrey is a TV personality, actress, entrepreneur, and one of the richest and most influential women in and one of the richest and most influential women in the USA. Her s is a real rags-to-riches story as she grew the USA. Her s is a real rags-to-riches story as she grew the USA. Her s is a real rags-to-riches story as she grew the USA. Her s is a real rags-to-riches story as she grew the USA. Her s is a real rags-to-riches story as she grew up in great hardship. As a child, Oprah was so poor that up in great hardship. As a child, Oprah was so poor that up in great hardship. As a child, Oprah was so poor that up in great hardship. As a child, Oprah was so poor that up in great hardship. As a child, Oprah was so poor that she sometimes wore potato sacks instead of clothes. she sometimes wore potato sacks instead of clothes. she sometimes wore potato sacks instead of clothes. she sometimes wore potato sacks instead of clothes. Now, her net worth is estimated at around $3 billion. Now, her net worth is estimated at around $3 billion. Now, her net worth is estimated at around $3 billion. Oprah believes that her success is partially due to her Oprah believes that her success is partially due to her Oprah believes that her success is partially due to her Oprah believes that her success is partially due to her excellent education at East Nashville High, where she excellent education at East Nashville High, where she excellent education at East Nashville High, where she excellent education at East Nashville High, where she excellent education at East Nashville High, where she discovered her interest in media. discovered her interest in media. Before she was twenty, she had become America’s fir st Before she was twenty, she had become America’s fir st Before she was twenty, she had become America’s fir st Before she was twenty, she had become America’s fir st Before she was twenty, she had become America’s fir st Before she was twenty, she had become America’s fir st black female news presenter. Although she was fired black female news presenter. Although she was fired black female news presenter. Although she was fired black female news presenter. Although she was fired from this job after just a few months, she didn’t give from this job after just a few months, she didn’t give from this job after just a few months, she didn’t give from this job after just a few months, she didn’t give from this job after just a few months, she didn’t give up. She quickly got a new job on a talk show named up. She quickly got a new job on a talk show named up. She quickly got a new job on a talk show named up. She quickly got a new job on a talk show named up. She quickly got a new job on a talk show named The Oprah Winfrey Show. The Oprah Winfrey Show. The Oprah Winfrey Show. Now Oprah has her own lucrative media empire. Now Oprah has her own lucrative media empire. Now Oprah has her own lucrative media empire. Now Oprah has her own lucrative media empire. Now Oprah has her own lucrative media empire. All of this has only been possible because of her dri ve All of this has only been possible because of her dri ve All of this has only been possible because of her dri ve All of this has only been possible because of her dri ve All of this has only been possible because of her dri ve and determination. There is even some talk of her and determination. There is even some talk of her and determination. There is even some talk of her and determination. There is even some talk of her and determination. There is even some talk of her running for president, becoming the fir st ever female running for president, becoming the first ever female running for president, becoming the fir st ever female running for president, becoming the fir st ever female running for president, becoming the fir st ever female American president. American president. Such stories are very inspiring, but are they realistic? Such stories are very inspiring, but are they realistic? Such stories are very inspiring, but are they realistic? Such stories are very inspiring, but are they realistic? Such stories are very inspiring, but are they realistic? Such stories are very inspiring, but are they realistic? Is it really that easy for those who are born into Is it really that easy for those who are born into Is it really that easy for those who are born into Is it really that easy for those who are born into Is it really that easy for those who are born into Is it really that easy for those who are born into Is it really that easy for those who are born into Is it really that easy for those who are born into hardship to succeed like Oprah? hardship to succeed like Oprah? 125 09 □ I can use mixed conditionals to talk about present effects of a hypothetical situation in the past. • Photocopiable resource 37: On one condition, pages 287, 326 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 9A ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 9A NEXT CLASS Ask students to think of a think of a time when they failed at something and what they learnt from the experience. They should make notes for the next lesson. Exercise 6 Sentences a are known as mixed conditionals as they combine clauses from both second and third conditionals. Exercise 7 1 If Natalia Vodianova didn’t like children, ... ... she wouldn’t have five children of her own. (second conditional) ... she wouldn’t have decided to have a large family. (mixed conditionals) 2 If Howard Schultz hadn’t visited Italy, ... ... he wouldn’t have decided to start selling Italian-style coffee in the USA. (third conditional) ... Italian style coffee wouldn’t be so popular in the USA today. (mixed conditionals) 3 If Starbucks didn’t have over 28,000 stores in seventy- seven countries, ... ... Schultz wouldn’t have earned billions of dollars in his role as CEO. (mixed conditionals) ... Starbucks wouldn’t be such a famous brand. (second conditional) Exercise 9 In sentences with a comma, i.e . where the conditional clause comes first, there is a rise in intonation on the first clause and a fall on the second clause. Exercise 10 1 hadn’t been, wouldn’t/ might not have been/be 2 hadn’t studied, might not have 3 would/might have never / wouldn’t/might not have become , wasn ’t/weren’t 4 hadn’t been, have given up 5 hadn’t had/didn’t have, wouldn’t have 6 runs/ran, will/would be (third) (first) (first, with may replacing will) (first) (second) (second) (first, with can replacing will) (third) 143
3 4.3 4.3 Listen again and answer the questions. 1 How did Speaker 1 eventually get into the meeting room? 2 Why didn’t Speaker 2 get into Oxford University? 3 How would her life have been different if she hadn’t made that mistake? 4 What exactly was Speaker 3’s business idea? 5 Why didn’t his business idea work? 6 What does Speaker 4 think was the main reason for the mistake she made? 7 What has she learned from her mistake? 4 Complete the table with the words from the box. Then complete the extracts from the recording with the correct form of words from the box. blunder flop flourish get nowhere masterstroke mess up pay off setback Success Failure 1 I was embarrassed and felt like I’d really . 2 Itwasahuge and I didn’t get the marks I needed to go to Oxford. 3 Intheend,I at Bristol and got a great degree. 4 I had what I thought was a really good idea – a . 5 I really tried, but just ,andintheendIgaveup. 6 If I’d invested a few weeks in finding out about my business idea, it would have really . 7 But I did learn something from the – do your market research first. 8 The idea was a complete . 5 Complete these extracts from the recording with the words from the box. attempt blessing (x2) lot 1 I started walking around in a vain to find another door. 2 There was a at stake because I had to get top marks to have any chance of getting in. 3 I guess what we think is a complete disaster often turns out to be a in disguise. 4 Itwasabitofamixed really because I was really too young to have so much money. 6 SPEAKING In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Do you agree that a setback can sometimes be a blessing in disguise? Can you give an example from your own experience? 2 Can you think of any famous people who really messed up but learnt from the experience and made a success of their lives? 7 REFLECT | Society In pairs, discuss the quote. Anyone who never made a mistake, never made anything new. Albert Einstein 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos and discuss the questions. 1 What is the common theme in all the photos? 2 What is the problem in each photo? 3 Could failure be a step towards success? Say why. A B C 2 4.3 Listen to four people talking about mistakes they made. For Speakers 1–4, choose from the list (a–g) what each speaker says. There are three extra options. Speaker: 1□ 2□ 3□ 4□ a This mistake was about doing things in the wrong order. b The speaker felt this mistake was really someone else’s fault. c Other people took the mistake less seriously than the speaker initially did. d The speaker thinks they made the mistake because they didn’t work hard enough. e The speaker lost a relationship as a result of their mistake. f This mistake came as a shock to the speaker. g The speaker believes their life would be better now if they hadn’t made the mistake. 126 □ I can identify specific details in a recording and talk about failure and success. 9B LISTENING AND VOCABULARY REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 232 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • After Exercise 4 or 5, ask students to add as many success and failure words to the table as they can in 2 minutes. If they can’t think of any, they can use an online thesaurus to look them up. Elicit words from the class, write any new words on the board and elicit or explain their meaning. Encourage students to record any new words in their notebooks. • Students can refer to the notes they made at home during their discussion in Exercise 6. FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 102/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 38: Mistakes, pages 287, 327 Exercise 3 1 He climbed through the window. 2 She didn’t turn over the page and therefore missed out the last question on her exam paper. 3 She wouldn’t have gone to Bristol University and she wouldn’t have met her husband. 4 To create a website to help people decide which gym to sign up to. 5 Because the gym owners weren’t interested in it. 6 She was too young and immature. 7 She has learned to save some of her money. Exercise 4 1 messed up 2 blunder 3 flourished 4 masterstroke 5 got nowhere 6 paid off 7 setback 8 flop c f a g flourish, masterstroke, pay off blunder, flop, get nowhere, mess up, setback attempt lot blessing blessing 144
1 Would you ever do a bungee jump? a No, it wouldn’t be worth the risk . b I’d love to have the opportunity. c I’ve already done one. 2 What do you look for in a friendship? a Give and take on both sides. b Someone to push me out of my comfort zone. c Someone who thinks just like me. 3 Your friend is cooking some food you’ve never tried before. Do you a grab the chance to try something new? b wait and see what it looks like before you decide? c explain politely that it doesn’t look like something you’d like? 4 You’re parking your car when someone leaving the car park gives you their ticket, which is still valid. What do you do? a Consider it a lucky break – now you don’t have to pay for a ticket. b Tell them it’s wrong and that you refuse to run the risk of getting caught by the car park attendant. c Thank them, but still buy your own ticket, just to be on the safe side. 5 Complete the sentences with risk, chance, opportunity or luck. Sometimes more than one correct answer is possible. 1 Given the , where would you most like to travel? 2 Alice is so much more experienced than Ross; he doesn’t stand much of getting the job. 3 I’d like to take this to thank you for all your help. to thank you for all your help. to thank you for all your help. 4 As soon as I heard about the trip, I grabbed the togoonit. 5 What a piece of ! I just found £10 on the floor! 6 This is your last ; I won’t make the offer again. 7 We only found the house by because he’d forgotten to bring a map. 8 I’m sure parachuting would be exciting, but it wouldn’t be worth the in my opinion. in my opinion. in my opinion. 9 I stayed at home because I didn’t want to catching a cold. 10 You’d have more of passing your exams if you studied more. 6 SPEAKING Complete the sentences so they are true for you. Then in groups, compare your answers. 1 The biggest piece of luck I’ve ever had was when ... 2 Given the chance, I’d love to ... 3 I would definitely grab the chance to ... 4 Iwillhavetowaitandseeif... 5 ... isn’t worth the risk. 19 WATCH AND REFLECT Go to page 170. Watch the documentary Houston, we’ve had a problem and do the exercises. D O C U M E N T A R Y V I D E O 1 Are you a risk taker? Do the quiz and find out. Check your score on page 199. 2 Study Active Vocabulary and complete the binomials with the words from the box using the correct conjunctions. Then find two binomials in the quiz. give more pick safe sooner take it there touch ups 1 choose 2 downs 3 later 4 leave it 5 less 6 sound 7 take 8 then 9 go ACTIVE VOCABULARY | Binomials Binomials are phrases where two words are joined with a conjunction, usually and or or (or (or touch and go). • The two words often begin with the same sound (slowly but surely). • Sometimes they have a similar or opposite meaning (peace and quiet, highs and lows). • The order of the words is fixed and needs to be learnt as part of the expression. 3 Replace the underlined words with binomials in Exercise 2. 1 At some point At some point, you will have to make a decision. 2 The best universities can select which students to accept. 3 They wanted me to sign up for the course immediately immediately, with no time at all to consider. 4 You have to learn to compromise compromise in a relationship. 5 I’m offering you £50; you can accept accept it or not. 6 Although she was ten years older, she looked about the same age. 7 After a hazardous journey, they were relieved to get home with no problems with no problems. 8 They’ve had some good and bad times good and bad times, but are doing well now. 4 Study Watch out! Then find five expressions with these words in the quiz in Exercise 1. WATCH OUT! The words risk, chance, opportunity and opportunity and opportunity luck have related luck have related luck meanings and are easily confused. In particular, the word chance can be used in several different ways: I’d love to have the chance (opportunity) to bungee jump. There’s a slim chance (possibility) that we might succeed, but we’d need a lucky break. If you do sports, there’s always a chance (risk) of injury. It was pure chance (luck) that we met that night. Risk-taking QUIZ QUIZ QUIZ 09 □ I can talk about chance, risk opportunity and luck. 127 9C VOCABULARY | Chance and risk REFERENCES VIDEO SCRIPT page 245 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS After Exercise 1, students, in pairs, talk about whether they think the results of the quiz are accurate for them and whether they believe they are (or are not) indeed risk-takers. What do they think the consequence of being a risk-taker is? Is it important to take risks? FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook page 103/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 39: What’s on my card?, pages 288, 328 • Extra digital activities: Vocabulary Checkpoint 9 ASSESSMENT Vocabulary Quiz 9 Exercise 5 1 chance/opportunity 2 chance 3 opportunity 4 chance/opportunity 5 luck 6 chance/opportunity 7 chance 8 risk 9 risk 10 chance Exercise 3 1 Sooner or later 2 pick and choose 3 there and then 4 give and take 5 take it or leave it 6 more or less 7 safe and sound 8 ups and downs Exercise 2 1 pick and 2 ups and 3 sooner or 4takeitor 5 more or 6 safe and 7 give and 8 there and 9 touch and 145
After this setback, he really started to worry. To try and take his mind off take his mind off his situation he sang, read and take his mind off his situation he sang, read and take his mind off prayed. However, the isolation took its toll took its toll on him. He admitted that at one point he almost gave up He admitted that at one point he almost gave up He admitted that at one point he almost gave up kept him going kept him going. C Safely back home with his family, Aldi Safely back home with his family, Aldi considered considered his options his options. His family lived in some hardship and his . His family lived in some hardship and his job was, from his perspective, relatively lucrative at job was, from his perspective, relatively lucrative at $134 a month. However, having found himself drifting $134 a month. However, having found himself drifting three times since he started the job aged sixteen, three times since he started the job aged sixteen, he and his family decided it simply wasn’t worth the he and his family decided it simply wasn’t worth the risk. From now on, he’ll be staying firmly on dry land. risk. From now on, he’ll be staying firmly on dry land. risk. From now on, he’ll be staying firmly on dry land. risk. From now on, he’ll be staying firmly on dry land. risk. From now on, he’ll be staying firmly on dry land. D His survival skills were keeping him alive, but he was starting to wonder if he would ever be rescued. was starting to wonder if he would ever be rescued. was starting to wonder if he would ever be rescued. He saw more than ten ships sail past him, but none He saw more than ten ships sail past him, but none of them seemed to have a clue have a clue that he was there. that he was there. He tried waving a towel, and communicating via his He tried waving a towel, and communicating via his He tried waving a towel, and communicating via his He tried waving a towel, and communicating via his radio, but got nowhere. After a few weeks, he radio, but got nowhere. After a few weeks, he thought he had at last got his lucky break when he thought he had at last got his lucky break when he thought he had at last got his lucky break when he managed to talk to the captain of an Indonesian ship managed to talk to the captain of an Indonesian ship managed to talk to the captain of an Indonesian ship by walkie-talkie. The captain promised he would return by walkie-talkie. The captain promised he would return by walkie-talkie. The captain promised he would return and pick him up once they had finished work for the and pick him up once they had finished work for the and pick him up once they had finished work for the day. Heartbreakingly, Aldi never saw the ship again. day. Heartbreakingly, Aldi never saw the ship again. day. Heartbreakingly, Aldi never saw the ship again. G In the end, after forty-nine days, he saw In the end, after forty-nine days, he saw a Panamanian ship, the Arpeggio. Desperate to a Panamanian ship, the Arpeggio. Desperate to make make himself understood himself understood he used the few words of English he used the few words of English he knew over the radio: ‘Help! Help!’ The ship had he knew over the radio: ‘Help! Help!’ The ship had already passed him by, but it turned around to pick already passed him by, but it turned around to pick him up. The video taken by the crew shows his tiny hut him up. The video taken by the crew shows his tiny hut floating in the ocean, and the moment when he was floating in the ocean, and the moment when he was taken on board, finally safe and sound. The boat was taken on board, finally safe and sound. The boat was heading for Japan, so they took him with them. Finally, heading for Japan, so they took him with them. Finally, the Indonesian embassy collected him and flew him the Indonesian embassy collected him and flew him home, almost two months after his ordeal had begun. home, almost two months after his ordeal had begun. home, almost two months after his ordeal had begun. home, almost two months after his ordeal had begun. HH From when he was sixteen years old, Aldi had spent weeks at a time working on a fishing trap, known as a rompong, a kind of hut which floats in the middle of the sea, but is attached to the sea bed with a rope. Every night he would light lamps to attract the fish to his nets. It was a lonely kind of life. He had a walkie-talkie on which he could speak to other rompong workers up to five miles away, and once a week a boat would come to collect the fish and top up his supplies of food, gas and drinking water. F INSPIRATIONAL STORIES OF RESILIENCE 1 Indonesian teenager, Aldi Adilang, is only nineteen, but he has already gone through the ordeal gone through the ordeal of being lost at sea not just once, but an incredible three times! The first two times he got off relatively lightly got off relatively lightly; he was drifting for a week, and the second time for two days. Those experiences sound terrifying enough, but on the third occasion he was floating – alone in the ocean – for forty-nine long days, not knowing if he would ever see his friends and family again. A But after a week his supplies ran out. He caught fish and used parts of his wooden hut to make a fire and cook the fish. Not having any more fresh drinking water, he had no choice but to had no choice but to drink sea water. However, he filtered the sea water through his clothes to at least reduce the amount of salt. This must have done the trick done the trick because he survived in this way for four days until, thankfully, it rained and he was able to collect some rainwater. B 4.4 This day had started just like any other, until the This day had started just like any other, until the rope attaching his rompong to the bottom of the sea rope attaching his rompong to the bottom of the sea broke and he, already 125 kilometres from the coast, broke and he, already 125 kilometres from the coast, started to drift even further away on the current. At first, started to drift even further away on the current. At first, he wasn’t too worried. After all, this had happened to he wasn’t too worried. After all, this had happened to him before – twice! He took it for granted took it for granted took it for granted took it for granted took it for granted that sooner or later his boss would come and rescue him, as he or later his boss would come and rescue him, as he had done before. Aldi had a week’s supply of food. had done before. Aldi had a week’s supply of food. He was sure it would all be fine. He was sure it would all be fine. He was sure it would all be fine. E 128 EXTRA ACTIVITIES IN CLASS • After Exercise 7 or 8, give students a minute to look again at the highlighted collocations in the text and ask them to close their books. Say the first part of each collocation, and ask students to complete it, e.g . take something for ... (granted), get off relatively ... (lightly), go through an ... (ordeal). In stronger classes, students could also do this in pairs, taking turns to say the first part of a collocation for their partner to give the last word. • Students write example sentences for the highlighted collocations in the text. Encourage them to try to think of sentences about themselves or people they know if possible. 7 5 2 3 8 6 4 146
5 Read the news story and choose the correct answers. 1 What do you think would be the best title for the article? a How to survive a month at sea b Third time unlucky? c The lonely life of a fisherman d Ocean tragedy for a teenager 2 Why is the word heartbreakingly used in Paragraph G? heartbreakingly used in Paragraph G? heartbreakingly a To explain how Aldi must have felt when he saw the ship. b To justify why Aldi felt that his troubles were now over. c To express the writer’s own feelings about the captain’s actions. d To describe how the captain felt about Aldi. 3 What is suggested about Aldi’s job in Paragraph D? a The job was well-paid and relatively easy work. b He risked his life by taking the job because he was poor. c His parents were relieved when he gave up the job. d The job did not pay enough to support his family. 4 How can we describe Aldi’s personality? a He is resourceful and determined. b He is always optimistic about the future. c He has a tendency towards depression. d He is resentful about what happened to him. 6 SPEAKING Was Aldi lucky or unlucky? How could things have been different? In pairs, discuss what happened. 7 Match the highlighted collocations from the text with their definitions below. 1 Believed something without even thinking about it. 2 Communicate effectively. 3 Was forced to do something. 4 Experienced less harm than might be expected. 5 Had the necessary or wanted result. 6 Caused harm or suffering. 7 Be unable to guess something. 8 Stop him from worrying or thinking about something. 9 Had a very difficult or painful experience. 10 Thought carefully about what to do. 11 Helped him to continue, despite the difficult situation. 8 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first, including the word in bold. 1 My friends helped me get through this difficult time. KEPT My friends . 2 I had no idea where I had left my purse. CLUE I didn’t . 3 I watched a film to distract myself from my worries. TAKE I watched a film to . 4 It was a serious accident, but he was lucky and wasn’t badly injured. LIGHTLY It was a serious accident, but . 5 These problems have had a negative impact on her. TOLL These problems . 6 He had to accept her offer of help. CHOICE He . 9 REFLECT | Society How do you think you would cope in a similar situation to Aldi’s? 1 SPEAKING In pairs, look at the photos in the news story. What do you think happened? 2 Read paragraph A and check your ideas. 3 Paragraphs B–H are in the wrong order. Number the paragraphs in the correct order (2–8) to make a coherent text. Give reasons for your choices. 4 Study Active Reading. Then underline the parts of the text which helped you to decide on the order of the paragraphs in Exercise 3. ACTIVE READING | Following events in a narrative When reading a narrative, in this case a news story, look out When reading a narrative, in this case a news story, look out for the typical structure of this kind of text: • summary of what happened • background to the events • main events – notice linkers such as at first, after, then, finally or in the end • conclusion • coda, where the writer makes a comment or brings the story up to date You can also follow the logic of a narrative by looking for ways in which the ideas are connected: • □ Words and phrases may be repeated, or the writer may use related words or synonyms to connect ideas: Aldi had a week’s supply of food ... But after a week his supplies ran out. • □ The first time something is mentioned, the writer may use an indefinite article, and then the definite article: ... but is attached to the sea bed with a rope ... the rope attaching him to the bottom of the sea broke ... • □ Linkers can be used to show the relationship between parts of the text: Not having any more fresh drinking water, he had no choice but to drink sea water. However, he filtered the sea water through his clothes ... • □ Reference words, such as pronouns, can also show connections between different parts of the text: However, he filtered the sea water through his clothes to at least reduce the amount of salt. This must have done the trick because he survived in this way for four days. GLOSSARY ordeal – a terrible or painful experience that continues for a period of time sea bed – the land at the bottom of the sea supplies – food and other ordinary goods needed by people every day top up – to add to something in order to bring it up to the level you want 09 129 □ I can identify events in a narrative news story. 9D READING AND VOCABULARY FURTHER PRACTICE • Workbook pages 104–105/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 40: Refugee rescue, pages 288, 329 NEXT CLASS Ask students to think of three things about their past which they wish they had done differently and make notes. Exercise 6 Possible answers • If he hadn’t taken the job, he wouldn’t have been put in danger. • If he wasn’t poor, he wouldn’t have needed to take the job. • If the Indonesian captain had come back for him, he would have been rescued much sooner. • This would be a happier ending if there weren’t still so many boys doing this job. Exercise 7 1 took it for granted 2 make himself understood 3 had no choice but to 4 got off (relatively) lightly 5 done the trick 6 took its toll (on) 7 (not) have a clue 8 take his mind off 9 gone through the ordeal 10 considered his options 11 kept him going Exercise 8 1 kept me going at/through this difficult time 2 have a clue where I had left my purse 3 take my mind off my worries 4 he got off lightly and wasn’t badly injured 5 have taken a toll on her health 6 had no choice but to accept her offer of help 147
4 Match the bolded examples of past modals in the text (a–e) with the meanings 1–5 below. 1 □ I did something, but it wasn’t necessary. 2 □ I didn’t do something because it wasn’t necessary (or I thought it wasn’t). 3 □ It was a good idea for me to do something, but I didn’t do it. 4 □ It wasn’t a good idea for me to do something, but I did it. 5 □ Something was a possibility, but I didn’t do it. Grammar Reference and Practice > page 187 5 Choose the correct verb forms to complete the sentences. Sometimes both answers are correct. 1 Your room is a mess! I wish you would pick up / picked up your clothes from the floor! 2 I didn’t need to wait / didn’t need to wait / didn’t need to wait needn’t have waited long for him because he arrived a couple of minutes later. 3 You should have had / needn’t have had breakfast; then you wouldn’t be hungry now. 4 Ifonlyheknew/ knew / knew would know the truth! would know the truth! would know 5 IwishIhadbought/ had bought / had bought bought her a nicer present – bought her a nicer present – bought she looked a bit disappointed when I gave it to her. 6 I shouldn’t have / couldn’t spent all that money; couldn’t spent all that money; couldn’t I could / can have put some aside instead. 7 If only he were / is still here! 8 You needn’t have / didn’t need to bring food; there’s plenty here already. 6 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first, including the word in bold. 1 I’d love to live in France. WISH I . 2 It wasn’t necessary for you to go to the hospital. NEEDN’T You . 3 It’s so annoying when you interrupt me! WISH I ! 4 It wasn’t a good idea to offend her. SHOULDN’T You . 5 I really regret saying that to him. ONLY If . 6 It was possible for me to have gone to India, but I decided not to. HAVE I . 7 SPEAKING Think of a well-known public figure or a person from history. Write the regrets that he/she might have had. In pairs, discuss your ideas and guess who your partner’s person is/was. 1 He/She wishes/wished ... 2 If only he/she ... 3 He/She shouldn’t ... 4 He/She needn’t ... He wished he had never become president of the USA. If only he hadn’t gone to Dallas that day. He needn’t have been in an open top car. (American President John F. Kennedy) 1 SPEAKING Look at the title of the article below. How would you answer this question? What would you change in your life either now or in the past? When I asked this question on Twitter, here are some of the answers I got: sad, motivating and even funny. 1 I wish I had gone to university. I wish I had gone to university. I wanted to get a job and earn good money, but aI think I could have earned more and got a better job if I had a degree. 2 If only I had followed my dream If only I had followed my dream to be a ballet dancer! I was too scared of failure. I might not have been good enough, but bI should at least have tried. c I shouldn’t have listened to the teacher who told me I would never go to university because I couldn’t spell. I’m dyslexic, not stupid, and guess what? Now I have two degrees! 3If only I was better at finishing what I star If only I was better at finishing what I star ... ;) If only I was better at finishing what I star ... ;) If only I was better at finishing what I star If only I was better at finishing what I star ... ;) If only I was better at finishing what I star When I was younger, I spent too much time worrying about what other people thought of me. I know now that dI needn’t have worried because most people aren’t judging anyone else, and if they are, it doesn’t really matter. 4 I wish I could travel round the world. e I thought I didn’t need to work hard at school. How wrong I was! Really regret that now. 5I wish my best friend would stop telling everyone my I wish my best friend would stop telling everyone my secrets. It’s not how a friend should behave! 2 In pairs, read the online article. What advice would you give to the people who tweeted a response? wish/if only, wish/if only, wish/if only past modals 3 THINK BACK Look at the underlined examples in the text (1–5) and complete rules 1–3 below. Then read Watch out! and find an example in the text where was could be replaced by were. 1 We use wish/if only + wish/if only + wish/if only tense to talk about present regrets, or things we would like to change. 2 We use wish/if only + wish/if only + wish/if only to talk about how we want someone else’s behaviour to change. 3 We use wish/if only + wish/if only + wish/if only tense to talk about past regrets. WATCH OUT! In more formal contexts, was is often replaced by were after wish/if only, e.g . I wish I were able to help you in this matter. 130 □ I can use I wish/If only/should/need/could to talk about present and past regrets. 9E GRAMMAR EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS This activity can be done at any point after Exercise 3. Put students in pairs and refer them to the notes they made at home. Get them to share and discuss their ideas using I wish/If only. Then, if time allows, invite a few students to share their ideas with the class. FURTHER PRACTICE • Grammar Reference and Practice, Student’s Book page 187 • Workbook page 106/Online Practice • Photocopiable resource 41: I wish I could use those words!, pages 288, 330 • Extra digital activities: Grammar Checkpoint 9E ASSESSMENT Grammar Quiz 9E Exercise 3 1 Past Simple 2 would 3 Past Perfect Exercise 6 1 wish I lived in France 2 needn’t have gone to the hospital 3 wish you wouldn’t interrupt me 4 shouldn’t have offended her 5 only I hadn’t said that to him 6 could have gone to India, but I decided not to d e b c a 148
1 In pairs, read part of a website and discuss the questions. 1 How is this kind of trip different from ordinary tourism? 2 Have you ever taken part in a holidays like this? If not, would you like to? Say why. 3 What do you think might be the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of travel for the places and people being helped? 2 4.5 Listen to a radio programme about volunteer tourism. Make notes on the advantages and disadvantages Laura, an expert in tourism, mentions. 3 Complete the Speaking box with the prepositions from the box. Sometimes more than one correct answer is possible. about against at for of of ofonto SPEAKING | Discussing advantages and disadvantages A... One ... Another ... The first ... major minor obvious possible potential significant advantage of argument 1 benefit of good point 2 positive aspect of argument 3 disadvantage of/to downside 4 drawback 5 negative aspect of minus point of ... isthat... Summing up your argument/Giving your opinion On first consideration, this seems ... Ultimately, there are arguments 6 both sides. However, ... Having looked 7 both sides of the argument, I think/believe ... both sides of the argument, I think/believe ... Although some people might disagree, I can’t help feeling that ... 4 4.5 Listen again and write down at least three phrases you hear which describe advantages or disadvantages. Compare your ideas with a partner. 5 In pairs, look at the question and make a list of at least three advantages and three disadvantages for each way of travelling. 7 In pairs, follow the instructions. 1 Decide who will talk about travelling solo and who will talk about travelling with friends/family. 2 Spend a few minutes individually preparing to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of your chosen way of travelling. Think about how you will introduce the topic and what your conclusion might be. 3 Talk for one to two minutes each. Your partner should listen and make notes about the advantages and disadvantages you mention. Why not come and coach football skills in a secondary school in India? As well as passing on your love of the game, you’ll be helping to build their confidence and social skills. And how about helping to build local housing, using sustainable bricks in Livingstone, near the magnificent Victoria Falls in Zambia? Part of the project involves collecting rubbish to make the recycled bricks, meaning that your work has a doubly important impact. adventure The adventure The adventure lifetime! ofa Most people prefer to travel with friends or family. Most people prefer to travel with friends or family. However, there are also some benefits to travelling However, there are also some benefits to travelling solo. What are the advantages and disadvantages of solo. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each way of travelling? each way of travelling? 6 Complete the sentences, using some of your ideas from Exercise 5. Advantages 1 The first good point ... 2 An obvious benefit ... 3 A positive aspect ... 4 A significant advantage ... 5 Another argument ... Disadvantages 1 One potential downside ... 2 An obvious drawback ... 3 A possible minus point ... 4 One negative aspect ... 5 A major argument ... How would you like to see the wonders the world has to offer, while also giving something back? 09 131 □ I can discuss advantages and disadvantages. 9F SPEAKING REFERENCES AUDIO SCRIPT page 232 EXTRA ACTIVITY IN CLASS As an extension to Exercise 7, students swap arguments and complete the task again. They could do this in the same or new pairs. FURTHER PRACTICE Workbook page 107/Online Practice NEXT CLASS Ask students to think about what their dream job might be and be ready to talk about it in the next lesson. Exercise 2 Advantages: opportunity for tourists to learn more about an ecosystem while doing something positive to help preserve it; money generated for local economy; encourages and preserves local culture and customs Disadvantages: tourists’ interest in local culture can lead to places becoming ‘living museums’, where everything is done simply to entertain the tourists; local people may be displaced to make room for tourists; the pressure that hosting tourists can put on local infrastructure Exercise 4 • On first consideration, this seems ... • The first obvious advantage is that ... • Another argument in support of ... is ... • A further benefit of eco-tourism is that ... • However, having looked at both sides of the argument, ... • Another possible drawback is that ... • And an obvious downside to ... is ... • Ultimately, there are arguments on both sides, ... for/against about against/for of/to of/to on at 149
W I N a dream job competition Increasingly, companies are offering the chance to win a dream job like this. Just take a look at some of the competitions currently open: competitions currently open: competitions currently open: Travel researcher for the New York Times, Travel researcher for the New York Times , researching the fifty-two best places to researching the fifty-two best places to visit around the world. visit around the world. Videographer to travel with a cycling tour grapher to travel with a cycling tour of West Africa over a four-month period, of West Africa over a four-month period, making a documentary about the trip. making a documentary about the trip. Work Work as a digital nomad in four cities of your choice and as a digital nomad in four cities of your choice and report back on your experience and the experiences of report back on your experience and the experiences of the colleagues you meet for Modern Travel Magazine. the colleagues you meet for Modern Travel Maga zine. TeTe ach English as a volunteer for six months in Siem Reap, ach Engli