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6ap,rµn1, BeHen.HaHCKOÜ o6JiaCTH H PHM8 - BCe 9TO 6oIJIH HBJI8HHH O)];HOI'O R Tül'O me nopap;Ka. Pa3HhIMH crroco6aMII roCIIOACTBYIOIIÇIIe -1m,acchr CTp0MHJœCli HCIWpeHIITb <<1peBOJIIOI1;IIOHHYIO Kpa,MûJIY>> 1848 -rop;a. ,O:ame 15 JI,er c1rry-cr1JI, B 1863 r., ·o6oaipeBaH 1MLICJieHHo iBpe.MH, npome,n;mee c rropameHHH peBOJIIOD;IIII, repn.eH onpep;eJIHJI ero TaK: << •••PeBOJIIOIJ;HH, no6.0.TaH aa 'BCex T,oqKax, ycTyrraJia Bce 'IIp:0:o6ipeTeHHoe c 1789 ••• CBeT, BXO�HBmH:ë: na EBpOIIlhl B TpetqIIHbl Hameii ûCTPOiRHOH CTHHhl, CTaJI MepR'HyTI,, Tpy�o 6LIJIO 1!TO-'H'H'6y,n;b pa3JI1HUITb; Ha 3ana-�e 'O�H'R T0MBhl0 o6JiaKa ,IreCJJllœb, TOJIIŒJIR ,n.pyr ,IJJpyra, M8HHJIH CJiyqaÎÎHbie 01IepTaHHH, orym;aJIHCb, o6em;aH rpoay li paa­ :perna.HCb oceHHHM )];OIB;l;e:\i ff ,CJIHKOTblO>) l. Ho rep:qeH ornII6arrcH, ocrpora paao1Iapanaallii TomrnJia ero Ha npeyBeJIH11:eH'llH. RaR Hlll 1CHJihHa 6bIJia pea1m;HH, OHa He MorJia IIOOOpHyTb XOJ( -H,CT0pwi BCIIHTb. <<Bce 11ipno6peTeHHOe C 1789>> H8Jlb3H 6LIJIO 'BhPI0pKHYTb - OHO 6LIJIO H8H-CRopeHllMO. rJiy6HHHhie 8ROHOMlflI,eCKHe H con;HaJibHhle rrpou;ecchl B EBpo­ "\I MHJpe IDJIH, B OCH'OB'HOM, uo TOMY me HarrpaB-­ ne, k.MepHKe, BO BCeM {>cTaJihHO.. JI0HHIO 6ypmya8HO-�eMO�paTI:I1leCKOl'O paa:wrmut. HeJib3H 6LIJIO HO 'BTopoft no­ JIOBHHe XIX croJienuI J}.ame rruTaTbCH noBropRTb pecTaBpau;:e:10 H «CBHm;eHHLiii COI08>>. M He TOJlhKO IIOTOMY, 1IT'O rocy)];apCTBa, H'BJIHIBWH0CH OIIJI0TOM eBporreii:­ CKOH peain�HH - r�apc1rn.a PoccnH HnKoJiaH I, 6 oHa:rraipTHCTCRaH <I>pau�HH Ha­ noJieOHa III H 6ypmyaaHaH AHrJI1u1 IlaJI:oMetpcTOHa - c 1853 r. BCTyilHJIB B Oifü}CToqeIIHYIO Boii,ay �rnm;::i;y co6on, HO rJiaBHhlM o6paaoM IIOTOMy, "ITO 11l!)O­ JI0TapHaT, Ka8aJIOCh, COBepmeHHO OOKpyme'll'HblH Ill rrooeipmeHHhlH B nipax B 1848-1849 ro)];ax, BHüBh pacnpaBJUIJI IIJieiqH n BCTyJiaJI B 6op:o6y. BeJIIIBIIe mopu;hI HaYlJIHoro 'RO'MMYHH3Ma - MapRc H Koueo;pe� 8are,11bc, cyMe.JnI 'Bepnee H rJiyome CB-OHX COB,pei.'1eH­ n uaqaJio HHKûB IIOHHTb lI 0�HH'Tb aHa11eH1He OOBetpmaBIIIHX­ peB0.11IO�OHHOrO CH II3�f8'HeHHH ;B paccTaHOBKe o6�0C.TB8HHO-Il0JIHTHA]IB3ŒHBJI 1IOCRIIX CH.'I. MapKC 11 9HTeJibC cqHTaJIH, lJ:TO rJiaBHOÜ 3ap;a-qeii IIOCJie rmpameHJIH 1848-1849 rr. HBJl'.8eTCH COOBJPaHlle peBOJIIOiliUOH­ HhIX CHJI H rro,u;rororurn 'HX K Ilp0,;:J;CTOHID;HM HOB:blM KJiaCC'OBhlM 6oH'M. ÛHlH CBH31JlBaJIIH H'OBhlH IIO)];'b0M peBOJIIOilillOHH'Ol'O p;im:m8'll'HH C ,oq·ep�·HnIM 3KOHO'MlJ1Ie­ CR'lfM Rpll81ICOM, KOTOphlÜ Teope·1WI1J0CKll rrpe]l;BH,IJ;eJIH. B 1857-1858 ro,n;ax HOBblii MHpOBûÎÎ aKOHOMH1lecK'Hii RIPH3Hc Haccyil'HJI. IlpaBAa, OH He IIOBJieR 3a co6oft peoo.1110rµroHHLIX COOLITH:Ü raKoro MacmTa6a, Ha 'ROTOJ)hlH ·Ha,r:i;eHJIHCh MapKC 11 9HreJibC, 110 BC8 me CTaJI B lf3B0CTHOM CMhlC­ JI8 'IIHpeJIOMHOH Bexoii II B cou;aaJibHO-IIOJIHTIPIOCKOÜ HCTOPHH IIHTIIJ(OOHThlX ro,n;oB 2• I10,n;1>eM aa6aCTOB01IHOrO RSH?H0HHH paool!HX B ARrJIHll, CIDA, BeJI.brmI, J}OCT mnpOKODO ,o6�e-CTB8HHOI'O HeJ(OBOJihCTBa 0KOHOMll1IecKBM KpH3HCOM BO 1 D;RH, B repMaHCKHX, HTaJibHHCKHX rocy,n;apcm3ax - R 'l)TOlfY OB0JIHCI, 111PH­ <I>paH Mhle COTI;HaJih'Hhle UOCJI8�CTBHH RPII3HCa 1857-1858 · IT. II!I)o6ymA0'H·H0 aKTJrn­ HOCTH Maoc, Bbl3Bamrne ry6nT8JibHhlM BJIHHHHeM Kpll3Hca, OOBIIaJIO BO Bp0'MeHll c o6m;ecTBeHHb1Mll ABllilŒ'HHHMll, rropom,n;e:aHHMH 6onee rJiy6mœMH n ,IJ;Jill­ T0JlhHhlMll rr:pnlIHHaMII H c:ompaBIII'lfM.II 160:iee KpynHyIO püJib B MIIpOBOÜ HCTotpHll. ID11poK-Oe BOCCTa•HHe HHAHHCKODO Hapo,n;a UpüTHB KOJl'OHHaJI.bHOI'O rn-era ArH­ rJIHll - BOC·CTaHHe cnuaeB 1857 ro,n;a, ,rrporpeMeBmHË: Ha BCIO EDpony BhICTJ)eJI cppaHRO-HTaJIO­ HarroJieoHa III, u;eJIIIBmero B 1n1rrepaTopa O pcnHH, aooTJ)HÜŒaH B-OHHa 1859 r., BCKOJihlXHYBID3H illH'J)Oiœe o6m;OOTBeH'JIYe CJIOJI B HTaJibHHCKllX li repMaHcKITX lflocy�aipcrBax, HOOhl'BaJihrli em;e no paaMaxy IIO,lJ;'b0M KpeCTbHHCKIIX BhlCTYil:.teHIIH .B PoccHll, IIpllBBWIIII.H K OCTp0MY con;n­ aJibH(WY Kpuancy n 6bICTPO:\IY c:nJia):];hIBaHHIO 1B 1859-1860-x ro�ax pe:soJII01 1 A. II. l'e p n; es. Coll., T. 8, CTp. 45-46. 2 0 r m e s s o n. La g rande crise mondiale de 1857. Paris, 1938; JI. A. M e B .zt e II 1,­ c OB. TeopmI li HCTOPIUI 8KOH0MH1IeCKIIX Rp11'311COB 11 �BKJIOB, T. 1. M., 1959, CTp. 501-592. 10
�HOHHOH CHTya�HH 1B C'I'paiHe, OOBOOOW:IT0JlbHaH 60.p1>6a pa6oB-HerpoB li BOC.­ CTaHHe J];moHa BpayHa B Coe�HeHHLIX IIITaTax AMepmrn: (IJIP0�BecTHHKB upmJIH>Ra-Bmeiics rpoaHoii rpa>R,n;a.HcKo:ë: ·BOHHhl) , aaqaJio peBOJIIOD;HOHHO-aaro­ BopJJ:\'1111ectroii oopLOLI cf>eHHeB aa Ha�·HOHaJILHOO OCIJ3000m.n;eHIIe MpJiaH� TaKOB KpaT.KHii nepe11eHL BruKHeiimHx co:n;HaJILHhIX H ilIOJIHTD,1llOOKHX :,r:i;&HiIŒHHH ROHa;a 50-x ro.l(oB. KoH01IHO, 11-0 CBOHM HCTOpH•1IOOKRM MaCmTa6aM H 31HaqeHHIO MHOrHe 113 3TRX eo6LITJrii cym;ecTB0HHO pa3J111"11aJIHCL, H ca.YH 3TH BhICTYIIJieHHH OCT31B8JIIICL JIO­ KaJIH80BaH-H.bl.MH, He CBH3aHHLDIH �pyr C -�pyroM. Ho B'MOOTe C TeM '3TH oon;H­ aJihHhle BaJ)LIBLI OOJILmoro na.npIDRBH.lUI Ha rrpOTHmeHRH Kqp<>TKOI'O cpoKa pea­ KO liaHOOIHJ:IH BCIO MHPOBYJO 1IOJIHTH1IecKyIO anrocq>epy. MapKc B caMOM 1J1aqaJI•e 1860 ro,r:i;a nucaJI 8HreJILcy: <<Ilo ·M-oooty MHeHHIO, ca'MLie BeJIHiœe COOLITHH B MHpe B HaCTOHm;ee BpeM.H - aro, C OA'HOH CTOpOHld, aKepimaHcKoe �umeH:ae pa6oB, •Ha1Ia1Bmeec.H co c:MepT:u: {,[(mona] Bpayna, C Apyroü CTQpOHLI - ,ll;BH>ReJIHe paooB B PoccHH... TaK OTKpbIJIOCb (<COIJ;liaJib­ HOO �muR�HHe& 11a 3ana,n;e ·H HocTOKe. B.'1:ecTe c IIJpep;cTOHI:n;H-M down-break {KpaxOtM] iB n;eHTpaJILHo:ë: EBIJ)One aro 6y,r:i;er rpan,n;noaiHo>> 3• B lf.eHTpaJILH'O:Ü: EBpone Kpaxa He rrpommro."Io. Ho o6m;aH xapaKTepHCTHRa T0H,IJ;0HD;H111 HCTOplPlecKoro pa3BHTHH H, B 'llaCTHOCTH, OI(0HKa 3Ha'l!0liHH co­ a;:aaJILHhIX ,n;B:ameHHÜ B PoccHH H AMepuirn ObIJIH p;aHbI MapRCOM c uopa3H­ TeJI�Hoii npoaopJIHBOCTl>IO. HaapeBaBIIIlHii :B Pocclt'H peBOJIIOD;HOHHLI:ë: B3pbIB 6LIJI rrpe,:a;OTBpam;eH :a;ap­ cICKM npa�HT0JlbCTBOM, BLI•Hym;i;eHHLIM crremRO OTKphlTL OT,n;yrrnmy: 3 MapTa (19 cf>eBpaJis) 1861 -r. 6hlJio onœHeHo Kpenoc-rnoe rrpa,Bo. Ho OTMeHa RpenocT­ aoro n-pana, eonpooom,n;anmaHCH -orpa6JieHne:M KpecThHHC-vBa, He JIHKBH,IJ;H:p088.Jia, a JIHmI> BHJt;OmJMeHHJia paaBHTHe co:a;:0:aJihHhlX rrpoTHBopeq11:ë: œ PoccHH. BLIC'l1J)LI:Ü: pocT xanHTaJI•HCTiltJ:ecKHX OTHOlli8HHH B C'!1PaHe, coxpaH.lIBmeii n;ap­ eKOe caMo,n;epmaBHe H RpeJroCTHU1IOCKHe rrepeïKHTKH, ;r::t:OJimeH OhlJI npKB0CTH K e�e 60Jiblli0MY HaKaJiy RJiaCOOBhIX rrpOTff.BO,perqnii: 4• RaR noRa3aJI IlOCJie,r:i;y10rrvrii XO,IJ; HCTOpHH, fP0q>OpMa 1861 r. He npep;OTBpaTHJia, a JIHllib OTCpo'l!HJia c o4naJibHhlH B3phl,B rpo;Ma;r::t:HOÜ CHJILI B P.occHH. C aa11aJia 1861 r. ;paaropeJiach 1rrpe.n;c1maaHHaH MapRCOM rpam,r:i;ancKaH 'BOÜ­ Ha Mem,n;y ceœepHLIMH H IOiH'Hhl.MH rrrraraMH B AMe.prurn. Ee aHa"lleHHe )l;JIH no­ cJie.izy10�HX cy,n;e6 Coeµ,1meHHhlX IIITaTOB o6m;enaBecTHo. ·IIponpeccnBHhlii xa­ paxTep 6opL6LI ceBepHH rrpoTHB pa60BJia!p;eJI1>:a;.e-B-IOiHRH 61>1JI B TY rropy O"IeBH­ �&H AJlH Bcex JIIO,n;eii nepe)J;OBOH IMhlCJIH Il ORal3bIBaJI OOJiblliOe peBOJIIOD;HOHH3H­ pyro�ee B03,IJ;e:Ü:CTIBH0 ,n;aJieKO 3a 111pe;a;eJiaMH aMepHRaHCRoro KOHTHH8HTa. Maipie nucaJI, II' TO «aMepHiKaHelmH .rpam,n;aHcRaH BoiîHa B XIX CTOJieTHH HBH­ JiaC.b uaoaTHLIM KOJIOKOJIOM ,IJ;JIH eB-poneËCROI'O 1pa6o'llero KJia-cca». B 1859-1860 ro,r:i;ax, KaK yme rBQPHJIOCb, OTpH,D;bI rapiroaJIL):l;H�eB :a «-DB.'tJ:1DIOTT1n - uaipraaaH cBoeü oTBaron yBJieKJIH aa co6oü mnpoKHe Hapop;­ a1,1,e ·MaCChI, llOAJIHB-ID·HecH na 6opi.6y 3a na:a;HoHaJihHOO o6'be)J;·HH0HHe HTaJIHH. B Mapre 1861 r. 61,1JI0 rrpoBOOrJiame'Ho o6paaoBaHne B03rJiaBJIHeMoro caBoii­ CRo:ii ,IJ;HHaCTHeii HTaJILHHCKOI'O KopoJieBCTBa, OO'b0):l;HHHBIIIero 66.rrblliYIO qacTI> uTaJibHHCKHX 3eM-eJib. Ep;HHCTBO MTaJIIIII }fBHJIOCb B ROH8'1IHOM C'1I8Te peayJII>­ TaT.O.M ca:MOOTBepmeHHOÜ 6oplfihl HaJPO�HbIX 'MaCC, IIOOO�bI H8!p0,U,HOÎÎ petBOJIIO­ D;ll-H 'IIe3aBHC!HMO 0T TOTO, qro l!IJIO,IJ;aMH aToiî 6opb6hI BOCIIOJib30BaJIHCb 6ypmya3HH Il JIJI6epaJib'H00 ,i'J,lBOpHHCT,BO, c.oxpaHIIBmHe MOHapxHIO. s K. M a p K c 11 <I>. :J H r e JI 1, c. Co'll., T. XXII. Ile:ci.Mo OT 11 HHB-apH i860 r., CTJ). 474. 4 «OrMeHa Kp0lllOC'IHOro npaBa. ,l{OR.îa,J;LI MHHHC'l'poB BHyrpeHHHX .ii;eJI O IIpone-.ii;eRHB Kpecn.HBCKoi pecf>op,Mi.u. M.- JI., 1950; A. C K p e 6 Ho; K H Ë:. RpecTLHH_CKoe ;l\eJio B o;ap­ cTBOBaHBe HMIIepaTopa AJieKcau)JJ)a II, T. 1-IV. Boaa-aa-Pe11He, 1862-1868; n. A. 3 ai OH -ci RO B C K D ii. ÛTMeHa Kpe-IIOCTHOro rrpana B Pocce:e:. M., 1954; 0 r O me. O,pone�eHHe B ,KH3HL KpeCTMIHCKOÏÎ: peq>OpMhl 1861 !l'. M., 1958. tt
31meJihc B .HHBape 1861 r. oupe,::t;eJIH;J HaCTYIIHBmee BpeM-.a, 1mK <<anoxy •.• MOr�eCTB0HHhIX ;l];BH'iiŒHIIÏI» 5. ,UByM.H ,ro,:i;.a-MH Il03,tW, 1B q>eBpaJie 1863 r. ll CB.H31I C 1H'a-11aJIOM l]OJih<CKOro BOCCTaHIUI, MapEc BhlCKa3aJIC.H em;e 60Jl'0'0 orrpe­ A€.JI0HHO: <<HcHo o;::i;Ho: • B Esp-oTie on.HTh ·6oJiee •HJIH MeHee fairly opened the era of revolution {rnHpo1w OT I{phIJiach apa pe1BOJIIO�Ë:]. H o6m;ee rrOJiomeHHe ;neJI xopornee>> 6• B OTJilPIJie OT 50-x l'Ofl:OB, ROTOphle 6LIJ.UI B 6oJibIDeii CBOeii 'tJaCTH roµ;aMH peaR�Hll, 60-e fO)J;hI HBllJIHCh <<apoii 1()0BOJIIOD;HH>). lleM me 6hIJIB o6yc­ JIOBJieHhl 3TH H3M0HeHH.H II lŒJWe peaJibHOe co,:i;epma•Hlrn MorJia BIM0Tb aTa HO­ BaH <<s1pa peBoJI10:r:i;11iî>>? 1. PA3BllTIIE KAIIIITAJHI3MA B 50-60-x ro�AX XIX BEKA B 50-60-x ro,;::i;ax IIJ}OM:hlID.:I€HHhlli 1ŒIIHTaJIH3M, J{a'Il.IITaJIH3M CB060AJIOH ROHKypem::i;nH, 'AOCTHr CBoero HallBhlCIIIero pac�eTa. To 61>IJIO Bpe:M.H c11p0MB­ T€JihHhlX H 6ypHbIX ycmexoB rrpOMhIIIIJieJIIHoro nepeBotpoTa, M0HHBUI0I'O li IJIIP0o6pa3 • 0BI,IBaœrnero IHa rJiaaax CO'BpffirnHHBROB T0XIDIRY, 3ROHO:MHRY, oon;na.rrh­ Hhle O'THOIIIeHHH 11 ;r:i;ame BHernHHii: yn:iap; lI o6paa JRH3HH. ·IlpoMhlmJieHHhlii ue­ p,eBCJtpoT, Ha1IaBIIIHCh paHee Bcero ( em;e B XVIII cToJieTinI) B AHrJIHB. R 50 60-M ro�aM XIX B. 6hl.rr 3;::i;ec1:, y.me aaBepmeH. ÜH o;n;eipm.HBaJI TaRme pemarom;ne no6ep;hI B crpanax 3ana;:t;Hoii n QeHTpaJihHü:Ü EBporrhl: <l>pHaIJ;lIB, BeJihrHH, I'oJI:.raH;::orn, Ilpyccnn II ,n;pyrHx re-pMaHcK11x rrocy]];apcTBax, B neRo­ Topn1x 3eMJUix MHoronan;noHa:CbHoii ABcTpHicRo:ü MoHapxHH n llTaJIHH; npo­ MbIIDJI0HHhiii neipeBOpüT yme Blll�OH3M0HHJI 3ROHOlllIKY CeBepo-AMepHlŒHCKOH pecuy6JIHJGI n: Ranaµ,hI, OH npomrn�n1Ba.:1 ce6e ,):J;opory 1B P.occnH. IloH.HTHO, lJTO B Kam,::i;oii CTpane ipa3BHTH€ IIipO:MhlillJIBHHOH. peBO.:.IIOD;HII ·CO­ BeprnaJI'OCb CO CBOlf.MiH oco6eHHOCTH::\III H OTJIHTIHHMH, Hepe,u;Ro iB0ChMa cym;ecT­ B0HHl>FMH. Tor THIi rrpo�ŒIID.:18HHOll pe'BO�'IIOIJ;HH ·B e.e, TaR CRa3aTI,, «RJiaCCJPie­ CKOR <pop-Me>>, C IIOlfT/JI �o IiOHD;a aaBepmeHHoii 3RCrrporrpHaIJ,lleR KpeCTb.HHCTBa 1I YHH11ITOiR0HH•eM ,n;epeBHH, ROTotphlii MapKC upoanaJIH3HpoBaJI Ha rrpiurnpe HCT{)!l)IIH AHTJUUI 7 , B CTOJih ·1IHCTOM BH,J;e HHr,u;e 6oJiee He ŒIOBT-Op.HJIC.H - HH B O,AJIOH na cTpaH eBponeii:cRoro ROHTHHeHTa H Ho:sol'o cneTa. RpecTbHHCTBO II )J;OBOJihHO 3HaTIHTeJibHbie C;IOH ropop;CRon lŒJIKOR 6ypmya311H coxpaHHJIHCb R03J];0. Ho IIOBCIO)zy, BO BC€1X crpaHax IIpü:MhlfflJI0HHaH peBOJIIOD;H.H 03Ha1IaJia nooe,n;y }laIII·HHHOfO IllPOH3BO;:l;CTBa Ha,n; pyq:Hhl·M TPYJJ;OM, 6hlC'J1P08 pa3iBHTH€ ,D;BYX OCHOBHhlX aHTaroHHCTIPieCRHX KJiaCCOB - 6ypmya3B'H B u.poJierapHaTa, H, r]];e 6hlCTpee, r�e l1€,J;JI8HHee, BhIT€CH€HHe h"J}YilHhlM upoH3BO)J;CTIBOM ;M0JIRO!I'O np-OH3BO]:(CT'Ba. 50-60-e •ro,n;i.1 XIX B. 6n1Jin Bpe:MeooM ca.MhIX BhICOKHX TerMlIOB pocTa npo­ MhlillJŒHHoro npOH3BO,:J;C'DBa, Ha h"l()Topoe 6hlJI cnoco6eH R8illHTaJIH3:M. JJ:001,rqa yrJI.H, iBhlIIJiaBKa CTaJin, Bü3.p0C.:IH aa 3TH 20 JieT B r:ra,BHhlX CTJ)aHax KRilllTaJIH­ CTH'1IOOK'OTO ipa3BHTH.H rrpinlepHO 'B l'IPH paaa. 3roT no.pa3JITeJibHl>IÜ pûCT np,o­ MhlillJI€'IIHOH IIPOAYRD;HH CTa.J: B03MomeH Ha OCHOBe OM0JlhIX .H. 'IIJIO}J;OTBOpHI,IX H3o6peTeHHll lI HOBOBB8):i;em1ii: B T•eXHHKe UpüH.3'BO,I(C'!ma. B "llaCT'H'OCTH, HMeHHO B aro �aA"r:i;aTHJieT:ae B Be,n;yrn;eii orpacJUl IIB):(YCTpHH - !MeTa.ITJiyprHH, OhlJIH IIpH1MeHeHbI HOBhl0 - 6ecce::\IepOBCKHH H i:Mapre.uoociœ:ii - CIIOCOOhl, 3HaTIH­ TeJibBO y,c,KopHBmne rr yBe.nr1111BIIIHe npoH3BO;:J;C'Im'O craJIH. B npoMhlmJieBHO nepe.n;-0BhIX CT1paHax 60JibillJIX ym1ex-0B l];OCTHTJIO B 3TH l'O,D;hl Ta:Km.e MaillHHO­ CTp00HH0 - npOH3B'O,J;CTBO .?IIaillH<H M.aIIUIHaMiH, HBJI.HIOIIl;BOC•.H OOHOBOH �ynHo­ I'O IIpüH3'BO,rJ;-CTBa. B 3TO ,J;Ba�u;anr:rnnrn npo,J;OJIJRaJilI 6blcTpo pa3BHBaTI»C.H If pa3JIHl!Hhle OTpa.c:in ;ierROH rrpoMbilli:I8HHOCTH - TeKCTHJibHaH, ROiRe!B0HHaH, 5 <I>. 8Hre.1bc - n. Map1œy ï HHBapH 1861 r. lt Ma pK C H <I>. 3 Br e ;i 1, C. Co11., T. XXIII, CTI). 2. 6 K Mapi.c - <I>. 8Hre.11,cy 13 cpeBp a.1H 1863 r. K. Ma p Re H <I>. 3 H r e, .:F 1, c. Co11., T. XXIII, c-rp. 134. 7 K M a p K <'.• RanHTaJt; R. M a pK c 11 <I>. a H r e JI h c. Coll., T. 23; H. Ma pK c u <I>. 8 H r e .'I 1, c. 06 AHr:nrn:. M., 1952. f2
�'8B8.H r}I � IH•HLIX. RoJilflœCTB0-HHhlii pocT li.X rrpo,ri;yKqmI 6hIJI BeCbMa 3Ha1ŒTeJ.œH. Ü�KO H·MeHHO ;e 50-60-e rO.IJ;hI JierKaa npOMhllliJieHHOCTb, paHee OhlCTpO rpa-3BHBa-BmaaoH H HBJIJtBmaHCH, TaK CRa3a:TI>, CT3:pIIllHM .n;•eTHm;eM Karm:­ TaJl118Ma, AOJI»œa 6HJia llOT0ClliKTbCH H YCTYIIlITb nepBeHCTBYIOJI\00 Mecro TH­ meooi IIDl)zyCTpRH 8• 3T.JI orpo.M'1Ihl0 ycnexH THmeno:à D!pOMhllllJieHHOCTll Il, B ,qacT.HOCTH, MeTaJI­ nyprHH 6LIJIH T0CHciiIIUfM o6pa30'M CBJl3aHLI ( HBJUIHCb Il npH11lRHOH, H C.Jie•):(CT­ BIIe.M) C rpaHAJ103HLIM, He6L1BaJILI.M em;e paHee CTpOllT0Jlh-CTBOM H pa3BHTII0M men:eauo,u;opo:mHoro TpancnopTa. 06 3TOM M'OmHo -cy,D;HTb no cJI�IOm;H·M �Hq>­ pa•M: B 1840 T. IBCH MHpOBaH ceTb meJie3Hhl:X ,;a;opor c.oc·TaBJIHJia BC€.f0 Jlllillb OK01IO 9 THC. KM. qepe3 10 JieT, B 1850 r., T. e. B HatiaJie paceMa·TpHBaeMoro IlefPBOAa, OHa paBIUIJiaCb np1nrnpao 40 ThlC. R'M. ,ll;Ba.n;n,aTb JieT cnycTH, K 1870 r., o6�aa npOT.HHtffilllOCTb meJie3HhIX ,ri;opor )];OCTHTJia yme 210 ThlC. iKM t T. e. B03pocJia B IIHTb C JIHIIlHH'M pa.a 9• Bp_e.MH ,ll;HJIHOKaHC'OB H llO'ITOBhIX KapeT, .BOCIIeTbIX BaJII.3aKOM H .il:HRKeH­ ,CIOM, yxo�o B npomJioe. HapOB03hl 'H CTaJIImhle peJib'Chl i:rpeo;::i;oJieBa.J1!0: 6ec­ Kpa:Ü:HHe paœTOHHIIH. YBeJIH'IHBaJiacb CKOpüCTb napoB030B, OHa ,IJ;OCTHrJia 3040 KM B qac, "iTO WUI roro BpeMeHH RaaaJIOCb MOJIHHe-HOCHhIM. IloJiyq:HBlliHË C 50-x .ro;::i;on m.apo1we npaKTlJlIOCiroe DlI)lI•MeHeHIIe :3JI0KTpOMarIUITHbIH TeJie­ rpaq> 3a H0CKOJihRO tMH-HYT coo6m;aJI H3 ,u;aJibHIIX KOHIJ;OB Mnpa B0CTH, nepe�aqa KoropLix ue�aBHO TJ)OOOBa.l(a Ynornx u0p;eJih. Ilop;Bo,rvi1>1e TeJierpaqrnhrn Ka6e­ JIH, JiermHe Ha WJO OKeaHO'B, C00)];HHHJIH IIH'Tb tiacreii C-BeTa. B 1864 r. 6hIJIH DipOJio:meHhl nepBhl0 JIH'HBH JIOH,D;OHCKOro 'Merp-onO.'IHTeHa; OH 6bIJI em;e Kpaii.He DIJ)llMHTHBH:Ll'M ::e: H000BepmenHhIM, HO '3TO 6bI.::I mar 1B Ôy,!\ym;ee. Ha oReaBcR,HX npocTopax TJDReJILie, C rpe6HliLM IBHHTOM, IlOC11POeHHbie lI3 meJieaa napoxü,ll;hl CTaJI:o: OOI'OHHTb M0JIKH0 ,u;e-peBHHHhie napycHhle cy,n;a - BCe '8TH JierKO�hl­ Jihle 6ipHrn, KopBeTLI, cp.peraThl, em;e ae�aBao 1rnaaBmneca caMl>IMH 6hlcTtpo­ xoAJ1LIMH. 3a·Me1IaTeJibHhle ycnexH B ;pa31BiHTlfII TpaHC.IIOpTa II C.BH3ll llIDfeHHJIH reorpa­ (J>HIO MHpa, c�pa)];hl.BaJUI paccTOH·HHH, ycraaaB.::IHBa.::IH MHOfOCTQPOHHHe (pOpMhl 00Ill;0HHH II ·B3aHMOOBH3eii Mem;::i;y eaMbIMII or;:i;aJieHHhIMH ,n;pyr OT ,n;pyra qa­ CTH'MlI CBeTa. PaaBHTne œHyT'peHHeiî ·n B oco6eHHOCTH BHHmBeü TüproBJIH marnyJio Bne­ pe� CeMHMHJII>HLIMH maraMH. B AHnrnn, aanpw3rnp, o6m;aa cyMMa IIMnopra H aKCIIQPTa ')];OCTHrJia ·K 1863 r. Ol'pOMHO:Ü Il)iHppbI - OR10JIO 444 M.;JH. <py'HTOB CTepJIRHl'OB, qro, no OB.H,D;eTeJibCTBY RaHD,Jiepa KaaaarqeiicTBa fJia1JJ;CTOHa, B TPH ipa.aa npeBhIIDaJIO C)"MMY T(t)l'OBhlX o6opüTOB 1848 ,r. 8To 3HR1I'llJIO, lJTIQ BHe·m­ HHH TOtJ>rOBJHI AnrJIHH BhlpocJia B TPII paaa ncero aa 15 JieT. M AHrJIHH He 6IJJia ll<CAKJIIO'tJeH.HeM! <l>paun,HH, XOTH li ycrynaJia 3HR1IH'TeJihHO 'B a6ooJJIOTHhlX u;n:<J>­ pax AHrJIHH, y.semrrmJia aa p;Ba.n;u;arnmnne 50-60-x ro;rr;oB pa3MepLI cBoe'Ü BHem.Heü TOproBJI·H TaIDRe np1nrnpHo iB TPII paaa. MaJioHaoeJieHHaa HopBerHH BKe:IIOPTHIPOBaJia JIOO rr phl6y iB neuipe-pLIBHo •Bœpacra10m;nx paaMepax, a aop­ BemclOle TOp!'OBble cy�a nepeB03HJl'll qymne TOBapbI IIO BCeM BOp;HhlM nyTHM CTaporo H Hoooro CBeTa 10• Ill;yIIaJI1>o;u KannTaJia ,npoHHRaJin BO BCe yromrn: Mnpa. B Kpyroo60tpoT M'IIPOBo:ü: TOpl'OBJIH •BTHHYJIHCn caMnie or;:t;aJieHHLie qacn1 cneTa: ABc'I1J)aJIHH H TacMa:HRH, Jla TIIHoaMe:pHKaHcKIIe ctpaa1>1, KHTaii H .Hno­ HHH, MH;::i;:o:H H IJ;eiiJioH, crpaHhl Ope,A"Hero Il BJ inmHeiro BocTo:Ka. 8 H. G i b li n s. Economie and industrial progress of the century. London, 1'903; L. c� A. K n o w le s . Economie development in nineteenth century... London, H¾:7; J. Ku c z y n s k i. Weltproduktion und Welthandel in den letzten 100 Jahren. Berlin, 1952. 9 «Mwpom,œ aKOHOMK1IecKHe KJ)H'3H-Cbl ... >>, no.a; pe�. E. C. Bapra, T. 1. M., 1937; Sturm e r. Geschichte der Eisenbahnen. Blomberg, 1872; H. P e yr e t. Histoire des chemins de fer en France et dans le monde. Paris, 1949. lO J. KU C Z y Il S k Ï. Op. cit. 13
H.MeHHO R 50-60-M I'0AaM XIX CJieAyeT OTHecu1 II 0R0IHlla'TBJibHOe -o6pa3oBaHne Mli!POBOro H.ainITaJIM­ CTM1IeCROro X03HH-C1'1Ba n phl'H.Jrn. Map.Rc n âareJn,c CiBH31>IBaJrn: nx -c no6eAOÜ n pacnpioC' T!J)aHeHneM ,�pyrriH-0ro Mam:aHHoro npona­ B0,)];CTBa II o6pa30BaHJŒlM na 1::noÏI OCHOBe CBoero po,n;a q>OpMLI Mem,rzyHa,rpOAHOro pa13,rr;eJieH1u1 11py;;::i,a 11 . Ca.Mo ,c0 , 60:ii paayMeerea, qTo oopaaoBa4IHe M:e:poBor o RaTIHTaJIHcT,1rqec.Roro X03 R 6h1JIO 6hI H0B03M01KHLIM 6e3 BOBLIX cpe �cm liCTBa . , ro pa3BHTIUI me coo6�eH.HH - fü,icT-po - Jie3HO'AOPOîRHOH cer:e:, MOpCROfO II oKeaB­ CR>Oro ·rpaHcnopTa n 'T. 'Il. IloH.HTHO, 'lfTO npou.ooc a·ror OTHIO;:v, Be 6IJJ1 peayJu,TaTOM MD.IPHhlX noa1000RHhlX c,n;eJioR mn1, r,eM 6oJie-e, aa6oTI.I , o nporpecee, KaK 3TO M'HOl'OKpaTHo yr­ nepm,rr;aJIH JIH6epaJihHbie a1IOJIOf8TbI Irn.IlHTaJin3Ma. BoJfllI,H 38ROHbI HeyMOJHI­ -MOH :a 6e,cuo�a�HOH lŒIIItTaJIHCTIPIBCROH KOHKypeHJ:�.H'H, KOTopyro c ro,p)];OCTbIO :H'a'3hIBaJIR <<CBo6o,J:J;aoii: lWŒieype'HIJ;HeH>) - BOT qro 6hIJIO rJiaBHOli ,�B'll�e:ë. CHJIOH K3IlHTaJIHCTH1IeCKOro nporpecca. CaMo CTpeM.IIT8JII,HOO pa3BHTHe KaIIHTaJHI3Ma, 6hlCTphlii !()OCT cpyHRI(HOH H­ O PYI ID;el' O Ran.aTaJia JI oô�eCTB0HH'OI'O 6oraTCTBa '.H·MeJIH c:eoei ooopoTBOH CTO­ . BHOH apMll'H - HaceJIHHiHe, pOCT IIpoMLIIDJieHHoi peaep poHoii OTHOCMeJI:rmoe n�pe n nayuepn3M,a. Ta:K>OB 6hlJI, no MapKcy, Bceo6.rq:aii aaRoH Kailll'TaJm'C'l'lll1IOORoro Ha.ROIIJieHHH 12• ÔROHOMHqec1<0e pa::munrn OT;::J;•0JlhHhIX CTpaH COBepmaJIOCb B 50-60-e r�I:d He.paBHOMepHo, XOTH :na HepaBHOM0pHOCTb 6bIJia :a HHOH no C'B081My xapaKTe­ , eM B 6oJiee noaAHee BpffiiH - 3noxy HMnep:o:aJIII3Ma. Be1p1rne 6y�eT c1rn­ PY, q aaTh, 't!TO B rropy pacn;Bera npoMhlmJieHHoro KaJI'RTaJIH8Ma coxpaH.HJIOCb ycroii­ .BCHROM cJiy11ae, 'lHBoe pa3JIHqH,e B yrpoBHe- 3-ROHOMH"YJ.e-Cimro paa»HTHH CTpaH. ua npoTHïIŒHHII pac-c.MaTp1rnae)mro �B�I(aTHJJeTHH HX ll0p,IW(OB8H 'IlOCJie]lO­ BaTeJIBBOCTb OCTa1BaJiaCb rroqr- H HeH3M8'HHOH. Ha nepBOM Mecre, ii;aJieKo O.Ilef.P8,IVIB Bce OCTaJibHhle AllrDH rocy,n;a.pc·rBa, mJia AnrJIHH. Ilpe:eocxo,n;cTBo ee npo ­ MhlmJieHHOCTH •Ha,n; BCe:MH OCTaJibHhlMH iROHKypeirTaMH 6hlJIO 1ro,n;aBJIHIOID;HM. MMeHHü 1B '8TO ,ll)BaAU;aTHJI8TH8 aHrJIH.ÜCRH.Ü KaIIHTaJIH3:M .p;OCTHf - OOOTB0CR­ TeJlbHO C 1,n;pyrHMiB CT,panaMH - 'RaH1BI>Icme:â MOIQH. Maipxe 11 3HreJibC, cne­ I(HaJibHO H3yqa.B·mne aHrJIHiîcRyro -aK0Ho:M1my, Ha3LIBaJIH AHrJIHIO «�eM11yproM 6ypmya,anoro :KOCMOCa)}' «MOHOIIOJIHe:ii KaITHTaJia» 13• Ô-HreJILC JmCaJI, 11TO paa­ BHTHe illJIO «c ÔhlCTpoTOH, HeeJihIXaHHO:Ü ,n;ame AJIH 8TOH KOJII>I6eJIH CO'B! pe�rnn­ HOH HHiJ.YCTpHH. Bce npeauurn nopaaHTeJII>Hhle yooexu:, �OCTHTHy-rble c n:o­ MOIQhIO rra,pa M MamnH, c,oBepmeHHO CTYill•eBaJIB.Cn nepe;:,; MOil\HlillM IlO� 'LeMOM npoH3.Bo;a;crBa aa �a}:(n;an, JreT or 1850 ,n. o 1870 r., ne ipe;i; orpOMHLIMH :qB q>paMII BhIBO3a H B'B03a, ueipe;a; 6oraTCTBOM, HaJ{OIIJIHBillHMCH B pyKax :Ra1nHTaJIHCTOB, II nepe;a; qeJIOBe'leCKOH pa6011eü C HJIOÜ, CKOHIJ; eH'IlPIIpûB8HHOH B rHraB"l'CRlIX ro­ poJJ, aX>> 14• AHrJI,:o:JI B 3TH ro,n:01 craJia uo ;::i;JIH'HHOH <<MacTepcRo:ü M1:1pa». H IWHD;Y 60-x rop;oB Ha ee ]lïOJIIO npHXOAHJl'OCb 6oJiee IIOJIOBHHld MHpoBOH �00.LI•q}I JŒMeHHO'ro yrJIH, 'IIOJIOBHH'hl ):l'II}) OBüfO rrpo1rnBo ,,:,;cTBa qyry1Ha , IlOJIOBHHLI •MHJPOBOli nepepa6oTKH XJIOIIRa; OHa ILp01IHO y,n; epmnBaJia nepBeUCTBO B OOJiaCTJI MamRHOCTpoe­ H.HH, M10TaJIJiyprIHI, cyp; OCT!)00-HIIH, T0R("l'HJibBOH npoML1IDJ10U1IOC'fill ; oHa pac06pa30B3HHe MBpOBoro p1>rn1m Bo 11 R. Ma pK c. Hamua;i:, 'l. 1, r11. 13. M.annrn:bl H xpynHa.H np<>MLIIIIJieHHOCTL. 12 I t M a pK C. Riamua:i:, T. 1, r;i. 23. &eo6�HH OOROH R.aIIBT8JIBCTH1I0CKOI'O H6.Irol1;JeHHH. 13 «IfanHTaJI>) R. Mapi<ca B CBOeiî IWHKpeTHO:Ü: 11acTH IlOCT poen B SB8'1JHT8JII:,BOi Yepe ua aH.rmIÜcKnx )laHH:blx ; cM. TaRme R. M a pK c D <I>. 8 H r e JI i. c. 06 Anrnu:u. M., 1951. 14 <I>. 3 H r e JI 1, c. AH,rmrn D 1845 :e: 1885 rop;ax. K. Ma pK c e: <1>. 8 H r e JI 1:, c. Cc11 .• T. XVI, q, 1, CTp. 196. 14
IIOJJaraJJa eaMLlM CHJJbHhIM BOeimhlM H ca:MbIM 6oJibIDHM roprOBhIM q>JJOTOM B MHpe; OHa HBJJHJJaeb BeJIH11a:iime:ii KOJJOHHa:IbHOH 1nmepue:a 15• 3a Au.rJJHe:ii mJJa ;r:i;pyraH cTpaaa CTaporo KaIIHTaJJ:a­ (n'II'q0CKoro pa3'BHTIIH - <l>ipa.aqIIH. ·B 60--e ro;r:i;LI rrpo­ .&1:LIIILlleuBHi nepeBOpoT 3]];0Cb TaKme 3aBepmaJICH. Bo <l>paHII;IIII, B OTJJII1IH0 OT BpHTa'IIBII 6JJaro.n;a,pH oco6eHHOCTHM 11peAL1;IJ;YIC(ero IICTopu11ecRoro pa"3BIITHH, M8JIROe DJPOHBBO;JJ;CTBO H Ha nocJJe;rurn:ii CTaJI;HII IlpOMhlllJieHHOH peBOJIIOD;HH ' 16• OCTaBaJioeb H000LNaimo >RKBytm:M II ROJIHqeCTB0HHO npeooJiap;aIOID;HM <l>paH�HH HaMHOro OTCTaBaJJa OT AHrJJHH 11oqrII IIO BCeM BamueiimHM IIOKa8a­ T0JIHM npoMiiUIIJI0HHOro IIpOB3BO):l;CTBa: B 1869 T. yrJJH ,IJ;OOLIBaJJOCb BO <l>paH­ ll;IIH npuirnpuo B 9 pa8 M0Hbme, qeM B AnrJJHH, qyryHa npOH'3BO):l;HJIOCb B 4,5 {Paaa MeHLme H ,n;aJiee B TOM me pop;e 17. ÜAHaKO IIO epaBH0HHIO C npeAhJJI;YJI(IDIII H IIOCJie,IJ;yIOIC(HMll ro,u;aMH 3TO 6hIJIO BpeM·H Ca:Mldx ,BHCOKHX T0MIIOB pOCTa npoMbIIlIJJ0HHOro npOH8BOJI;CTBa B C'IlPaHe. C 1850 no 1869 ro.n; 18 Jl:00hl1Ia yrJJH yBeJJH4IIJiaCb e 4434 TLIC. TOH'H ,u;o 13509 TLIC. TOB!H (BLipOCJia B 3 paaa); npo;n;yR� llyryHa - c 406 TOH,H - ;n;o 1381 TLre. TOH-H (y»eJB11I0HIRe TaKme B 3 paaa); BLIIIJiaBKa CTaJJIH Y'BeJ.IlH11HJiaCb e 10 TLIC. TOHH ;n;o 100 TLie. TOHH (yBeJJ11qeHHe B 10 paa) 19• OrpoMHhIË: pa·aMax np:e:o6peJJo B 3TH ro;n;LI meneano.n;opomaoe cTpOHTeJibCTBO, cy,11;ocTpoea11,e , mu­ JIHIC(Hoe CTIJ)OHT0JILCTBO. Ilo T0MIIaM npupocTa DJPO]cy"RIJ,HH, IIO BKJJa,IJ;hlBa&"\fhlM Ka:traTaJJaM, THmeJJaH �ycTpHH B rpamp;aHCKOe CTpOHTeJJbCTBO 01101p0,u;HJIH CTapyio Jiernyro IIpo­ MLIIIIJieHHOCTb. Ho ,BCe me HaH60JJbmee 1IHC.TIO npelPJpIIHTHH BO <l>paH'IJ,HH 60-x rop;OB ·1IHCJIHJIOCb B npoMHIIIJJ0HHOCTH, IIpOH3BO;n;HID;0:Ü: o,n;em;n;y H IIP0AM0Thl TyaJio0'00., �e:eoi H CTJ)01IT0JILH0Îi. B 91."HX me OTpaCJIHX, a TaRme B T0RCTHJib­ HO'M IIIJ)OH8BOp;eTBe 6hIJJO 3a'HH'TO 6oJiee ,IJ;BYX TpeTeË: Bcex npoMhl'IIIJJ0HHhIX pa601:IBX <l>paHIJ;HH. MMK08 IIiJ)OH'3BOJ:J;CTBO npeo6na-,n;aJIO H B ceJJ1>·cKOM X03H:Ü:crne, r,u;e 6LIJJO ,aa­ HHTO CBhlme 60 % HaCeJJeHHH. Ho Il ' B .u;epeime R B ro,pop;e - B ceJihCKOM X03HÎέ CTBe, npoMhlIIIJIOOHOCTB, TpanooopTe, roproB:ie - •nea;n;e ro;n; OT ro;n;a 'Bce CHJib­ aee "IJYBCTBOBaJiaCI, BoopacTaIOIIJ,aH BJiaCTI, HlPYITHOro KalllITaJia, BC0CHJJH0 p;ener, Mo�eeTBo 6ora TCTBa 20• Mono,n;aH aaoKeaacimH pecmy6JIHKa - Coe;n;naeHHLie cmA illTaTM AMepHKH,- )J;OJiroe BpeMH naxo;n;unmaHCH B 9KOHOMH1I0CKOÜ aaBHCHMOCTB OT AHrJIHH II <l>ipami;n:a, BO BTOpoË: IIOJIOBBH0 XIX eTOJI8THH eTaJia HaBepcTLIBaTb yrry�eHaoe, H R RoHn;y 60-x roAoB 110 15 H. A. E p O ip e e B. Û11erKII BeTop:e::e: A.Hr:nrn: 1832-rnt7. M., 1959; J. N. C 1 a p­ ha m. An economic history o Modern Britain, vol. 2. Cambridge. 100'2; Commerce and industry... ( 181'5-19ii4). Ed. by W. Page. London, 1919. Tables and Statistics, London, 1919; W. O. He n d e r s o n. Britain and industrial Europe, 1750-1830. Liverpool, 1954; L. N. Je n k s. The migration of British capital to 1875. London, 1938; L. C. A. K n o w1 e s. The industrial and commercial revolution in Great Britain during the nineteentb cP.ntury. London, 193'3. 16 (1). B. Il O T 8,M K H H. R BOIIp<>eY O IIOJIO)IŒHIIH p,a5o"'Iero KJiaooa BO <I>piaH�HH B nocJie�HHD llepHO'A' II1pOM:LillIJI0HHOro nepeoopOTa. B KB.: «Ifa HC'IOpirn coqnam,HO-IIOJIH­ TH1!0,C,KHX �eiit. M., 1956, eTI). 570-600; 3. A. iK e JI y 6 o B c-K a H. RpymeHHe Bropoi HMrrepHR H Rosn:e:KHoBeaue Tperi,eii pecnyomnrn BO <!>pann;1rn. M., 1955; G. Du v e a u. La vie ouvrière en France sous le Second Empire. Paris, 1946. Ilo,n;p-06aee 06 8TOM CM. rJI. TI Raerom:o;e'f'O H81namu1. 17• M. B l o e k. Statistique de la France comparée avec les divers pays de l'Europe, t. 2, 2 éd. Paris, 1875. 18 ]];JIJI <I> paH�R eTaTHCTH'IJOOKHe 'AaRHI.Ie CJiegyeT 6paTb sa 1800 r., T. K. B CJie,n;y10-­ m,eM, 1870 ro;zy BO:imia. MHOI'Oe H3MeHH:La. 19 Annuaire statistique. Statistique générale de la France, vol. 33, 1913. Paris, 1914. Résumé rétrospectif. 20 M. L é v y. lHistoire économique et sociale de la France depuis 1848. fasc. 1-2 Paris, 1052. 15
,P.fll�y OT1pac.rrie:rr upon3BO;J;üTBa 06orna.11a <Dpa1m::i;uro, a B AaJI.bH-eiim1eiM - IM AH­ rJTHIO, ,ocnapIIBaJI rnepnoe }IeCTo. BhI-cTpoe pa3BHTI1e ,1rnn1rra.rr1rnMa B n pOMhIDIJieHHOCTII ceBep HhlX DITaTOB fi B ceJI1>c:n.oM X03Hiic1 1Be 3ana,ri;a c,n;epanrnaJEOC1, HaJIH1IHeM pa6aBJia,n;eJib'!ec1wii uJiaHTan;n:·oHHoii cncTe,1n.1 lOra. B CIIIA ne 6hlJIO <f>e-<>AaJIH3Ma B eBponeücROM CMbICJie IŒK rroMie-xu Ha nyn1x RaIIIITaJIHCTH'l0CRoro pa8BHT1UI. Ho ero 8aMe­ HHJIO 1paÔOBJiaÀeHHe, HBJUIBIIIeeca TaIWH me nperpaAOH ,l(JIH :KaII11TaJIR8Ma. r,pa.m,n;aHcirnH BO:iiHa B CllIA 1861-1865 ro,l(OB 6bIJia ocoôoii g>opMo:ë: 6y,pmy­ a'3'HO-A0.M 1 OK/ pa'TH1Iec1w:ii peBOJIIOTI;:HII II aaKOHOMepHO npB:BeJia R nopamemuo p a60B.tra1AeJibTiecworo IOra u rro6e.n;e CeBepa. Ilperpa�a Ha nyTRX xan11Tan11a­ Ma 6bIJia CJIO.MJieHa. Tenepb HHtJ'TO ne c;a;epmIIBaJio ero CTp0MHT0JI1,HOl'O pa.a­ BIITIIH. Y.me BO BTOpoü 'IIO:.IOBIHHe 60-x TO;J;OB aMepn:RafllCIŒ:ii KaUHTaJIH8M, ClJO­ DO,D;HO II 6ecnpenJITCTBeHHO fP33BH<Ba.HCh Ha pac:qIIm;eHHOH rroqBe, II0Ka3aJI Ta­ RH1e BhICOKIIe TffMIIhl pocTa npo �IJ;lIH, RaRHX He ' 8HaJIO RaIIHTaJIHCTlflleeKoe rrpOH3BOA-CTBO HH B O�HOH C'l)paHe MHpa 21 • I'ep;,.\faH«rr, paa�eAIIHeHHOH napTHRYJIH[)H3MOM rep MaRcKBe �iIIOTHX 60.lJhIDHX H MaJihlX rocy,n;apcTB, paaBHTHe Ra­ rocy�apcTBa II'lITamrnMa, BC.JI0ACT.BH0 H-OOaBepmeHHOCTH 38,z:ta1J 6yp ­ y m a3HOH peBOJllOUHU, m.rro BeChMa C.'IûiKHhlM Il'YT0M. B C0JIWRO'M XOBHÎÎCTBe IlOMem;.HKJI-IOHKep a, y,:i;epam.BaBIIIIfte 'B CBOHX pyRax '3e.HJIIO, IlOCT9Il0HHO rr,epoo·TpaaI'BaJmI CBOe X03HH'C TBO Ha ŒŒD1H.Tao:mcTIPieCKHH JJ.1M. 3-:oo ,6LJ.JI M'e,IJ;JieH­ HhlH H .RpaiiHe MyqlI'TeJihB:hIH A�H 60JihlliHHCTBa KpecTMfH nyr1, rrepepacTaHHH <<R,penOCTHiflI0CTBa B Ra6a;iy II B Ra'IIHT8JIHCTHtiec'KYJO IOK<�IlJiya-TaD;HIO Ha '3,eM­ JIHX q)OOAaJIOB-IlO'MeIIJ;HROB-IOHRepoB>> 22• Bnaro]];ap H BbIOOKHM n;eHaM, CTOHB­ illHM B Te !10.W,I Ha aep Ro H �pyrne 00JibCKOX08HHCTB0HHhl0 'l'OBapw, '6Jia•ro,n;apa f meC'Tf'Iaftmeii 3RCITJiyaTall;HH RpHCTbHH, 3TO IJIP0Bpam;en:e:e ABOPR'HCROro IIOMe­ CTI,H B 1mmrTaJIHCTHtieORYIO .i:aTmp yH.r:(HIO, «<pa�RKY aepna H MHCa>>, oanatiaJIO YRJ)CIIJ.I-emJle 3IroH0'.Mifiqe-cRIIX II031HD;!H:Ü IOH:RepcTB.a, 1FOO, B CBOIO 01I1 eipe,n;1,, y!ClHJI'II­ BaJIO HX · IIOJIH'l'Il'qecRHe Il03IITI;lnl. lOHRepCTBO OOTaBaJIOCI, rJiaBeHCTByrom;e:ü: CHJllOH B 00Ill;OCTBHHHO-IIO.T.UI"I'JI"CI€C.ROM CTpOe repM-aHCKHX rocy-Aapc'l'B. H1eMei1;RaH 6ypmya:nnr, rreperp%1rnma.a: B 1848-1849 ro,l(ax, OT.Ka.3aJiac& OT IIOJilITlPIOCRllX nplITH3aHHH <H .IIepeHeC.'Ia CBOI() aKTRBHOCTL B cq>epy J1!Pe;u;­ IIp H'IIHMaTeJibCTBa. IlpOMhlIDJieHHhIH II(WeBopoT, HatIB.BmRHCH B repMaHHH MH-Oro no3me, lJe:M: B AHrJIIIH n <Dipanu;n11, coBeipmaJICH ym:e 'Ha �ocraToqao BbICOB'.0M ypoBHe 1pa3BHTH.H TeXHHRII. 3To �aBaJio, 0CT0CTBeHHO, HeMeIJ;RHM npo· MhlIDJieHHIIKaM HeMaJibie npeHMy m;ecTBa. EbICTpbIMll Te:Mna,MR pa3BHBaJiac1, THmeJiaH DlPOMbimJieHH'OCTh. Bhl\pRCTaJUI KpyIIHble ):µH Toro BpeMeHB, ocna­ rqeHHhle ca:\-wii IIepe;::i;oBon: TexH.a1wii np e/llIIpHHTIIH, KaK, HaIIpHIMep, MeTannyp­ rHqeCJœ:e aaBO ,W>l Kpynrra, Ha ROTotphlX pa6oTaJio B 1870 r. OBlilllle 16 TLIC. pa60-'IHX. Ilo CBOeH 1:;rneproBoopymeHHOCTH repMaHCRa·H IIpoMHIIIJiemIOCTb K KOH­ u;y 60-x ro,n;oB ooorHaJia <ppaHu;yacRyro. M xoTH B rep:Man:e::u: ocTanaJiae1:, em;e B0CbMa !})aC.IIpOCTp aHBHHa.H naTpnaipxaJII.Ha.H AOMamruœ rrpOMbIIIIJieHHOCTh, MHOiROOTBO peMeCJI8HHHKOB H BCHKOro po,I(a «MacTepOBLIX JII0)];'0H>), HCe me Kipynnoe RannTaJIIIcTutiecRoe npo:iraBO',IJ;CTBO ym:e o;u;epmaJio pemaro:rn;He rro6eW:,I H HHqTO yme He )füfJIO aa gepmaTh ero CTp0MlIT0JII,HOl'O pa::mHTH.8 23• B 1 21 << Historical statistics of the United States, 1.788-1945>). Washington, 1949 � <I> o JI x­ H e p. McTopHH Ha po�Horo xoa.SIÏICTB,a CIDA, nep · . c a•m-JI. M., 1�; R. V. Harlow. The growth of the United States, Y. 1-2. New York, 1943; E. C. Kirkland. A history of American economic life. New York, 1941. 22 B . 11. JI e H II H. ArpapHaH npoi,pa.M'Ma co�air-;:i;eMoKp,aTRB B nep:soii pyccKoii p e­ oomon;ffil 1005-1007 I'O;{OB. CotJ., 'I. 1·3, CTp. 216. 23 <I>. M ep n H r. ll.crop1rn fepM'aHcKoii �a.1:-,n;eMOKpa THH, T. 2, 3. M., 1923; C. B ,a JI b Te p c x ,a y a e R. 3KOHOMiitJecJ<a.SI ncrop1rn: fepMaRBH » XIX B. 1912; P. Be­ n a a r f. Les origines de la grande industrie allemande. Paris.. 1.002; W. Som hart. Die deutsche Volkswirtschaft im neunzehnten Iahrhundert. Berlm, 1909. i6
PoccHH Kpecn.,,HHCirnH ipeq>oplrn 1861 ro)l;a cTaJia nepeJIOMHLIM py6emoM B HCTOPHlieCKOM pa3BHTBH CTpaBLI. IlpOB0));eBBaH CB�xy .n;apCKHM caMop;epmaBHeM, oxpaHHBIDHM :O:HTe­ pecLI KpeIIOC'llHKKOB-IIOM:ei::q;BKOB, aTa peqmpMa HH B KaRoii: Mepe l!fe �BJleTBO­ pHJia 1:l'aH•HHÜ: Kp0CTI.JHHOTBa. Ha rrpaKTHRe o.Ha OKa.aaJiaCh rpa1H)llll03HOÜ:, roicy­ �apcTBeH'HO opr8E1130BaBHOÜ: C'KCTe'MOii: 3RCII;pOIIpHa� tJaCTH KpOOThHH'CŒW:Ü aeMJDI. 3To orpa6mma:e •KpecTbHHCTBa nonomH:io HatJaJio rroc:n,ep;yrom;eMy ooKy­ �eHllIO p;epeBHH, p;erpap;a�HH -RpecThHHCKoro X03HHCTBa 24 . }I 'BC0 me HecMOTJ)H :na 'fO, qro DCB M€'phl no rrpoBe;];eRHIO pecpopMl>I HIOCHJIH Ha ce6e rJiy6ooœii OTUe1faTOK ee 3a.KOpeHeJI-o peaR�RHhIX a:wroipoB, 11€'CMOT­ !PH aa ooxpaHHBnmecH B C·a'MLIX ypü,lJ;JIHBhIX q>op.'1!ax q)OO,l1;8.JlhHO-KpeilOC'VIDiqe­ CRJHl0 nepeJIOBTK.H, «oop;epma.B!H-e KpOCThHHCROH peqlOpMhI,- KaK YŒŒ3LIBaJI B. H. JleHHH,- 6LIJio 6yipmyaaHoe •.•» 25• ·Pe<J>opMa 1861 rop;a aaaMeHoBana no­ Bopor B HCTOpHH Poccuu: C Tpyp;oM npo6HBmHecH CK1B03h TOJIIIJ;Y <peop;aJI:&HO­ �peIIOCTHHqecKoro C'll_POH poc'IIKH HOBhlX KaIIHTaJIHCTH1IOCKHX OTHOmeHH:Ü IIOCJie 61 rop;a rromJIH c Heyp;�m.uMoii on:Jioiî. B. Il. JleHHH rrHcaJI, lfTO rrocJie peq>op­ Mhl «pa3BHTHe lta'IlHTaJUl'3'Ma B J>oCCHH nomJio C TaKOH 6hICTpOTOH, qTo B ne­ CK0JibKO ,n;eCHTHJieTH:Ü COB�aJlHCh npeBpam:enJUI, 3aHHBmHe B HeKOTOphIX cTap:n1x cTpaHax EBporrLI .n;enLie BeKa >> 26 • Pocea11 B Ha 111POTHBOno.11omHoM, 3arrap;Hol1, KpaIO EBpOIIhl Ka­ n:wraJIH3}l 6hICTpo pa3BIIBaJICH B aTH rOJJ;hl B MaJILIX C'TpaHax - ,BeJihrlBI H r OJIJiaH,IJ;HH. B BeJlhrHH npoHOXOABJI B0Cb'Ma HHTeHC.HBHhlH IliPOMhIIDJieHHhIH IIO,ll;'WM, C 03]J;aBIDHH Texnn:qe­ CKH xopomo Boopymeaayro rro TeM Bpe.MenaM THmenyro n: JierRyro HH,n;ycTp11ro, rycTY)O ceTL meJieaHidx ,n;opor, xpynaLie rro Macnrra6aM cTpaH:hl rotpo,n;a. B ron­ JiaH,n;HH Ka:IIHTaJI yeTJ)eMHJre:H rJiaBHLIM o6pai30M B o6mn:pHhie KOJiûHHH, '3KCIIJiy­ aTai�HH 'KOTOp:hlX !IrpHHIOclIJia rpoMaJ,i];Hhle CBepxuplrohIJIH. B lifTaJIHH KaI11ITaJIHCTHlJ8CROe Ipa3BJfTII0 illJIO HepaB­ HTamra HOMepno. Ha rore, r,n;,e rro-npemneMy HeocrropHMo rrpeo6Jia,n;aJio ceJILOKOe X03HHCTBO, co:x;paHHBmee BO MHOrOY CJie,IJ;hl ,n;aJieKOro cpep;HeB0KOBhJJ, npoMhlIDJieHHOCTb H ToprOBJIH pa3BHBaJIHCb MeW}eHHO, -ryro, ' T'Be Cap)J;ll­ co c�11uoM. 3aTo B ceiBepo-aana1,n;ao:ë: qacTn M-raJIHH - B �opoJieBC HHH H IIL8MOHTa - rrpe,n;npIUllHMaTeJihCKaH :e: ROMMepqecKaH ,n;eHTeJibHOCTb KHIIeJia. 3)\ecb B03HHKaJIH HOBhle o-rpacmJ npOMhlillJI0IIHOCTH - MeTaJIJIYIPrHH, MamHHOCTpoeHHe, coa,n;aBaJIHCh KpynHhle, ocaam:eHHhie rr�pep;OBOH T0XHH:KOH •IIpOMhlmJieHHLie npeAJ]pHHT·HH, BJ)O,l1;0 H3B0CTHl>IX ,33.BO,IJ;OB <<AireaJib,IJ;O». Ha oc­ HOBe Texa:a-qecKOTO OOHOBJleHHH HaMHO'I'O YB€JIH 1I1IBaJia CBOIO rrpO,D;YKD;HIO CTa­ paH XJiorrqaTOOyYamHa.H rrpOMhlillJl0HHOCTh, CTpOHJIHCh mene3Hhl0 p;qporn, oc­ HOB.blBaJIH-Cb KpyrrHhle 6a'B'KH, ToproBhle q>HpMhl C MHJIJIHOH'HhIMII o6opoTaM1H, paaBepTLIBaJia.Ch TOprOBJIH, IIpoll'RKaBmaH BO B ' Ce yrOJIKH A'IIrreHllffJCKO-ro rro.rry­ 27 ocrrpoBa H .n;anexo aa ero rrpe.11eJThl • Tax aaa1,:rnae:MaH <<peBOJIIOD;BH Men,n;an>> - HeaaBa.p­ a Bypacyaoa peBOD>J�IUI ille'H'IIaH oyipmya3HfüI peBOJIIOD;HH 1867-1868 ro�OB • JlnoBBB B .HrroH:aR OTKPhIJia nyTH RanHTa.JIH'3MY II B p;aneKoÜ «cTpan.e Bocxo,n;Hm;e,ro coJI�a». �:ha peBoJIIOD;HH HMeJia PHA oco6eaaoCTe:Ü, o6ycJlOBJiemihlX cooeo6paaHeM HCTOpH1I0CROro pa3B11THH CTpaH BocTOKa. B1rn·mHe M ' DrJio Ka3aTLCH, lITO OHa JIHIIIh 'HH3BeprJia peiHHM cëryaaTa Il BOCCTa­ HOB1lJia a6coJIIOTHCTCKYIO BJiaCTb H•M'IletpaTopa. Ho lI 1rrpn: 8THX orpaHHlieHHhlX n. 24 A. 3 ,ai OB q K O B C K H ü. IlpoBeJJ;eHHe Bo iKll3HI, iKpeCThH'IICKOÜ peipopMLI 1861 r. M., 19�, CTp. 426 H CJI. 25 B. H. JI 0 H H H. <<RpecTLHHCKaH peq>OpMa>> li rrpo;rreTapcKH-RpecTLHHCKa.11 peBO­ mon;WI. Co11., T. 17, CTp. 95. 26 TaM me, cTp. 96; cM. TaKme B. H. JI e He: H. PaaBIITHe KaIIIITam1aMa B Poccm1. Co11., 1. 3. 27 3. Cepe H B. P a3BIITH0 KaUHTa;JH3Ma B HTaJILHHCKOli .D;epesue, nep. C HTaJI. M. 1951; R. <I>. M H s Ha Ho. HeKoropLre npo6;rr,e,m,r 06'be�1rnemrn lITa;JHH. M., 1955. 2 IIapBIBCHaff HOMyYHa, T. I 17
peay.HbTaTax 1868 ro,;:i;a - BJiaCTL 'llepe-MHCTIIJiaCb OT .n;a:iiMë (l\lPYil'HbIX q>eoµ;a­ JlOB) B OCHOBH0':'.\1 R p::Bop.m-ICTBY, a R!PYIIHa.H 6ypmya31UI, rrop;p;ep.mHB8BIIIa.JI HMnepaTopcRyIO BJia<'.-Tb, TaR II He 61,1Jia p;orrym;eHa R rocyJJ;apcTBeHHOMy anna­ paTy - Bce .me 'H8Jih3H no B'Hgen, oypmyam1oro coAepmanan: rrpo:ucme.rr;mnx B cTipaHe rreipeMeH. Ta1nrn Mepbl HOBO'I'O npa•BIIT8JihCTBa, RaK aaKOB O C.BOÔO)l;e BHyrpeHHe:H JI 3aMüpCROH TOprOBJIH, 0 C',O3i-\aHHH 6aHROB H am::,;HoHepHIJX o6m,ecTB, 06 YHIP:I­ TOilŒIIUU: rnJih,Il;MH, 0 CB06op;e npo,I.(aiRH li RyilJIH aeMJlH H T. II., H:M0JIH qm�TO 5Y!pmya3Hhlli xapaiKTep H OTR.phlBaJlH npOCTOfP )l;JI.H crpeMHTeJibHOro �liilŒHHH Brrepe.n; MOJI,O)J;ûf'O HIIOHCROro JŒITHTa.JIH3.."\fa. IIpoii,n;eT J.LlUIIh HeCROJThRO ,n;ecH­ THJJieTlllI 11ocJie cooLinuï 1867-1868 rop;OB, n lfMrrepaTopc1rn.11 HnoHHH, rrpH coxpaHeHHH BCex BHennnrx aTpiroyTOB BOCTOlIHOro ITIOJiya6coJIIOTHCTCROJ'? pe­ .iKHMa JI rpa,I(H,n;n:ft caMypaii:cRoii: :KaCTOBOCT·H, cTaHeT crparroii: caMoro Mo,I.(epH:e:3H{POBaBHoro KaIIHTa.;JH-3Ma H caMHX BhICORJIX lJ.,1'T.H Hero TeMilOB pocTa ILpOH3BO;i:J;CTBa, correpHHlIRIOIII.T-IX C aMepinrnHC:KHM-H 28• * * * TaR, B pa3HhIX :n.oHn,ax 3eMHor-o mapa, or cTpaH cTapoii: EBporrhI µ;o Tnxo­ oK1ea1HcKoro nooepemhH Oe(Be,pHoï1 AMep»KH H .n;o OC'TPOBOB Rrocro, XoHcro 11 Xoon(a.ÜlI,o, OMhIBRBMhlX HnoHCKHM MopeM, Be3'Ae RairaTaJIH3M o,n;epm.aBaJI no6eJ1,hI, IIpOHHKa:I Bü BCe IIOfPhl OOIQ€CTBa, BhI3hl'BaJI HOBOe, yciwpeHHO,e- 6neune IIYJII:.Ca :n-WHOMIP:I8Cn0ll Il OOIJ;HaJihHOH. iRH3HH. PacTHHyBmaHCH Ha ;:J;Ba CTOJI8THH 6opwa ror.u;a e�e MOJIOJ];OfO, IIOJIHOro CHJI KallHTa.l1H3Ma CO c1pe.,u;HeBeKOBhlM, OTiKliBffiKM CB-OH BeK <J>eo;i::i;aJibHhlM CTpoeM, rrooceMeCTHO 3aKaR1UIBaJiac1> nopameHHeM q>eo)(aJI•HaMa. B 50-60-e ro,D;I,I pa3Bll'TH8 RanirTaJJ:H3Ma no BOOXO,!VIID;€ll JIIIHHH ,I(OCT}fTJIO CBoero 3eHHTa. B TY nopy IŒIIHTaJ.IHJM B HalffiOJII,meii Mepe cnoco6cTB·OBaJI po­ cry npoH13BO;!];:ll'T€-JihHLIX CHJI. Ho 1n1e.cTe C TeM pa3'BIH'l"He RallHTaJilll3Ma yme npn6JIJI.maJJOCb K CBOeMy nepe;coMHOMY py6emy. 8rn lI,ecHTHJietlIH pacn;BeTa 6LIJIH BaoopmeHHeM neipnoµ,a no6e;:i; .11 yrBepm,nennH KanHTaJiu_a:Ma. Bene� aa HlIMlJI p;oJimHa 6:E,I.11a Ha qaThCH mICXOAHID;aH JHilHIH ero '.HCTOplJlleCKHX cy�e6. 2. KOJIOBIIA.,îJhHAR 3KCDAHCIIH KAil.HTAJillCTHqECKHX ;::(EPiKAB B 50-00•e rO�bl Ilo6MM 1rnnnTa;rH3Ma ŒI ero 6ypHoe ipaaBw.mie B 50-60-e J'0,.1hl XIX B. 6LI­ JIH TOOHO CBH'3aHhl CO CTOJlb me 6nICTphlM l!)OCTOM .mecTORoro, Ba·pBapc1mro KO­ JlOHHaml'8Ma. IlpoMhlllIJieHHo pa,,a1n1'fhle cTpaHbl, B n�BYIO 011epeW> AHrJIHH, ct>paH�HH, CIDA,- CHJio:ii opymn.H B3JiaMbIBaJHI BopoTa 0KoHoM-n11ecxn oTcTaJihlX CTpaH, lfTo6hl npeBpaTHTb HX B CBOH KOJIOHlJ,}l HJIH IlOJiy:KOJIOHJIH - pnIHRII c6uTa 'AJIH CBOHX TOBapoB lI JICTO1IHHRH �emeBoro ChlpMI. llcTOpH110CRH KOJI-OHHa�H3M B03HHK panee- ero Ba11aJIO BOCXO,IÇIIT K ape Il�BOHa1IaJibHOTO n3IlHTaJIHCTH1100ROro HaKOIIJieHIIH. IlœJie'AYJO�ee 61>1cTpoe pa3BJITHe IIIPOMhlillJieHHOro RainrTaJia CTaJio BO3MO.iKHhlM JIHIDI, Ha OCHOBe rpaH­ �ll03HOfO orpa6JieHHH rpoMalI,HbIX ooraTCTB, HaROill.IeHHbIX aa 'AOJlfOe BpeMH Tpy�oM aapolI,oB cTpaH BocroKa II 3anap;a. 28 E. iR y R on. McropH.R HnomrK. M., 1939; Qqep1rn. uonoii ncrop11:e: Hnomrn: 1917). M., 1957; X. T. 8 ii JI. y c. 011epK1I HOBoii n noooftmeü ucropun. M., 1956. 18 (1640-
-==�RABB BpHTaHCKOe Moryrn;ecTBO pOCJIO Ha KOCTHX HH)l;Di­ cxoro, 6ap:�rnncKoro, �eiiJI0Hc1wro H .n;pynrx napo�OB • 3 BocTOKa. Ror�a, 6naro�apH nenpephlBHOMY rrp:e:wKy nar:pa6.:i:eHHI>IX 6orare:rn ,113 Ro­ JioRR:ü: 6pH'!'aHcKaH Kallil'l'8JFH'CTH1i0C:KaH npoMhlIIIJieHHOCTh CTaJia nepBOIO B M.H·pe, 'TOr,il;a lKOJIOHll'H IlpHOOpemr AJIH MeTpOIIOJIBIH rH HHOe 3Hla.1I0H·He - 'PhlRKOtB c6hlTa ,il;JIH amJIHHCRHX TOB8poB H BCTOtfHIHRa ,rr.emeBOI'O ehipbH. Bec'II'OIDJIH.11HLIH BB03 XJI01JllaT06yrHaïRHhlX ll HHl>IX TOBapoB B MB�lUO H �pYTJie KOJIOHHH rrpHHOCHJI anrJIHHeKHM KOJIOHHaaropa."1 C1m301-IHLie cnepmp.IrohlJIH. Ha IIpOTH­ meHHH Bceii nepBoii noJIOBHHLI XIX Be1m anr:nracRni\ aRcrropT B l1Hp;n:ro ne­ upep�BHo ooapacNw. Bropmen-ue anrnniicKHX TOBapoB na nn,rçrriîcRnft pLIHOR BeJio :n paa01Penn10 �iicKoii p;oManraeii: npoMLim.rreHHOC'rn, cTapn:nH,oro !IIHAUiic1wro peMecJia. AarJIHHCKHe 1DIHOBHHKH rrp11nym;i;aJu1 ,paaopenn1>1x 1IH-;rJ;HË:01nix KpecThHB H OÔH11llqa:snmx pmœc.nea-R:HKOB pa3BO�lITh re T0XITTI4eCKHe II rrpo,n;oBOJI.bCrB.0BiHhl0 KYJU,TYPM, K0Top1a1e 6LIJJH nymHhl :i,;aK CLiipbe �JI.a rreipepaooTKH • anrJIHÜcKoii IlpûlŒlillJieH'HOCTll. BpnraHCKaH JlO:.IHTHKa CTaBM.'la CBOe:Ü u;eJII>lO Upe.BpaTBTI, BCIO MHOTOMHJIJIHOHHYIO HH�IO B orpoMHYIO IIO;J;H0BOJILHYIO ;ri;e,peBHIO, pa60ra10m;y10 na anr.rraiicK.aii ropo,n;. B. 50-x ·ro,n;ax 6hIJill aaBoeBaHhl IIOC.'Ie�Ire IIHJJ;llHCKHe 30MJIH, e�e co�pa­ UJIBillHe rocyµ;apcTBeHHbIH cyBepeHJITe-r: IleH::i;IBa6 (-1839 r.), Harnyp, Ay;1. H ooJiee MeJJK:e:e B..11a,n;eHIIJI. B 1856 r., rrocJie ;a;o.;JToii: orrycTom:e:TeJII>Hoii BOHHhl, ÔLIJia aHHeKCHpOBana 3aIIa;I,HaH Bn:p.Ma. BeJIHKaH ocB06oµ;HTeJI1>HaH BOHHa n:rrp;IIiic•iwro naipoga 1857-1859 ro,n;OJJ 6MJ1a repœ111eciro:i Il'Oilhf'TIKOÜ c6poc,1:1Th rJie-r aHr.illlIHCiüIX rropa6ormre.rreii, cnac­ 'nlI c-.qpalJIY OT ry6B.Te.JibHOH rwpaRilllI 6:pIIT aHCRODO ROJIOH-HaJijH3M-a. Map:KC B 1858 r. lJIBCaJI, 'l!To «l1 HAlfH c TeM drain of men and bullion [oTJIHBOM JI10µ;eii H �eaer], KOToporo OHa 6y):{eT CTOHTb AHr.àIHH, H'BJIHeTCH Teuep1, 'HalJllIIM JIY1IillBM OOI03HHKOM>> 29. Ho Tor,n;a ern;e ue IIpBillJIO BpeMH )];.!lH coe,n;IIH0HHH 6QP.L6hl npoJieTapHaTa B OCB06op;11re.:.IbHOii ôop1>61>1 Hapo.U,OB KOJIO'HHH B eJQJ:Hhlii <ppcmT npoTRB :nau:e:TaJI-H3Ma. C:0:JI1>1 cropon B MHJJ;HH 61,IJin CJillllI­ KO],,I BepaBHl:aI. BoccTaHHe c.arraeB 6hlJIO nop;aKieHO CO CBHperroii ilŒCTOKOCThIO. H�JJI{ 'IIOJipemiteMy OC-TaBaJiac1, rJiaBHhL\f HCTOlfHIIKOM KOJIOHHaJIL'HhlX c:éepxnpH6hlJieii, Ba KOTotphlX TaK IIhlIDHO pacu;BeraJI arrrnniic1u1:iî 1ŒITIITaJIH3M cepe�hl npomJioro BeKa 30• Hn,n;:aro Ha3hlBa.rru B Jion�oae <<me:MqymnHoii 6pnTaH­ Ycueue CKO:Ü Kopœn,I>>. Ho B."TJaCTh 6pnraHCRO:iî KOpoHLI npo­ K0JIOBB8JlbBOil CTRpaJiac1, He TOJihNO Ha,n; 3TOH BeJIRKOll li Hec1Iacrnoii 9RCD8BCBB AllrQll CTJ>a'.Hoii. R 1850 r. rroMnM-o M'HJJ;IUI no,n; BJiacTnIO AH­ rJIHH 'Ilaxo�RJIOC.L 0JI\0 160 M.JIH. 11eJIOBe:n R 11 700 ThIC. RB. KM KOJIOHHaJII,HhIX BJla�eH'llii. 3ro 6LIJia B0JIH'!aiimaJI RO:IOHlla!IbHaH n�me,pn:.a B -M:ape. Ho 6p11TaHCKHX KO.JIOHH3aTopaM 8TO BCe em;e Ka3aJIOCI, H�OCTaT01IH:&I'M. B 50-x 1o�ax XIX BeKa ROJIOHHaJI1>HaH JKcrraHCBH AHr.,J"' FIB .pa.aBepnyJiach c H8BlI,D;3HHhlM e�e paaMaxoM. IloMHMO HÇ)BhlX B:.ra;ri;eHHH B HH,D;Hll, 0 KOTOII)hlX BLIIUe yme roBOpJlJJOCb, aurJUfliaHe B a·TH ro}l;nl 3aBoeBaJUI BeJiyµ;«HCTaH, o6ill•IIPHhle TeppHrop11.:e: MaJia:1Œcl{l()ro nonyocTpoBa, pn.;ri; (5oJiee MeJIKHX BJia,n;enHii B Aaaa II �pmrn. Ha ocTpoBax HoB'oii 3eJiaHJJ,MH Ha npoTHilŒHHB pn)l;a JieT oan IIiPO]J;OJiïKaJIH HCTpOOHTe.rr1>uy10 Boiiay rrponrn nJieMeHB Maop.:e:. ,[(Ba·MaT1> .110T 6ecnom.aWJ:hlX BOHII IlpüTB,B Hapo�OB BOC'TORa np:aB0JIH K Bü3pacTaI;fBIO 1I1ICJ1a IIOJU{aBHl:aIX 6p:u:TaHCROJÏ KO,pon1,1 em;e Ha 70 MlIJIJIIIOHOB. 29 R. MapKc - «I>. HHreJffiCy 14 JIHBapH 1858 Il'. R. Ma pK c H <l>. 3 •H r e JI 1, c. Co11., T. XXII, c-rp. 290; c.M. TaKme K Ma pK c 11 (1), 3 H r e :11, c. 0 Ha�:e:0HaJI1>HO--OCBOOO.U:B­ rem,HoM BOCCTaHHH 1857-1859 rr. B Ma;vrn. Co., M., 1959. 30 ,Um. Hep y. OmpLITHe HH,ll;B.H. M., 1955; Hapo,n:Hoe BO-Cct.aHIIe B HH,ll;HH 18571859. C6. cr.aTeii. M., 1957; CH H x ,a B Ba Hep� m H. Hcrop1rn MH.U:BH. M., 1954. 1 1 2• 19
B ca:woii EBpone aHrJIHHCRHe npaBHm;11re RJiacchl Ha rrpüTHïIŒHHH CTOJieT:nii Tep3aJI•H nopa6om;eHHYIO HM,B l1pJiaH)];HIO. <<3eJieHhIH OCTJ)OB)) B peayJihTaTe aHrJIHÜCKOI'O rocuo,n;iCTBa ûTa:I e,n;nHCTJJeHHOH B EBpone CTpaHOÜ, r,n;e HaceJieHHe He »ooipacTaJio, a y6i.rnaJ10. Tor.n;a 1mR aa 20 JieT, c 1850 no 1870 r., HaceJieHn:e rca,Mo:Ü AHrJIHU, Y9JIJica H IlloTJraH.r(H-ll yBeJIH1IH'JIOc1> c 21 MJIH. 1IeJIOBeR ,n;o '26,3 MJIH., B 11pJiaHp;IUI 3a STO me BJ.?0'MH ORO ynaJIO C 6,6 MJIH. ,n;o 5,4 MJIH. tJe­ JIOBeR. 8TH cyxne n;,mpphl :mpacHopet11rnee 'BCHKHX CJIOB OOJIH1IaJIH aHfJIH:ÜCKYIO UOJIHTII1KY no OTHomeHHIO K lipJiaH,D;lIH 31 • Eme B ROIID;e 30-x - HalJaJie 40-x ·ro)];OB AHrJIHJI BeJia Boiiua Allrmm rrponrn KHTaH nepByIO 01nryMHYIO n-oüHy. 8Ta BOÜHa npOTBB KBT8H ,10.1mHa 6i.ma ne TOJI1>1K-o ooecnetJHTh C'1IJioii opymHH B03MOiRHOCTh aur.1HHCRHll Rym::i;aM Hamn:BaTh CK-a30tIHbie COCTOHHH.fl' Ha o-rpaB­ JI0HHH H.D;OBHThIM .n;yin-rnHOlI Rn-rani:i;en. Ta1rnH i:i;e.Jii. onIJia ,n;ocTH1rHyTa. Ho no 3aKJIIOlf8HHOMY B ORTH6pe 1842 ro,n;a HepaBHonpaBHOMy HaHRHHCKOMY ,n;orOBO­ PY A·HrJIHH orropra.1a OT lùnaH ocTpüB foHKOHr, rrpe.Bpan:i;eHHhIÜ e10 B 'BOffil·HO­ MopcKyIO �penocTh-TIHCTOJieT, npHcTaBJieHHhlÜ K rpyAH RnraH,- H noJiy1Im1a pH,n; IIJpeH!MyII:i;OCTB II JibrOT ,Zl;JIH HaBO,n;H0HHJI KHTa:ë:mmro ·phIHKa aHrJIHHOKBMH TOBapaMH. BoJiee Toro, RHrail ;:(OJiiR0H 6hlJI 3aIIJiaTHTb em;e KOHTpB6�BIO B pa3Mepe 21 MJIH. ,n;o.rr.rrapoB, 1IT06hl B03MeCTHTb AHrJIBH pacxo,n;hl no YHH11TOme­ HHIO IOITairi:i;eB. B 1857 ,r., BOCno::rh30BaBmHCb 3aBe)];OMO JIO)RHhlM rrpe,n;JIOr(){M, aHrJHI:Ü:CKOe npaBH'TeJILCTBO, B03rJ"IaB:iHeMoe <<HCTIIHHhIM pLID;·a-peM cBo6o,n;LI» JIOPAOM IIaJii.­ MepCTOHOM, Ha1IaJio BTopyro OIIHYMHYIO BOHHY IIJpüTRB RHTaH. AHrJIHÜCKHe D <ppam::i;yacKHe BOBHHhie Ropa6JIH noA"Bepr1.m 6eamaJIOCTJIDÜ 6oM.6ap�npo.BRe KaHTOH H OKKyrrn:poBa.1u ero. R11nafü:rnoe npaBHT0JIWTBO �OJliRHO 6hlJIO B 1859 r. no,n;rrncaTh HOBhJe HepaBHonpaBHhle ,n;oroBQphl, HO H OHH He MOTJill Ha­ ChITHTb aRrJio-q>paHi:i;yacr�llX ROJIOHII3aTopo.B. lIM y,n;aJIOCh cUpoBOIJ;HpOBaTh HO­ BhlÜ KOH<pJIHKT, ,n;aBIIIHH IIOBO,n; ,n;JIH BOOOOHOBJ10HHH oorom:o:ü arpec.cHH. B 1860 T., HCnOJib3YH CBOe nop;aBJIHIO�ee npooocxo,n;.cTBO B BOe:HHOii TeXHHKe, aHrJI<�q>paai:i;yacIOie IBOHCKa 'IIaHecJI'II nopameHHe R•HTai.qaM B BOpBaJIHCb B Ile­ RHH. �peBHHH C"flOJIHIJ;a RuraH ilIO'�Bepr;iacb 6ecnp.HMepmniy pa3pymeHllIO H paarpa6JieHHIO. Be:IHROJI·eIIHhlH naMHTHHR RBTaÜcRoro BCKYCC-TBa - i3HaMeH.II­ ThllÏ IûaJHb-i.'\flIH-IOaHb ( <<ÎRe:Mqymurra RwraH»), Jl0THllH wiopei:i; RirTaÜORHX III:!wI­ rrepaTopoB - <<Be.TJbIH p;Bopei:i;>> Ha q>atpq>Qpa, AB�Jn:i;i.1 Ha 6poH8hl, CJIOHOBOÜ Ro­ CTH c HX 6ecc"lleTHhlMII 6oraTCTBaMn OhlJil:I paa:npa6JieHhl, a aaTeM oommeHhl. TaR 111Pe,n;cTaJia <<IJ;HBHJIHaoBaHHaH>> EBporra nepeA «OTcTaJihIMt HnTaeM. B OKTHÔpe 1860 r. B pa.anpoMJieHHOM II paarpa6JieHHOM IleKHHe no6e,n;nTeJIH rrpe,n;JIOïR'HJl'H HiJI.TaIO yc."IOBIIH HOBOrO Ra6aJihHOro ,noroBOpa, npe,n;ocTaBB:BIIIero AHrJIHH II <l)paHIJ;HH Il IIX no;a;,n;aHHblM HOBble, II01ITH HH1I0M 6oJiee He orpaHn:­ lf0HHble npana B RnTae. qTOOLI cox·paH.IITh B08MOJRHOCTh 16ecnpeIIHTCTBeHHO rpa6HTL RH-raii H HC­ RopeHH'l'b BCe 01IarII conpOTHBJieHHH, aHrJIHHCRHe ll q>pami;yaciKHe KOJIOHH3a­ TOpbl opraHH30BaJin B 1864 r. HHTepBeHIJ;HIO IIIPOTBB Ta:H'IIHHC'ROro CBOOO�Horo RpeCTl>HHCRoro rocy.[(apCTBa. R JieTy 1864 r. HHT(WB0HThl no,n;aBHJllI MymecT­ BeHHOe corrpoTHBJI•emrn TailnIIHOB. B HIOJie naJia CTOJilllll;·a rocyµ;aipcTBa - HaH­ KlfH. HoJiee c·Ta Thl 'CHlf TaiinHHOB 6i.mo yHH1ITomeuo. Paa:6oü H aBepcTBa aH­ rJinicRHX H cppam:zya-cRHX co::rÀaT II o<f>n:i:i;epoB npHHHJIH TaKHe CTpamHhle paaMephl, lJTO i,n;ame npoc::raBJieHHblli ROHi'];OThep QPHTaHCKOI'O KOJIOHBaJIH3Ma reHepaJI fop,n;OH cqe;r HYlliHhfM OTRa3aTI>CH 0T IIO,rtHeceHHbIX 0lfY no;u;apROB, OTMemeBaBIIIIiCb TeM callbD{ or noaopHOTO IIOBe,n;eHHH CBOHX co6pa-Th0B no opymHIO. Ilopaôo�eHue lfpnaH.a;BH 31 II. M. K e p m e n n e B. H:p:ran�H B 6op1.oe 3a ueaaBHCHMOCTL. H:a,n. 3. M., 1936. 20
Ta.K OT�LITLIM npuMeHeHBeM HaCllJillH, paa6oiiH1:Pibeii, rpaôllTeJILC.KOB BOB'UOH AHrn11u1, a BM0CTe C HeIO li <DpaH�IIH B3Jia'M:blBaJIII BopOTa .IûrTaH, 11T06LI 06ecne11HTL OOLIT B'I1)1IAOPOra CBOIIX TO'BapoB Ha 6onee Hll1ieM He 3�11\eHHOM orpmmcm .KlITa:iic'.KOM phl·H.Ke 32 • Ta.KHMB me paa6oiiHH1iblIMll COBM0CTHhUIII BOeHHhlM· H llaeanenea:aoe )];0HCTBIIH:B.HI AHrJilUI, <l>péUl�llll, fOJIJiaH):µIH li CIDA OTBpil'l'lle B 1863 T. 6hlJIH B3JIOMaHhl BQpüTa .HnoHHH, BhlHy>R­ BOBYX plilllKOB ,AJIJI aer.DBBCKBX TOBapoB ,n;eHHOd TaIOKe )];OTIYCTHTb BBOO HHOCTpaHHhlX TOBatpoB B CBO·IO CTpauy. E�e pauee, B 1856 ro;zy, AHrJIHH, cxBaTIIB aa ropJio IlepcHIO (TyiJJ;a 6hlna HanpaBJieHa B00HHaH 3.KClleJ:t;BD;HH), npHHY]VIJia maxa IIIPe,n;ocTaBll'Tb aHrJIHii­ ClœM KymJ;a.Y H aHrJillHC.KllM TOBa}?aM Ha1I60Jiee BhlfO)];Hhle YCJIOBH:JI. B 1867 roJcy A61ICCH'HBH no,n;BéprJiach Taio«e •Hlll{eM He cnpoBO�HpcrnaHHo:ü BoeuHoi allP0CCHH AarJIBB. IlocJie Toro .KaR aHrJI1:1qaHe, paarpa61rn ee CTOJIJIIU;Y, A<).KaBaJJH CBOe Heoenop.HMoe BOeHH00 IIIPeBOCXO)];CTBO, npaBHTeJibCTBO AÔIICCII­ HH11 OTKpLIJIO Hac-remL BCe ·JJ;Bepu B CTpauy aHTJIIIHCRHM TOBapM.1. TaK, CBHpeno airennyaTltl{)yH II f!P80H ·Hapo,Ahl KOJIOHHaJibHhlX II IIOJiyKOJIO­ HBaJILHlilX cTpaH, q�pnas O'M'-y,n;a ,n;emeBoe chlpbe H CÔhlBaH Ty,n;a 6ecnpen.a:T­ cTBeHHO TOBapLI, aHrJiuiic'Rllii Kan1ITaJIH3M ceipe,n;uHhl XIX Be'Ra o6ecnetf1:IBaJJ ce6e Henp�LIBHlilii IIpHTOK OOCHOOJIOBHhTX 6aphlme:fl, orpOMHhlX R'OJIOHHaJib­ HLIX cBepxnpimLIJie:ë:. B. JI. JleHHH, anaJIH31Ipya oco6eHHOCTH HCTopnqecKoro ipaaBHTllH aHrJIHii­ c1eoro KaIIHTaJill3Ma, OTMe1iaJI, qro yme R 50-60-M ro;:i;aM B AHrJIHll npoHBll­ JIRCL HeKOTOphle qepThl HtMJiepnaJIH3Ma, a HMEŒHO - IIpOMhlIDJI0HHhle MOHOil'O­ JIOH H OllPOMHlile KOJIOHHaJibHLie BJia,n;eHllH. BMec·Te c TeM: aHTJIH:Ü•c1n1ii Kan11Ta­ JDI3M, Ka.K H .Ka1nrra-.,1naM B �eJIOM, em;e npop;OJiiKaJI pa3BlrnaTblCH no BOCXOM­ �ei JIHHHH.. Map.Kc n11can B 1867 r., qTo AIITJIHH HBJIHeTCH «RJiaccnqecI«>ii C1.'PaHOH Ka'IIHTaJIH3Ma» H ee rnpEMep B 3TOM CMbICJie HBJIHeTOR no.KaaaTeJibHhlM H � ,n;pyrux CTpan. Ü8'J)Hp;y C A'HrJIHeii, IIOJIHTHKY .KOJIOHH·aJibHOH 3RC IIaFICBH, XOTH H B M8'Hb­ WHX MacmTaoax, B0JIH H .ri;pyrne pa3BH'Thle h"allHTaJIHCTJI,qOC,,KHe C1'paHhl. IlpaBHTeJI:É.cTBO HanoJieona III BO <l>paH�IDI, pyRo­ KoaoBBam,BHe BOÎÎIIW BO)];CTBYHCh ,J;HHaCTIIl!eCRHMH MOTHBaM'H H .KQPhlCTHhl� (J)pBIQ\IPJ MH HHTepecaMH qrnHaHOOBOH 6yipmyaa1IH, npe,n;npH­ H.HJIO PHA 38BOeBaT0JlbHhIX .KOJIOHHaJibHhlX BOHH. B 50-x ro,n;ax 6bIJia B0306HOB.­ JleHa H3HypHTeJihHaH B ,n;oporOCTOHm;a.a: BOHBa aa pacmIJip0'HHe cppan,�y3CIOIX BJia�8HHii B CeBepHo:ü Aq>pHKe •.u;eHOIO OOJihmHx Juo,n;cKIIX iKepTB, HaI11PameH­ HhlX BOeHHLIX YCHJIHH, KOTOphle OOHauapTHCTCRaH nel!aTb HeH3M0HHO npe,n;-­ CTaBJIHJia �eIILIO 6JieCTHIIJ;HX B00HHhIX 'J1PHYM(p()B, <ppaH�yaaM y,n;aJIOCb He­ CKOJIL'KO nepe�HHYTL rpall'H�Y CBOHX BJia,u;eHBii K 10ry OT AnmHpa H Bo,n;py3HTL aHaM•H Broipo:ë: HMrrepHH B necKax Ra61rnHH. B Te me npHMepHo ro;a;hl, .KaK: yme l'OBQI)HJIOCI,, 4>paa:n;yacK1Ie BOHCKa, COBM8CTHO C aHrJIHHCKHMH, yqaCTBOBa­ JIH B pa8HOI'O po� HaCHJIHHX Ha,n; RHTaiicRHM Hapo,n;o�. <Dpa�HH np11o6peJia • no IleKH'HCKOMY ,AOroBopy 1860 r. ·11e me BhlrO,J;hI H n;peJIMy�,ec·TBa �JI.a: cBoe:ü: TOprOBJIH, tJTO H AHrJIHJI, XOTH, B CHJIY CBoeii OTHOCHT0JibHO:Ü npoMhlmJieHHOii· OTCTaJIOCTH, 1:I He MOrJia HX B Taltoii me Mepe peaJIH30B8'Tb. C KOHD;a 50-x ,n;o KOH�a 60-x TO,J;OB ( 1867) cppam:i;yacKHe .KOJIOHH3aTOphli BeJIH aaBoeBaTen1,ey10 Boiiny B lIH,n;o-RnTae. d>pami;y.ahl OBJiavi;en11 RaM6011;meir, RoxHHXIIHOi H .rrocJie ;a;oJiro:ü H RpaiiHe H3HyipuTeJihHO:Ü AJIH HHX BOÜH1>1 npoTHB BLeT.HaM.CJŒX naJ)TH3aH ycTaHOBHJIH CBOIO BJiaCTb aa;rr; romHhlM BbeTH-8MOM. 32 A. JI. H a p O 'Il H H � ·K H ii. Ho;ioBHa.:11>HaH IlOJIHTRIŒ KaUHTaillJCTH11eCKHX J(epmaB aa ,l(am,ueM BocroKe f860-1895. M., 1956; <I> a H 1, Be H 1, - JI a HL. Hœa11 HCTop1rn Hv.ra11, nep. c KHT., T. 1. M., '1-955; R a p a - My p a a. Taih:m:m,1. M., 1950; Xy a T a H. HcTo­ p1rn peno.:non;HOHHOi BOHHbl TaHlIHHCKOI'O rocyÀa•pcrna. M., 1952. 2f
B 1862 r. <DpaH11,1u1 conMeCTHO c AHrJinei n CIDA HallaJia HHTepBeHn;1uo rrpoTHB rrp,orpeccmBHoro 1pecnyoJIHIŒHCRoro npaBnTeJI1>CTBa BeHHTO Xyapeca B MeRoH.Re. MapRc Ha3hIBaJI aTy HHTepBeHil;lIIO O.l\H�M «:a·s caMhTX 1IY.r(OBHin;HhlX npe)]JrrpHHTHH, ROr,l],a-JI:a6o 3aHeceHHhIX - B JieTon11,cn Mem,11.yHatpo.n;Hoii ncro­ piurn 33• Ho H nocJre Toro 1'aR AurJIH-H H CIDA OT03Ba1IH CBOH BoiicRa, npaBH­ T0JibCTBO BT01poii: H.MJiepIIH .rrpoµ;oJimaJio BOOTH. B MeKcn1rn aaBoeBaTeJn,Hyro BOHHY , To ,6hUia O)];Ha H3 «BeJUI•�nx HanoJie'OHOB<',kHX H,n;eii», aa K<n:opoiî CKphl­ BaJHICb 8l10RCTHlI0CRIIe ,I(HHaCTH1Iec1nrn HHTepecbI H KOpiiICTHhle paC1IeThl 6aH­ IWBCKHX BOpûTHJI. K TOMY RŒ, KaR cnpaB0AJIHBO rrn:caJI BHKTOp r1oro, «rroc.a:­ raTeJihCTBO na MeKCHimHcRyro pecrryfürHKY - rrpoµ;oJimenne rrocHraTeJib1CTBa Ha ,pecrry6mIKY (l)paHn;y3cRyro>> 34 . 8Ta onycrornnTeJihHaH, in-oaopnaH Boiîaa npOP,OJiiRaJiach 'IIHTh JieT. B 1867 I'O,I(y reiponqecRoe oonpOT-HBJ19HH0 M0KCH·:mtH­ CKOro Hapo,ll,a O,I(OJI0JIO HaCHJIHH HHTepB0HTOB Il «BeJinqaHmee npeAilPHHTHe lIM1JI0fP-lrn>) 3aJWHlIHJIOCb IIOJl'HbIM ·npoBaJIO'M. B 5O-6O-x l'0.L{ax roJIJiaH,u;c1nrn KOJIOHII3aTOphI, JI0Ilo pa6om,eHBe MMI oTqaHHH'Oe corrpOTB.BJieH'He BB,D;OH83H:H<:rnoro HU­ H�oHeaBB P0'Aa, Il0CTeneHHO pacmBpHJIH rpaHllllhl CBOHX BJia­ �eHB.H. B 5O-x ro.r(ax 61>1JI0 3aBoeBaHo 3auaA,Hoe BopHoo. B 1857 r. B Ban,1VRe­ pac'MHHe, Ha BocToqnoM BopHeo, BCIIhlXHyJio OCBOOOJJ;HTeJI.bHoe BoccTanxe npo­ THB :VOJIJiaB�ClHIX yrHeTaTe:ieiî H rro,rui;e-pmHBaIO�HX HX <J>eoAaJIO'B, IloooTaBlll;hl oKaaaJIH reponl!ecRoe corrpor11B.1eHHe KOJIOH:�rna'l'opaM. JI,:e:m1> B 1859 r. roJI­ Jianp;n:aM yp;aJIOCh oB.'IaAeTh BocToqabIM BoipHeo. B aTH me TOJJ:hI II rroame mno IIOKope-H:e:e H OC'TPOBa Q_y�Ia1'pa 35. Goo.r::i;nHeHHble lIITaThl AMepHKH, uaxo�Bm11ecH ca;MH ,u;oJiroe BpeMH B aROHOMH1I0CKOÜ: '3aBRCH-MOCTH OT eB­ 3KCII8HCBH CillA porreiiCKIIX �y)J;apcTB, BeJIH, cua11ana B rpamn�ax aMapnI<aHCKoro I�OHTHHeH'l'a, a 3aTeM li 3a ero DlJH�,l],eJiaMH, arpeocHBBYIO 3aBO­ eBaT0JlbHYIO noJIJITHKy. RaR cnpaBe,I(JIHBO 11ireaJI YHJIMFM <l>ocTe,p, <<o6 aRC'IIaH­ CHOHHCTCKHx 38:'M.bIC.'lax rrpaBHID;HX KJiaCCOB ÛOle]UIH0HHhlX illTa'I'OB OBH)];eTeJI.b­ CTByeT 1MHoroaHa1IHTeJihHoe Ha3BaHHe, rrp.11cB-0eHHoe HOBoii pecuy6nn•Ke RoH­ crnT�HOHHhlM KO'HBf?HTOM: Coep;IrHe-HHhle illTaThl AMepHKH. Hu1mKa.J1 Jq>yraH cTpana 3ana,n;aoro no:rymapnH 1rn:nor,n:a 'He ŒI.b1TaJiac1> npncBOHTI:» HCKJIIO'rt lf­ TeJI1>Ho ce6e o6rn,ee IIMJI AIMepn:IüI>> 36• Ho pe111, m.'lla He o cnMBo.:1ax. Co B!peMeHH o6paaoBaHHH saoReaHcRoü 1pec­ rry6JIHRH H A0 RoHu,a XIX CT0:IeTHH HHRII BeJIH 6ecno�a;a;uyro ncTpe6HTeJIHRYIO BOiHy IllPOTIIB RDipeHHhIX .mrrreJieü CeB�paoii AMepHRB - IIHp;eim;eB. CTapa­ HHH'MH 6eJibIX aMepH:Emm:i;eB HeRorp;a MHOI'01I.HCJieH'Hhle IlJl0M0Ha cny, reieH, neBaxo B. ;a;pyr.He Ohl:IH npeBpam;eHbI B My.aeHHyIO pe,D;KOC'l'b. ÛAJIOBp�eHHO mJia aKc-rraHcRH ·Ha IOr rr IOro-3arra,n;. 3axBaT Texaca y MeKCHRH ;a;aJI HCKO­ MbIH Il0BOJ]; AITH BOHHhI nponrn coce,l],'Hero JO.lli'HOrO rocy.u;apcTBa. Boooa 1846-1847 I'O.IJ;OB 3aBepmII.1aC.b onpa6JienaeM MeKCHKH, HJIH, T01IHee I'OHO­ ,PH, ee paa,n;e;ro�, 11ro, Brrpo1IeM, ,np1rnHaBaJ1a H aMepuRam:rna11 rre1IaT1> Toro EpeMeHH, OT'nlPhITO 3aJifüUIBIDaH, 1IT-O <<MeKCHKa - 3TO a'MepHKancRaH IloJII>ma>> 37• K. M .a ·P R c. IlHTepBeH[{füI B MeKCHKe. K Ma p K c H <t>. 3 H r e ,;r r, c. CotJ.. T. 16, CTIJ. 3715. s• B. r 10 r o. Boana B M�KcRKe. Co1I., T. 15, cTp. 389; cM. Tia.Kme H. Park e s. Histu­ ry of Mexico, New York, 1940; Qqep:n.11 HOBOii li HOBeiinr-eii ncropHH MeK<�H-KH. Hacn1TYT :acrop:an: AH CCCP. M., WôO. 35 P. Go n nau d. Lacolonisation hollandaise à Java. Paris, 190-5; E. S. de KI e r c k. History of the Netherlands East lndia, v. 1-2. Rotterdam. 1'938; 1. Bru ha t. Histoire de l' Indonesie, Paris, 1958. 36 YHJihHM 3. <I> o c T e p. QqepK no:rnrnqecKoii ucrop 1n1 AMepBKH, nep. c aHrJI. 2-e H3J(. M., 1955, crp. 275. a7 J. B. Mc Mast e r. A History of the People of the United Stat es, vol. VII. New York, 1'885. p. 400. 31 22
B cepe,rre:ae npomJioro cToJieTHH Tepp1nop1uc Coe,IVIHeHHhlX lIITaToB pac­ m111p.a:Jiaci. oco6ea'Ho füllcTpo. * * * 50-60-e l'OALI XIX B. ,1re 6hl..IliH em;e BpeMeHe:u m,1cm·ero ITO,Il,'heMa noJillTllh"'ll KOJIOHHaJILHhIX 3aXBaTOB, pa3,D;eJia MHpa �1e.mgy BeJIHIŒ.M'H ;a;epmaBaMH. B. H. JleHHH, Ha ocHoBe rJiy6oKoro H3yqeHHH HcropHH KOJIOHHaJI1>Ho:ë: noJIHTH­ KH, npnmeJI K 3aKJI10qeau10, qro «nepll'O,ri; rpoMa,n;noro ycHJiemr.a ROJIOHHaJI1>­ HhIX 3aXBaTOB» 11pHXO,!QITCH WJ.H. AHr:.CHH, rJiaBHhlM oôpaaoM, Ha 1860-1880 ro­ ,D;hl, a µ;JI.a <l>i.Pam:viu H repMaHHlH - Ha nocJie,r.viee ,D;Ba�n;anrne.Tne XIX BeKa. B. .H. JleHHH cqHTaJI H0COMH0HHHM, «qro nepeXO,Il, KaIIJITaJIH3Ma K ccyneHH MO­ HOIIOJIHCT111IeCROro I<aIIHTaJIH3Ma, K q>HHaHCOBOMy IŒII.HTaJiy C8R3aH, C o6ocTpe­ Hlil0M OOpbOLI aa paa;a;eJI MHpa» 38• 50-60-e l'OAhl - BpeMJI HaHBhlcmero pacn;BeTa KairrnraJIH3Ma <<CBOOOA­ ooii» KOHKypeiHn;:me:. IlowroMy 1H 'B �OJIOHHa.,rbHO.H IlOJIHTILRe B0J]IIHŒ:X ;a:e,pmaB 011(0 .He Bhl�I, BC-e 1Iep-r1,1, IlpHCYID;He ue.p:o;ogy MOHDUOJIHC'illlqecKoro RaillH­ Ta•JI•H3Ma. HoJIOIDiaJIH3M 50-60-x ro;a;-OB 6I>I.:I TRnH�I lli€ ryfüneJihHhlM, 6ecnorqaWihlM, CBII·penLI·M no OTHOIDEmHIO R OTCTaJihBI Hapo;a;a�f , KaI{ paH:hme H ll03ïRe. Haoo­ :IHH, f1Pa6emn, qy;a;oBHID;H3H 3KCrmyaran;nH, KOTOp:bie HeCJIH (<OTCTaJihlM na•po­ .l(a.M» eBpone.iiciœ:e H aMep:u:Ka'HCRHe KOJIOHJI3aTOp . bI, 6:bIJIH CTOJib HeBhIHOC'lIMhl, "l!TO -Bhl3LIBaJIH OOIIpOTHBJI0Hll0 - BOCCTaHHH, OCB-ClOO,Il,HTeJibHhI1e BO.HlH:bl, ,D;B>HïRe­ HHe 1IpoTecTa 1IOpa6orqeH'HhlX aapo,a;•OB. BeJl'HK'aH. KpecTMIHCRaJI Boima raiinnH-oB B Iùnae, Be.rr1uwe oc·:so60'.I{HTeJII,­ HOe BOCCTaIIHe lIHAJIBCKOro Hapo,rc,a 1857-1859 rr., 6aÔH,ll;CRHe BOCCTa:EIHH. B Mpane, aa11aBmeecJ1 B 60-x ro.n:ax ,Il,BHmemie TonxaKOB B Rop.ee, noccTaHHe aJI­ mnpc1roro aapo;a;a 50-60-x ro�oB, pH.ri; BOCCTaHHH MeHbmero Macmra6a B Mn­ ,n;-0aeaHH, crpaHax BaJIKaH<ïIWro BocroRa, B A<f>pirRe H T . .ri,.- ace aTo OLIJIB npoHBJieHHH rJiyi{)OKO -crrpaBe,D;JIHBOH OCBo6o,rone.·u,HOH 6opn6LI nopaoorqeHHhlX HJIH nopa6oru;aeMLIX Hapo,a;oB npOTHB CBOHX yrHeTaTeJieii. Ü�Ha.JW aapop;HO--OCBOOO,D;HTeJibHhle BOHHbI. BOCCTaHH.H II ,;],BHiR0HHH yrHe­ T0HHhlX Macc KOJIOBHaJibHhlX CTpa.H npoTIIB HHOCTpaHHOI'O RaIIHTaJIH"3Ma B TY uopy - ,B cpe]J;Hne .,n;ec.HTJIJie'IŒI.a: XIX BeRa - em;e ne CMhIRaJiuc1, c ocno-6ow,r­ TeJILHOÜ 6op1>60.ii rrpoJieTapHaTa rrporHB 6ypmya.311:rr. H11 pa6oqne B M-erpono­ JIHH, HH yrHeT0HHhl0 Hapo,rc,LI ROJIOHHH em;e 'He BH,J;eJIH p;pyr B ,ri;pyre. COI03HHROB H He OO'ne�HHHJIH CBOHX YCIIJIHÎÎ ,D;.TIH COBMeCTHOH OOpL6hl IlpoTHB OÔm;ero Bpara. B aTOM ÔLIJIO raxme o;a;no H3 cym;ecrBeHHhlX orJI:rrq11ii: anoxH IlapHmcRoii RoM­ MYHM OT 'HhlHemae:ë: aphl nooe�OHOCHOH con;na.;u1crH1IeCROH peBOJIIO�HH. B OTJIHqJie TaIOKe 0T HhlHemHeH aphl, KOr�a npoHCXO,IJ;HT RpymefllHe Bceii KOJIOHHaJibHOH <.mcreMLI, B TO BpeMH - B 1850--1860-e TOIJ;hI - ROJIQHHaJIH3M 61>1JI rrpoqno:ë: onopoii KarrnraJIHaMa. 3. HAnuoHAJihHO-EYPiKYA3HbIE BOllHbl 1I L{BHiKEHHJI B EBPOilE li AMEPHKE KOHU:A 50-x 11 60-x ro,rt;OB XIX BEKA HaK yqHJI B. M. JleHHH, paaB1rnarom;e-MyeH Rannra­ f JIH'3MY CB-OHCTBeBH:bI ;a;'Be HcropHl!8,CRHe T8HAefq.HH. HaIJ;HOHaJn,Hoii iRH3HH H HaB ua�onaJl.bBOM uonpoce «IIepBaH: rrpo6ym,ri;emie � ,., IFpOTHB BCJI'Roro Han;110-HaJibHhlX �B.HiR8HHII, ,., oop1>oa D;HOHaJILHOro rHeTa , C03,D;aHHe HaqHOHaJibHhlX rocy�apcl'B. BTopaH: pa3BHTH0 II y-qam;eHHe BCH1I0CKHX CH-OmeHJill MeIBAY HaIJJI.HMH, .1IOMIŒ H8II;JIOHaJILHhlX )),Be TeBAe�BB KaUBT8JIB3Ma 38 B. H. JI e H 11 H. J,hmepirn.rre:3:M, Ra:Ii BLJ:Cma.a C1 a,!l;HJI R-8.IIHTa:rn31.\ia. Coq,, T. 22, crp. !¾3. 23
neperopOAOK, C03AaHHe HHTepHaU,HOHaJlbHOfO e,ll,TJIHCTBa RaITJITaJia, aKOHOMH'tIB­ CKOH iRU3'H'H Booom;e, IlOJIHTHRH, HaYRH H T. µ;. 06e T0H,I(eHI.:(HIJ cyn, MHpOBOH 3aROH KaIIKTaJIH3Ma•••» 39• 3'ri1I .IQ3'0 ŒICT'OpH q1eCRHe ·TBH,l1;8HIXHH nopom,n;aJJ!D O;ll;BO Jl3 fJIYOOKUX lJ/PO'TlffiO­ peq:aii: RaIIIITaJIJI3Ma. BhrnBaHHaH pai3BHTHeM JŒIIHTaJIH3Ma TBH;ll;0HD;HH K Ha:qHOHaJibHOH He3aBH­ CHMOCTH H caMOC,TOHTBJihHOCTH, K coaµ;amno HaD;HOHaJibHhIX e)\HHbIX r,ocy­ ,n;apcTB, HaiII paBJIBHHaH rrpOTHB <f>eo�aJUl3Ma H ero nepemHTROB, 6LIJia HCTOpH1!0CRH nporpecCHBHa. ,[( pyraH, CBOHCTBBHHaH Karm:TaJIH'3MY TBHJJ;BHI(HH - K JlOMKe HaIJ;HOHaJibHbIX neperopo,n;oK, MOrJia HM ocym;ec·TBJIHTI,CJ.( TOJlLKO B rpy6o Hacrun:i,Ci'l'B9RH1:JX q>opMax - rpa6emax 1lI .aaxBaTax, n B1cTpe11aJl'a uoaToMy c11pane.zvmB1oe c-orrpoT.HBJirume 11ymeaeMHOMY rae.cy n rrpo11pocc1113uoe e-rpelVIe­ HHe R YHH1JTOmeHHIO HaCIIJihCTBeHHLIX q>OpM o6'h0AJIB0HHH. B 50-60-e ,rOAIJ 008 3TH T0H,A0HD;HH IlpoHBJIHJIHCb C Il01ITH paBHOH CHJIOH. Ycnexn :KaIIHTaJIHCTH1IecKoro pa.aBHTHH CIIOOOOCTBOBaJIR yc1mea:mo Ha�:e:o­_ f BaJibH0-6 ypmyaaHoro .J;BUmeHHH B caMOH EBpone, CTpeMJieHHlO IIOKOf tJIITb C ocraTRaMH q> eo):(aJU,HO:Ü: paa.n.pooJieHHOCTlI :a pa'306�eHBOCTH, c Ha(�Jie,n;neM a5COJIIO'TH3Ma B JIOJIH.TH1IeCKOM CTpoe. B. H. JloonH y1rn3hIBaJI, "lfTO B 50-60-x •ro](ax XIX BeKa «o6neKTHBHhIM co­ ;wp»um.neM ncTop11-qecKoro npon.:ecca KOHTlfHleHTaJihHoi EBponhI... 6h1Jln na­ n;110HaJn,.Ho-oypmyaaHhle ocB06o,n;wreJihHbie }J;B-H»re-HBH) 40 • 3TH A13'11memu1 ,npo-­ JIBJIHJIHCL B BO:Ü:Hax , peBOJIIOIJ;HHX, Ha.' QHOHaJII:,HLIX BOCCTaHHHX; Mem]{y HRM.11 6wr11 rropoi oqenh 3HRtJHTe.;JbHhle pa3JIR1IHH B xapaKTepe, B cpopMax R MCTOAaX ' O,Il;H�eii ,poJTII TOTO :e:mr IIHOro RJM.cca Ill T. n., HO npH BCeM 6opb6hl, 'B PYIOOB MHoroo6pa3HII, IIpH He.IIOBTO(J)HMOCTH p .sIJJ;a 'tleipT Ka:>R]);Oro ll3 9TIIX IICTOfPH1Ie­ CKHX COOliITHH BCe OHH, B KOHe1IHOM CtJeTe, no CBOOMY oop;epmaHHIO 6IiIJIH 6yp­ mya3HLIMH li 06'he:KTHBHO nporpecCHBH1:JMII. 3-ro 6ypHo'e Bp·eM.H 6oJibIIIHX !Hapol);HbIX ,I{B,llffle.HBH IRRCTaJl'O c KOH:Qa 50- x ro AOB. Ha CMeHy BOJIHaM peaRII.Hll Te.IIepb IIOAHHMaJIH-Cb BOJIHLI peBOJIIOit;HlI. <<Risorgero nemico ognor piu crudo Genere anco sepolto e spirto ignudo» <<H BOCKpecny J.13 MepTB.hlX :BparOM em;e 6o.:œe crpamHLIM, XOTJI 6y�y .JIHllib nen.10:M MOfHJibHLIM H ]zyXOM 6ecnJIOTHLIM». 3TH CTpüKH 113 TopRBaro Tacco, npoH3HBC0HBhle o6peqeHHhIM Ha Ka.JHb <l>eJIH­ qe Opc.HHH, xaK JI:e:caJI 18 Mapra 1858 ro,u;a KapJI MapRc, yme Haq11HaJ'IH c6hI­ BaTbCH 41• 8Hre.rrbC cq:e:TaJI, 'ITO (( 1858 ro� BO MHOrOM HaIIOMHHaeT 1846 roll,», "lfTO BO Bce.i! EBpone npoôy ÀHJIOCh IIDJIHT:aqecxoe wiumeHHe 42. 1859 ro,n; uaqaJicH p;aBHo He BJI,n;a1rHo:ü naHHKO:Ü: na ô«pmax EBpouw:. Enp­ meBaH KaTaCTp oq>a 6bVIa Bhl3BaHa CJiy xa-MH O 6JIH3KOH BOirne. TipamrTeJih.CTBO HanoJieoHa III OfllpoBeprJio :nn cJiyxn. ,I(enemHan rrannxa yJierJia-Ch. Ile p elI,al3aJIH, '110 ' HeiROTOpbie BliICOROIIOCTaBJ'.10HHhle .H xoporno liHq>Op­ MllpoBaHHhle mru.a, JŒR, Harrp.HMep, CBO,n;HhIÜ 6paT HMIIepaTopa HanoJieoHa, rpa-cp MopHH, aa H8C.nO.ITbNO qacoB CMHTeHRH Ha 6:apme, yBeJI.H1IH.TIH CBoe CO· CTOHHHe Ha 2 MHJIJIHOHa cp paHROB. Ho IIpomJio HeMHoro BpeMeHH II xo,i::i; co6MTHÜ noxaaaJI, qro p;eJio OTHIO)U, ne CBO,n;HJIOCb TO.JibRO R ,ri;eHem:HhlM crreRyJIH�HHM. 39 B. M. JI e H H H. RpHTIPieClŒe 3aMetJ:aHHH no Ha�H0H.QJII,BO.My BOil])OCy. Co11., T. 20, C.Tp. 11. 40 B. H. JI e H H n. IIo� 11y.mnM qmaroM. CnI., T. 21, �11). 12.3. u K M ,a p R c. H:bIHemHee rro.1oateHRe BoHania. p-ra. R. M .a p 1< c n �- 3 H r e JI 1, c. CotJ., T. 12, CTp . 426. 42 (1), 9 B r e JI 1, c. EB pona B 1858. K M a p R c H <l>. :3 lire JI 1, c. Co11 •., T. 12, crp. 675. 24
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6opL6a HapOAHbIX Macc aa BOCCOeAHHCHue JITaJiuu 29 arrpeJIH 1859 r. Ha1IaJiac1, BO.Ë:Ha <Dpa.m:,;HH H Cap­ ,J,IIHCRoro ROpOJieBCTBa IIpüTHB ABCTpHH. 8ra BOHHa, ,II,aBHO H Tm;aT· eJihHO IIOJ];I'OTaBJIHBaeMaJI cppaHu;y3CKOH ,D;HIIJIOMaTJieË:, T01IH0 orrpe,u;eJieHHaH B cBOHx u;emrx Ha raÜHOM cBII,:WHHH Ha.rroJiooHa III a Raeypa B IlJioM61>epe B 1858 r., 3aCTpaxoBaHHaH cenpeTHhIM cornam-eHIŒM <DpaHIÇlll[ .H Poc.cHH 3 MapTa 1859 r., pemnccepcKII nocraBJieHHaH croJib ncKycno, qro. narra,n;a10m;e.ü cTopo­ aoü BhlC'Ty.II'aJia ABC'l'IP'IHI, - ·6hl.1a ü,ll;HOË: na ca:Mhlx KpyIIHhlX uoJIH'mf4ecRHx crreKYJIHn;niî 6oHarrapTHCTC.KOro pe-.ïIUIMa. Ha,qaBmHeCH BOe-HHhie orre:paI(lIH, IrnK 31'0 H npe,r:i;rroJrnraJIOCb, IIOKa3aJIH em.e pa3 Mnpy •RJiaOCllfCiocRyro B cBoe.M po,u:e 6ea,n;apHOCTb a.BCllI)IIHCR'HX BOOHalfaJih­ HHKOB H rrpHHeCJIH HMnepa ropy <DpaHIJ;HH CTOJlh H0,ZJ;OCTaIOm;I:Ie ·0MY BOOHHhle JiaBpbI. Ho ,u:aJn,me BCe IIOIDJIO 'IlO-HHO.l\fy. ,ll;HnacTlf'IeCK'lH� 'H CBOeKOp.bICTHbie ll"H­ TepeChl 6onarrapTHCTCKOf0 pemnMa IlpHIIIJIH. B CTOJIRHOBeHIIe C Hey,r:i;epmn­ MO ipaaBe·p-ThlBaBmeicH Hapop;Hoiî: pe-BOJIIOrµrnii B HTaJum. Ha nc'l'op1itre­ cxyro cu;eay BbIIIIJIO He rrpe,ri;ycMoTJpeHHoe 6oHarraiJ)THCTCKOH p·emuccy,poii ,u:encTBy10m;ee �11nu;o - Hapop;, TI HMeHHo 'K He'MY ueipexO.I{HJia Terœtpb rJiaB­ HaH pûJib. Ha,rroJieon III IIhlTa.JcH ooopBaTb rr1,ecy B cepe,rµrHe ee ,u;eicTBHJI. 8 HIOHH, npe,n;aB CBOHX HTaJih HH-CRIIX OOI03HHNOB, O'H 3aRJil01lllJI aa HX OIIH'HOH cerra­ paTHOe corJiameHIIe c a.Bcrpniî:u;aMH B BIIJIJia!ppa'.llRe. Ho yme IDI Eoaa­ rrapT, H'H Kany1p, 'll!II BHnTOp-8Ml:laHYJIJI He Mormr OCTfrHOBlfTb TIO.D;HHBme­ rocH no Bcen crpa-He na,p-0,11.Horo penoJIIOD;HOHHoro ll ua-Tp.Ho-v1rqecRoro ,ri;BH­ ïIWHHH. B Mae 1860 r. Ha rJia3ax ll3YMJI0HHOr-O MHpa ThlCHlla xpacaopy6ame1IHBKOB JiereH::i,apHoro fapII6aJib;::I.ll, OTIIJihlB Ha �BYX 'KOpaoJIHX B'3 feHyH, BbICa)J.HJiaCh Ha RaMeHHCTOM 6epery Cnu;HJIHH II, IIOM'9pmaHHaJI BOCCTaBIDHMH R!PeCTb­ HHaMH OCTpOBa, B 6HTB0 rrpH RaJiaTa<fmi.m: paarpOMHJia peryJI.HpHhle BO:Ü:CIŒ Hea'IlOJIUTaHCKOI'O ROtpoJIH. 27 MaH, IIpH.BeTCTByeMLIH JIHKyIOII\'HM HapOl(OM, fa­ pn6aJib,D;H BCTyIDIJI B IlaJiep�10. Ho aro 61>rno JIHm1> aa11aJio. BcKope no,:( y,n;apaMH peBoJîlo�oHHoii apMIUI rapII6aJib)];H ipyxHyJia MOHa;px1rn: HearroJIHTanc1rn:x BypooHOB, OhlJIH CH0C0H ' bl rrorpaIDPIHhie cToJI6hl Ropo.rreBcTBa. ooenx C�mùi. B npaa;rv«rnaBmeM no6eAy peBOJIIOD;IlH HearroJie fapH6aJib,D;ll 6h!JI e�Ho,r:i;ynmo Ha',ZJ;eJieH Hapü,11.0M WJKfa­ TOPCK-OH BJiaCTbIO. Ilp116hlBm11.ii B Heanorrh .r(myaenne Ma;u,3HHII - HCTB.HHhlii BOil<.ll,b pocny6.TIIIiaHCRü-Hao;uoHaJibHOH rrap'l'Jl1H - ,:(0Hb OTO ,1,HH rrpHo6peTaJI BCe BOOpacTaIOIIl.ee BJHIHHHe. H OKTH6pro-HOH•6pro Toro me 1860 ro.u,a IOr H CeBep HraJIHH BOCCOeAlfBII­ JillCb. Ho e,U,IIHCTBO CTpaHhI ycTaHaBJIHBaJH>Cb no,a; !pJiaroM MOHapxHH, BOarJiaB­ JIH0MO.H CaBoË:cK-oii: ,1,nnacnrnii. 6 ORTH6pH rro,u, aByKH q>ampap ROpüJIL BHKT-Op3MMaHyHJI ropmecTBenao m'bexaJI B' Hearro.11h, a fap:ai6aJih)];H 'B0J)HYJICH na ctsO' ii MaJieHbRHH o,cTpOB narrpepa. JiereHµ,apHhlH repoii, nopa-3KBIDHH Boo6pameHHe B-Cero MIIpa .C'B'OlIMII oecmpII)JepHhDUI TIQ,J;Bll.fa'M11I. OH ÔhlJI rerrepb He HY'iIŒH n, 6oJiee roro, orraceH. Ero OTIIYCTHJIII, .II-0 CJIOBaM repn;eHa, «KaK OTrrycRaIOT HM­ m;Hna, 1-wr,u:a OH ;::I.OBe3 �o craH:qIIII>>. B Mapre 1861 r. BCeHTaJibJIHCRHH napJrn­ M0HT [lpüB03r.;ra-cII:r o6pa30BaHlle uraJibHHCKOI'O ROpOJI0BC'TBa B-0 T'JialBe ,C BJIK­ TüpOM-8MMaey1IJIOM. Il BCe me, HecMoTpH Ha ro, l!TO ;:I,eMonpanrqec1we OCBOOOl(HTeJI1>HOe JJ;BHJKe� � � HIIe Cµ,aJio CBOH II03IIII;IIH oyparya3HblM JIHOepanaM, aaBepmeHJie ,vu'be,IJ;HHeHIUI HraJinn:: 6IJ:ro rrcropH1IecK11. 6eaycJioBHo nporpeccBBHLIM. Ho 3HaqeHIIe HallaTOil rrra:rhHHCKIIM HapOµ,OM OOpWhl 3a HaD;HOHaJILH00 e.ri;IIHCTBO crpaHbI 6bI.JIO em;e II B HHOM. <<1860 rop; JIBJI.H0'TCH npo,r:i;OJimeHHeM 1849>>,- r-oRop.II.a Bnnrop froro B peqn, rroceHm;eHHon: rapn6aJI1>µ;n. ÜH XO'TeJI oT.HM cirn3aTb, lfTO BHOBI, rrpnm.TO BpeMH peBOJIIO�llH. «IIycTh op;Hl:I .ri;eiicTBYIOT. 26
A. JIHHROJlbH (f>omoa-pa�u.c,
;u,pyr.He roBOPHT, HO- rrycTh TPYMT'CH Bce! )];a, Bce aa pa6oTy! Berep no­ ,n;yJI!» 43,- BOCRJIHD;aJI B T-Oll me pe1I.H BeJI.HR.H:Ü cl>paHn;y3CR.H:.Èi 'IIOOT-,n;e.MoKpaT. PeBOJIIOu;HOHHhle icoÔhlTIJUI 1859-1860 rOAOB B 11:Tamm: oT:KJPhIJm noJiocy OOJihilllIX HaIJ;IIOHaJihH0-0CB000Al!T0JlbHhlX II peBOJIIO�OHHO-,Il;0.MO•KpaTH1I8CK.HX ;r:i;BHmeamir, rro11paüaBmux EBpony .II MHP na npoTHmen'BJH BCex 60-x ro,n;o'B. 3;r:i;ecb AOCTa'T0 , 1IHO XOTJI 6LI HaIIOMH.HTl, Bamneimnce Ha aTHX ,ll;BHmeHII:.Èi B roi xpoHOJlûflI"tJe,c1mii 'IlOCJie;u,œaT0JlbHOC'I!.H, KaK 'O'H!H paaBHBaiJHICb. rpamA8HCR8JI BOiiHa B ,rr,tmaope 1861 r., IIOCJie 11a6pa.HHH ABpaaMa JlIIHB CillA KOJibHa 11peaH,n;eHTOM Coe,n;HHeHHhlX illTaTOB, BblillJIH Ha Coro3a ceMh paooBJia;r:i;eJI1>1IeCKHX mTa-TOB. M.a:T·em, no,n;H.HTLIH pa60B.11a;r:i;eJI1>1IecKHM IOroM, IIOJIOiRHJI HatiaJio HeIIpHMHpHMoi, mRecT011enuo:i rpam,n;ancKon BOBHe Ha npO'THmeH.HH IlHTH JieT, C 1861 110 1865 ro,n;, paa,n;IIpaBmei Coe;u,HHeH­ Hhie fil TaTh! H ;r:i;epmaBme:ë: Hecb Mlip B HaIIpHiReHH0M BHIIMaHHR 44• B 1859 rop;y B 10ro-BooT01.J:Hoi EBpo11e aaRepDJWic.JI Ha�OH8JlbHO• npo,n;oJima-BmHicH ,n;oJirHe ro;u,hl npoo;ecc coa,n;aHHa OCB060AJITeJILH8JI eW{HO.ro PyMLIHCKOro rocy)l.apcTBa. lia,u;aBHa CB.Sl3aH­ 6opb6a H8POAOB Hhle KpOBHhlM po;r:i;cTBOM, ·HO lfCKYCCTBeHH-0 pa3'b0]];H­ Bam<aucxoro H0HHhle MoJI,n;a:1mH H BaJiaxHH o6'Le�HHJI11c1> B e.n;n­ DOJl'YOC1'p0B8 noe cyBepeHHoe rocy,n;apcTBo - PyMhl'HHIO. Coa;r:i;aHHe neaaBHCHMOro PyMhlHCRoro roc_y,:i;apCTBa CTaJIO B,lI,OXHOBJIHIOIIVIM npHMepo.M )1,JIH Hapo,rr,oB EaJIKaHCKoro noeyocrpoBa - 60Jirap, cep6oB, 11epnoropn;eB, repn;ero­ BHHD;eB H ;u,pyrHX, TOMIIBIDHX·CH no� Typeo;KlIM rHeroM. B 60-x ro;u,ax OCBOOO;rJ;H­ TeJibHaH 6opwa CJla' BHHCKHX Hapo,J;OB IlpüT1fB Typen;Koro rOCTIO�CTBa ·pe3RO yc11JIHJiac1>. BMp;arom;:e:iicH 6oJirapcnII:.Èi peBOJIIOD;.HOHep feopr11ii PaxoBCRHii ,IJ;Bamp;hl IlhlTaJICH IIO)];HHTb BOOCTaH.He Illl)OT:W.S Typen;Roro .BJia)];hl1IOOTBa. 11:x ifre­ y,n;aqa He CJIOMHJia BOJIH 6oJirapcRoro napoAa '.K ocB06o�eH'.HIO. IlaTp.HOThl, p;,e­ {Ml():KpaTLI-pocnyoJIHRaHI\hI BacHJI JleBCKHii H JII06en Rap.a:BeJIOB CTaJIH C03)l;a­ BaTb B CTpa'He TaHHhie peBOJIIO�OH'Hhle KOMHT-eThl, npll'-3BaHHhle 'BOl3'fJiaB.HTb oc­ BO'Ôü,lI,.HTeJil>HYIO 6op1>6y 6mirap,ciroro Hapo.zi;a. B nOJiyBaoca.JI1>Hoir OepoHH B 1862 r. B BeJirp�e npo11aornn•o BoopymeH'Hüe CTOJIIQBlOBBHH•e -Me.m.AY cep6aMH II TypKaMH. En:w panee, B 1861 r., Hal!aJIOCb BOOCTmrne repn;eroBHHIJ;eB IlfPOTHB Tyipen;Roro meTa. B 1862 r. repn;eroBHHo;en no.n;.n;epmHBaJI.H l.lepHoropu;bl. BaHBmIIecH aa opymHe -CJiaBHHCKHe napo;u,hl ne CMOfJIH ,IJ;OCTII1Ib Tor,n;a IIOJIHOro OCBOÔom,n;eHHH 0T TYJ)en;Koro meTa, 'HO BJiaCTb fiopThl Ha,IJ; CJiaBH'HCRH'M:ll Hapo,n;aMH CTa'HOBIIJiaCb BC0 CJiaOee 45• B HHBape 1863 I'OAa Ha1IaJIOC1> Booc-TaHHe B Ilo.111:,­ IloncRoe BOCCTaHBe me 46• Ero noW()TOBKa naxo�Jiaci:J B 11p.a:Mo:ë: CBH3H c 1863 r. HapacTaH.HeM peBOJIIOD;IIOHHO.ii CHTya:n;.HII B PœcIIH H IloJI1>me. Bom� noJibCfü)rO Hao;110Ha.1HHo-peBOJIIOIJ;HOHHoro rom,«eWJill croRa­ PHBaJIHCb C pyccKHMH peBO.J:IOIJ;HOHHhlMH rpynIIaMH - ·«3eMJieii H BOJie:Ü»' H3.u;a·TeJI HMH <<ROJIOROJia>> B JloH;rJ;OHe; BOCCTaHIIH OiRII)l,aJIH, .H BCe me, ROI'M B R01Ih Ha 23 HHBaipH Ha.u; IIOJibCKHMH ropo,n;aMH II ceJiaMII rrpo3ByqaJI Ha6aT BOC­ CTa'lI'IUI,- 'BCH EBpona 61,ma noT11rnceHa. MapRc II 8HTeJihC BhicTynHJIH B 3am;IITY BOCCTaBme:ë: IloJihmH. Anrm1ircR11e· H <l>Pa1I11.y3CRHe pa601IHe 3aHBHJIH O CBoeir coIDI.u;apHOCTH C IJIOJlbC'K.HM Hapo,D.OIM, 43 B. f IO rO. fapiroa.�h,J;lI. Coll., T. 15, CT'p. 3415, '5'51. 44 A. B. E q> HM o B. Ü1Iep1m JicTOpne: CIDA. M., 1955; ,[(. 3 ac JI ,a Bc K n ü:. fpam­ ]laHcKaH BoiîHa » CIDA. JI., 1926; Y. Cl> oc Te p. O1IepK no;i:nrn"IecKoii H C'Iopn.e: AMepHKB, rJI. 17; e r o me. HerpHTI:IHCRHii napo,n; B e:cTopH H AMepmm, nep. c aHrJI. M., 1955. 45 IB. H .a T ,a H. Bo.wapcKoe Boapom;:i;ene:e, nep. c 6oJir. M 1940; ,n. Roc e B. Hoî!eH ., HcropHH BoMape:H, nep. c 6o:IT. M., 1952; IIcropHH BoJirnp1111, T. 1. M., 1954; CneToaap· M a pK o B n ll. lfa6p. OO'l. M., 1956; A. A. II o r o ,n; H H. Hcropm1 Cep6HH. CII6., 1004. -46 C. M. Jl p a H JI Il, II H. IlO;JbCKOe BOCCToaHHe 1m3 r. H ero IDiaCCOIWUI cylll,HOCTh. Jl. , 1937; II. M. Be .lI H Bc K a I:I. A. II. feMeH H noJibCK0e HaI�HORaJILHO-OCBo6o,n;ure.JI1>Hoe Boccrn•mie 60-x rr. XIX B. M., 19.54; IO. Ko Ba JI 1,c IR H ü:. Pycerui.a peoo.rrro�oHHa.H ,n;e­ M.Ol(IJ)aTHH e: HRBap-cRoe BOCCTaHne 1863 r., ne-p. c U0JILCK. M., 1953; IIcropBH Ilo;u.mR ,.. T. 2, rn. 13, 14. M., 1955. 28
6op:nm;HMCJI aa CBOe OCB000'1<,I\0HHe. Jlyqmue JIIOp;H PocmrH B �H iH0CTOKOB .KpoBa•BOH 6opi.6LI npoTH'HYJIH PYHY 6paTCKo:ë: p;pym6hl rroJibCKOMY aapo]];y. «Mhl c Iloin,me:ë:, noroMY qro Mhl aa Poccruo. MbI co cTopoH.hl IIOJIHKOB nOToMy, 1ITO M.LI ·pycc,RHe. MLI XOTHM •aeaaB:u:e:u:MOCTH IloJI1>me, uoroMy 1ITO Mhl XOTH·M cBo6o­ � Pocc:n:u•,- aaHBJIJIJia npOKJiaMaqBH py-ccKoro TaHHOI'O peBOJIIOqHOHHOro o6�8CTBa «3eMJIJI 'H BOJIJlt 47• Il<>JIHKH no6e>IQ:teHhl, ao BOCCTamrn, ·BonhlxHyBrnee B ceipAD;eBHHe E�, oRaaâJio OIJPOM'Hoe Bmumne Ha p;eM0Kparn1Iec100e n paooqee p;BH­ m0'Hlle Bcero ROHTHHeHTa. B 1864 u 1866 ro�ax B qeHTpe EBpoilhI paapa•3HJIHCL DpyccKBe aolaw AJi0 BOÜHhl: ABCTplIH lI IlpyCCHH IIpOTIIB J);aHKH, H 1864 B 1866 l'OAOB aaTeM, qepea I'OA, Ilpyccnrr H liTaJIHlI t1IpoTHB ABCTpHH. 3TB! ·HeIIpoAOJiiHHT0JILHLie, HO KpüBO.IIpüJilI'THhle BOHHhI, IIO,IU'()TOBJieHHhle TaÎÎHhIMH illpoHCKaMH 611cMapKOBCKOii JJ)LIIJIOMaTHH, IIO CBOeMy xapaKTepy H IIO CBOlflM u;eJIJJM 6LIJIH TJiy(iOiro 'lfY'K,Wil ,n;eMOKpaTII1!0CKOMy ,ll;'BJDReIIHIO. H BCe me, HOOMOTJ)H Ha TO, 1ITO 3TH BOHHhl HMeJill CBOHM peayJibTaTOM yc.HJieHHe rorean;oJI­ JiepHOBCKO:ii IlpyccHH, 1ITO OHH 6hIJIII JIIDIIb 3BeHbHMH 6ncMapKOBCKOË: Il()JIHTH­ KH «meJieaa H Iqp<>BH»' 00".be:KTIIBHO, 'ITO CBOe�1y llCTOpHqecKOMY co,n;epma·HHIO OHK OLIJIH ôypmyaaao-HaqHOHaJibHhIM ABHmeHHeM; 3TO 6LIJIH, KaK IIHCaJI B. .H. Jl01ma, «cy,Aoponn ocBo6om,n;arom;eroca OT pa3HhIX B'llJJ;OB q>e,o,n;aJIH3'Ma 6ypmya:anoro o6m;e'cTBa 48. Ha ]l;pyroM KOHn;e 3eMHoro m31Pa, n HoBoM cBeTe, 11 0cBo6o�au MeKOH·Ke, aa npoTamemrn: IIH•rn mrr Me:KC11KaHcK1H:ë: BO.BIia H MeRCBRaucxoro aapo11;a • apo,n; no,n; pyRIC>Bo,n;cTBOM Benwro Xyapeea BeJI repo.H1100Kyro OC'B060JJ;H·Te.'IhHYIO BOËmy Ilpü'illlB q>paHqya­ CKHX HHTepBeHTOB, ORRYITHpOBaBIIlHX CTpaHy. Ilo6eM M0KCll.KaHCKOI'O aaporoi Ha,ll; <J>paaqyaCKIIMII aa,BOeBaTeJIHMH, BOCCTa­ HOBJieIDie pe-cny6J111Ka:HCKOii BJiaern: B CTpaae 6WI11 BOCIIPIIHH-TLI nep ep;OBHMH JIIOÀDMH EBpOnLI KaR TOPiKOOTBO crrpa.Be,IJ;JIHBOCTH, KOTOpoe B03Bem;aJI em;e B TPYAHYIO ,IJ;JUI CBOOOW,I MeRCHKH nopy, B 1863 ro,n;y, BHKTOp rroro 49• B HIOJie 1866 roAa HaqaJIOCb BOCCTaHHe rraTpHOTOB BocCTae:ae œTpoBa KpHT npoTIIB Typen;KHX yrHeTaTeJie:ë:. Bce aa OCTP()Be KpaT _ �Y 3a CBOIO HaCeJieHHe OCTpOBa IIOA.HHJIOCb Ha 00P.l>U -CBOOOAY· B ceaT.aope Ha�oHaJioHoe co6paa:e:e Cq>aKHH rrpoBo3rJiac11Jio aeaaB11CR.MOCT1> KpHTa H aepaapLIBHOCTI> ya ero coro3a c fpen;11eii. ÜcBooowrTeJibHaH 6opli6a HapOM Kp11Ta BCTl)eTHJia ,ropHTiee C01IJBCTBHe eBporreiicKoii ,n;eMOKpa­ THK. rIOCTaB Cl>JIYPaHC, copaTHlIK BJiaHRlI, «phln;ap b 6ea CTpaxa JI ynpeKat q> paHIJJ78CROro peB0JIIO�OHH0ro ,Il,B.HiKeHHH, 01inpaBH�CJI Ha Rpll!T cpamarrLCH aa npaœoe ,ll;eJI'O noBCTa'HqeiIJ. IIepe,::i;oBbI1e paooqne E-Bporrhr II A1Me.pH!RH ropaqo no,zmepmanu repoHTiecRyro 6op1>6y aapo�a Rpnra 50. B 1867 ro,n;y B IIpJiaH,IOIH '6orJI pacKpbIT aaroBop q>e3ar.OBOP ·4JeBBeB. a11eB - Taimoü peBOJI:IOII;11IOHHOÜ opraHHsan;:e:u uaT­ BopL6a pIIOTOB, CTpeM1nnnnxca rryTeM ooopymeHHOÜ 6op1>6LI apaaB,?J;cKoro aapo�a ,D;OOIIThCH OCBOOO?RneHHH CBOeÜ tpü-,ll;Il'HLI OT 6pHTaH­ sa CBOOOAY CROro BJiap;.hlqecTBa. AnrJIILÜ:CKHe BJiaCTH oôpymHJIH B Be3a.BBCBIIOCTL 1111POTHB mp:1aH ,n;cRoro Hapo,[(a rpa]]; pel11Pecc'Hii. Ho !p0H'H)H upo,n;oJI.maJJH 6opooy. Hx MymeCTBeHHhie YCHJIHH BCTp011aJill lICRpeHHee CO-qy'BCTB'll0 MapKca H 9ureJioCa, JiyqIITHX JIIOp;eü eBporreüc1mü ,n;eMOKpaTHH. olilJIB: •rA. Tr .n. f e p � 8 H. Coq,, T. 8, CTp. 30. 48 B. If. JI en -:e: n. IIo,zc qy.min.t: qmarolf. Coq., T. 21, CTp. 127. 49 B. r IO r o. Co11., T. 15, crp. 389. CM. o6 3THX COOLITIUIX r. II a p R C. If.CTOpHH MeK­ CHIŒ, nep. c aBrJI. M., 1949; E. Gru e n i n g. Mexico and its heritage. New Yo rk - London, 1930. 50 1. B a 1 I o t. Hi-stoire de l'insurrection crétoise. Paris, 1868. E. D r i a u 1t et M. L h e rit i e r. Histoire dip lomatique de la Grèce , t. 3. Paris, 1925. 29
Ma/l)Kc •ITOAtJepRHBa.rr, tJTo ,J/IH aHr.;:miic1wro 1pa6o'l!ero 1-macca <<HalfUOH,a,.11,bHoe oceo60:JJCiJe11,ue Jlp.11,a11,8uu RB.llRerc.R... nepebl.M yc.11,oeue.M ezo co6cree11,11,ozo COZfua.11,b11,oz.'J oceo60;}!(:é)e11,uR... >> s1• B 1868 ro,n;y Ha11aJiac1, ocBOOO,lUITeJn,Ha.H BOHHa Ky­ 0CB060�TeJibH811 oIIHCRoro Hapo,n;a IlpüTHB H<maHCKOro BJia,ll,blqecTBa. 6opb6a 8ra BOHHa paCTHHyJiaCb aa �eJioe A0CHTHneTHe H se Hapo�a Ry6bI npHHecJia Hapo;i;y Ry6hI .meJiaHHoü coo60AL1: Mcna­ HHH IlO,r(aBJUIJia orpOMH:bL\f npeBOCXO�CTBOM C.BOHX CllJI. Ho My,RecTB-O H OTBara Hapo,21;a Ry6hl, rro,n;mrnrn·e:r-ocH na 6op1:>6y aa CBOIO cBooo;zy, BhI3BaJIH 'Bocmm;e­ me /II C<OlfYBCTB,ue ,B,CBX IC'TOlpOHHllIWB rrporpeoca il ,I(eM10Rp8.'TlIIH BO BCJe'M Mnpe. B o6pam;eHIDI «I{ iIŒHiqHHaM R'.y6bI>) BlIKTOp froro B 1870 ro;i.y IlHCaJI: «.H 6y,n;y IX)BûpHrh B 3am;IITy Ry6L1... Barna repo:o:qec.K.:ur PDA'IIJia .6yp;eT BOa:Har­ pam,n;ena 3a -CBOIO Ch'X>I)'Ob, Ol"OJib.RO RpoBH H-0 6y,Il,eT Upü.J1IHTO H.aUipaicHo,- H8,CTa­ H0T Jl0'Hb, ROrAa rnpe.KpacHaH Hyôa, CJB�8JI H HeaaiBHC-HMaH, ·3a:ii·MeT MOCT0 cpe,IUI CBOHX 611aropo�HhIX cecTep, pecny6JIB'.K AMepHKH» 52• B ceHTHÔpe 1868 ro,n;a BCilhIXHy-Jia peB0JII9�llH B Rc­ PeBoJ1I01�1u1 rraHHH. ÜHa HaqaJiaiCb C BOCCTaBHR Mop.8KOB B Ha,n.H­ B HcnaRHB ce, B Teq-eHHe H0CKOJibKHX W{ei pa3J1Hnac1, no B-CeË: cTpaae., cBeprJia c rrpecTona xopoJieBy .Haa6enJiy II H aacTaBBna ee 6emaTb H3 crpaau. Me;v.reHHbie Te.Mrrbl BnOHOMH1Iec1rnro pa3BHTHH crpaHli[, OTHOCHTeJihHM cJia6ocn, H'.CilallCKOro IIp-OJierapHaTa o6yCJIOBIIJIII 6ypmyaaHLIH xapaKTep H 8TOR, nHToii no c11eTy, ncnaHc.Koii peB0.1IIOU1llI. Oaa ipacTHHyJiac1, ua ipa;o; neT 11 He pa8'pemn:Jia cToHm;nx rrepe.n; Hero aap;atr. TeM. ae Mmiee aTa peBOJIIOD;HH; conep­ lilHBma.JI.c.a R �OH H3 CTapeiimHX MOHa-p-Xlfii- �' e 'llepB'LIX CBOHX ,IJ;Be:Ü OiliJ)01n1,ayBma.g KopoJieBCI<Hii tpoH, nipo11aBena 6oJI1,moe BIIe1IaTJiem1e na co­ BfPeMeH'HHKOB. OcoôeHHO cn:II>HO ÔhIJIO ee B03�e:Ü:CTBHe Ra YMhI K cep�n;a no TY CTQPOHy IIn,peHeeB, B OXBa1Ie-HHO:Ü o6m;ecTBeHHhIM B036ymp;eHH0M ŒpaHUHH, yme ottreTJIHBo oco3HaBaBrnen mporpecc11pyro�PI1Ï Kp:o:a:u:c 6onanaprn-crc1mr-n (_pem«Ma. 4. IlO,!{'bEM PA:SOlJEro ,!{BHZEHHH. MEiK,[(YHAPO,I(HOE TOBAPHD{ECTBO pABoq:ux ,Aame ator 6erJ.IhI:Ü o6aop BamHe:üm:e:x co6urmï Hal(JIOHaJILHO--OCBo6oiui­ rem,noro �HmeHIUI 60-x ro�OB IlOKai3hIBaeT, KaK 6ypHO OHO paaBHBaJIOCb B 8TO �ecHTHJieT.e:e. Ha rJiaaax coBpeMeHHHKOB B Te1Ierurn 11cropu:qecKH KpaT11aiimero ipona �ecHTH JieT - 'MeHHJiaeb IIOJIHTHlIOClŒH reorpaqmH MHpa: nepe}J,BH.l'aJmreb rpa­ RHD;hl, Bû3H'IIRaJIH 'HOBhie rocy;i:apC-TBa, ·pymHJIHCh CTaiphle M<mapm;s. B pa3HhIX KOHn;ax a-eMJioro Ma"I'eµnRa ·B omecTOtJe'HJIJO:Ü: ynopaoü 6op1>6e, B KpmtaBhIX cpa­ meHHHX, TO 11o6e.m,r:i;aH, TO TepnH II1QPa.me'HHH, HO B KOHD;e KOHD;OB npeo�oJieBaH OOIJ1J)OTHBJ100lle CTaphlX, 'OTiKHBaIO�X CBOH BeR oon;HaJILHLlX C'HJI, CO'BepmaJIC.H HCTOplllJecKIIii nporpecc, o6�eCTBeHHoe pa3BHTHe IDJIO Bnepe,r:i;. HaR y»oo roBop:o:Jioch, ocHo-BHhIM o6'heRTHBHhTM coAeparnn:0:eM a1oro npo­ n;ecca 6hlJI.ll 6yp.1h-ya3HO-Han;HoHaJihHhie iH 16yp.myaaHo-,n;eM0KpaTH1IOCKHe ):(BH­ -'1(0HHH. B. H. JleH•HH yKa3hIBa�'I, 'ITO r.;iaBHLnf N.rraccoM, KorophI:Ü: 'B 6opb6e npoTHB c:peo�a-JihHO-a6coJIIOTHCTCK1IX yqpem;i;eHHii (<illCJI IIO IIO,iUIKM:aIO�eic.H BBepx JllllIHH>>, 6LIJia 6ypmya3HH. <<B pa3HhlX CTpanax, npeACTaBJUieMa.B pa3JilPIHhl­ MH CJIOH'MH U.MYllfUX TOBaporrpoH3Bû;lJ;HTeJie:Ü:, 8Ta 6ypmyaa:e:.a: 6L1J1a B ipa3Jfll"tJ51 K. Ma pK c - 3. Mei'iepy H A. $orry, 9anpe;rn 1870 r. R. Ma p R c u: '1>. 8 n r e JI L c. Co11., T. XXVI, crp. 51. 52 B. r ro ro. CCYtI., T. 15, cTp. 447; c.M. TaKme B. M. M K po 1lI e Rex n ü. OcBooo,n;u­ TeJILHoe ,D;BH»<eHHe B a.\1epHR3HCIŒX KO.JT<HUIHX lfone.BHII. M., 1946. 30
BOii CTeTieHH nporpecc'.RBHa, a HHor,n;a (Ha.lijp., 1IaCTb HTa.1hHHCROH B 1859 ro,n;y) �Hfe peBOJIIO�•IIOHHa...• 53• Ciiuta lI pa3M:alX HaIJ,llOHaJibHO-OCB000;:�1ne:tbHhIX Il 6ypmyaaHo-p;eM0KpaTil1Iec1rn:x .I(BHiKeHHii aaBJœe;m OT CTeIIeH.II y1Ia.CTIUI B HHX HapO,l,HbIX Macc. TaM, r�e HapoÀ B Ha'B:oommreu ,Mepe !BTHf.IIBa:ICH B HaIJ;.IIOHa.ITbHO-peBOJIIOIJ;.II-OHHYIO li ,n;eM0KpaTWI0CKYJO 6oph6y (KaK aTo 6hIJIO B Hra:nn1, B Coep;HJieHHhIX IIITaTax AMepmœ:, B MeKcJIKe) - TaM oHa ,n;ocrHra.'Ia caMhlx 60.11:,mnx ycrrexoB. IlpOJieTap11aT B Ty nopy e�e He ,IJ;OCTHr Ta.ROH CTerre-HH apeJIOCTH li CKJihl, ,., 11TOOhl B-03rmlJB'llTL p;eMOKpanr11ec1me ;:I,BiHJReH'IIe, B..3HTh PYJW!30;:J;CTB-O IIHI B CBOH r PYKll. Ho B H0KOTOpLix c;_ryqaJJx CB0llM y1IaCT1IeM B o6�e;::(eMOKpaTJ: qecKOM ;:QJH­ meHH11 Ilp<)JleTapHaT 6hIJI yme B COCTOHHllH OIŒ3h1Ba-Tb cym;e-cTBeHHOe BJIHHHHe Ha OOII(llii XOA •IlOJIHTlPiecKoii 6op1:,61>1 B cBoeii crpaHe. TaK, HanpHMep, B Ha1Ian:e 60-x ro,n;oB, .Ror;'.l,a rrpaBHmlle Kpyrn AHrJIRR Ha­ Mepena.rruc1, BMemaThCJI B rpam;:r;aHCKYJO BOHRY B AMepHKe, BCTaB Ha C,TOpO·HY romHLIX pa60BJia�eJI1:,11ec«Hx mraToB. aur.rr11iîc:nIIii rrpo.rrerapnar o.RaaaJI pemII­ TeJILHOO IIJ)OTllBOAe:iicTBlle 8TOH rro.:rnTlIRe Il aacraBII.TI rrpaBHTe.IThCTBO OTCTY­ IUITL. AmJIHÜCKHe pa601111e BLICTyrra:ra Ta:Kme rJiaBHO.H CHJIOË: B 6op,we 3a npO'BeÀeHHe OOBOH, BTopoii HOOlfPaTe.n:1:,noii pe<pOplŒI, CTpe�1HCb rrpH�a Tb eii Han6onee �eMo«paTIIliecKRn xapaKTep. Bo Cl>pauo;HH Bropoiî HMTiepuu, B Ilpycc1nr a ;:lpynrx repMaHCRHX rocy­ AapcTBax, B McnaHIDI pa6oq11ii: K:Iacc 61>I.:I ca�rn:ü: 6oenoiî, ,::Leii:crBeHHOÎÎ cnJioH B 061:Q�OKpamqeciroM -p;B-umemm:, TO.TIKasmeft ero BJieao, Ha nyTI> cMeJioii n pemHT0JILHOii 6op1>6hl C ,peaR'IÇ0:eii:, B 1mm1x 61,1 <püp)-IaX OHa HH Bbl-CTyrr:IaJia. Y11acTHe ,npoJieTapuaTa B 06�eAeM0Rpar1rrrncKOM ;.J;BH.meHHH OhlJIO Bhlpa­ .meRHer:M ero BOOpOCme:ü Cll:.Ihl .lI apeJIOCTH. ÛHO CB�ere.;11,.C·TBOIBaJio O TOM, 1IT·O paOO"lee �BR.meHHe yme Harqa.rro 'UpOO.J;OJieBar1:, ce:nTa'HT,CKYJO 3aMKHyTOCTb H orpaHIPl811BOCTh, na RO TopLie ero o6peKaJIH paa.TIH1IHhle MeJIRo6ypmya3Hhle co­ n;uaJJHcTlf1!eeRHe HJIH IIOJiycon;HaJIHCTlI1IeCRHe ceRTbI, BeCbMa pacrrpocTpaBeB­ · rpo."IerapHa·Ta. Hhle :na pa.'.muqHhlX :nanax 6oph61:,1 r O,rvraKo caMa CHJia Boa.n;eË:crBHH paooqero KJiacca Ha nmpoKne napoAB:hle MaiCChI, e- ro poJH, Il M0'C'TO B 06�e�eMORpaT.H1IOCKOM ,J;BlUR•e.HHH BO MiHOrOM 8a­ BllC0JIH OT CTelleHH ero ca'MOCTOHTe:IbHOCTII, OT OC'03HaHHH IIM C'BOHX OüOObIX KJiaCOOBLIX aa�a11 • . BeJD1Koe yq0HHe Haf1IHoro KO•MMYHH3Ma, coa;:t;aHHOe n paamrnaeMoe MapR­ coM K 3HreJILCOM, 6LIJIO BhlCIDIIM BhlpameHHeM H.HT•epe-C-OB paooq,ero RJiacca, eW{HCTBeHHO no;zi;JIH:Hno HaY1IHOii peBOJIIOqHOHHoii Teoplleii rrpoJieTapnaTâ. Hc­ rop1111ocK11ii OllbIT pe-BOJIIOD;HÜ 1848-1849 f'O;J;OB IIO;J;TBe.p,IUI.rr HaytIJIYI() npa­ BJIJlI,HOCTI, Teop:e:H MapKCH3Ma II npaBOTY npa.RTH1I8CROii 'noJIHTIPI•ec.Roii JIHHHH, rrpcmo;viMoi B Te 6ypn1,re ro,wd Map:ncoM n 8Hre.;.11:,coM. Ypo:Kn arnx peB-OJIIO�Hi H B 0006emrocT11 11x nopameHHH Hay1nnrn: HeMaJioMy pa6ol!:HÎÎ :KJiacc H cnoco6crBoBaJI:e: ocBo6o.mÀemno ero OT MHor11x HJI:i10anft. MeJI:Ko6ypmya·aHhle corJia­ maTeJlbCKIIe T0Op1111 «IIp'HMRpeHllJI RJiaCCOB>>, B TOM JIH ll-CTOJIKOBaHIIH, ROTopoe ;JM ;zi;aBaJI BO <l>paHD;HH Jlyu BJia'lI, HJIH B repMaHHH Cre-<paH BopH, 6hlJIH ornpo­ BeprHYTLI H �CKpe;zJ;HTHpOBaHhI THiK0JiblM1I .mepTBaMR, IIOHOC.0HHhlMH rrpoJieTa­ pnaTOM B xo;zi;e ero nopameHHi. IloJIHTl{qOO-Klf:ii H MopaJibHhlii aBropnreT MapKca H 8HreJibca Ka.R Bom�ei Mem�y-Hapo;:(Horo npoJieTapcROro ,U:BlliR€H1IH II rrpHTHraTMbHfü'.I CHJia o6œHO­ BaBHO:Ü llMH B0JIIIKOH OCBo6o;.J;HTeJibHOH TeüplHI npoJierapirnra B 50-60-e I'O·� aHaqHr,e.rrbHO B03pOC.rrII. O�aKo li B ary rropy Hay-rrH.bIË: KOMMYHR3M MapKca 11 3nreJu,ca, HBJIHHCb BbICDlRM -Bhlipa"JKeH.H€M CaMOCTOHTeJII,HOro ITpOJ.IeTapcKoro peoomo�HOHHOI'O ,n;BHmeHHH, He 3aB00BaJI em.e rereMOHlIH B Mem�ynapoA,HOM paooq-eM �BHmen:u:, He cTaJI o6�errpn:auaHHoii Teopn:eii rrpoJieTap1rnTa. 8Ta aa­ M1Ia 6blJia JIHmL noeraBJieHa B rrop.H;I.OR ;::J;H.H. ,., u 53 B. M. JI eu u 11. no� 11ymH:w: <p.i:aro�r. Co1I., -r. 21. cT'p. 127. 31
PocT RJiaCCOBOH ape�OCTH npoJieTapcKoro WJHmeBBH yc1wpHJICH THmeJihIMH ycJIOBHHMH TPYM H o6ooTpe­ HlieM RJifüCCOBOH 6opb6hI Me2RÂY npoJieTapHa'TOM u 6ypmya3neii B 50-60-e roÂhl· XoTH pa6olf111ii mrn-cc cBoeii 6op1,6on u Âo6.H.BaJic11 HeKOTophlx YCTYIIOK oo CTOtpOHhl 6ypmyaa11m OTp;e:IhHbIX CTpaH: orpa'H'Hqe'HHH pa601rnro ]UIH AJI11 2R0'H­ �HH I' I ,D,"eiTeii, JieraJIH3aJJiRH IFpoq>COI030B, lrn:OrAa IIOBhIIB0HIIH HOM'.DllaJihHOH 3a­ pa6o'T'HOH ITJiaThI,-HO B :u;e.JJOIM BCJieACTBHe 3HaqHTeJihHoro Baµ,opomaHHH îRR3HH peaJihHaH 3apa60THaH IIJiara OCHOBHhlX Macc q,a6pnqJll()�aaBO]\CKOl'O IIpoJieTapH­ aTa c·TaHOBHJiaCh HlliIŒ, a rrpO,U,OJIIBHTeJihHOCTb pa6o'llero AHH OCTaiBaJiaeL O1I0Hb BhlCOKOH. <<IlûBCIOJJ.Y nnrpoirn:e Maœhl pa6o1Iero KJia•cca orrycIŒJIHe:& BCe HH>Ke H Hnarn, no MeHhill8H Mepe B TaIWH me CTe:rreHH, B KaKoÎÎ CTOHID;H,e, Haµ; HHMB RJiaCChl IIOJl:HlBŒ!IHCh BBe1px no o6m;ecTB0HHOH JI0CTHIID;0>),- lW'HCTaTHpoBaJI YlI!peg.IITeJihHhIÎÎ MaHHiq>ecr MemAYHéllpü'AHOro ·ToBapB�ecTBa pa•6011nx, uarrH­ caHHhIÎÎ pyRoiî Ma pRca 54• Ycyry6JieHne oon;naJI.oHhIX RoHrpacron: c1ma-01IHoe 060-ra�enHe ·6ypmyaaRH Ha OAHŒ\.I rro:noce 'li o6HHID;aHIIe pa-Ôo-qero RJiaœa H TPYlV:lID;HXCH - Ha ,u,py­ roM, 003,D;aBaJnr yc.:IOBIIH ;l.JIH peBOJIIOTI;HOH.H3HpO.i3aHHH upoJie-rap:e:aTa H pocra ero KJiaCCOBO-H C03HaTeJihHOCTH. HeorrpoBepmn,Mhie q>aRrhI orpoMHOTo II nce rrporpooc:u.poBafBmero Hepaœ·eH­ �TBa ycJIOBH:Ü MaTepIIaJihHOro cym;ecTBOBaHHH 6ypmya lI npoJieTap:e:eB, c ROTO­ J)hIMII îRH3Hh CTaJIKHBaJia paooqux Kam,w.i:ü ,I{eH1:, B Kam,n;hl:ë: 1Iac, paa6HBaJia HJIJII03lUI Ha:a;H10HaJihHOro <<6paTC'TBa>>, }J,OKa•3hIBaJia IlpûTHBOIIOJIOîRHOCTI, H He­ IIIPIIM'RpIIMOCTh IrHTepecoB RalJIIITaJia H TPYJJ.a. PocT RJiaOCOBOH CaMOCTOHT8JlbHOOTH npoJieTap:e:aTa Ilpocf,eccB0BaJibHhle Bhlpa.maJICH rrpem,I{e BCero B C03,D,"a:mm: CBOllX COOCT­ COIOShl BeHHhlX RJiaCCOBhIX opraHIIaa�Hii. IlepBLlMH epeAU HHX ,6hIJill II:POq>eCCIIO'HaJihHhle COI03hl. B AHrJIH'H IIOilhIT.RH ooo,a;aHIIH 'Ilpoq>OCCHOHaJibHhIX COIOOOB - Tp10A-IOHHO­ 'HOB - oT.HOCHJIHCh e�e K 20-M ro,n;aM XIX c'l'OJleTHH 55• Pa3BHTHe '.MaocoBoro IIOJIHT'li"tJOCKOI'O ,D;BIIïI{l9'HJIH - 11apTII'3Ma - B ROHD;e 30-x H B 40-x ·ro]\ax IlOAHH­ JIO aHrJIIIHCiroe pa6o�ee ,DJBIIîR0HHe Ha H0H'3M.ep1n10 6oJiee BhIOOKYJO CcyDeŒIL. 0,n;HaKO 1UOCJie crra:,I{a qapTHCTCROro �H.iR0HHH, B 50-x ro]\aX, B opramiaa� a•HfJIIIHCKOl'O pa6o'tfero RJiacca B0300Jia,a;aJIH Tpe}J.-IOHHOHhl «HOBoro o6pa3n;a», BhlABHraBIIIHe Ha rrepBhIÎÎ IlJlaJI yairo 3ROJIOMil:l1IecKHe .aa�aqJJ. Ho caMB Tpe6o­ BaHJIH 2RH3HH, JIOrIIRa RJiaCC-OBOH OOpWhl 3a.CT8.BBJIB aHrJIHÎÎCRHe Tpe)I;-IOHHOHhl IIODepHYJ'hCH Jt IIOJIIFI'ff'tOC,RH'M rrpo6JieMaM. Bec1,Ma Baamoe 3H'3.1I0B!He KMeJIO yc'FaHOBJieHIIe 0,Il;lIHCTBa �rnm,u;y HeOKOJihKH'MH a.HrmIB.'CKHMH Tpe]\-IOHHOHaiMB, C0'3�aHl:le TaRIIX o6ne�HeHl:IH, RaK JlOH.AOHCRHH rrpc>q>ec<moHaJILHHH OOB0T ·H ero MoryIIJ;e-CTBeHHaH <<):(myH·Ta>> - rpyrrna BJmJirTeJihHhIX JI1HAffPOB xpynneii­ m:ax Tpe,u;-IOHIIOHOB, rrpoq>e-ccHoHaJihHhlii CœeT fJiasro, JIH'BepnyJIJI H T. n. Bo (J)paamrn nocJie oT�leHhl B 1864 r. aa.KoHa Jle illa1IIeJI1>e. BOCŒipem;anmero pa601IHM OO'be.ll;HHHThCH II BOC'Tll CTa1IKH, CT3.JIH 6LicTpo BOOHHXaTI, rrpoq>eCCHO­ HaJibHhl'e coI03hl - CHH,IUHŒThl. B 1869 r. cHH;riaKaThI Ilapu:.ma oprrumaoBaJIH <peAeipaJihHYIO naJiaTy paÔ01IHX o6IIJ;ecTB, QO'l,eWfllHBIIIYIO OKOJIO IlHTH�0CHTH pa6ot1ux opraHn:aan;u:ü 56. PH paooqHx rrpocpeccnoHaJILHhIX co10aoB BOSHB.R B 60-x r-o}J.ax B BeJihrHH. 5• R. M a p R c. }'qpe,n;:e:Te.'IbHLlll MamupecT MeamyHapO,z:{BOrO ro:eapmn;ecTBa paooq11x. K M a p K c H <D. 9 H r e .i: b c. Coq., T. 16, CTJ). 7. 55 S. and B. W e b b. History of trade-unionism. London, 1920; M. B e p. Hcrop11H coqRaJ1H8111rn B AHrJIH:e:, T. 1-2, M., 1923; JI. M o p T o H, ,l{m. T e i T. :HCTOpa:H aH,l'JIKi­ cKoro pa6oqero �BnmeHWI. M., 1959. 56 3. A. iR e JI y 6 o B c Ra a. Y·Kaa. coll.; <l>. B. II o Te M K H H. YKaa. coll., Du ve au. Op. cit.; II. JI y D. Hcrop1rn c:e:�11-Ka;u,Horo �IDReHHH BO <l>�H, T. 1. M., 19'.?l>; P. L oui s. Le sort de l'ouvrier français sous le Seco nd Empire. «Revue politique et parlementaire>>, décembre, 1946. Iloaomeuue paôo11ero 1macca 32
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HHMaTeJIH OTB8TII.111I JIOKayTOM. Cym;eCTBeHHYIO ÂeHemHyIO IIOMep»my oxaaa­ JIH CTpOHTeJI.HM KpyrrHe:ÜmHe Tpe.lJ;-IO.HHOHLI. Tax, HaIIpHMep, 06'be,D;HHeBBoe f o6�0CTBO MexalHHWOB B T,f qetHH'e •r,pex He,I(eJIL rrepep;aJio ôac-ryIO�M «Tp.B eeH• ca�'H'OHHhlX }J;apa>> no 'ThlCJPie (pYŒITOB C,TepJIMHrO'B KamWùii 60 • 3Ta 6ipaTcRa.sI C'O­ JIHp;apHOCTh pa60lfMX Tpe�-IOH.l:l'OHOB <aacTa'BHJia npeµJIIpll.HHM-8.'TeJie-ft IIOHT'It Ha K0Milp0MHCC. CraqeqHhle ,6oH 1859 :roÀa rroxaaaJIH BLIOOKylO CTeII8Hh KJI3.iCOO-BOÜ ' KIIX pa6o1IHX. C0JIH,n;apHOCTH aHrJillll C Bo <DpaH�HH pa'6oTII:Ie 6acr0Ba.i1n )1,ame B rrepBLie ro)\hl ca»oro »rnc·ToRoro rroJIH:u;eik1rnro re.ppopa 6oaanap-THCTCKoro pemaM - a. B 1852, 1853, 1854 n cJie­ YIO�Hx ro)J.ax nponcxo,n;HJIH aa6acTOBKB B JinoHe, AM1»eHe, Mapcene, TyJiy.1e: A Bop,n;o, ,[(nmoHe H pn;:i;e �pyrnx ropo;\OB. B 11ocJie)Ul11e ro� Bropoi aMnep1rn:, K'OIVJ;a CTiaJI HB,CTBiBHHhlM -ee Kpœ'.3HC, K · pyrmLie OTal!rol C HP'K-0 Bbipamell'BOH IIOJIH­ TIPieCROH ORpac:Ko.Ü: npoHcXO)J.HJIH B Ilap:e:me, MapceJie, AM1»eHe, Py6a n: ,u;py:r-.Hx HHAycrpHaJioHhlX u;eRrpax. Bo BTopoii noJIOBHHe 1869 ro.n;a cTaTietJHaH 6opL6a cppaau;ys-cRHX paOOllIIX npIIHHJia oco6eHHO mn:po1rn:ii pa.3Max, 'ÜXB3.'TlIB BamBe:ë:­ rrnrn 1IIpüMhIIIIJI0HHhle paiiOHhl crpaHLI. ]1,JI,H no�asrremu1 .aa6éllCTOBKII r,opBHRO:B KaHTeBCKHX maxT npaBHTeJII,CTBO npHoerJio K BoopymeHHOH CHJie. Opymne 6hlJIO np.H:Me,HeHO li IlpüTIIB 6aicroBaBIUHX B Ha'tJaJie 1870 l'OM pa601111x BOeHHhlX aaBOJ:J;OB Kpeioo; cTaqRa B Rpeao ,IIIMeJia aHTBOOHanapTn:cre1u1ii xapaKTep 61• B KOH�e 60-x r,oAOB pa;i; cra1I6K 6hlJI B CoeAHHeHin,IX illTaTax AMepRRH, B BeJibrIIH, Mcrrannn. B xon:u;•e 50-x - HallaJie 60-x roAOB BOJIBeHlls 3ano,u;cRHx Kpe-CThHH, MaCT0püBhIX H pa6oq,ux npoRCXO}UIJIH Ha PHAe IIpero:rpHHTIIH lI Ha .meJie3HOAOpoîI<HOM CTpOIITeJ.IbCTBe B Pocc.Hll 62• Hapa;i,y c sa6acTOB01IHOii oopI,OOH, pa60tJHi 1maœ B IloJIBT1Rectœe pa�e crpan nepemeJI H K 'llICTO IIO.IlHTH"l0CRIIM BLI­ BLICTynxeHBn CTyn.rreB.IDIM. ÜHH B Ba.H60JILIDeii Mepe pa3BepTiilBa­ upoaeTapBaTa ;JHCb B Te-X c:rpaxax, KOTOpLie ,AOCTIHJIH y.me orrpel{e­ JieHHOro ypoBHH IŒIIHTaJIHCTHTiecROrO pa3BlfTIIH li r.n;e pa(>01IlIH RJiacc B �OCT31'01IHO:Ü: Mepe Cq>OpMHpoBa.l'C.H FI oooraTHJICJI Oill>lTOM RJlaiCC-OBOH ÔOphÔhI. Anr.rrHHCKH:Ü: npoJieTape:a-T' yme HMeBmHii aa CBOHMlI IIJ'IeTiaMH c.rraBHbie OBTBhl 11aprJI.CTCROH 8ITOXH, li B âTB ,:i.ec.HTRJieTH.H meJI 1B nep.sbIX pH,n;ax Meo«;I,y­ Hapo,n;Horo pa6oqero ,Il;BH.iReHHH. ÛH IDHpOKO npn:MeHHJI T8.IOie MeTOAhl 6opb6hl, HaK -IIOJIHTHTieCRHe �eMOHCTpan;HH, HapOAHLie MHTHHTH, oo6paHIDI, MaœOBLie - RIJ;I{H, lI0JIHTJf'feCKHe BblCyYIIJieHHH B rre11an1. B 00110TaHHH CO CT31I01IHOB 118T 6op1,,6oii 8TO OTKphlBa.rro pa6oqeMy mrniecy IDHpûKlie B03MOmHOCTH IIOJIHTIPie­ CKOro ]{;8.BJieHH.H Ha rocIIO,::l,CTBYIOID;lie KJiaCCbl. IlpaBAa, IIO cpa.Bnoonro c arroxo:ü: qapraa'Ma, paôoqee .D;:MI:>KeHne B AnrJIIHI 1860-x l'O,AOB OTJIHTiaJIOCh 3HaTIHT€JihH0 oom,meii yM-epeHHOCTbIO. ÛHO y.me OLIJIO JIHilleH<J Toro peBOJIIOD;HOHHOro Ol'HH, KOTOplalii BOO,z:tymeBJIHJI 11apTHCTOB. ÜHo He cTaBHJio yme nepe;::i; co6oft TaRHX 60JibmHX aa,n;a11, aa ROTOphle cpama­ JUICh qapTH�Thl. Ilo;vcyII 6yp.myaaneft BepxymKH pa6o11ero KJia-oca - ero HaB6oJiee RBamnp.m:1;Hp<>BaHHo:ü qacTH, coa,rr.ann-e paooqeii apucroRpaTllll HaiuraÂD1aaJio ome-qa;TOR Ha BCe aHrJIIIHCROe pa6oqee ;a,BHmeHHe TOl'O BpeMellll. PyROBO­ ll;IfTe.JIH anrJIHHCKHX Tpe;J,-lOHlIOHOB, cpaRTH-qecRH B03rJiaBJIHBIDHe paoo'Iee ]lBH­ meH1rn CTpaHhI, y.me He 3B8.'IH K HHCnpoBep.memno cym;ecTByiom;ero CT,pOH. ÛHH CTpeMHJIHCh Jlllillb -qacrnqno 1pe<f>o1PMHipOBRTb 3'rOT CTpoii H B ero paMRax 'jI.06:EJTI,CJI 1Iacrnhlx ycrrexoB 63. 60 A. JI. Mo p Ton, .[(m. T e i T. 'Y1ta3. CO'IJ.., CTp. 159. 61 OM. r,'I. II nacrom:�ero ll3,IJ;aHlUI. 62 P.aooqee �BIDR0RH.€ B PoccID!. CoopHI-IK ,J.ORyMeHTOB H MaTepHr3.JlOB, ITO�. pe�. A. M. IlaHICPlflTOBOii, T. 1.. M .. 1957, eTp. 795--·902; A. Tp O <1> HM. 0 B. Paooqee ;i;n1nm:mHe B Poœirn, 1001-1894-. M., 1957. 63 B. Il. . e H H H. A.a:r.rniîcKHe crropbl O :.nrôepa;J:bBO:ÏI pa6o11eii llOJIHUIKe. Coq., 'I'. 18; <I>. 3 Hl' c .,"! 1, c. Tpe�-IOHROHiiI. B KR.: K. Ma pK c 11 cJ>. 3 H r e ;x L c. 06 AHr;IHH, CTp. 42.0-426; <I>. A. p O Tm T e li H. QqepKH no Hcrop:e.:e: pa6o11ero )J;BH>R0HHJl B AHr.1HH. M., 1925. u 34
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Tei\f He MeHee aHr.;iniicRIIe pa601n1e .a B 3TH ,n;ec.arWieTH.a cy•MeJIB opraa1130BaTb pH� RPYIIHbIX IIOJIIITIPieCRHX BhlCTYITJieHH:ë:, HM0BfilHX ,IVIH cooero Bpe­ M8HH H8MaJioe 3HatieHIIe. RaK yrae rOBOPIIJIOCh, aHrJilIRCKIIe pa6oq11e CBOHM ynopHhlM II HaCTOË:qK­ BbIM ,n;aBJieHHeM Ha rrpaBIIT8JibCTBO BOcnpenHTCTBOBaJIH BMemaTeJibCTBY AHr­ JIIIII B rpam,r�aiHcRyro Boii:Hy B CIDA na cropone IOiKHLIX III'Taron. 3aeJiyroii: aH­ rJIHRCKoro IliPOJieTa\l)HaTa 6hIJia TaKilŒ opran1rnan.HH RpyIIHhlX IIOJJHT:e:qOCRMX BhICTYIIJieHIIH B 3ai1�HTY 110.rr1,c1<oro naipo�a. B 1864 ro11.y, KorJJ;a J:(myaenne ra­ !J)n6aJI1>.)�II rrp1rnxaJI B JlOH.IJ;OH, aHrJIHHCKIIe pa6oqHe ycTpOHjJH HTaJILHHCKOMY nan;HOHaJihH-OMY reporo Ta1wiî BOCTOpiKeHHLIÜ: npHeM, nepe,ri; KOTOpNM MepKJIH BCe IIhlillHbie I]()qecTH, O.Ra3bIBaeMLie oqnru;.a:aJII.HhlMR BJia'CJTHMll KOpoBOBaBHLIM ocuoaM, noce�aIO�M ,CTOJI1UJ;Y Bp11Ta1H1tH. Bo BTopoii IlOJIOBHJHe 60-x l'O,Il;OB aHrJIHHCKHÎÎ rrpoJieTapHaT CTaJI rJiaBHOÜ IIOJIHT:e:qec.RüH 'CHJIOÎÎ, oopoBmeicH aa npoBe;z:t;erurn !HOBOH :aa6H.pa·TeJihHoii pecpopMhI. Bo <l>paH�HH B cypOBhlX ycJIOBRHX pemHMa Bropoii HMnepH:e: paooqHÜ KJiacc �oxaaaJI CBOIO IIOJIHTHqecKyro caMOCTOHT0JIF,HOCTI., BhlAIJHHYB Ha ;::i;o­ IIOJIHllTeJibHhlX BbI6opax 1863, a 3RTeM 1864 ro;z:t;OB COOCTBemililX KaHJ{B,D;aTOB. Orry6JIHKOJ3aHHhlH ITO 3TOMY IlOBO,ll;Y B 1864 ro;u;y MaHHcf)OOT (TaK Ha8LIBae:MhlÜ MaHHcf)ecT ill9'CTII,ll;0-C.RrH) 3MIBJI.R.rr: <<Bceo6xn;ee H30HpaTeJihliOe apaBO e;a:eJiaJio nac COBepmeHHOJieTHlIMlI IIOJill'THlJeCIŒ, HO HaM OCTaeTCJI e�e ;a:o6HTLCJI OOD;H­ aJILHOro pacKperro�enHH» 64• B UOCJie,rzyron:urn l'O,IJ;hl UOJI-IITIIl!ecKa:H aKTHBHOCTI, paooqero RJiaooa npo­ }];OJI>KaJia napacTa'TL. Co BpeMeHH noesµ;RH 4>pann;yacIŒx pa6oqHx s Jlol(JtoH, B 1862 rüAY, CBH3H Mem,rr_y tppamcy3CRIHlH H aHrllllKCRRMK paooqHMH. CTaJIB xperrayTI. H pa3BH.BaThCH. IlocJie o6paaoBamIH HHTepaan;noHaJia cppa�yaeRHe pa601111e rrpo.aBHJIH 6oJI1,mo:ü HHTepoo R aroii Mem,IcyHapo;a:Hoii rrpoJierapcxoü opraHHaan;HH; q>paan;yacK:e:e ceKI(lilI I liHTepH�HOHaJia CTaJIH OAHHM Ha Ha­ .0.ÔOJiee a:KTHBHhlX OTpH,ll;OB Mem,n;yirapo;::i;aoro TOBapHID;0CTBa paooq.ax. B 60-x ro�ax MHOrHe tppamzy8CRHe pa601111e CBH8aJIB CBOIO cypµ5y C ,ri;e.a­ TeJibHOCTbIO OMOH 'H3 �yx -conepBK1IaBillllX OOUllaJJHCTB110CRBX IIIROJI - 6mm­ I<HCTOB H npy,n;oHnc·roB 65• XorH II OJiaHHH.SM H rrpy;a:oHH8M Kam,u;H:i no-eBoeMy Il B CBOHX ;ll;OKTpHHax, II B CBOeii IlOJIHTHqecKoii TaRTHKe J1peACTaBIDIJIH yme sqepamHB.n: ,J'J;e'Hb pa6011ero ;J;BlliiIŒHIIIH C ero MeJIROOypmyaaHld'MH HJIJIIb8ID.UtflH If aa6nym,n;eHHHMll, caMLIH q>aRT iRHBO:Ü IIOMepanœ: pa6o11HMB a'l'KX 1e11eHBH CBH­ ,r(0T0JlhCTBOBaJI O pocre IIOJIH'TI:IqecRO:Ü aKTHBHOCTH IlpûJIOO'apnara. XOTH B repMaHHB IlO.TIHTlPieCRaH ÔOphoa paOO'IHX H He IIpHIDIJia CTOJII, Mac­ COBOrO xapaKrepa, KaK B AHrJIIUI ll ,ri;ame BO <l>paHD;HJI, B 1I'A0HHOM OTHOID8Jll.tlll OHa IIOM{HJiaCb Ha 60Jiee BhlCOKYIO CTyneHL. Cpe;z:t;H nepe,n:oBLIX HE"M0Il;K11.X pa6o­ q.Hx 6hlJIO HeMaJio rrpHBepmem::i;eB yqeHH.R MapKC'H8Ma. Hx CTapaHIIHMH HeM�hl nepBiiFM.H. cpe.rµI eBpo11e:0:e,Kn:x paôoqJix -cyM-eJm: coa,naT& pa6o1JYIO co�naJI-�eMo: 66 1<parrrqecKy10 napTHIO • Coop;aHHe COu;HaJI-,I(eMORpaTIPiOOKO:Ü: napnm - pa6o­ qeii opraHHaan;HH HecpaBHeHHO 6oJiee BhlCOROro TRIIa, qelr{ IIpoq>COI08hl,- 6hlJIO CBH,IJ;eTeJihCTBOM 6oJibillOH IlOJIHTHqecKOH apeJIOCTR HeMe�ROOO rrpoJieTapHaTa. B co·e�HeHHbIX IIITa TaX AMe-pHKH B 1868 ro,rcy Ha TpeTb0M C'b63jl,e Han;Ho­ HaJihHOrO pa6011ero ûOI03a 6bIJia C{)3,I(aHa pa6011aH napTHH, npHHHBIDaH HR3Ba­ HRe <<Han;HoaaJihHOii: rraprHH pajlopMhI>>. Ilo HHltI(Ha:T•HBe ee pYJ(OBOJUIT0JIH ÜHJihBHCa aMe[J111rnHcRa.fl pa6ot.ra.fl rrapTHH ycTaa-oBlIJia npHMYIO c1u1a1., c I HH­ Tepaan;uoHaJioM 67• 64 A. T o 11 a. Mc1op1rn Bropoi'r 1nmep.e:.e:, nep. c <pp. CD6., 1008, c-rp. �. 65 Ilo,n:po6rree O 6JiaHRB3Me B rrpy,n:OHK3l\fe, RaK K O pa3BHTHH pa6o11e,ro 'ABH.'1<0HHH BO cfipaH�Hl'I B �eJIOM CM. r:r. IJ HaCTOHII(ero :e:s,n:aHHH - «KpH8HC Bropo:ë: HMDepHII>> - H no­ CJie.n:yrom;1:1e r.1:aBLI. 66 <I>. Me p n rr r. Mcrop1rn: repM-an,cRoii: co�K.aJJ-,�e.MoKpanm, T. 3. 67 Iloc.:ie CMeJ)TH CIIJibBIH:-a, Roroporo MapRC B0ChMa BhICOKO qeHHJI, paooqa.lI rrapTlU! rrpocyII(e.CTBOB.a:Ja He,u:o:iro, ;i;o H.aqa,1,a 70--x ro,J;OB. 36
PocT ru1aœOBOH oalIOCTOHT€JibHOCTl:I rrpo.rre-rapnara, ero 3a6acTOBOqnoii 6oph6hl H IIOJIHTHqecRHX BhICTyn� JI0HHH npHH0CJIH paooqeMy ;r:I.BIDIWHHIO PHA qacTHLIX y�nexoB. B aHaqure.rrhHOii cTeneH1:1 BLipocna opraHH­ aoB3.lHHOCTh pa601I.Hx, ORpeIIJIO 1IYBCTBO 1waccOBOH co­ nH,n;apHOCTll. B pH,u;e CTpaH pa601JHe CBOeii 6op1i6on CMOr:m BhlpBaTb y fOCIIO)l­ CTBytOiqllX RJiaCCOB H8ROTüpLie ycTynRH. B AHrJIHH em;e B 1842 l'. paooqHe ,IJ;OOHJIHCb aaROH-OB O q>a6plP!HOM aaKOHO­ ,AaTeJH,CTBe, B 1847 r.- 8aRoHa O BB0)];0HHll )];8CHTllqacoBoro pa6oqero l);HH )];JIH :meHIII;HH H 110,n;poCTIWB, B 1867 r.- OTMeHhl 3aKOHa O X03.HeBax H cnyrax, qTo ypaBHHBaJIO pa6oq11x C X03HeBaMll B HX npaBax rrepeµ; cy,n;oM. Bo <llpa.Hqu1:1 6oph6a paooqero n�acca rrpHHy�HJia npaBHTeJihCTBO BTopoii HMnepmr B Ma-e 1864 r., RaK y:me 6hlJio c1rnaaHo, OTMeHKTb aa.ROH Jle illarren1>e; B 1868 r. npaB:e:TeJibcTBO paspemnJio rrpoBe,n;enne ny6JI1:1qnhlx co6paHn:ü ne ua IIOJIHTllqec�He TBMhl ( Ha npaKTHRe oro orpaHH4eHHe 6hlJIO TYT .me or6porneHO llill3Hbl0); ·B TOM me ro,n;y 0HO Ilpll13Ha.ï'O npaBO Ha cym:e-cTBOBaHHe C03)];aHHhlX paOO'DllMH 11poq,eœ110HaJihHLIX ooroaoB. B repMaHn.11 61a1cTpo HapacraBmee pa6oqee ;J,Bn.meHHe aacraBHJio rrpaBn­ Ten1,cr.»o B11cMapKa TaKme 110:ÜTH na ycrynI-m. Ilo KOHCTHTy�1nr GeBepo-f,ep­ MaHcioro OOI03a 1867 ro)];a BLI6ophl B pe:axcrar npoBO,IJ;HJIIICh Ha OCHoBe Bceo6m;ero 1:186.H.])aTe;u,.noro rrpaBa ,n;�H MY:ih�HH. Ilpn Kpaiîue orpaHH4eHHOH po.rru peftxeT.ara BB0,ll;81HIH:0 BCeo6III;ero H3ŒI'paTeJibHOfO upa.Ba 6hUIO npe,n;IlpmHl'TO B11cMapROM, KOHeqHo, B _;r::i:eMarornqecKHX n;eJIHX. TeM ne :\IeHee caMa uoo6xoll,H­ MOOTL �JIH npaB11.rreJII:,CTBa noirn:H Ha .n;e'MOKpaTH3�HIO Bh!OOJ)OB B HOBLIH rep­ MaHCRHH napJiaMeHT 61a1na BLIHy.mÀeuHoii ycryn1wiî paooqeMy K.rraccy. 3TH Il IIHLie YCTYIIKH, Ha KOTOphle B pa3HhlX CTpaHax Mlipa AOJiffiHhl 6htJI11 B,ATII rocnO,ACTBYIO�He 8KCnJiyaTaTopci.me KJiaCCbI, HBJIHJllICb ROCBeH­ HhlM oTpameHHeM Boapocme:ë: MOIII;H pa6011ero i-.::racca n ero cnoco6aocTH BJIHHTI, B 113B8CTHLIX npe)];eJiax Ha IlOJIHTIPieCKHe yqpe.m.n;eHHH: CTpaHhl lI Ha XO)]; IIOJIHTl:lqecKoii iR113HII. Ho 3a,n;a11a ocBo6o.m,D;eHHH paooqero RJiacca MorJia PasBBTBe 6hITb perneHa He qacTHhlMl:I ycTyIIKaMH, a JIIIIIIb KO­ peBOJDO�oBDoi reopuu peHHOH peBOJIIO.QlIOHHOH JIOMKOH Bcero 06III;eCTB8HHO­ npoll0Tap&aTaro CTpOH. 11apKCBSKa CaMo ocBOOO,IJ;HTeJihHOe yqeHne paôoqero KJiac­ ca - HayqHLiii KOMMYHH'3M, MapKCH3M - B 50-60-x ro�ax rrpo.n;o.rrmaJio yc­ nemHo pa3B-:IIB3.TbCH, IIOilOJ.tHHJIOCb 'HOBhlMII ·re,ope-rnqecKHM:H IlOJI-Offi8HiHHMH, HM8BIDHMH orpoMHOe 3Haqemrn 1:1 µ.JIH npaKTHRH peBOJIIOD;liOHHOH 6oph6LI npo­ JieTap1:1aTa. Ben1:1R11e oom.n;H nponeTapHa-ra - Map1œ H 8Hren1,c, no�eprHyB rJiy6oKo­ MY -reopeTirqecKOMY aIIaJIH3Y OIIhIT penoJI10n;niî 1848-1849 ro,n;oB, oco6eHHo BO <JlpaHIÇili H repMaHHH, BHeCJIH MHOfO HOBOI'O, OOOrRTl:IJIH H pa3BllJIH BaïRHe:Ü­ mee B M-apKO.H3Me - yq01me o rrpoJieTapcKOft peBO.JIIOU.IfH 11 p;HKTarype npoJie­ Tap11aTa. B KJiacc11qecK11X pa6oTax, IlOCBHIII;0HHhlX peBOJIIOD;lIH 1848-1849 ro)];OB: <<HJiaccoBoii 6opLoe BO <llpaHn;1urn li <<18 6p10Mepa Jlyn Bouanapra>> MapKca, <<PeBOJIIOD;IIH H KOHTppeBOJIIOIJ;Hll B repMa'HHH>> 8HreJibCa, co11eraBmHx 6JieCTH' OCKlllM anamrnoM, III;ee lI,CTOpHqecJroe 'IIOBec-r1BOBa1H11:Ie C fJIY'OOliall'IIIHM TeopeTl:lll CCHOBOIIOJIOiRHIIKll HayqHOI'O con;11amrnMa BH0CJil:I HOBhl:Ü BRJia)]; B TeOpHIO npo­ mnapcKOH peBOJIIOI.Qfll, OHH :KOJiiRperH31IpoBaJilI B 8THX pa6oTax IIOHHTHe ,Il;liR­ Taryphl tIIpüJie"Tapna-ra. yKa3aJIH Ha Heo6XOW{MOCTI, CJIOMa CTapoii 6ypmya3HOH rocy;i:t;8fl}CTB0HIHOH ·Ma.mHHhl, rJiy()oKO OOOCHOBaJilI Heo6xo)];HMOCTh )];JIH ill008)];hl 11jpOJI•e-Tap1:1aw ycTaHOBJI0B!HH COI03a M8ïR)zy ipa6otJlIM RJiaCCOM H KPOOThHHCTBOM. B. H. Jloo,nu BIIocJie,n;cTBHH no)];-qe,pKHBaJI, lITO MapKc yr;ryoJIJI cBoe y-qeHne Ha ocHoBe orrLITa ;penoJIIOIJ;Hiî 1848 ro�a. AHaJIH3H1pyH Bnrnon; MaipRca B ero HexoTOpwe ycnexa lle»QQ7B8poAJ10ro IIJH)JleTapcxoro ABJIZeBBH u ,., ,., u ::\7
pa6oTe <<18 6proMepa Jlyn BoHanapTa>> o TOM, qTo B OTJIHqHe oT Bcex npemHHX peBOJIIOD;HH, npoJieTapc1rnîi peBOJIIOD;HH Hap;o pa36HTb, CJIOMaTh CTapyro rocy­ ,n;apCTBeHHYIO MaIIIIIHY, JieHHH IIHCaJI: <<B 3TOM 3aMe4aTeJibHOM paccymp;eHHH MapKCH3M p;eJiaeT rpoMa,D;HhliÎ IIIar BIIepe,u; IIO cpaBHeHHIO C «ROMMYHHCTHqe­ CKHM MaHmpeCTOM>>. <<He JIOr:rrqecKHe paccymp;eHHH, a )l;e:ÜCTBHT0JibHOe pa3BH­ THe co6hlTIIÏI, ïRHBOH OilhIT 1848-1851 rO,lJ;OB npuBeJIH K TaKO:Ü IIOCTaHOBKe aanaq1rn 68. I'poMa,r(HOe, Heou;eHHMOe JHaqeHHe ,IVIH ocBo6oµ;1ITeJihHO:Ü 6opb6hl pa6o,qero l\Jiacca HMeJIO 11 C03.J];aHHe MapKCOM 3KOHOMJ!lleCK-Oro yqeHHH, CTaBmero o,n:HOH R3 BaïRH0HIIIHX CüCTaBHhIX qacTe:Ü HayqHOOO KOMMYHH3Ma. MapKc pa6oraJI Ha,r:i; CB-01IMH 3KOHOMRl!0CKHMH Tpy;i::i;aMH B 50-60-e ro,nhl. B 1859 ro;r:i;y 6hlJI onyoJIHKOBaH ero rrepBLIH TPYA B 3TO:Ü o6JiacrR <<R KpHTmrn IlOJDIITHl{8CROH 31WHOMITM>>. r,1;e 6hIJI·O yme -pacKphITO ero yq:eiHIIe û •rrpnôaBO"IJHO:Ü cl'OHMOCTH. C 1861 rop;a MapKc HaqaJI pa60Tar1, Ha,n; «Ha1nrTaJIOM>>, nepBLIË TOM KOTOporo BhIIIIeJI H3 rreqanr B 1867 ro,n:y. B '3TOM 6eocMepTHOM 'TBopeHIIB �IapKC OTKphIJI 3.KOHOMIIqecI·Œ:Ü GaKOH ,n:BHlli0HHH COBpeMeHHOro o6m:ecTBa, C Jil0JI.308llilHOC'ThIO He;:,;yIIJ;,Hiî: ,R 3a}rn,He IWIIRTaJID:,CTH"IJOC.KOro CTpo11 ôOIJiHaJI1ICTIPI8CKifM. Ho 8'CJIH BeJIHK-00 peBOJIIOIJ;HOHHOe yqeHHe npOJieTapu:aTa - MapKCll3M, 060ram:aHCh ypoKalMH IICTOplltiecKoro OIIhlra, pa3BHBaJIOOh, illJIO Bllepe,r; - H B 8TOM C'MhICJie BhlpamaJio co6oü rroccy.IIaTeJibHoe lJ:Blii.iHeHHe 1.rrpoJieTapHaTa no BOCXO�m:eii: JIHlffllH,- TO aro BOBCe He 3HalfHJIO, 1ITO :sce, HJIII ,n;ame OOJibillHH­ CTBO pa6oqHx, IIOCTIH.ïII n IIpHHHJI1,I MapRCH3M. MapKc'Im·.M 1B 60--x ro,1ax XIX Bena •B OOJihme:ü Me•pe rrpe-,a;cTa-BJIHJI aa:BTpam.:.. EHH ;i::i;e-Hh rrpo.ierapII-aTa, l!eM HhIHemHIIH. YtieHHe Ma.p1rna B TO Bpe!MH OhIJiü AOJI.iHHhIM o6pa30M rrpHHHTO Il ou;eHeHO JIHillh oqeHb He60JihillOH 11aCThIO nepe­ AOBhlX pa6oqHx B fepMaHHII, AHrJIHH, CoeAHHeHHhIX lliraTax AMepHKH, <DpaH�HH. 3AeCb AOJI.iH0H 6.hITh 1rrpHHHT BO BHHMaHHe TOT (<3aroBop 'MOJPJ.alHHH>)' KOTO­ phIM 6ypmya3HH BcrpeqaJia Bce paooTLI MapKca H 3nrem,ca, HaMepeH-Ho c'Ta­ paHci. 11X CKphlTh OT TPY,'.J)IIIJ;HXCH H C03,Ila•BaH BCHqecKHe npeIIHTCTBHH H 3a­ Tpy)];HeHHH HX pacrrpocrpaHeHIDO. B TO Bp0'MH em;e He 6hlJIO HH paooq:a:x raaeT, HH TeM 6oJiee pa6otIIIX .113,IJ,aTeJibCTB, KOTOpLie MOrJIII Ôhl HecTH B pa60"'IYJO cpe­ 'll.Y icJiœo IIX BeJI1H.KiHX yrrHTe:re:ü. MaipRcy !H 3HreJII>CY IFJlHXO)];llJIOCh neqaTaTh MHOrHe CB011 pa60Thl B rrporpooc.HBHhlX 6ypmyOOHhIX rretia'THhlX opraHax .A.Me­ PIIKlI. TaR, ,Ha'IIpIIMetp, <<Pe'Bo:rrou;1rn: n 1R-0HTJ)pe1J'OJIIOIJ;HH» <l>. 3HTeJII>ca 11eqaw­ Jiac1> Ka:K cep11H cTaTeft B aMepuKaHCI{oii ra3eTe «New York Daily Tribune». HMeBmaH TaKoe orpOMHOe 3H3l!0HHe AJIH TeOpHH HayqHoro CO�HaJIH3Ma pa6oTa Mapm:�a <<18 6proMepa JlyH BoHarrapTa» ÔhlJia HarreqaTa.Ha B CillA B «He­ nepHOAJ140CKOM mypHane>> MocH<pa Be:üp;eMeiiepa «Die Revolution,, npneM H3--'.3a He;J;OOTaTKa cpe,u,crB Be:ii,u;eMeiiep He CMOr BhIKYTIHTh THpam y BJiap;eJ11,u;a T!HIIorpa<f>mr. B EBporry norraJio Jfillill.b 'RecKOJILKO 9K3eMIIJH1ipOB. &ropoe H3,n;a­ HHe y'lI,aJIOC.b BhIIIYCTHTh TOJihRO B 1869 r(),Ily, a Repe.BOOTH pa6ocy Ha q>paH­ u;y.acKHH H3.hIK - Jlllillb B 1891 ro,n;y. Tpy)];HOCTII B paorrpocrpaHeHHH pa,6or BeJmKHX yq11TeJieü rrpoJieTapuara 6hIJIH O)l;HOH H3 q>OpM 6opi.6LI, KOTopyro BeJia 6 ypmya3HH npOTHB MapKca 11 ero peBOJIIOD;HOHHoro yqeHJIH. BypmyasHaH Hayxa, He 6y,D;Y"IJH B CHJiax onpoBeprüyTh B0JIHKHe OTKphlTHJI B HaYRe, npOH3B0,D;0HHhl0 MapKCH3MOM, IIhITaJiac1, OCJia6HTh HX peBOJIIOJJ;HOHH3Hpyrom:ee B03)];0HCTBHe, OKpymHB CT0HO:Ü: MOJil!aHHH. HpOOrle TOI'O, 60JibIDHHCTBO pa6olflIX B TY nopy JIH6o CBOHM npomJilJM, JI:0:60 PO'lI,CTBe'HHhIMH OTHOmeHHJIMII em:e 6hlJIO CB1l3aHO c. Kp0CThHHCKO:Ü RJIH ropo,rJ;68 B. Il. JI e H n n. rocy;1,apcrno II peBo:110�H.JI. Co11., T. 25, cTp. 378, 381. 38
CKOÜ M.eJIKooyp.myaiauoi cp�oi. 11MeHHo rroaToMy MHOTHe paôoq1re oKaahl'Ba­ J.liHeL BOCIIpJfllMliHBLnf.H. R pa3JDI1{HhlM MeJIK:o6yp mya3HIJM JIJLH H'Hhl'M Œ1enpoJie­ Tapc10IM 00�:e:a�'Tllqec:run,1 yq-eHHHM. IlPYAOHH3M H 6JiaHKH3M Bo <l>paan;HH, JiaccaJibHH­ Meuo6ypzyauu,rii cTBO B fepMaHHH, J:rn6epaJII,HhlH TpeA-IOHHOHH3M co�aJIJISK B AIIrJIHH, 6aKynH3M B Hcnaa:u:n H HTaJIHH correp­ eH11aJIH M0.>KAY co6oi, CTpeMHCI, K ycTaHOBJieHHIO CBOei HAeiinoi rereMOHHH B MemJ07HapO)lHOM pa6oqeM ,ABHiK0HHH. 9TB. OO�HaJIHCTH1I0Clffle IDKOJihl, npn nce:iî HX 'BP,eMeHHO:Ü: lIIOIIYJIH•pHOCTH, nnm1, no-paauoi,cy oTpaataJIH pa3JIH11Hhle MeJIKo6ypmyaaHhle rrpeApaccywcn, OmHŒH H llJIJII03BH. Ilp y�OHH3M C ero OTplUJ;aHH0M peBOJIIOIJ;HOHHO-,IIOJIHTHqecKO:Ü: OOpWhl, aan;:e:­ OHaJILHOÙ orpamrrre.HHOCTI,IO, KOHCe'J>BaTH3MOM, C ero ll�eaJIH3a${e:Ü: rraTpHap­ xaJII,HOl'O yaKoro M'HpKa Menooro rrponaBOAHTeJI.H orpamaJI o6m;ecTBe.HHOe co­ aaamre M0JIKHX e-06cTBeHH1HKOB, TeCHHMhlX KpyIIHhlM rrpaH.3BOA-CT.BOM li HIIJ;YIIUIX enaceHHH B HJIJII030pHLIX IIORCKax B08BpaTa I< rrpomJioMy. BnaBKR8M, B IIpüTHBOilOJIO>KHOCTb rrpy�OHH3MY Bhl):03HraJI Ha rrepBhl:Ü: IIJiaH peBOJIIOD;HOH'Hyro IIOJIHTHqecKyro 6op.bOY .H Tpe6oBaJI BeJIH11a:ë:me:ë: aKTHBHOCTH ;:i;ei-cTBHH. Ho :e: B 60-x roA3-x, KaK H noame, B:iaHRH :a ero rrocJie�oBaTe�H o-cTa­ sanue:& BepHLI 11A0HM y-ro.11.H11eCKoro HRHBHOro ROMMy-HH3Ma, a B CBoei rrpaKrn­ 'ICCKOH peBOJIIO�HOHHO:Ü: A0.HTCJibHOCTH IlPHAepmHBaJIHCb Y3R03aroBopm;H11ecKO:Ü: TBKTIIKH. He�oon;eHRa püJIH Macc B IIOJIHTHlle,CIWH 6op1,,6e C H00'l'TBpa:rHM,O.CTbIO oopeKaJia HX CMQJihle peBOJIIOn;llOHHhle BhlCTyrrJieHJI.H Ha rropamemrn 69• JlaccaJibHHJCTBO, c ero TaKTHRoi oIIIIopTyHm3Ma, 1B'03'Be,AeHHoro 'B .AOOPOAe­ Tem,, C ero HeBepK0M B peBOJIIOI{HOHHhle CHJihl rrpoJie-rapHaTa, C ero JIOiRHhIM u:ao6pameHH0M KpecTMIHCTBa KaK «CIIJIOillHOH peaKIJ;HOHHOH Macchl», C ero <I>e­ THIIIH3al(lle:Ü: BC'eOOU\el'O 1rn6HpaT8JlbHOro npaBa K He,n;orryCTHMhIM i3aHI'phlBa­ HR8-M C B:e:cMapKOM,- 6hlJIO ollOJIHTHllOC.KH Bpe,run,r:M T0110HH0M B pa6o11eM .J:OJH­ meHHH. 3TO - crrerçe:cl>JilleeKoe rropomAeHHe HC'TOPH11eCKH.X ycJIOBHi repMamm 50-60-x l'O)];;OB IIpomJioro BeKa, ocym;ecTBJIHIOm;eii CBOe Hal{HoHaJII,'HOe OO'Ir e�eHJle He peBOJIIOIJ,HOHHOÏÎ 6opbÔOH Hapo�x Ma-cc, a <<CBepxy», IIOA rere­ MOH!le:Ü: MHJiwrapucreiroü roreHD;OJIJllepHoBCKoii Ilpyccn11, rroJIIl"IlHKO:Ü: «meneaa H KpoB11». JlaccaJII,HHcTBO �eaopneHTHpOBaJio r01pMaHcKoe pa6o'llee �:e:meHHO, IIhlTaJIOCL CORTL ero C peBOJI.IOIJ;ROHHhlX rrpoJieTa-pCRRX II03HIJ,1I:Ü: 70• A:arn:e:iœ.KH:Ü: -i,pe,A-IOHHOHH3M mm H;I;OOJIOI'II.H 'OhI;J rrpem.n;e 'BCe,r() OTPH�aHHeM pe.BOJIIO�HOHHbIX Tpa;u,:nn;Kë: 11apTK8Ma. Ero OTKa3 OT peBOJIIOn;HOHHhlX CP0ACTB 6opb6hl, OT iHIIICIIpOBepmffiraH cym;ecTByro�ero c'l'!pOH, ynneqeH.He ::mcmoM1I11e­ cnMH (}>opMaMH 6opL6LI, rrpocJiaBJieHHe «MaJihlX .n;em>, 11acTHhlX ycnexoB - Bce aTo 6LIJio BLipamell'.B.eM o6m;oornemn,1x HacrpoeHHiî. oopaaa ·MhlIIIJiffllHH <<pa6o-11ei apHCTOKpaTHH», KBaJIHcl>�HpoBaHHOH BepxymRH pa6o11ero •Macca, KOTO­ pyio aHrJIH:Ü:CKaiH oypmyaaHH, IIO,rJ;Kyrran KpoxaMH OT CBOHX npirohIJieH, CTpe­ MHJ1ac1, rre·peoocrrwraTh no cBoeMy o6pasy :e: no,u.o6nro. 3K.TI0KTH•11eciœ::ü:, ,nyTa'HLl:Ü:, 16yHTapCRHH aHa1pXH3M pyccKOro '8MII1rpaHTa M. A. BaKy1u1Ha, •rJiyooKo Bpam,n;OOHhIÜ MapKüoBy yq1eHnro o KJiacooJJoü 6op1,6e H AHKT8Type rrpoJieTapB:aTa, 6bIJI HAeo,rrorn,e:iî (<B'308CHBmeroc.H MMKOro 6yp­ mya )) , paaopeHHOro KOHKypeun;neü KpynHoro npOH3BOACTBa H C OTlJa.HHBJI H aJ1061,1 npocJiaBJIHBmero CTHXHHHhlH 6yHT. He cJiyqa:ë:no BaKyHHH HameJI IIpHBepmean;eB CBOHX B3rJIHAOB fJiaBHhlM o6pa30M B 8KOHOMH11eCRH OTCTaJihlX J 1 69 B. II. Bo JI ru H. lloJI:e.TB'IIOOK:e.e u coqHa.1:ië>HJ,Ie u,ri;eH B.rr,anR'H. Bccyn. CTe.'ILH npo11aBe.n;emrn:. M., 1952; R. Gar au d y. Les sources fran­ çaises du socialisme scientifique. Paris, 1948. 70 A. R. BO pO 6 b e B a. Ha HCTOp1m pa6o11ero )J;BHIB0HHJI B repMaBHB B 6opL6LI M.apKca H, 3HreJI.bOO IIIJ)OTB.B JiacœJUI u .rracc.aJib.Sl'HqeB B 1862-1�4 rr. B KB.: «Ha HCTO­ pmr 6opbfü,1 MapKca H 3nre.'!Jhca aa rrpoJieTapcKyIO napTHIO». M., 1956, CTp. 246-360. K KB. JI. O. B JI a BK H. Ra6p. 39
CTpaHax EBpOnhI - HcnaHHH, I1Taann, I.lIBe:ih.i;apnn, r,n;e 6hlJia e�e BeJIHRa pOJih MeJnwro npüH3BO,lWTBa 71. HaR HH 'BCJII{RH fü,I:IJI pa13,;:nPIIUI MemJ;y 'BC0Mlli 3TJI.iM'H Te11eHH.HM'II, KaK Hll omeCTOlfeHHO cnopIIJIH OHII iMe.mµ,y co6oiî, rrpeTeR,nyH KaiK}\Oe Ha :MOHOilOJl.bHOe BJia')];10HJ!le UC,IT'.HJHO.H lI o6JiaAaH:ae IIOj],JllfHirO cnae1neJib'HhIMlll pen,errTaMH COil,H­ aJihHOPO ll-CIJ;'eJieHIIH, BCe OHH HMeJili 1'0 oôm;ee, 1J1'0 rrpe,n;cTaBJI.HJIII paaHOBIIA­ HOiCTH nerrpOJŒTapCKOH MeJIKo6ypmyaanoii a 6ypmya'3HOH .H,n;eoJIOrJUI, em:e OlŒ3hlBaBmeÏI BJIUHHIIe Ha pa6otIIIH KJiacc, na pa6011ee ,D;BHmeHHe. Map:KcnaM AOJI­ »rnH fü:JJI npeo�oJieTI, BJIHJIHHe Ha pa60-•n1x M0JlK06ypmya3HhlX IDKOJI H ceKT' 3aTeMHJIBillHX HX C03HaHHe, c6HBaBillHX HX C npaBHJihHOTO nynI. YqeHIIe Map1rna BcecHJihHO, noToMy 1ITO ouo BepOcuoBaHBe 1H0>> ,- rnrea;i B. Il. Jlermm 72 • I1c·TopH1IecKIIe 8aJ(alfJI, I HuTepuao;nouaJia Bhl)J.BHHYThle MapXCOM H 3HreJI&COM rrepe� paOOlJllM RJiaCCOM, B Ta:ROH Mepe COOTBeTCTBOBaJUI Ha3p0BillHM IIOTpe6nocTHM pa8BHTHH OOIQe·CTBa, lJTO, HeCMOTPJI Ha BCe rrpeIIHTCTBWI, tICpeTBOPJIJIHCb B ïK0:3Hb. 3Ha­ MJ{3/HH'Thlli 3aKJno-rnrT-eJI.hHhI:ii .rrœyHr << MaH1:1<f,e-c-ra IroM!My•IDFCTll1toc:no:a napTIIiH>> 1848 ro,n;a - <<IlpoJI,e·'Daipnn Boex cirpaŒI, coeARHHÜTecb!» - atHJI B co'3HatlIIHH pai6oqero KJiac.ca H -coxipaHHJI C'BOIO 'Be:rn:.Kyio ,rr,eiicrneanyro CBJIY, XOTH BhlJJ;BB­ HYBIDII.Ü 1ero <<COI03 ROM-MYHHCTOB>> ,:J;aBHO rrepecTaJI c�ecTBOBaTb. RoHelJno, HeMaJIYJO po.n1> 3p;ech TaKme 'ChlrpaJia ,n;o-Jil'OJJeTBHJI yrro-pHaH 6opn6a MiapKca H 3HreJI1>ca aa pa3BHTHe Mem,n;ynapo�oro rrpMerapc1roro pecBoJiro­ n;HoHHoro ABIIIB0HHH. MapKC H 8nre�hC ûTP,a.BaJIII MHOro aaeprHR co6HpaHHIO peBOJIIOD,HOHHhlX CHJI, IIOJIHTH1I0CROMY BOCIIRTaHIIIO npOJie'tapCKHX 1m;n;poB. pacm11peHHIO HX COCTaBa. CTpeMJI8Hlie nepe,n;OBhlX npoJieTapn:eB paaHhlX CTpaH K o6'be)];HH8HIIIO CBOIIX CHJI püCJIO C Ram,D;hlM HOBhlM ycIIeXOM pa601Iero 1J;BHiR0HHH, C pOCTOM IlOJIHTll'IeCirnii 3p8JIOCTII H caMOCTOHT0JibHOCTII pa6oqero RJiacca. B 1862 r. B pe3yJihTaTe noeaµ;RH ;i;eJieran;HH cppanu;y,acirn:x pa601rn:x Ha JloH­ �oncKyro iIIpOMhlillJieHHyIO Bhl.CTaBRY y-cTaHOBRJIIICI. rrpo'IHhle ,n,pymecTBBHHhle CBH'3H Mem,n;y <f>p,a.HD;Y3CRlIM H aHrJIIIHCKRM pa6o1JHMH .A,B.HmeHlIHMH. Tor.rta me HaJiap;HJIH KOHTaKT -C aHrJIHHCKRM pa6oqHM AJ3H.iR0HlleM H He.M8'D;Klle paooq11e. H,eoÔXO,ll,HMOCTh -C·0BMeCTHOro BhIC-TynileHHH eBpone:fü:rnoro npo;nrrapllaTa B 3a­ �lITY IIOJihCKOI"O Hapo,n,a, IlO,IJ;HHBmero repoHqecl(oe BOCCTaJIHe aa CBOIO CB06o;n,y, rrpBtBeJia CHOBa B JIOHAOH B llIOJie 1863 ro,u;a p;eJieran;1no cppaHn;y�RRX paootJHX. AHrJIHiî-cKlriî: npoJierapIIaT, rrpe.n.,c,TaBJieHHLiiî JloH,n;oHcKH:M coBeroM Tpe,l(-IOHIIOHO'B, II rrpep;craBHTe."IH cppann;yacRKX pa6o1ll:lx B03BhIClIJIH roJIOC B aa­ IQifTY BüOCTaBme:ii IIom,mH. Ca.Ma ïIDL3Hh Terrepb Tpe6oBa.Jrn, lfTOOhl npoJ.CeTapHH Bcex crpan o6'heAHHH­ JIIlCb. 28 COOITH6p.H 1864 ro;:i,a B JlOHAOHe IlOCJ.Ce npe,n;:sapHT0JILHLIX eorJ.CaooBaH­ HhlX ,n;eiÎCTBHii pyROBO,IJ;HTeJieii aHrJIRHCKOfO H cppan:n,yacKoro pa6oqero ABRiKe­ HHH cocToHJICH 60JI1,mo.n Memp;yHapo,u;n1,1ii: pa6oq}{H MHTHHr. B HeM npHHHJIH y1JaCTHe aHrJIHlJaHe, <ppann;yahI, H0Mil,hl, TIOJIHIŒ, HTanLHBD;bI, mBeiin;apn;hl. 8TOT HCTOpH'IeCRHil MHTHHr B CeHT-MaipTHHC-XOJIJie B JloH,l(OH0 IIOJIOinHJI Ha1Ia­ JIO I MHTepnan;IIoHaJiy. Co3,n;a.HHe MemAyaapoµ.Hor-o TOBap11mecTBa pa601IHx oTBe4aJio TpeooBaHHHM iRlI3HH, aa)J.a1IaM, BCTa"BillllM rrepe,TI; pa001IllM RJJaCCOM na ll,OCTHrHyTOM HMB ypoB'He pa3B'HTHH. K. MapRc. Mmnn,ie pacKo.i:1,1 B l1HTepm1u;noHa.i:e. R. Me.p.Kc H <I>. Bn,re.111,c. Coq., T. XIII, -ci. 2; <1>. 3nrem,c - T. Hyno, 24 JIHBapn 1872 r. R. Ma pK c H <I>. 8 II r e JI 1> c. C01:1., T. X..XVl; K Ma pK c H <1>. 3 H r e JI b c. A..i:Mrnc COI(Ha.rrucTe:11ecROH .n;eMORpa­ nm H Memp;yHapo,:i;Hoe roBapiun;ecTBO pa6o�nx; K Ma p K c H (])_ 3 H r e ;i h {'.. Co11., T. XIII, 11. 2. 12 B. M. JI e H H H. Tpn Hcroqem<a II TPH <:ocr.aBHhlX qacTH M.a.pKCB3lrn. Coq., T. 19, CTJ). 3. 71 40
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MnTHHr B CeaT-Mapu1uc-xo.m1e rrpoxo;:i,nJI no,J, npe;1,ceAareJn,crBoM npoq>ec­ copa Jlœ,n;ouc«oro yHHBepcnrera 8):lyap�a Bn3JIH. Ilpe,m1omeHHe o 003MHBII Mem,nyaapo)l;iroro o6'Le)l;•Hil:IeHHH BHOCJIH OT aJif;JHHCKHX paooq.Hx O,n;mep :'.H OT cppaHIJ;Y3CKIIX ipaooqux ToJieH. ):(JI.JI pyROBO)];CTBa 6y.n;yrqeii opraHII3aJ�He:ii, BhI­ paÔOTKH rrporpaMMHhIX u ycTaBHhlx �oKylrnHTOB OhlJI irn6paH CoBeT, B KOTO­ phli BOIDJlll npeACTaB'.HTeJIH aar.TIHHCKHX, cppaHn;yacKHX, HeMeD;KHX, aMepH­ KaHCKHX, HTaJILH-HCRHX, IIOJibCK'HX, mBe:iî:n;apcRIIX pa6oqHx. IIpe.n;cTaBHTeJl'eM OT HeMen;RHX peBOJIIOrt;BOHepoB BomeJI RapJI MapKc. BhlpameuueM 11puaaaHHH aBropHrera MapRca ÔhIJIO ,ïJ.aHHoe eMy nopyqe­ HHe COCTaBIITI> OCHOBHhle IIporpaMMHhie ,J,ORY)feHTbl Mem.n;yHapo.n;Horo TOBapn­ rqecTBa 1pa6ol111Ix - Ytipe";IHTe.:IhH1>1ii ltaHncpecr II ycra'B. Map:nc 'nocretneHHO CTaJI lpaKT'H"l!0CRHM pyK-OIBO;cHTeJieM Mem�yHapo,:J;HOH npOJierapc,KOH opraHima­ rvm. «Hu ,II;JUI Koro yme He 6bl.JI•O -r,aÜHOH, RTO HB.îHeTC-H peiRH·COepoM>>, - BCilO­ Mll'HaJI noa,IVIee IloJI1, Jlaq,apr o 1poJ1II Map:nca B MHTepRaI(HoHaJrn, ,n;o6aBJIJUI rrp:a 8TOM, --ITO «caM MapRC ,n;ep.ilrnJICH B TeHII, Bbl.Il;BIIra.H Brrepe)]; ,n;pyrHX>) 73• IlporpaMMHhIÜ ,n;o.KyMenr I lIHrepHa:r:i;HOHa.Jia - Yqpe.:i;HTeJibHbIH MaHH­ q>�T - aa1rnwurnaJICH TeM me JIO3yHrOM, 'ITO li <<ROMMYIUICTIPIOOKHH MaHlI­ cpecT»: <<IlpoJieTap11:e: Be-ex crpaH, coe,,J,IIHHiiTech! >> 8ritM 110.:i;qepRHBaJiac1, ïRH3HeHHaH CHJia aToro JIO3yHra H HCTOpHqecKaH npeeMCTBeHHOCTb Mem.a.y rrepBO:Ü Memµ;yuapO,ll.HO:Ü: npoJieTapcRO:Ü: opraHH3an;:aeii - CoI030M ROMMYHHCTOB Il Mem)U7HapO,ll.HhIM TOBapH:c:qecTBOM pa6otIHX. O.:i;aaKo B oT;c:aqHe OT Co103a RO.MMYHIICTOB I llaTep­ Bop1t6a 11apKCB3Ma na�ona:i He 61,m 06'be;:i;nne1rn:,m.1 ROIMl\fYIDICTOB. 38 �eii:eyio rereMOBBIO B ero COCTaB BOlli;JH paooqHe pa3JIH'IHhIX IIOJIBTlPie­ B lleZAYB8poAOOM CRlIX B3fJIH�OB - H rrpH;a;epmHBaIOin;HeC.R: rrpy,ll.OHHCT­ pa6oqe11 �eBBB CRHX ooaapeanii, H 3apameHHbrn rrpe·;a;paccy,ll;IŒMH Jiac­ caJibHHcrna, H y6em;:,.eHHble CTüpOHHIIIRH orpaHlPieHHbIX n;eJieH rpe,:::J;-IOHHOHH8Ma. PaôoTaH aa;:,. rrporpaMMO:iî Harepaan;H-oaaJia - Y11pe,ri;HreJihHhIM Ma.a:e:q,ec­ roM, MapR-C ClIIITaJI,CH c peaJibHhIM COCTDHHIIeM .Mem.a.yaapo,µ,HOJ\O pa6o,qero ,IJ;BH­ meHHH. ÛTKaaaTbCH OT COTpy,rvmqecTBa C TeMH lIJIH IIHbIMII pa6o'IHMH IIOTOMY, qro OllH erqe He OCBOOO)J,IIJIHCI, OT nepemHTROB )leJIRooypmyasaoii n,u,e-OJIOfD.1! II He ,ll.OpOCJIH ,ll.O nayqHoro ROMMYHH3Ma - 6hIJIO 6hl }];OKTpHHepcTBOM II CeR, raHTCTBOM. :U TO u ;a;pyroe rJiy6oKo 11ym.:(o MapK<�y. Ho BM·ecre -c reM HeJI1>3H 6hlJIO MlIPRThCH B. c TeM, 'ITOObI MetïR.AYHapo,J.HaH rrpo:reTapc1rnH opraimrnaq:e:.H CTaJia necTphlM ROHrJIOMepaTOM pa3HhIX H.n;en: II npIIHrt;HIIOB. Ilo3me, R 1871 rüAY, MapRC B IIlICbMe K O;vIOMy H3 pyROBO;J;HTeJieiî aMepIIIŒHCKHX celr­ n;:e::ü: llaTepaaquoHaJia <l>pH,ll.pHxy BoJI1,re, IIHCaJI: «Hnrep1-1,alfuo1-1,a.1t, 6hIJI yqp�­ mµ;eu ,ll.JIH Toro, 1IT06hl 3aMeHHTb con;naJIIICTJPieCRIIe II IIOJiycoqHaJIIICTHll0CKJl•l ceKThl µ;eiicTBHTeJI1>Ho:Ü: opraHH3an;IIeii pa6o-crero R.TJacca )];JUI 6op1,61,1. IlepBoaa11aJinHLIH ycTaB u Y--ipe,ll.HTeJI1,Hhlii Maan:cpecr cpa3y me y1rn3hIBaIOT aa ôTo» 74. Ha):lo 6LIJio Bblpaoora-Th TaRyro H)];eiiHyIO rr;rarcpopMy, RoropaH H3JraraJia 6hl BeJI'IIKHe HOTOpH-crecrurn ai�a11:e: pa6oqero KJiacca B .n;yx•e nayqHoro co1.1;1rnJina:\rn n BM0CTe c TeM 6hlJia Obi COCTaBJieHa B pe;i,aRn;HH, rrpHBMJieMOH H ;::J;JIH pa6oqnx H8'MapRCHCTOB. 8Ty aa,n;a11y MapKC 6JieCTHiq·e paapemHJI. <<ÛAHH H3 aJieMeHTOB ycrrexa - lIHeJieHHOCTb - y pa6otIHX yme ecn,; HO -crncJieHHOCTb TOJibKO Tor.n;a pemaeT ;a;eJio, Ror;a;a Macca oxBaqeaa opraHH3an;1rnn: H e10 pyKOBOAHT aHaHHe>> 75. B ar:ax cJioBax Ytipe;a;HTe.:11,noro Maancpecra 6hIJIH OlJ0HI> TO"IHO onpe;1.eJieHhl a-errocpe�crœeHHbie 3a·,1a'II:I, CTOHBIDH·e rrepe.ri; T'ÜJII,RO -crTo coa,-;auaoi Mem,n;yaapo,-;noü rrpoJieTapc1wii opraHHaan;irnn:. 1 1 73 «BocnoMHHaHHH o Map-Kce H 3Hre::n,ce>>. M., 1956, cTp. 76. 74 K MapRc - <I>. Bo;rbre, 2,3 Ho.a6p.a 1871. K Ma p 1K c li <I>. 3 H r e ;i h c. Coll., T. XXVI, CTJ). 174. 75 K. M a pK c. Y11pe'AHTeJihHhlH MaHHq>ecT MeaqyHapo;moro TOBapull(ecrna pa6o11e:x. K Ma pKc :e: <I>. 8 are;i1,c. Co11., T. '16, crp.10. 1 41
ADDRESS AND PROVISIONAL RU LES OF THE WOR.KING INTERNATIONAL MEN'S ASSOCIATION, E�TAELISHCD SEPTE:!ŒER. 28, 1864, AT A PUBLIC �EETING HBLD AT ST. M.ARI1N'S HALL, LONG ACRb, LO�DON. PRICE ONE PENNY. PRJNT:ED AT THE "BEE-Hl VE., NEWSPAPER OFFICE, 10. BOLT COURT. FLEET STREET. : cL4. THTYJlbHhlll �HCT IlEPBOrO ll.3.IJ;AHHH �PE,ZlHTEJl.bHOro MAHHfl)ECTA H BPEMEHHOro YCTABA MEiR.IJ;YHAPOAHOro TOBAPHmECTBA PABOtUIX
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I 1 .llaea emopa.H, KPH3MC BTOPOll HMilEPHH (1867-1870) * 1. KAIIDTAJJIICTJJllECKOE PA3BHTllE 4>PARllJ{D B 50-60-x rO,IJ;AX. OBOCTPEHHE KJIACCOBhIX llPOTBBOPEqfl:0 o BpeMeHH IlapHmc:no-ü RoMMYHhl (l>paHD;HH ,AaJie1w marnyJia mie­ pep; B CBOeM 3ROHOMlPieCKOM pa3BHTHH IIO cpaBHeHBIO C nepno,n;oM peBOJIIOD;J/lJ/1 1848 r. �Ba C JHIIDHHM p;eCHTBJieTBH, OT;[{eJIHIO�e 3TH p;Be CJiaBHbie peBOJIIOD;BB <ppann;y3cKoro napop;a, II04TH n;eJilfKOM �!!!!Ill.. COBIIaJIH C cyin;ecTBOBaHHeM BTopoii HMnepHB. 3a 8TO BpeMH BO (l>paHD;HH 3aBepmHJICH B OCHOBHhlX qepTax npoMhlIIlJieHHhlli nepeBopoT. H KOHD;Y 60-x ro,n;oB HaH60Jiee BaïRHhle OTpaCJIH «f>pann;yacKOH npOMhIIDJI8HHO­ CTH, B TOM qucJie MamnHOCTpoenne, 6h!JIH OXBaqenhl q,a6p1rqHhlM npOI1I3BO)];­ CTBOM. THmeJiaH npOMhlillJI8HHOCTb, Kan«TaJibHhle BJIOIB0HBH B KOTopyro B 50-60-x ro,n;ax Bce 6onee BoapacTaJIH, no TeMnaM cnoero pocTa onepe­ maJia pH,n; BamHbIX OTpacJieR JŒfKOR IIpOMhIIBJieHHOCTH, B tJaCTHOCTH XJIOiltJa­ T06yMamayro. Pa3BllTHe THiIWJIOH J/lH;n;ycTpHll B 6oJu,moi Hepe o6ycJIO­ BJIHB8JIOCb mHpOKHM pa3MaxoM CTp01iT8JihCTBa meJI03HhlX ,n;opor II cy,n;o­ CTpoeHHH. IlpaB;a;a, no cBoeMy y;n;eJibHOMY Becy B o6m;eM oo'beMe npoMhlmJieH­ noro IIpOH3BO,Il;CTBa T.ameJia.a HH;n;yCTpHH - Ka.R, Bilp01IeM, li B nocne,r.r.yro­ m;110 ;a;ecHTHJieTHH - ycTynaJia JierKoiî. 50-60---e ro;n;hl xapaKTepJI3YIOTCH p()CTOM ROHqeB­ 3asepmeHBe Tparum ·IIJ)OlI3BOACTBa BO q>paHII,Y3CKOH IIpOMLlllme'H­ npoMblIWleHBoro HOCTH, pacnpocTpaHeHHeM KpyIIHLIX npe,n;npl'UITHË uepeBopoTa. He TOJibRO B JJefKOH, r1IaBHblM o6p a30M B T8KCTHJ1Ir PocT Kpynuoro Dp0B3B0.ll;CTB8 HOH npOMhlIDJieHHOCTH, KaK 3TO t>LIJIO B npe�me­ B DpOM:bllIIJleHHOCTB CTBYIOID;He .nec.HTRJieTHH, HO H B pH,n;e Be,rcym;Hx OT­ B Ce.JlbCROM X03HHCTBe pacJieH THme.n:oii IIHAYCTpHH (,n;o61iIBarorqeii, MeTaJI­ nyprnqecKoi, XHMHlJeCKOH H JJ;pyrHx). tJaCTI, Rpynn:hIX IIpOMhIIDJI0HHhlX npe,n;­ npHHTHH RaR B npOBHHIJ;HH, TaR H B Ilapnme, HaC'IJHTh!Ba.Jia COTHH H nepe,n;Ko ThlCH'qH pa6nqRx. HeymrnnHo aapacTa.JI npou;ecc KOHD;eHTpan;nH B o6JiaCTH TpaHcrropTa. Yme B 1857 r. II01ITB BCe meJie3HO)J;OpüiRHI,Ie JIHHlUI <l>panu;nn: 6MJUI cocpe]];OTOqeHbI B pyxax 6 KPYIIHbIX ain�ROHepHbIX KOMIIannn, Bh!TeCHHBIDHX OKOJIO 40 meJie3HO,ZJ;OpOiRHLIX o6�eCTB. B C0JihCKOM X03HHCTBe COBepma.JICH npou;ecc ,n;aJibHeimei KOH�eHTpan;HH 3eMeJII,HOH co6cTBeIIHOCTB Il apeH]];hl 3eMJIH. PocJio Kpynnoe 30MJI8BJia,n;eHBe, OCHOBaHHOe Ha IlHTeHCH(pHRUIJ;Hll H cneu;naJIH3a�HH ceJihCKOX03HHCTB8HHOro npOH3B0,ZJ;CTBa, Ha npnMeHeHHH B HeM MamnH H HaeMHoro Tpy.na. YBeJIJI1IHBa- 46
BHPiRA Jiumo2parpu.,1 O. J(o.m,e JIHC1, noceBhl 3epH0BhlX KYJihTYP aa ClleT nycTyrom;nx 3eMeJib; BHe,npHJICH noceB : nyroB:hlX TpaB H caxapHOH CBeKJII>I; pacm11pHJiaCb m1om;a,ri;o, 0TB0,Il;HMaH IIOA BHHorpaAJIHKH; B CBH3H C pa3BHTlleM M0.:JOqHoro JI MHCH0fO lliHB0TH0B0)WTBa yBeJIHlIHBaJI0Ch II0T0JIOBbe Kpynnoro pora T0f0 CIWTa II CBHHeii:. Ilpon;ecc R0Hn;eHTpan;nn ropa3,Il,0 llHTeHCHBHee, qeM j(am,ueiinœi pocT npem,n;e, oxaa·n1a H 06,;rncTh ToproBJIH. Kpynae:ftmHe JCO�ell'l'pa� yn1rnepcaJibHhie Mara3HHhI IIapHma <<Eon Mapme,, B OOJl8CTII TOpl'OBJDI «JlyBp>>, <<IlpeHTaH>>, <<BeJih lliap,n;:nHbep>>, <<CaMa­ B �Ta pHTaH» H neR0T0pl>Ie APYrIŒ D0HBHJHICI:, HMeHH0 B 50-60-x ro.n:ax. To me cJie.n:yeT cRa3aT.h H o pa,rr,e :npynahlx ToprOBhIX rrpe,n;­ np:e:HTHH «ppaney3CKOÜ npOBHHD,HlI. HOBhle rrp0Ml>IIIIJieHHbie JI ToproBI>Ie npe,n;­ IIpHHTHH B Ilapume, KaK :e: BO Bceü <l>paHIJ,HH. BCe 6oJiee TeCHHJIH Me-TJRIŒ n cpe,lQIHe. AnaJiorH'IHfüI KapT:e:Ha na6J110,ri;aJrnc1, H B o6JiaCTII Kpe,11;J1•1·a. B orpoMHhIX paaMepax BL]])OCJIH OIIepa�H He TOJibR0 <Dpaan;y3CKOI'O ÔaRiIŒ, no li pn.n;a Kpe­ �THHX yqpem,n;e:mri, coa,n;aHHhlx HJIH peopraHH30BaHHhlX B 50-60-x ro.n:ax: Crédit foncier (06�ecrno noaeMeJII>>Horo Rpe;:i;11Ta - 1852), Société générale <le Crédit mobilier (feaepaJii,noe o6i:n;ecrBo .n;mnKIIMoro Kpe,n:nTa - 1852), <<Crédit lyonnais)) ( «JI:e: oncRnii Rpe11;11T>> - 1863), Société marseillaise de Crédit industriel et de dépôt (MapceJ1hc:noe o6m;ecTBO rrpoMbIIII.'IeHHoro Kpe­ �11Ta H ooeipeme-HHil. - 1864) H mpyrnx. H,pyrrHhie Rpe;:UITHhie yqpem.n;eHHH BO MHOrHX cnyqaHX Henocpep;CTBeHH0 y�aCTB0B8Jili B coap;aHHH li ynpoqeHHH npoMLimJieHHhIX H Tp8HCIIOpTHLIX npe.n;npHHTHH. HoJioccaJibHbie paaMephl npH­ HHJI 6:e:pmeBo:ë: amuoTam. Orrepall,HH na pHiHCKoiî 6HpiHH yTpOHJIHCo aa row,1 BTopoii HMIIep:e:H. 47
PocT npoMblillJI8HHOCT.If Il Tüpfüfü"'III, paaryJI 6J1pmeno:ü CIIeKYJIHD;HH npII� BeJIH R cocpep;OTOlI8HIUO B py1rnx RpyrrHeiimHX qmHaHCHCTOB H rrpoMLIIlIJieH­ HHROB Harr6oJiee 3HR1IHT8JibHbIX npOMhlIDJieHHhlX, TpaacrropTHhlX II 6aHKOB­ CKHX npe.n;npHHTHH <DpaHIJ,IIII. <<EaHKH, Kpe,n;HTHlde o6m;ecTBa, rrapoxop;hl, iE8JI03Hhie ,u;oporII, KpynHbie MeTam1ypnPieCKIIe H ra30Bhle 3aBO,I(hl, BC8 CROJib­ RO-HH6yp;1, 3HRlIIIT8Jibffhie o6�eCTBa cocpeJWTOToqeald B pyKax 183 JIIIIJ,,­ iIŒJIOBaJICH B 1869 r. BH,D;Hhlli npy,u;oHHCT iKopm J];romen.- 3TH 183 JIIIn;a IIOJIHOCTbIO BJiap;eIOT orpoMHblMII RaIIHTaJiaMH, KOTOPLIMH OHH yrrpaB­ JIJUOT. RarrIITaJihI arH rrpe,u;cTaBJIHIOT B aKIJ,HHX :e: o6JIHran;1uu: ooJiee 20 MHJIJII:Iapp;oB <ppaHROB>> 1• O.n;naKo npH Bcex ycrrexax Kpyrraoi rrpoM.hIIIIJienao­ IlpeooJia�aHBe MeJIRBX cTH Bo <Dpaan;nn aan6onee pacrrpocTpaaeHHldM TH­ B cpe,1:t;1DIX npeAfipHHTBH IIO'M llp<)MhIIIIJreHH-Oro npep;up»HTHH H 'B KOHI\0 60-X B BpOMMUUICBHOCTH fO)l.OB BCe em;e OCTaBaJiaCI, M0JIKaH H cpe,n;HHH MaCTep­ B ToproBae, CRaH c O,Il;HHM HJIH HeCROJibKHMH pa6oqJIMII JIH6o BO­ MeJIKBX KpeCTbHHC.KBX nap�eJin BCe 6ea npHM0H8HHH HaeMHoro Tpy,u;a. B TOproBJie B eeJibCKOM X03JIÜCTBC TaRme rrpeo6nap;aJIH MenRHe II cpe,n;aHe rrpe.n;rrpHH­ THH. B Ilapnme, BBHAY oco6enaocTeÜ: ero HCTopHqe­ cKoro pa3BHTHH, M8JIKOe peMeCJieHHOe IIpüH3BO,I(CTBO, M0JIKaR ToproBJIH coxpanH­ JIH .name OÔJibillYIO ycroiqHBOCTh, qeM BO MHOfHX �yrHX paiiOHax CTpaHhl, xo­ TJI II 3J(8CI, neyRJIOHHO pa3BHBaJIHCb h.1)YIIHaJI IIIPOMhlIIIJie.HHOCTb H TOprOBJIH. B ceJinCKOM xoaHiiCTBe RpyrrnoKaIDITaJIHCTHqecim:e H Rynan;1-rn:e xoaRiiCTBa. nepemeAIDH0 R HHTeHCHBHOMY, cneu;naJI:0:311pOBaHHOMY Il MexaHB3:o:poBaH­ HOMY npOlI3BO,il;CTBY, B COBORYilHOCTH 3aHHM8JIH, no ,u;aHHldM ceJIJ,CI(OX03HB­ CTBeHHOH nepeirn:cH r., He 6onee seMeJI1>noii nnom;a,u;:o: 2• MnorI:Ie KpynHbie 30MJieB;ia,n;eHlUI c,n;aBamICb B apeH)zy MeJIRHMH yqacTR8MlI. Ilo,n;aB­ JIJIIOID;aH qacTb 38M0JibHOH IlJIOm;a�l,lI AP06HJI8Cb Ha RpOXOTHbie napn;eJIJII,I Tpy­ J(Hru;eroCH RpeCTMIHCTBa, 06pa6aT1>IBaBIDHeCJI ycTapeBmHMH crroco6aMII. Macchl KpecTI,HH He pacnoJiara.rrn Heo6xo,n;HMbIMH MaTepHaJibHhIMH pecyp­ caMH p;JJH rrepecTpOHnlI X03H.HCTBa Ha OCHOB0 HOBe:iimei T0XHHRH CBoero BpeMeHH. ff TOMY me, H.FflITOlliHO M8Jlhl0 pa3M0pb1 napu;eJIJI HCRJIIOqaJIH B03MOiKHOCTh npHMeHeHIUl MaIDHH. Pa3BIITHe IiaIIHTamrnMa BO <I>paHI\HH, pocT Rpynnoro O6ocTpeHBe HJ13CC0B&IX q,a6pH4Horo 1IpOH3BO,n;CTBa BHBCJIH H3M0HeHHR B co­ npoTBBope'lflrii CTaB q,paun;yacRoro pa6oqero RJiacca. HapHp;y c pe­ B 50-60•x rol(ax MecaeHHhIM II MaHyq>aKTYPHhlM npoJierapHaTOM, em;e COCTaBJIHBIDIIM II0)];8BJI.HIOrr,;ee 60JibillHHCTBO pa6oqHx <I>paHIJ,HH, B npOMhIID­ JieHHhlX 'Q0HTpax poc.rrn Imp;pbl na,n;ycTpHaJibHOfO rrponeTapHaTa. Ero pH,I(bI IlOIIOJIHHJUICb rJiaBHhIM o6pa30'M paaopHBillHMHCJI RpeCTbHHaMH H ceJibCROX03.HHCTBeHHbIMH pa60'C!H�HI, BhIHym,n;eHHbIMH 6emaTI, B ropo,u;a B IIOHCRaX pa6oThl, a TaRme 6hlBillHMII peArnCJieHHHRaMH, yTpaTHBIDlIMH cnoco6HOCTb caMO­ CTOHTeJil>HOro cym;ecTBOBaH.FIH' H pa6oqHMH peMeCJI0HHhlX MacTepCRHX. B Ila­ pume B ROHu;e 60- X fOJ(OB HaC4HThIBaJIOCb JIHIDL OROJIO 50 TldC. <f>a6pIIqno3ano;r(CRHX pa6otIHX, T. e. ncero rrapnmc1wro rrponeTapn:aTa, CBhlme ThlC. CTpOHTB:JhHbIX pa6oqnx, BblXO,Il;D;0B H3 KpecTbHH, H OROJIO 10 ThIC. meJie3HO;a;opoJRHbIX paOOlIHX 3• CorJiaCHO Oq)H"[J;Ha,,:n,HhIM ;:i;aHHbIM, orry6JIHROB8HHblM B 1860 r. rrap11mCKOH ToproBon: na.i:aToir, pa6otJ.n:ii p;enh B IIapHilŒ aa rrpe,n;npHHTHHX npoMIJmJieH- 1862 24,52% 10% 80 (19%) 1 G. Duchêne. L'Empirr industriel. Histoire critique des concessions financières et industrielles. Paris, 18ô9, p. 52. 2 Statistique agricole de la France. Résultats généraux de l'enquête décénale de 1882. Nancy1 1887. Tableaux, p. 170-173; A de F o v i Il e. Le morcellement. Etudes économiques et statistiques sur la propriété foncière. Paris, 18'851 p. 78. 3 L. Che v al i e r. La forrr,ation de la population parisienne au XIX siècle. Paris, 1950, p. 111; <<Paris-Guide>>. Il partie, Paris, 1867, p. 1666-1667.
HOro THTia COCTaBJIHJI, KaR npa!BHJIO, He 6o.Jie.e 10 qacoB. Ha ]);eJie OH 6hlJI '3Ha11HT0Jl.bHO 6onee npoµ;OJI)KHT0Jl.bHbIM. CHH)K0HH0M pacu;eHOK rrpH C]];0Jl.bHOÜ OIIJiaTe Tpyµ;a, nm:poKO 11paRTHKOBaBme:iicH B ro;r::t;hl BTopoü: HMnepHH, 11pep;­ 'npHHHMaTeJIH BhIHY>KAaJIH pa601111x TPYAHT.bCH ropa3JW 6oJI.bme 10 11acoB m1a coxpaueHHH 11pemuero aapa6oTKa n 06ec11e:qennH cBoero 11poiRHT011u0ro MH­ HHMyMa. 06 3TOM CBHA0T0Jl.bCTBYIOT MHOf01IHCJieHHhle nmmaaHHH pa6011ux µ;e­ neraTOB Ilapu:ma na BceMHpa1,1x BhlCTaBI..:ax 1862 n: 1867 ro;r::t;oB. IIap11:mcR11e KapeTHHKH, mopHHKH TPYAHJIHCb 12-13 11acoB B ;r::t;eHb, iR0CTHHHKH 14-16 tiaCOB, pa601111e, aaHHThle B IIJ)Oif3BOACTBe porOBbIX II3]I:e.11:11:i,i,- 15 11acoB li T. Ji:• .l];a:me p;eTH H 110,Iq)OCTKH Tpy_p;HJIHCh 3HaqHT0JlbHO 60JihIDe 10 11acoB B A0Ho; MHOrHe 113 HHX - no 15-17 11acoB 4• B rrpoBHHD;Hil YCJIOBHH Tpy;r1;a 6bmH em;e 6onee THmeJihIMH, 11eM B IIapHme. Pa601IHÜ )];€Hl>, )l;ame no oqm:a;naJibHLIM ;ll;aHHldM, COCTaBJULT[ 3));0Cb He MeHee 11 11acoB. Ha npa:hTHKe OH ROJie6aJICH Me­ >KJJ;y 13 H 17 11acaMJ1. qTO KacaeTCH OIIJiaThl Tpy;r1;a pa601IHX, 3aHHTblX B 11poH8BO,IJ;CTBe, TO XOTH ,., ,., HOMH,HaJIL'llaH aapaooTHa·H rrJiaTa rrpeo 6:rnna romero oo.:ibmHH'CTBa 110RhICHJiacL B 50-60-e ro;ll;LI, peaJibH3H aapa60THaH IIJiaTa, 3a H€MHOfHMH HCRJII01l0HHJIMH, CHH3HJ1ac1,. PocT n,:eH Ha npoµ;yRThl IIHTaHHH H rrpo1IH€ npe)l;M0Thl rrepBOH Heo6XO,IJ;HMOCTH, B oco6eHHOCTH I10Bhlill€Hne KBapTHpHOH IIJiaTbl, 3Ha1IH­ T0JILHO o6roHHJI H pOCT HOMHHaJibHOH aapa6oTHOH IlJiaThl, paaMep KO­ Topoii, K TOMY me, 61>1JI B ;ll;e:liCTBHT€:IbHOCTII HJUne ;r1;aHHhIX Oq>HD;H­ aJILHO:Ü: CTaTHCTHRH. Cym;ecTBOBa:io MHOin0CTBO CKpbIThlX q>opM ee CHH­ :meHHJI, ROTOPhIMH 06LI1IHO IIOJib30BaJIHCb npe;r1;11pn:HnMa T0JIH: pa3Hoo6pa3Hhle AeHe.iKHLie mTpaq>LI, HaJ.IaraBIDII0CH Ha pa6011n:x ( 1IHCJIO HX paa­ HOBH,IJ;HOCTeii ;ll;OXO,IJ;HJIO )l;O 29), npHHYAHT€JlbHaH OII.:IaTa TPYAa (noJI­ HOCTblO HJIH '1IaCTII1IHO) TOBapaMH. B0CbMa 3H31IHTeJibHaH Haa;eHKa Ha KO­ TOpbie mJia B KapMaH BJia)l;eJ11>:a;eB 11pe)l;IIpHHTHii, OTlJHCJieHIIJI OT aapa60THOH IIJiaThl (BIIJIOTb AO 4 % ) B II0HCHOHHhle i-.acchl, HaXOJ];HBillH8CH BO MHOrIIX CJIY­ qaHx B pacnopHmeHHII 8;ll;MHHHCTpan,»H. CJie;r1;yeT TaKme ytJeCTb, 1ITO Hepa6o1IHH nepHOA B Te1leHIIe ro;r1;a 6h!JI B KOHil,e 60-x ro;r::t;OB, KaK npaBIIJIO, 6onee npOJl.OJiiKHTeJILHLIM, 1IBM B KOH:a;e 40-x. IIo:noMy ro,ri;oBOM 3apa60TOK pa6oqero }J;ame B CJiy"l!ae II0Bhlill0HHH ero HOMHHaJibHOH 3apa60THOH IIJiaThl 6hl� MeHhme, 'leM B 11pe;r1;mecTBYIOID;l-Ie p;ecHTIIJieTHH. 8TO npnaHaBaJIJI II H0ROTO­ phle 6ypmya3Hhle Ha6JIIOAaTeJIII 5• 06m;aH T0HAeH:[�HH R CHHineHHIO peaJibHOH sapa60THOM IlJiaThl He HCKJII01ra.na, paayMeeTCH, Toro, TITO B OT�e.1:LHhlX paiioHax, B ne.pno�bI 6.narOIIIPHHTHOH 3ROHOMH1J0CROH KOH'bIOHKTYPhl, HMeJio MeCTO BpeMeHHOe IIOBhlill€HH0 peaJibHO:Ü: aapa60THO:Ü: IIJl3Thl )l;JIJI H3BeCTHhIX :naTeropnii pa601IHX. Ho 3TH HBJI0HIIJI 6hlJIH npeXO;tVIID;HMB .a 1IaCTH1IHhIMH . .l);aHHLie O ,rt;HeBHO:Ü: H cpe,n;Heroµ;OBOH 3apa6oTHOH nJiaTe napHiRCKHX pa6o­ qHx, co6paHHhle rrap:e:iKCKHM o6m;ecTBOM «Tpy;ll;OBOrO KP8Jl.HT8>> B 1864 r. II aa­ CJIYiKHBarom;ne 60J11>Mero AOBep:e:H, H8in8JIH oq>nn,na.1hH8H CT8TIICTHKa 1860 r., IIORa3bIBaIOT, TITO 60JI1>IDHHCTBO 11apIIin:CKllX pa6ol.JIIX-Mylli1IHH IIOJiyqaJio B TO BpeMH B cpe;r1;HeM 3 q>panxa B ;r1;enb na pacqeTa 300 pa601IIIX )l;Heii B ro,r,;y. iRen­ m;n:HbI me, aa H0MHOrHMH HCKJII01leHHHMII, IIOJiytJa.1n OT 240 ,r,;o 360 q>paHKOB B ro,r,;. Memµ;y TeM rOAOBO:Ü: pacxo;r1; pa6011eii ceMbH II3 qeTblpex qeJioBeK TOJlbKO Ha IIJITaHne, RBapTHPY, OTOIIJieHIIe H OCBem;eHII€, He ClJHTaH aaTpaT na 0));0inJl.Y li ,r,;pyrne nacym;HLie II0Tpe6HOCTH, ;ll;OCTHr B 1870 r. 1385 q>paHKOB 6, no Oq>II­ Il,H8JlbHhIM ;a;aHHLIM (110 APYfHM ;a;aHHhIM - 1700 cppaHKOB). 4 <I>. B. II o Te M 'K :e: 11. R oonpocy o no:iomemrn: pa6o1I•ero R;racca oo <I>pamv,1:e: B aocJie,IJ;HHli nep:e:o,rr. IIJ)OM1iBIIJieHHOI'O ne-peBOpoT.a. B c6. <<lfa HCTOpHH co-qnaJibllO-IIOJUl'l"H­ eCKIIX H,aeih>. M., 1955, CTJ>. 5'57-581. 5 CM., na-npHMep , L. L a z a r e. Les quartiers pauvres de Paris. Paris, 1'869, p. 90. 6 Ministère de travail et de la prévo yance sociale. Statistique générale de la France. Salaires et coût de l'existence à diverses ép oques jus qu'en 1910. Paris , 19H, p. 105. (J 4 TiapBH<Cf<ali HOMIIJ'Ba. T. 1 49
Hey,n;11BMTeJihHO, l:ITO n Ilapm-1,e n 1862 r., no np1rnaaHHJO npeq>eKTa p;errap­ TaMeHTa CeHa 6apoHa ÜcMairn, Haxo,n;HJIHCb Ha rpaHH HHIIJ;eTbI 1 073 061 qeJio­ BeR 7, 113 HIIX 121 330 lJ8JIOB8K 6bIJill B 1866 r. üq>ll�llaJihHO 3aperllCTpHpOBaBLI Ra:K HHm;ne 8• BID;r:i;meT 6JrnroTBop1neJihHl.IX T{peaqi;enHii CTOJIHD;hI ,c 13 345 620 tj)paHWOB ' B 18.52 r. BhIP,OC B 1869 ·r. ;n;o 22 385 518 q,paHKO'B 9. Ilo IIpH3HaHHIO 6ypmya3Horo pecny6Jrn:1rnHu;a lliro.JHI CH:MOilla, OOJI•ee 50% pa6o'11HX ceM , eiicTB BO <t>paHD;IIH npu6craJIH n 60-x ro,n;ax :n o6m;eCTBeHHO:Ü 6JiarOTBüpHTeJihHOCTH. TITO Raca18'TCH 3aRJia,n;a Hell\eli B JIO)i'Ôa1p;w, TO yme B 1860 r. HG 416 TbIC. rra­ pI1JRCKHX pa601IUX 200-250 ThIC., a B lWH�e 60-x ro;r:i;oB em;e 60Jihille, He MOTJIH o6xo;r:i;HThCH 083 3'fl0if'O pOCTOBiqlPieClmro yqpe·�eHJUI 10, �OXO)];hl KOToporo c 1852 r. no 1869 r. 6oJiee 118M YTPOHJIHCh ( c 209 325 ,n;o 665 127 q>paHROB) 11. E�e 6mrne HpRIIii npHMep 06HHIQaH1u1 HBJUIJio co6oii rro.rromen1rn pa6oqnx B npüBllHIJ;HH 12• T»meJibre ycJIOBHH Tpy,n;a H HH3Ra.JI ero OIIJiaTa, qaCTJiqHaH li TIOJIHfüI 6e3pa60TIUJ;a, 6peMH ROCBeHHbIX H npHMLIX HaJioroB xapaKTepH:bl ,rt;JIH noJiomeHMH Bcero q>paH:u;y3cRoro npoJieTapnaTa B ro,rt;hl BTopoii liIMnepnn. B pa3JinqH:bix paüoHax <l>panu;1nr OhIBaJio aeMaJio C.JIT{aeB rH6em1: Juo,n;en OT roJIO,Ll;a H xoJio,n;a. 8KO!HOMH1I8:CIWe ,pa3B11THe <t>paHIJ.,"ffH � 50-60-x ro)];aX conpooom,n;aJ.IüCb iH rrporpeccnpyIOill;HM pa3opeHJieM Me:n-w.ii 6ypmya31UI. 3ROHOMHqecRaH TIOJIJI­ THRa BTopoiî HMrrepHn uc:nyccTBeHHO ycKopaJia 3a cqeT rocyAapcTBeHHOÜ Jea3Hbl XOA KOHD;eHTpan;nn B npo�IbIITIJI8HHOCTH H ToproBJie. MeJIRoii: 6ypmya3HH CTaHOBHJIOCb BCe Tpy,n;Hee ROIIRypnpoBaTh C KpyIIHhlMH npOMhlIDJ10HHH­ RaMH H ROMMepcaHTRMl L B IIIOJie '1868 r. rrpetj)eRT .zi;enapTaMeHTa PoHa B ]1;0HeceHHH MHHHCTPY BHyTpeHHHX ,n;eJI coo6m;aJI: «MeJIRaH ToproÊJIH c Tpy,rt;oM MOIBeT Bhl)l;epaŒTb pa3opHTe.1hHYIO IWHRypeau;nro RpynHhlX TOprOBbIX npe,n;­ npHHTJ:IH II orpoMHhie o6m;ue pacxo,n;hl, B "'I8CTHOCTH na 1rnapTHPHYIO IIJiaTy. IloJio.meHne ee ell\e 60.1Jee yxy,n;maeTCH c nacTyn.rreHReM cpm-wB rrJiaTemeii, 1ITO Haxop;l:IT CBOe HarJIH,Il;HOe BbipameHHe B 60JihillOM ROJIHlI:8CTBe rrepee3J];OB C RBapTHp B pe3yJII.TaTe npenparr:i;eHHH TOproBJIH... Me.JIRIIe TOprOBD;hl CTpa­ ;r:i;aroT OT OTCYTCTBIIH J];OCTaTO"lJ:HOfO I.OJIH1IeCTBa TOproBhlX c;n;eJIOK. ÜHH HYIBAa­ IOTCH B cpe}lCTBaX, BCJiel];CTBIIe qero HM npHXO):J;HTCH rrp116eraT:& li )J;OJirocpoq­ H.bIM Hpep;nTaM>) 13. 8Ta xapa:nTepHCTIINa IlOJIO.iK0HHH M8JIROÜ 6ypmya3HH .zi;e­ napTaMeHTa PoHa MOIBeT 6bITb OTHeceHa K TIOJIOmeHHIO MeJIROÜ 6yp.mya3HI' Bceii <l>ip ann;HH. Be.::m:Hn:t'r 61,norrnca re.1:h Brotpo:ü J:l){II€ij)l:IH 3MHJih 3o-.'IH B pH;x,e Bl>I)];arom;HXCH xyJ];oIBeCTBeHHhIX rrpOH3Be,n;eHHÜ MacTepCRH H3ü6pa3HJI 6e3hlC­ XOJ];BOe IlOJIOIBBHHe MeJIROfO co6CTBeHHHKa, 6e3Ha,n;emao IIhITaBmerocH :a;eHOÜ TH»WJihlX mepTB coxpaHJITI, caMOCTOHTe.ITI,HOCTh, HO o6pe"'IeHHOro Ha nopame­ HHe B HepaBHoii 6op1,6e c RpynHhlM Rarr1ITaJ10M. B Ilapnme, rJJ;e npeofüiaJJ;aJIP M€JIRHe npOMIJITIJieHHhie II ToprOBhie npe;i;npHHTHH H rJ);e peMecJieHHHRH, MeJI RIIe TOprOBD;bI H JiaBO"'IHHRH no-npemHeMy COCTaBJIH,JHI B0ChMa 3HaqnTeJihHylfl• qacTh HaCeJieHHH, pa3opeHHe MeJIKOH H QTqacT:u: cpe,rt;Heii 6ypmya3HH 6bIJIO· oco6eHHO om;yTHMO. Heirn6emHhIM CJiegCTBIIeM 3nOHOMIPleCKO:Ü IIOJIHTHRH BTopoii HMnepHH 6hIJia TaKme pac:ryru;aH nJiaCCOBaH ,LUiq)qJepeHn;Han;HH RpeCTI,.fIHCTBa, YCHJieHHe n Bce 60JI1,mee o6oraru;eHHe ero RyJJa r1;iwï1 nepxymRH, pa3opeHne n o6eaaeMeJie­ RI•rn 3HaqnTeJibHO:Ü qacTH TPYRHID;HXCH :npeCThHH. «CeJI1>c1we xoaH:ÜCTBO, ROT07 C. de Pa e p e. Situation économi que du prolétariat en France. «La Rive gauche» · ' 20 août 1865. 8 E. F r i bo ur g. Le pauperisme parisien. Ses p rogrès depuis 25 ans. Paris 1872 , , (J. 58. 9 Mémoires du baron Haussmann, t. IL Paris, 1890 p. 442. , 10 A C . o ch i n. Paris. Sa population, son industrie. Paris, 1864, p. 53. 11 Mémoires du baron Haussmann, t. II, p. 416. 12 ÛM. T. Il RaCTOHIIl,ero li3,J;amuI. 13 l.J;HT. rro craTI>e Lyon, cité républicaine. Etude collective «1848. Revue des révolu-­ , tions contemp oraines>>, 1.951, N 189, p. 123. 50
poe 'BO <l>paHQlfll HlIKOf,!l;a H0 ;1;ocrnra.i:o BhICOKOl'O pa3BllTHH,- 1rn:caJ1 Mao;>ltC B ro� Bropoi HMnepm-1:, Jnlfül B Bli)J:Y X03HHCTBa �eJIKIIX napQemrn:pHhIX KpecThHH,- npH cy11:J_eCTBYIOIIJ_e:L\1 pemHMe npm,rn perpeccnpyen> 14• IlpoQecc 3TOT, KUR H aaxa6aJienne TPYAHIIJ;HXCH KpecTMIII Il 60-x ro.n;ax, BCe HapacTaJI. 06ain:u;anne pa6oqero mrncca n TPYlVIm.erocH r:pecTMIHCTBa e�e peaqe Bhl­ cTynaJio na cpone KOJioccaJihHOro 06oraIII,eH1rn uMyrn,nx KJiaccon: cpnHaIICOBoë OJrn:rapxHH, KpynHOH npOMhlmJie:W:HO:Ü: II TOpronoü 6ypmya3HlI, RPYIIHhIX 3eM­ JleBJI8A0Jih0.0B H KyJia�1w:ü BepxymRH RpecThHHc Tna. IloJiunma HanoneoHa III OblJia IIOJIHOCThIO 110,ri;qlIHeHa HIITepecaM :KaIIIIT8:IIICTlPieCIWÏI H8iRHBhI H 6np­ meBoro manTama. IJ;eno:ü yBeJin1rnH1u1 60.rree G:eM Bp;noe rocy.n;apcTnenHoro JJ;OJira <l>paH�HH B o6peMeHeHHH 60JihillllX ropo;J;OB THïneJihIMH MYHIHI,IHiaJih­ HhIMll ]J;OJiraMH, JIOiRHBIDH.MHCH B OCHOBHOM Ha IIJI0"CIH Tpy,U.HIII,lIXCH, npaBH­ TeJlhCTBO BTopoii HMIIepnH o6ecneqHBa.TIO 1n1ym;uM IWaccaM rocyll,apcTBeHHhie -0a:ÜMhl, KOHQeCCHH, cy6CHP,IIH JI npoqne rrp1rnu.11erHH. B IIX ROphICTHhIX HHTe­ pecax npeAIIPlIHHMaJIHCh rpa6HT0.'1hCRne BOHHbI n ROJIOHH8Jlbllbie 3KCIIel},IUI,HH B H11Taü, CHp:uro, AJimnp, RoxnHxIIny (!Omn1,1ft BheTHaM), MeRCHKY H p;py­ t·He CTpaHhl. RJiaCCOBhle npOTlIBOpe4H.H BO ct>paHII,llH B 50-60-x rop;ax yrJiy6nJIHCb 11 -06ocTpllJIHCh. «Bo Bcex CTpaHax EBpOIIbl Tenepb CT3JIO OtJ.eBHAHO:Ü IICTH­ HO:Ü )J;JIH Kam;n;oro Henpe,ri;y6emp,eHHOf0 yl\rn - IIO;r::I;llepKHBaJI MapRC oceHhIO 1864 r. - .,.qTo Hll ycoBepmeHCTBOBanue MaIDIIH, Hll nplU.IeH9HHe nayRH R IIPOH3BOACTBY, HH yJiyqmeHHe cpe;r::i;cTB coo6III,eHHH, HU BOBbie ROJIOHHH, HH aM11rpan,HH, HH HOBl,Ie PLIHI-Œ, Hll CB06o;r::i;HaH TOpfOBJIH, IIH nce 3TO BMeCTe B3H­ TOe iie ycTpaHHT HlUJJ,0Thl Tpyp;HIIJ,HXCH Macc; qTo Ha COBpeMeHHOM nopoquoë OCHOBe BCHKOe p;aJJbHeftmee pa3BHTlle npOH3BOll,HT0JILHOH CilJihI Tpyp;a H9H36emHO yrny6JIHeT 06III,eCTB8HHhle ROHTpaCTbI lI o6ocTpHeT o6m;ecTBeHHhie aH­ T3fOHII3MhU lS. 2. HAPACTABHE RPII3HCA BTOP0:0 HMTIEPIUI ( 1867-1869) XoTH 50-60-e ro;r::i;hr XIX B. 6hIJIH BO <DpaHQHH, KaK H B .n;pyrnx pa3BHThIX IŒIIlIT3JIHCTH1I0CRllX CTpaHaX, DOJIBTB'lecROü speMeHeM ne6b1Banoro p;o Tex nop aKOHOMHtJ.ecRoro ueyCTOHlDIBOCTB IIOAoeM:a, ninrnpHH Hano:.reoHa III yme B KOHJJ,e 50-x BTopoii B11UiepHB rO]J;OB Ha'laJia 06Hapym1rnaTb ceph93Hbie npH3HaKH UOJIHTH'l0CROH HeycTOlilJ.HBOCTH. 8ROHOMlJqecKHM :KpH3HC 1857-1858 rop;OB, nepBLI'Ü 113 nepnop;nqec1mx RpH3HCOB nepenpOll3BO;r:I.CTB3, IIOTpHCIDHX 8KOHO­ MHRY <l>paHQHH H B 3TH aan6oJiee QBeTyIII,He p;eC.HTHJieTHH IŒIIHT3JIH3Ma, no­ Ra3aJI HMYIII,HM KJiaccaM, 'ITO MaTepnaJihHa.H OCHOBa IlMnepnH OTHIO;r:t.h He TaK npoqHa, RaK 3TO npe,ri;cTaBJUIJIOCb HM B nepBhle fO)];bI ee cyIII,eCTBOBaHHH, COB­ naBmHe c naqanoM npOMhIIDJieHHoro IIOAoeMa. Tpenory B036ym,ri;aJIH n cepb­ e3Hhie npocqeThl no BHemneft noJIHTnRe, ;a;onyIII,eHHhie HanOJieOHOM III B ROHIJ,e 50-x rop;on. BnepBh:re co npeMeHH rocy;a;apcTBeI-IHoro nepenopoTa 1851 r. He,IJ;OBOJlhCTBO 6oHarrapTHCTCKEIM pearnl\IOM OXBUTHJIO 3Ha"CIJITeJlhHYIO qacT.h 6ypmyaaIIH. Ha Bhl6opax 1857 r. B 3a:n.oHo,n;aTeJihHhlii Kopnyc 6ypmya­ -3HH, npH IIOAJ);epmKe pa6oq11x, np0Be.1a B COCTaB 6oHarrapTIICTCRO:Ü: rraJiaThl IlHTh yMepeHHblX pecny6JIIIIiaHuen: 8.MUJIH ÜJIHBhe, 8pHeCTa II1nrnpa, AJihq>peJJ;a ,Il;ap1u,10Ha 1 lliro:rn (!)anpa, llia1rn-Jlyn 8HoHa, cocTaBHBIIIHX nnep­ Bhle Jiesyro q,pa:KJJ,HIO 3a:KOHO;r:I.8T8.'IhHOfO ROpnyca. cDpam:i;yacirnH 6ypmya3MH Ilepewe upaaBaKB 14 R. Ma pK c. 3ROHOMnqecimiî Rpn3llC BO <Dpamurn. K. M ,a p R C l'i <D. 3 H r e :r b C. Coq,, T. 12, crp. 80. 15 R. Ma 'PK c. Ytrpe,::i:nTeJihHhiii :\IaHHq>ecT MeaqyHapo,::i:Horo ToBapn�ecTH.a paoo• q11x. K MapKc II <D. 'BHre:11,c. Coq., T. 16. cTp. 7. 4* 51
npo,n;eMOHCTpHpOBaJia 8TlIM CBoe CTpeMJieHHe BepHyThCH K yqaCTHIO B IIOJIHTH­ qec1wii »rnsuII, OT ROTopon: oHa co BpeMeHH np11xo,n;a HanoJieoHa III K BJia­ CTH oTirnsaJiacb, yBJieqennaH noroHe:Ü: aa JIJt4HOH HaIBHBoii. 0;::i;HaI-W B I-WHil,8 50-x ro;::i;oB OIIII03lIII,HOHHhle HaCTpOeHHH cpep;H mHpOKHX Hpyron 6ypa,ya3IIII e�e TOJibRO aapom,n;aJIHCh. HaH6oJiee BJillJIT8JihHa.a: me ee nepxyrn1rn, npnnep;rnaa JlyH EoHaIIapTa K BJiaCT:H, 110-11pem:HeMy cocTaBJiaJia onopy TpoHa. Cpe;::i;H TPYJJ:OBhIX cJioen naceJieHH.H aROHOMHqecKnii KPH3HC 1857-1858 ro­ p;on Bhl3BaJI pocr CTR'IeK, OiRHBJI8HIIe ;::i;eMOKpaTIPieCKHX, pecny6JIHKaHCKHX Ha­ CTpüeIUiH B ropop;ax, o6ocTpeHHe KJiaCCOBOro aHTarOHH3Ma B ,n;epeBHe. Ü,n;HaKO 8TO ,ll;BHiR8HIIe ne HOCHJIO Tor;::i;a MaccoBoro xapaKTepa: IIOJIHII,8HCKo-6ropoKpa­ TIJlieCI-Œ.H rHeT, B08HHhlH p;ecnOTH3M, aaCHJJbe KaT0JIH1!8CROfO p;yxoBeHCTB8, p;anaBmHe O ce6e 3HaTh C oco6o:ü ClIJIOH B 50-x ro,n;ax, CJIYiRHJilI TOMY rJiaBHOÜ np1111uHoii. Ho»6pbCKIIMH ,n;e:KpeTaMII 1860 r., HeCROJihKO pacmHpHBillHMII npana 3a­ KOHO)];aTeJibHOro Kopnyca H CeHaTa, H CJiep;oBaBmHMH aa HHMH HeKOTOphlMH .n,pyrnMH RYII,hIMH npeo6paaoBaHIIHMH HaIIoJieOH III cTapaJicH yM11poTBopnT1>6yp,nyaan10 II op;HoBpeMeHHO coap;aTb y Tpyp;H�HXCH Macc BH,IUIMOCTb HacTy­ llJieH1UI HOBOH JIH6epaJihHOH aphl. Üp;HaI-W 8TH He3Ha1IHT8JlbHhI0 II0JlllTH1le­ CRHe YCTYIIKH ne yp;Ofü'IOTBOpHJIH lIMY�He KJiaCChI, IIOKOJie6aBmHeCH B CBOeM p;oBepHII R lIMnepaTopy II Tpe6oBaBmHe 6oJiee paAHI{aJlhHhIX HOBOBBep;eHHB� «Heo6xop;HMhlX cBo6o,n;>>- CBo6o,n;hl CJIOBa, neqanI, co6paHB.ii, pacm11peHHH upaB MYHHII,HII8JIHT0TOB. TeM 6oJiee He yp;oBJieTBOpeHHhlMH peq>opMaMH 1860 r. OCTaBaJIHCh Hapü,D;Hhle MaCChl, cpep;H IWTOphlX H8YRJIOHHO HapacTaJio Be,n;o­ BOJihCTBO CBOHM IIOJilITlI1l0CRlIM 6ecnpaBHeM H YCHJI0HH0M HX 8RCITJiyaTaII,HH. Bhl6ophl 1863 r. B 3aKOHO)];aTeJlhHhlll Kopnyc, BO BpeMH KOTOphlX OIIII03HIJ,HOH­ HaH 6ypmya3HH npH nop;p;epm1rn HapOAHhlX Macc IIOJiyqHJia 35 p;enyTaTCRHX M0CT' HarJIHJ(HO IlOKa3aJIH, RaK MaJio y,n;oBJJeTBOPHJIH y6JIIO,D;01IHhie pecpopMbl HanoJieoHa III m11poRHe CJIOH HaceJieHHH <I>paan;1111. B 1867 r. HMnep1u1 HanoJieoHa III BCTynHJia B rJiy­ 1867 roA -uaqaJio fioRRH JIOJIHTH1!8CRHH KpH3HC, KOTOphlii HeyKJIOHilO aan6oJiee rJJy60iwro Ha npOTHiR8HHH IIOCJiep;yIO�lIX JI0T II B KO­ IlOJIBTBqecRoro RpB3HCa HapacTaJI f Hf qHQM cqeTe npHBeJI K ee KpymeHHIO. BTopoii BMDe pBB <DpaH�HH naxo,InIJI8Ch Tor,:�a B THCKax meCTOKoro BKOHOMHqec1rnro RplI3HCa, nepeôpoCHBmerocH crop;a H3 Coep;HH0HlHhlX IllTaTOB AMepuRH II AHrJIHH. IlpoH3Bo,n;cTBO II rroTpe6neH11e coKpaTHJIH�h, TOproBJIH 11 6n:pma OKa3aJUICh B KpHTHqecKOM IlOJiomeHHH, rrpep;npHHHMaTeJihCKaH np116bTJJh II aapa6oTI Ia.H IIJiaTa IIOHH3llJUICh 16 • RpH3HC OCJIOiRHRJICH HeypomaeM 1867 r. Pea11e, 1l0M Kor;::i;a-JIJI6o CO BpeMenn 6oHanapTHCTCKOro rocyp;apCTB8HHOfO uepeBopoTa, Bbipa,irnJia CBOe 03JI06JreHHe cpep;HHH H B oco6eHHOCTH MeJIKaH 6ypmyaa1uI. 1867 fO)]; 6bIJI J(JIH Hee 1Ip83Bhlqa:ÜHO THiR8JlhlM. IloCTOHHHhie KO­ ne6attHH Ha 6:u:pme paaopHJIII MHOf01IHCJI8HHhlX M0JIKHX paHTbe. He)];OBOJIJ,­ CTBO OXBaTIIJIO H RpyIIHYIO rrpoMhIIDJieHHO-ToproByIO 6ypmya3HIO. Ha 3TOT pa3 B OITTI03IIII,IIIO nepemJia TaK»rn 3Ha1IJITeJibH8H qacTb Tex ee «pyron, Ha ROTop1,rn Ha110JieoH III rrpem;:i;e onHpaJicH. IlpIIqHHO:Ü aToro 6hlna BHemneTopronaH noJIHTIIRa 11paBnTeJihCTBa n npem,ri:e Bcero ToprOBhl:Ü ,ri:oronop, 38KJJroqeHHhIH HM B HHBape 1860 r. c AHrmieii cpoRoM Ha 10 JieT. CorJiacno ycJIOBHHM aToro ,n;oronopa <ppaHII,Y3CKOe npannTeJihCTBO OTM8HHJIO 3anpeT na BB03 pH,ri:a aHfJTHHCRlIX TOBapoB Il CHR3HJIO IIOIDJllIHhI Ha npe,n;MeThl aHrJIRHCRO­ ro BB03a J(O 30 % HX CTOHMOCTJL BJia,n;eJibIJ,hI MHOflIX RpynHhlX TeKCTRJlbHhlX q,a6pMK, MeTaJIJJypr:0:qeCKlIX 38BO)];OB, yroJibHhIX ROne:ü: 6hlJIH IlOCTaBJI8HhI ne16 J. L e scure. Des crises générales et périodiques de surproduction. 3-e éd. Paris , Ml23, p. 69. 52
pe;n; Heo6xoJ(11MOCTLIO o6HOBHTL ycTapeBmee o6opy;n;oBaHHe CBOHX npe;n;rrp1u1THB, 1:JT06LI IlpOTHBOCTOHTh aHrJJHBCKOH ROHKYJ)0HD;HH Ha q>pann;yacROM phIHRe, a 9TO Tpe6oBaJio Kpymn.IX RamITaJIOBJIOïKeHHH. Hn npe,u;ocTaBJieHHa,:r npaBH­ T0JILCTBOM 40-MHJIJIHOHHaJI cy6CHAlUI npe,u;npmnrMaTeJI.HM, HH CHH»t0HH0 BB03Hhl.X IlOIDJIIIH Ha TeKCTHJII,HOe CLip:&e, HH y,u;emeBJI0HHe rrepeB03Iœ rpy3oB no so,u;e He ocna6HJIH HeAOBOJILCTBa IIpOTHBHHKOB TOproBoro ,u;oroBopa 1860 ro�a. ÜHH ynopuo npHIIBCLIBaJIH TPYAHOCTH, HCIIhlThlBaeMhle (J>pann;yacxon npo­ MhlmJieHHOCTLIO, rJiaBHhlM o6pa30M nary6HoMy B.'IHHHIIIO TOproBoro ;Il;OfOBOpa, cJiymunmero, IIO HX MH0HHIO, HCRJIIOlfHTeJihHO 6pn:TaHCKHM HHTepecaM B ym;ep6 OTe'leCTB0HHLIM. <l>pauizyacxHe npOT0KD;HOHHCThl Tpe60B8.'IH H3MeBeHHH ycJIOBHH ;n;oroBopa ( cpoR ,n;eiicTBHH ROToporo HCTelmJI B q>eBpaJie 1870 r.). BBn,ny Toro, 1:JTO 9TOT .D;OrOBOp Mor 6h1Tb )];0HOHCHpoBaH He U03,rI;Hee q>eBpaJIH 1869 r., OBII yme C 1867 r. (H B 3aKOBOJ{aTeJihHOM Kopnyce, r;n;e OBH 6hl..'IlI rrpe)J;CTaBJI0Hhl BJiJJ(­ HLIMH .n;enyTaTa:M'H� II BHe ero) YCHJIHJIH KaMIIaHHIO TipüTHB ero B0300HOBJJe­ HHH B npe,iœeM BH.1];0. TOJihRO H060JihIDaH qacTh KpynBOH 6ypmya3Jirn:, aa:HH­ TepecoBaHHaH B CHHffiCBHII BB03HhIX nom.'IHH Ha rrpe;n;MeThl (J>paHizy3CKOro 9K­ cnop-ra (BHHa, meJIK, npe�MeThl TyaJieTa H pOCKOIIIH - (<IIèijpllïnCKHe II3�e.JIIUI» H ,u;p.), BhlCKa3hlBaJIBCh aa B0300BOBJieHHe ;n;oroBOpa na npemHHX YCJIOBHHX 17• Kpa:.ë:Hee He)l;OBOJihCTBO BLipamaJia TaKme qrnnaHCOBaH OJIHrapXHH. Ona maJioBaJlaCI> Ha KaTaCTpO(plf'10CKOe rra,u;eHHe Kypca n;eHHhIX 6yMar, Ha pocT q}ICJia 6aHKPOTCTB, coRpam;eHne onepan;irlÏ <DpaBn;y3CROro 6aHKa, 30JIOTaH Ha­ JIHlffiOCTh KOToporo (CBhlme MHJIJIHap)l;a q>paH.KOB) He HaXOAHJia npHMeHeHHH B IIpOMLIIIIJ10HHOCTH H ToproBJie, Ha o6ecn;eueHlI0 aKD;lIH ilŒJie3HO,D;OpOiRHhlX II APyrHX KOMIIaH:o::ü. «1867 ro,u;,-. no,nqepR»BaJI opraH q>paHn;yac.Koii KpynHoH 6ypl!(Y88HH «Journal des économistes» - ...oKaaaJICH ro,u,:oM MHoroqHcJieHHhlX (j>HHaHCOBhlX KaTacTpoq,, ro,u;oM npocqeTOB H 06.MaByTMX Ha,nem.D;>> 18• Ilo CJIO­ BaiM ,n;pyroro 6ypmyaaHoro 3KOHOMnqecooro opraHa, norepn <Dpauwr11 •B pe­ ayJILTaTe lIOC'I'HrrrieTO ee q>HHaŒIOOBOI'O llOTJJHICeHHH HcqHCJIH,'IHCh '.\-IJIJIJIHap­ ,u;aMH 19 • HaHÔoJiee CKaH.l);aJihHOH q,nHaHCOBOli KaTaCTpOq>oii 1867 r. 6bIJ1 Kpax «Crédit mobilier» ( «J:(BHIBHMoro Rpe,u;HTa>>), Kpynneftmero Kpe)J;HTHoro yqpe­ m,u;e1qur <l> paHD;HH, MHOrOMlIJIJIHOHHhie cnexyJIHTHBHhle onepan;HH KOTOporo noJIMoBaJIBCh oco61i1M noKpoBHTeJI.bCTBOM HMneparopa. Rypc aKn;Hiî <<Crédit mobilier», COCTaBJIHBllllÙÎ B 1863 r. 1482½ q>paHNOB, B C0HTH6pe 1867 r. ynaJI ));O 134 fj}paHROB; B OKTH6pe aTO am:i;noHepHoe o6�eCTBO H ero (pHJIIIa.JihI npe­ R:paTHJIH IlJiaTeiIGI, Bhll3BaB H0BepûHTHYJO naHnRy Ha rrapJI.inCKOH 6upme. Co6LJTHH 3TH paapa8BJIHCh B paarap IIhlillHhIX nplI;Il;BOpHhlX npa3)J;HeCTB B qecTL BCeMHpHoii BhlCTaBKH, KOTopyro rrpaBnTeJihCTBO BTopo:ü HMnepHH OT­ KphlJIO B anpeJie 1867 r. B 3HaqllT0JibBOH Mepe C n;eJihIO Bhl3BaTh XOTH 6hl Bpe­ M0HH00 omHBJI0HHe aKOHOMHqecKoii: iRH3HH CTpaHbl II OCJia6HTh 3THM He,u;o­ BOJlhCT�O 6ypmyaaHH. BhlCTaBKa, Ha ycTpO:ÜCTBO ROTOpoii 6hlJIO 3aTpaqeno OKOJIO 24 MHJIJIHOHOB q>paHKOB, He onpanp;aJia, O)J;HaIW, B03JiaraBmnxca Ha Hee Ha.D;em)l;. IlocJrn ee aaKphlTHH, B OKTH6pe 1867 r., pecny6JIHKaHcKaH neqaTL rro,u;qepRHBaJia, qTo oua «ocTaBHJia npOMhlIDJieHHOCTh H roproBJIIO B COCTOHHHH IIOJIHoro HCTOIIl;BHHH Il onJiaTHJia 3aTpaqeBHMe Ha Hee cpe]J;CTBa MHOil{eCTBOM 6aHKpOTCTB» 20• IIpoBaJI J(11IlJIOMaTH1:J0CKHX ManeBpOB Il ROJIOHna.'!JhHhIX aBaHTIOp Hano­ .:I00Ha III, oKoWJ:aTeJILHo onpe,u;eJI:nBmHiicH B 1867 r., ycyry6JIHJI H0.D;OBOJihCTBO 17 A. L. Du n h a m. The anglo-french treaty of commerce of 1860 and the progress of the industrial revolution in France. University of Michigan Press, HX30; C. F o h I e n. L'industrie textile au temps du second empire. Paris, 1956; M. L é v y. Histoire écono­ mique et Sùdale de la France depuis IB,4B. Université de Paris, 1951-1952. 18 «J ournal des écon9mistes», 1868, janvier, p. 117. 19 Annuaire de l'économie politique et de la statistique. Paris, 1868, p. 500. 20 Le bilan de l'année 1868. Paris, 1868, p. 4. 53
6yp.mya3HM. Bypmya3HfüI OIIll03.flIJ;MOHHaH rreqaTb B KOHIJ,e 1867 r. OTKphlTO rrepel!HCJUIJia rropameHHH H Hey,n;aqu rrpaBIIT0JlhCTBa BTopon IIMII0pllll Ha Me­ m,n;ynapo,n;Hoii: apeHe: ero IIOJilITIIKY BO BpeMH aBCTpo-npyccKoii BOHHhl 1866 r., -crroco6cTBoBaBinyro yc1wem2uo IIpyccnII B yrri;ep6 <DpaHIJ,HH; KOJie6Juorri;y10cn:, npoTJrnope-q1rnyro Il03HIJ;HIO BO Bpe1.-rn: IIOJibCKOro BOCCTaHHH 1863 r., o6ocTplIB­ myro OTHOmeHHH <l>paHIJ,JIH C Poccneiî II ne 3aBOeBaBmyIO CIIMIIaTHH IlOJIHKOB; npe,n;rrpHHHTbie HM 6e3ycneIDHhle IIOIIhlTKH rrpHCOe)J;HHJITb JlIOKCeM6ypr R <Dpanu;1u1, ero p;BoiîcTBeHHYIO rroJIHTHKY B MTaJIHH. CaM1>1M pe3KHM narra,n;­ IŒM B netiaTH n B 3aKOHO,n;aTe:IbHOM Koprryce IIO,JJ;BepraJIOCb rrpaBHTeJihCTBO B CBH3M C KpaxoM :\Ie:nCIIRaHCKOH ROJIOHIIaJihHOH 8KCII0,JJ;IIIJ,HH, OKOHl!aTeJibHO BhIHCHHBIDHMCH B 1867 r. 8xcnep;nIJ,HH aTa, rrpe,n;npIIHHTaH HarroneoHOM III B 1862 r. B HHTepecax cppaHIJ,Y3CRIIX 6aHKIIpOB 11 B yro,n;y KJiepHKaJiaM, IIOTpe6oBaJia OT <DpaHu;n11 orpo�IHhIX pacxO,I(OB na co,n;epmaHHe B TeqenIIe l!CThlpex .rreT noqTn 40-ThlCJPIHOli 01-tKynaIJ,IIOHHOH apMHH B MeKCIIKe. <<<l>paHD;llH COBep­ rneHHO 6ecIIOJI03HO rromepTBOBa.Jia CBOIIMil COJI,IJ;aTaMH H CBOHMII MHJIJIHO­ HaMH>>,- rrnca.rr n ROHIJ,e 1867 r. <<Journal des économistes>> 21 • B 3aKoHo,I(a­ TeJibHOM KOpnyce r:raBap:u OllII03MIJ,IIH IIO,IJ;BepraJIH cyponoi KpHTHKe BOopy­ meHHYIO HHTepBeHIJ,HIO B MeKCHKe, CTOJih 6eccJiaBHO npoBaJIHBIDYIOC.H ... 22. f B TecHoii CBH3H c uo.111Tf 'Iec:n1nn1 HaCTpoeHHHMH «ppaHqyacxo:ü 6ypmya3HH, pocToM ee He,r:i;oBepna II ox.'!am,n;eHnH R rrpaBHTeJihCTBY HanoJieoHa III CJie,n;yeT paccMaTpHBaTb OROHllaTeJibHOe O(pOpMJI0HIIe B 1867 r. TaK Ha31>1Bae­ MOJ°I TpeTbCM rrapnrn:, a;::cpo ROTopo:ü, no,n; Ha3BaHH0M {(JIH6epaJihHOro COI03a>>, IIaMBTHJIOCb yme B 1863 r., BO Bpe)UI B:bI6opoB n 3aKOHO,n;aTeJihHhlH KOpnyc. BHOBh C03,I(aHHaH OilII03HIJ;HOHHaH napnaMeHTCKaH rpynnIIpOBRa BhlCTYilHJia c ,n;eMaronPrnc1wii rr.;1aT<püpMoH: <<Ilporpecc nyTeM cB06o;a;1>1 6e3 peBoJIIOIJ,HF1'>, l!TO B ,n;eiîcTBHT0JibHOCTH 03Ha4aJIO Tpe60B8HHe IlOJIHTHl!0CRIIX CBOOO,IJ; ,JJ;JIH 6yp­ mya3HH nyTeM ROHCTHTYll,HOIIHOfO rrpeo6pa30BaHHH HMIIepnH. B ROHn;e cenn16pH 1867 r. rrpecpeKT napHmcROH IIOJIHIJ;HH B )];OHecen1u1 Ha­ noJieoHy III ROHcTan1poBaJI pocT <<OnacHhIX HacTpoeHH:Ü:>> cpe,n;H nap1uRcKoii 6ypmya3HH. KOTopaH, no ero, CJIOBaM, <<60Jiee ll0-M ROfA3--JIH6o noÂqepKHBa€-T CBOIO pa,n;:uRaJibHYIO II CIICTeMaTnqecKyIO OilII03lIIJ;lIIOt. Bypmya3H.H, YTBep­ ïR)];a.JI npe«pe:KT, (<C yp;oBOJibCTBIIeM BOCIIp::UHHMaeT Hana,n;KH rreqaTH, HeycTaHHO TBep)];HT, 4TO HaHeceH y,r:i;ap BHeIDHeMy rrpeCTHm'.Y HMIIep»H, MaTepHaJil>HOMY npon;BeTaHHIO CTpaHhl, .na H caMoii rapaHTHH coxpaneHHH o6rri;ecTB0HHoro rro­ PHARa u 1w·aoepnaTHDHhIX IIHTepecoB» 23• H.a.R BH�·HM, npmpeB."T nap::umcxo:ü: no­ JIHIJ;IIH o6paru;aJI BHHMaH:rre HarroJieoHa III Taxme na Kpa:ü:Hee He)J;OBOJibCTBO 6ypmya3HH ero BHyTpeHHeii IIOJIIITHIWË:, He o6ecneqHBIDeii HMYIIJ;HM KJiaccaM CilOROHHoe IIOJib30BaH:ue :rrx npHBHJierHHMH, IlOCTaBIIBIDeii: no;a; y,n;ap coxpaHe­ HHe HX <ŒOHCepBaTHBHbIX HHTepeCOB». Becrr.TJO,JJ;HOCTb ,n;eM:aroruqecxoro 3anrpb1BaHHH C pa6oqHMII, Ha IIYTh KOTO­ poro CTaJI HarroJieOH I 1 I co BpeMeHH cBoero npHxo;a;a K BJiacTH, Hn«or;a;a paHhme He 61>ma Tan JICHa cppaHu;y3cKoii 6ypm:ya3HH, KaR B 1867" ro,n;y. R aToMy npeMeHH oaa mwHqaTeJihHO y6e,n;1mac1> B TOM, qTo HanoJieoHy III He y,n;aJiocb «IIpRpytIHTh>) pa6otiee ABIHlieHHe, JIHIDIITb ero caMOCTOHTBJihHOCTH. ):lame OTCTaJible CJIOH pa6oqHX, o6MaHyThle Ha nepBhlX rropax JIHIJ,eMepnoii IIOJIHTH­ KO:Ü HMIIepaTopa, HR06hI rrpecJie,n;oBaBmeii 33Ill;HTY IIX HHTepecoB, IIOCTCII8HHO ,., œBo6om,ri;a.TJ'HCh OT oneRH OOHanaPTHCTCRHX BJiaCT0ll. 0 aro:u CBH,IJ;0'00JlhCTBOBaJIH ,IJ;OHeceHHH reHepaJibHbIX npoKypopoB II npe«peRTOB lIMIIepHH. u o� <<Journal des économistes>>, 1868, janvier, p. 117. F. E. La 11 y. French opposition to the Mexican policy of the Second empire. Béiltimore, 1931; L. M. Ca se. French opinion on war and diplomacy during the Second empire. Philadelphia, 1954. 23 Papiers et correspondance de la famille impériale, t. II. Paris, 1871, p. 275. Cabi­ net du préfet de police. Note pour l'empereur, 30 septembre 1M7 21 22 54
3KOHOMlllOOCKHH RPH'3HC 1866-1867 fOAOB crroco6cTBOBa.'I ,,IJ;a.,1:bHe:Ürne--My pocTy aHTB6oHarrapTBCTCROro ABHifŒHIUI cpe,n;n pa6oqnx Macc n em;e 6oJIL­ meMy o6ocTpeHDIO KJiaCCOBOH 6oph6hI B CTpaHe. 1867 ro;::i;, oco'6eHHO BTopaH ero IlOJlOBDHa, Kor,u;a 3ROHOMDqecKHH KpH3llC J];OCTHf BO CDpaHD;HH HaH60JihIIIeH OCTPOThl, Jler THiKe,JihIM 6peMeHeM Ha IIJie11H pa6oqHx, CTpap;aBIDHX OT COKpa­ m;eHHH npOH3BO,IJ;CTBa, CHHiKeHHH 3apa6oTHOll rr:rnThl, o6IIJ,ero yBeJIHqeHH.H ROC­ BeHHhIX HaJioroB, ;u;oporOBH3Hhl X.lle6a H ;r::i:pyrnx npo,n;yRTOB IIHTaHHH, B3,n;opo­ maHHH RBapn1pHoii IIJiaTbl. YcDJieHHeM CTaqeqno:ü 6oph6hl BCTpeTDJIH q>paH­ u;yacRHe pa601IHe HOBOe HaCTYIIJieHne 6ypmyaan:u Ha HX lliU3HeHHbIH ypoBeHb. B q>eBpaJie - MapTe -1867 r. B IIapHme 6acTOB3.'IO HeCNO:IhRO ThICHq pa6oqnx6pOH30BIIJ;DROB, .o;o61rnaBIBDXCH IIOBblilleHHH 3apa6oTHOH ITJia Thl; B Ma pTe 6hlJia o6'bHB.'IeHa CTa"IJKa Tpex C JUIIDHBM ThlCHq 11apHIBCRHX IIOpTHhIX; B TOM me Me­ CHIJ,e 6aCTOBaJID pa6011ne RaHaTHOfO rrpOII3BO,:J;CTBa B IIapIIme, TKa1IH II rrpH­ �JlhIIJ;IŒ'.H Py6a. B a11peJie 6acToBaJIH 400 yr:ieno110B cDIOBO (p;e11. YcThH Po­ .1:U,r), B HIOHe - KpoBeJihIIJ;HK:H ÜHq>Jiepa (;a;e11. naJihBa;a;oc), B HIOJie - na6oii:­ m;HnH TIŒHH B TypRyaHe, RpacH::ChIIJ,IIRn Be:nopa H pa6o-cine ;a;pyrwx cneu;n­ aJihHOCTeiî Ha T8RCTH.71bHblX npep;rrpHHTHHX A:\IbeHa, maxTepbl RaMeHHOyrOJih­ lfOfO 6accen.Ha Ila-.o;e-Ka;re, pa6o-ciHe paa:11I"IIHhlx npo<f>eccwii B HHhIX 11poMhim­ JieHHhIX o6JiacTHX <DpaHU.HH 24• <<PacTeT 'IBCJIO MHTeiHHhlX aq>Hm II Hal);rrnceii>> 25,- coo6IIJ,aJI 15 ceHTH6pH 1867 r. Ha110JieoHy Ill o HacTpoeHnH pa6o-ciux cTo:n1u,b1 npeq>eRT nap1I.IBCROH IIOJIBU.IIIL 22 ceHTH6pH OH BHOBh npe;r:r;y11pem;::i;a.ri:: <<B npe.ri;:�rnCTbHX o6Hapy11ŒHhl IIHCbMa, co.n;epmaIIJ,IIe yrp03bI no a,a;pecy x:ie6oToprOBD;0B, MHTeïHHhle aq>DIDH C Bhlnaµ;aMH n ponrn ca�rnro HMIIep aTopa, npOII3HOCHTCH p;ep 3RHe pe-ciH, B HIIX JI)f.elOTCH HaIIO)IIJ.HaH,HH O Heypomae 1847 r. 8-n1 HaCTp00HHH CJl'HIIl!KO.M pacnpocTpaHeHhI H Tpe6yIOT R ce6e cyry6oro BHHMaHIIH>>. IIpeq>eRT p;aJrne yT­ eepm.n;a.rr, qTo «pa6oqBe BCTpeqaJOTCH n co6upaIOTCH -cia1I1,e o6bPIHOrO» n qTo «B 'IIX cpe,rzy npoHBRaIOT arJITaTOpbI, ROTOpbie CTapaIOl'CH Boa6y,n;HTh ·B HlIX 03JI06JieHBe >> 26• Cepbe3HOCTI, C03AaBrnerOCH IIOJIOineHJUI BhIHY,IJ;HJia MYHIID;HIIaJibHble BJiacn1 IlapBma BHOBh BBeCTH B ;a;eftcTBHe CT. 5 npaBHTeJII,CTBeHHOro p;eKpeTa OT 31 aBrycTa 1863 r. 0 TaR Ha3hIBaeMO:H ROMIIeHcauun li accnrHoBaTb CBhlIIIe 3 MDJI­ JIDOHOB (j>paHKOB ;D;JIH BbIITJia Thl BJia.l];e.TibU.aM 1200 nap1Illi.CKHX XJie6one1mpeH pa8HHIJ;hl Mem,zy cym;ecTBYIOIIJ,eii, B3BHHqeHHOÏI u;eao:ü Ha XJie6 li IJ,eHOH, 110 RO­ TOpoii: 11apHïRCRH:Ü: MYHHIJ,HIIamneT npe;n;naraJI HM npo,z::i:aBaTb XJie6 HaCeJieHHIO. « BepxoBHaH a,n;MHHHCTpan;H.H OT)J,aeT ce6e OT"CJeT B TOM,-yRa3blB8JIOCb 16 HOH6pH 1867 r. B nepep;OBOH CTaThe Oq>HD;HaJibHOro cy,r:i;e6Horo opraHa HMIIe­ pHH <<La Gazette des Tribunaux>>,- -ciTo B Harneü CTpaHe, oco6eHHO B IlapHme, BJI8CTh He 'MO>HeT OC'TaBaTbCH 003pa3JJH"IIHO:Ü n p,ocTy I(eH Ha XJIOO B lfTO Heo6xop;DMO, qTo6hl B fO)J;hl ,r:i;oporOBH3Hbl OHa BMemuBaJiaCb II rrpeIIHTCTBOBaJia IIO­ Bhl'meHHIO ll.8'.H cnepx 'H3B0CTHOro ypoBH.ff>) 27. AHTHIIpaenTeJibCTBeHHhle aq>HIDH 6bIJIII B nOHD,C 1867 r. o6HapymeHbl IIO­ JIHD;Heft H B pa6o"IJeM 11pep;MeCThe .ITuoHa I{pya-Pycc. B HHX cop;epm:aJIHCh npH­ Mhle Ha11a,z::i:RH na HanoJieoHa III. <<3ToT rHycHhIH THpaH,- roBopDJIOCh B on;­ Hon ll3 HDX,- OCM0JIHJICH npOJIHBaTI, npOBh q>paHU.Y30B II 6e3iH8JIOCTHO HCTpe6JIHTh HamDX 6paTh0B B lfTaJIHlI B HHTepecax HeHaBHCTHbIX He3yHTOB B )zyXOBeHCTBa. ÛH paaopHeT CTpaHy, "CJT06h1 noc:i:aTh 30JIOTO narre, B TO Bp0MH <<LE' Courrier français>>, 1867, juin - décembre; F. L' Hu i 11 i e r. La lutte ouvrière à la fin du Second empire. Paris, 1957, p. 15-20; P. L é o n. La naissance de la grande in­ dustrie en Dauphiné, t. 2. Paris, 1954, p. 769; P. Léo n. Les grèves de 1867-1870 dans le département de l'Isère. <<Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine>>, octobre - dé­ cembre 1954, p. 287. 25 Papiers et correspondance de la famille impériale, t. II, p. 264. Rapport du préfet de police. Paris, le 15 septembre 1867. 26 Ibid., p. 267-268. Rapport du préfet de police. Paris, le 22 septembre 1867. 27 <1La Gazette des Tribunaux», 16 novembre 1867. 24 55
Ka:K ,H'aIDH ,u:eTIJI YMHparor OT XûJIOA'a 'H ro.,110,u:a. l1opa601.QeHHblÎi 1Hapo,u:, Ha 'ITO ynoTpe6JI.HIOTCH ,u:eHhfM OT HaJioroB? Ha TO, qro6hl y6nBaTh TBOHX ChIHOBeË B ,u:aJieIUIX l1 6ecnJIO,U:HhIX BOHH8X>> 28• B aroii H .n;pyrnx rro,u:o6Hux acpumax aByqaJI, RaK BHl(HM, rHeBHhlii npo­ TecT rrpOTHB ROJIOHHaJihHhIX BOHH Bropoii HMnepHH. AHTHIIpaBHT0JlhCTB0HHhle aq>HillH orpamaJIH TamRe MaeCOBhle aeMOHCTpa�BB BCeHapo,n;Hoe B03M�eu:ae ornpaBKoii B HraJIHIO B 2 n 4 HOH6pn 1867 r. ROHqe OKTH6pH 1867 r. cppaH�Y3CKOfO Kopnyca )];JU[ B Ilapume OI(a3aHHH J308HHOH IIOMOiqH narre npoTHB naTpliOTOB­ rapn6aJIL)];HHqeB, rrpep;upHHHBIDHX HOBYID nonbITKY ocBo6o]J;HTb PnM. B Ila­ pH»rn COCTOHJH:ICL ,n;Be RpyrrHhle MaHHcpecra�HII, B KOTOphIX, HapH,n;y c pa6o­ qnMH, yqaCTBOBaJIH ,U:eMORpaTH40CKH0 CJIOII 6ypmya3JUI: 2 HOHOpH - Ha MoH­ MapTpCKOM RJia;a;6:m.n;e ·y �rnnr.,'Ihl 6opn;a aa na:qa:0HaJI1>Hoe oo'he)JJIHeHue MraJIBH MaHHHa; 4 !Hom5p.H - B 13Ha:n upoTecTa npoTHB COBepmeHHOI'O HaI..aeyHe pa300H.HIIlfhero Hana,u:eHJUI cppauqyacKHX BOHCK Ha rapH6aJil>)];HHil,eB y MenTaHhl. 11TaJŒHIICKH-M naTpHoTaM 6LI.:IO HaHeceHO nqpam-eHBe KaK paa B MOMeHT, KO·r)];a OHH, CJIOMHB corrpOTHBJ18HHe rrarrcKHX BOHCK, np116JIH.IB8JIHCI> K PnMy. M:aocoBhie MaH.Hq>eeTaIJ;HH HaqaJia ROH6p.H 1867 r. 'HOCHJIH, O�HaKo, CT'H­ XHHHl>JH xapaKTep. IIapnmc1rnH opranHaan;HH llHTepnarQmHaJia, ocJia6JieHHaH npaBHTeJILCTBeHHblMH npec.1e;a;oBaHHHMH H npeo6Jia)];aHHeM B ee pyKOBOACTBe npaBhIX npy;a;onncroB, 6blna necnoco6Ba HX B08rJiaBHTL. Bypmyaaahle pecny6JIHKaHn;1,1, )];eIIyTaTbl JieBOH q>paKqllH 3aKOHO)];aTeJibHOro KOprryca, KJieHMHB­ mne nepoJIOMHYID noJIHTHRY Hano.rreoHa III B MTaJIHH, B pema10m;nii MoMeHT ycrpaHHJIHCb OT yqaCTH.H B TOH H Apyron M8HBq>ecran;HH, onacaHCh peBOJIID�H­ OHHoro B3phIBa B IIapHme. Bce OHH - H Te, RTO npnHa)];JiearnJI K yMepeHHO­ JIH6epaJihHOMY RphIJIY pecrry6JIH.IiaHCROÜ OIIII08HD;HH, H Te, KOTOphie COCTaB­ JI.HJIH ee pa;a;HRaJibHOe npLIJIO, B03rJiaBJI.HeMoe raM6eTTOH,- 6hIJIH HphIMH npo­ THBHHRaMII CBepmeHH.H HMnepnu nyreM napO.l{HOH peBOJIIDTI;HJ:I. JlH6epaJihHhle pecny6JI:o.Kann;1,1 <DaBp, CnMon, IlnKap H APYTHe coBepmnrrH R nO-x rop;ax, B ycJIOBHHX H-OBOI10 IIOµ;'h8.1Ia peBOJIIOD;HOfllHOI'O ]J,BRiKOOR.H BO c:DpaH�HH, ;:rna 1:n1 TeJILHYIO 3BOJIIOD;HID BIIpaBo. ÜHH BCe 6oJiee c6Jrn:maJIHCb C opJJeaHHCTaMB B I'OTOBl>I 6.bIJIH ]J;OBOJILCTBOBa TbC.H ycTaHOBJieHHeM napJiaMeHTCI.œ:M nyreM ROB­ CTHT�HOHHoro peaHIMa . .[(a n pa,n;nRaJI faM6eTTa H ero CTOpOHHBKH, n:MeHO­ BaBnme ce6.H <<HeinpR·MHpHMhDIH>> (les irréconciliables), 'BIIa�a» B Il])O'T1IBO{Pe­ lfHe C HX me YTBepïKAeHB8M O «HeCOBM0CTHMOCTH HMIIep1rH CO C.Bo6op;o:ib> H 0 <pHKTHBHOCTH BCeo6iqero H36HpaTeJibHOrO npaBa IlpR coxpaHeHHH 6onanap­ TIICTCJWfO pmK0'Ma, 3arOBOpH.1H O B03MOIBHOCTl:I ycTaHOBJl8HIUI pecny6JIHKJI nyTe:l\f nceo6:m;ero rOJIOCOBaHHH, ocym;eCTB.TJ:eHHOro B yCJIOBR.HX HMnep:n:H. 3TOT rryTh I'aM6erTa cqHTaJI e,n;HHCTB8HHO npHeMJieMblM lI apocT.HO QIIOJJ'laJICH npo­ THB no6opHI1ROB peBOJJIOIJ;HOHHblX cpep;CTB 6opb6hl aa pecny6JIHKY, npn:3b.IBRH npe,n;aBaT.b T8KHX pecny6JIHRam:i;eB B PYKH rrpanocyp;HH napaBHe C yroJIOBHhIMH npeCTYIIHHRaMH. Ilp11 T8KOM COOTHOill8HIUI IlOJIHTHqecRIIX CHJI BO <l>paH�HH, npH CJia6ocTH con,naJIHCTHTJecKoro PYROBO,U:CTBa pa601IHM ABHilŒHHeM H Kpa:iîHeii Bpam,ne6HOCTH K peBOJIIDD;HOHHOMY rrpoJieTapHaTy JI:o:6epaJibHO:H 6ypmyaa1n1, y1paTHB­ meü: OhlJIYID cnoco6HOCTh B03fJI3BIITI:, peBOJlIO�HOHHOe J];BH»ŒHHe B crpaHe,­ BhlC,TYIIJI0HIIH 2 JI 4 HOH6pa He MOfJIH naHeCTH HMIIepHH pema10m;ero y.n;apa. MemJJ;y TeM noJIHTHqecRaH 06craHoB1m B IlapHme 6hIJia .n;o TaRoË: c-renenn HanpH.IB8HHOii, lfTO MapRc H 3HreJI&C, BHl:IMaTeJil>HO c.ne�BmHe 3a pa3BHTH0M RJiaCCOBOH 6op1>obl BO <I>paHD;HH, ClfRTaJin ee 1IpeBaroii peBOJIIO�ei. 2 HO.H6p11 MapKC, coo6:m;a.H 8nreJILCY O maTROM no:.mmeHHH HMIIepHH, He HCKJIID1IaJI B03MO.IBHOCTH TOro, qTo <<BO <l>paHD;HH, rrpH TerrepemHHX �eHax Ha XJie6, RPII3Hce L yon, cité républicaine, Etude collecth·e. <<18-48. Revue des révoJutions contempo­ raines», 1951, N 189, p. 123. 28 56
B ;r:r;enax H He,II;OBOJlbCTBe- :B03MO.lliHa one fine morning 29 peBOJIIOIJ;HH>> 30• 3areJibC IlOJIHOCTLIO paa,:1;eJI.HJI T01Iny apeHHH Map1œa 31• 1 HOH'OpSI, tHaKaHyHe II3fPH.lliCKlIX 1Ma.IDiq>€CTan;nii, 1I.1eH renepaJihHOro ûOB•eTa. HHTepHaI�BOHaJia, ceKpeTapL-KOppecrroH,r::i;eHT ;r:r;.rr.a <Dpam:i;1nr 8.meH ,[.(IOIIOH IIJI­ caJI na Jl-cm,n;OHa 11nmry IIapHHreKOI'O 6ropo MaTepnan;uoHaJia IIiPY)J;'OOIIICTY Ille- :u:aJie: « qTo BLI npe;a;npHHHMaeTe TaM, B IIapnme? EcTh JIII y l1HTepHan;HoHaJia maHCLI 6hlTb ycJILIID8HHLIM cpe;r:r;n Bceii ::no:ü: cppaHKO-UTaJih.HHCKOH qexap,n;hl? qTO KacaeTCH MeHH, TO H B Te'leHne p.a,n;a p;He:Ü: Haxomych B COCTOHHHH Rpaü:­ uero Boa6ym;r:r;eHHH; Kam;a;LIÜ: ;r:r;eHh o:am,n;aro ycJihlIJ.IaTh H3B8CTHe O BOCCTaHHH B Ilapnme •.. >> 32• Ilo�o6uo .z:(10n0Hy, .u;pyrHe cppaHqy3c:nHe con;naJinCTLI, TOMHB­ mHec.a B 8MHrpa1µ1n, 6LIJIH Rpa:ii:He 06ecno1meHhI OTCYTCTBHeM ,Il;OJiiRHOrO pyKO­ BO,II;CTBa napnmcKHM npoJieTapnaTO�I B :\10:�ŒHT :npaiiHero Hanp.HmeHIIH IIOJIII­ TIPleCKOii o6cTaHOBKH B CTpaHe. CeRpeTHLI8 Jl;OHeceHHH rrpecpeRTOB II reHepa:rhHhIX rrpoKypopoB HMrrepnn H3 pa3JIH1IHLIX HH)l;YCTpH8JILHbIX n;eHTpOB CBll,D;8T0:IhCTBOBaJIH O TOM, 1ITO He TOJlbKO B IIapHme, HO n BO BCeii <DpaHD;IU:I rrrn:pHJIOCh He,IJ;OBOJihCTBO pa6oqnx Il IMemmü: 6ypmya'3HH. TaR, Ha(IlpH1Mep, B ;:J;OH0Ce'HHH na JlHoHa B ,11;eKa6pe 1867 r. coo6m;a.rroc1>: << Y1Ka3hlBaIOT Ha Henmrnpaoe B3ÀopomanHe KBapT'JfpHOii IIJ18Thl Il naTeHTOB, Ha pOCT H8J10rOB, Ha ;r:r;oporOBH3HY XJie6a .n MHCa... HaceJie­ HHe Tpe6yeT YB0JIH1I0HHH aapa60THOÜ IIJiaThl, yrrpa3)];HeHHH ORTpya �3 , BOCCTa­ HOBJI0HH.H MyHnn;nnaJibHOrO coneTa>> 34. B 1868 r. <DpaHIJ;HH npoµ;oJima;ra OCTaBaThCH B THlli81868 ro�. JIOM a:KOHOMH1IeCROM IIOJIOïReHHH, BHyrnaBIIIeM nce �eTBYe DOIIYTKB yicpemre1111.a pe3CBM:a. 60JI1>myro TpeBory opannTeJihCTBY BTopoü HMrrepnn. ÜHO onacaJIOCh ,11;a:IbHeü:rnero OCJIOil\HeHHH IIOJilITH1Ie­ CROii o6cTaHOBKn: B cTpaHe. PyccKnü: rrocoJI B Ilapnme 6apoH By,11;6epr B ,n;oHe­ ceHnn OT 8 MapTa 1868 r. coo6m;aJI B IleTep6ypr: <<B p;aHHhIÜ MOM0HT 60JI1>me Bcero 6ecnOKOHT npaBHTeJILCTBO Tpyp;Hoe IIO:IOlli0HHe, B ROTOpOM HaXO)];HTCH 3KOHOMH1IeCKaH IBH3Hh CTp8Hhl. Co BCex CTOpüH il\aJiylOTCH Ha TO, 'IJTO p;eJia H,D;YT rrJioxo, maJiyIOTCH Ha 6eapa6oTnn;y, Ha p;oporoBnaHy, em;e 6oJiee ycyry6JIHIO�yro nce 6e,n;CTBHH. IIocJie)J;HHH ,il;HBH)];eH,a; <DpaHn;yac1wro 6aHRa 6hIJI Ha 30 % HHme ;ZJ;llBH;ZJ;8Hp;a npomJIOfO ro,n;a, li TaR KaK 3TO y11pem,r::i;eHHe .HBJIHeTCH peryJIHTOpOM IIOJIOIBeHHH ,n;eJI, TO OTCIO)];a crrpaBe,11;.1nrno ,r::i;eJiaIOT BbIBO;ZJ; 06 yna,n;1rn IIpOH3BO;IJ;CTBa H IIOTpe6JI�HHH>) 35.. Tpn KpyIIHhlX M10pOIIpHHTHH, ocy�OCTBJieHHhIX <ppaHu;yacJGI'M rrpa1B'IITeJih­ CTBOM B rrepBoii IIOJIOBHH0 1868 r., rrpn BCeM IIX pa3.1H1IHII 6hlJIH, B cym;HOCTH, uanpaBJI0Hhl K O,IJ;HOH n;eJIH: R yKperr.rieHHIO l\Œlli)];yHapo;r:i;Horo Il BHyTpeHHero noJiomeHHH HMnepHH. lb,cenHo TaRnx peay.'IhTaToB omn,n;aJI OT HHX Harro­ Jieou III. 8THMH MeponpnHTHHMH 6hlJIH: BOeHHaH peq,opMa, rrpHHHTaH 3aKO­ HOJJ;aTeJibHhlM KopnycoM B HHBape 1868 r., Talt Ha3bIBaeMhle JIH6epaJihHhle aa­ KOHLI O ne118TH H O IIYQJIIIlJHhlX Cû6paHHHX, I-I3;:J;aHHhie B Mae,-.n10He Toro me ro.n;a, u )];Ba cyµ;e6uLix npon;ecca rrapnmc1wü opraHnaan;nn lfHTepHan;noHaJia, IIO)];fOTOBRa Il npoBe)];eHHe ROTOPhIX npon:cxo,n;n:nr OJJ;HOBpeMeHHO C rro,n;roTOB­ ROH H naµ;aHH0M (<JIH6epaJibHLIX 3aKOHOB>>. B OllHB npeicpacm.r:ë: �eHL. R. Mapire � <I>. 8u,re.11:,cy, 2 noJJ6pa 186ï r. K. Ma p R c n: <I>. 3 H r e .1 L c. Coq., XXIII, CTp. 464. 29 30 T. 31 32 Ta� me, erg. 465-466; T. XXV, CTJ). 502. Procès de 1 Association Internationale des travailleurs à Paris. Première et deu­ xième Commissions du Bureau de Paris. Paris, 1870, p. 43. 33 ropo,l(CKO:ii llB03Blil'H ·HaJior. Lyon, cité républicaine. Etude collective. <ii848. Revue des révolutions contempo­ 123. IIOJIHTH,KH Pocc1rn (,a;a.1ee ABITP). naHu., A· 113, JI. 88. BapoB GyAoepr fop11aK0By. Ilapam, 25 q>eBpa.1H (8 }rapra) 1868 r. 34 raines•, 1951, N •189, p. 35 ApxHB BHemue:ë: 57
BoeH IIfüI peq,opMa IIO,l1;fOTOB.1UI:IaCh BO <l>paHD;HH C KOHu;a 1866 r. ÛHa 61:,1Jia npo,n;HRTOBaHa CJia6ocThIO q>paHn;y3CROÜ. BOeHHOii CMCTeMhl, o6HapymnsmeiicH CO speMeHI1 RphIMCROM H nTaJibHHCKOii RaMIIaHHÜ. BTopoii HMHepMM. IIepBOHa­ qaJibHbIM rrpoeRT peq>op:Mbl, ony6JnIKOBaHHblÜ B ,n;eKa6pe 1866 r., rrpe,n;ycMaT ­ p1rna:r, B lIHCJie npOlIMX rrpeo6pa30BaHJIH, yseJIH1I0HIIe B,D;BOe "tJIICJieHHOCTH Ka,n;­ pOBOÎi apMHH, HaC"t!HThIBaBmeii s TO BpeMH no.ri; pymheM OKOJIO 400 ThICH1I "t!e­ JIOBeK 36, M C03,n;aHne, B AO IIO.J:HeHirn K Heii, 400-ThlC.HlIHOÜ M06HJihHOÜ rsap,D;IIM. Ho :U,JIH ::noro Tpe6oBaJIOCh BBeJ:J:0HHe BCeo6�e:iî: BOIIHCKOH IIOBIIHHOCTH C me­ CTHJieTHHM cpoROM B08HHOÜ c.1ym61:,1 B ;u,eÜCTBYIO�e:ii apMHH H IIOCJie,n;yIOID;lIM TpexJieTHHM npe61:,rnaHJI8M B pH,ri;ax M06HJihHOH rsap,ri;HH. 3TO-TO o6cTOHTeJih­ CTBO H noc.rrym:rrJIO rrpI-PUIHOll Bpam,n;e6Horo OTHOIDeHHH K 3RIWHOIIpOeKTY scex CJIOeB HaceJieHMH <DpaHI)JIH. HpynHaH 6ypIBya31rn, 3e�v:res.1a;i;e:r1:,u;1:,1 H KyJian;1rnH sepxymRa ,n;epeBHH 6bIJIIl 3aJIHTepecoBaHhl B coxpaHeHIIII ,n;eiiCTBOBaBmero B TO npeMH BO <l>paH­ n;RH B'O'eHHOro 3aKOHa 1855 ro;:i;a, rrpe):l;OCTHBJIHBIDero ·HM B03MOIBHOCTh IIOJII,30BaThCH npHBHJierMe:ii: 3aMeCTIITeJihCTBa (l'éxonération) II q>aKTlI1I8CKH OCB060m,n;anmero MX OT BOeHHOH c:IyIB6hI. IlpoeRT BOeHHOH peq)OpMbl npe,n;ycMaTpH­ BaJI OTMetty aToii rrpirn:m1ernn. MMy�IIe 1macc1:,1 nyraJio TaKme co3,n;aHHe BHe ­ Ka,n;poBoir CIIJ.IhHOH, o6y"l!eHHoi'r Mo611JihHOii rnap,n;H:u. Hapo,n;Hhle Macc1>1 ropo,n;a H ,n;epeBHlI, Ha IWTOphIX JIOIBU.1aCh BCH THIBeCTh BOHHCKOÜ IIOBHHHOCTII, ycMaT­ pHBaJin B yBeJIHl!8HMII lIHc.rreHHOCTH cppam::i;yacKoii apMHII yrpoay HOBhlX arpec­ CMBHhIX BOHH MMIIepnn, KOTOphie IlOB:IeKyT 3a co6oii ,n;aJibHeiiIIIIIe THHŒJihle mepTBhI. He MeHee Bpam,ri;e6HyIO peaRIJ;lIIO BhI3BaJI y mMpOKIIX Macc HaCeJieH1rn: H ony6JIMROBaHHhIH B 1\tapTe 1867 r. ,n;pyroü Bap:uaHT npoeKTa, npe,n;ycMaTpH­ BaBmH:iî IIHTh JieT c;iym6bI B :na,r:i;pOBOH apMHlI (BMeCTO nepBOHa-qaJihHhIX me­ CTH JieT). <<Ilpoe:nT 60.'Iee l!e:\I 1wr,ri;a-JIM60 HeIIOIIYJI.Hpea, B oco6eHHOCTII cpe,n;II ceJihCROfO HaceJieHMH ... OH Boa6y,n;m1 poIIOT II He,D;OBOJibCTBO>> 37,- coo6u:i;aJI 5 anpeJI.H 1867 r. reHepa:rhHhIÜ npoKypop TyJiy3hl. B ,n;oaeceHIIH OT 26 OKTH6pH H3 MoHneJihe y1rn3i,rna.'Ioc1:, Ha Bpam,ri;e6ayro peaKn;IIro <<noqTH scero HaceJie­ HHH>> aToro paHOHa 38• Ana.:IOrll1IHhie p;oHeceHHH IlOCTyIIaJIII noqTM OT BCeX nmepaJihHhIX np01ry1popoB Bropoii H:.\l1IIeipHH 39. BoeHHhIÜ 3anOH, npHH.HThIÜ B .HHBape 1868 r. IlOCJie ,D;JIIITeJihHhlX npeHHH, Jlllillh CJia6o HaIIOMMHaJI nepBOHal!aJihHhIH 3aKOHOIIpOeKT 1866 r. Ilo MH8HIIIO Tanoro 3HaTORa BOeHHhIX BonpocoB, RaK 3areJihC, HOBaH CHCTeMa, npMHHTRfl BO <DpaHIJ;MII s .HHBape 1868 r., OCTaBHJia noqTII B HenpHKOCHOBeHHOCTH BHyT­ peHHIOIO opraHH3aD;MIO q>paHu;y3CROH apMHII 40 • BoHanapTIICTCKOe 6oJib­ illMHCTBO 3aKOHO,U:aTeJihHOrO KOpnyca He pemaJIOCb 11,D;Tll Ha pa,n;HKaJ[bHYIO BOeHHyIO pecpopMy, onaca.HCh IIOTep.HTh roJioca CBOIIX H36HpaTeJiei-Kpe­ {'Th.HH Ha Ol!etpe,:J;HhIX Bhl'OO,pax B 3a.nOHO)l,aTeJihHbIÜ Kopnyc, npe,ncTOHBIDMX B 1869 r. IlpaB.n;a, HOBhlii 3a:noH npe .n;ycMaTpHBaJI coa,D;aHHe MOOHJihHOÜ rBap,n;HH, HO IIpO,D;OJIIBHTeJihHOCTh npe6hIBaHHH B Heii 61:,ma COKpa�eHa ,Il;JI.H MHpHoro Bpe­ MeHM C 3 JieT, HaMe1IaBIDHXCH B 1866 r., ,n;o 15 ,n;ae:iî. )];a H Ha 3TOT KOpOTKHB cpoK OHa HM pasy, ,n;o nOHn;a cyIIJ;eCTBOBaHHH MMIIepHH, He 6hlJia C03BaHa. He3a,D;OJITO ,n;o OÔ'b.HBJieHMH q>paHKO-npyccKOH BOHHhl, B KOHIJ;e lIIOHH 1870 r., TO­ r,D;aIIIHHH BOeHHhIH MMHMCTP <DpaHII;MII Jle6eq> rrp.HMO 3a.HBIIJI B 3aKOHO,D;aTeJib� HOM Roprryce, l!TO �fOOIIJibHaJI rnap,A1I'H, B cy�OC"ffil, He opraHH30BaŒla, OBa Ha 6y11are no <ppaHI..Q'3CHOÜ apMBH tIHCJIBJIOCI:. CBLlme 600 TLIC. 11eJIOBeK. Gordon \V ri g h t. Public opinion and conscription in France 1866-1870. dour­ nal of Modern history►>, 1942, march, vol. XIV, N 1, p. 33. 38 Ibid., p. 36. 39 C:M. ,Il;OHeCeHHH reHepa:IbHblX npoKypopoB H IIJ)eq>eKTOB Bropoii HXUepBH aa 18661867 rr. B «Journal of Modern history». 1942 vol. XIV, N 1. 40 <ll. 8nrem,c - R. Ma•pm:y, 22 mo::r.H 1870 r. R. M a p R c H <1>. 3 H r e JI Le. Co,q_, 36 37 r. XXTV; crp. 361. 58
-«C�eCTByeT TOJihKO Ha 6yMare» 41 • Ha 6yMare OCTaJIHCh H HeROTOpLie p;pyrne Bamnhle Meponp:U:HTHH, npep;ycMaTpHBaBmHeCH 3aKOHOM 1868 r. Pa,wi:KaJILHO nepecTpOHTh q>paH:ayacKyIO BOeHHYIO CJICTeMy II npH 8TOM YABOHTh 'lHCJieuuocTh Ka)];pOBoii apMHH rrpanHTeJihCTBY. HarrmreoHa III, .BcJie)];­ CTBHe HeIIpO'lHOCTH ero II03HD;HH B CTpaHe, Tal{ 11 He y)];aJIOCh. BoeHHaH pe­ q>opMa B TOM Bll}le, B KaKOM OHa 6nIJia yaaimneHa B HHBape 1868 r., He MorJia CJIYlRHTh na11;emHoi OCHOBOH BOeHHblX IIJiaHOB HMIIepaTopa, CBH3aHHhIX, B qa. CTHOCTH, C o6ocTpeHIIeM q>paHKO-IIpyccKHX OTHOIII0HHH IIOCJie aBCTpo-IIpyccKOÜ. BOHHbI 1866 r. IIpaBHTeJihCTBo BTopoft HMnepnn, no cnpaBe;IJ;JIHBOMY aaMeqa­ HHIO q>paHo;yac1mro ucTopu1m A. Cope.rrH, <<He nMeJio nn ,n;ocTaToqHoii CHJihl, qT061i1 aacTaBHTh 3aKoHo,n;aTeJihHhlH KOprryc npHHHTh B00HHhl8 peq>opMhl, CTaB­ mHe neo6XOlJ;HMhlMH, HH AOCT3TO'lHOfO MYïlŒCTBa, qT06h1 OTKphITO IIPHHHTh 061:teAHHeHHe fepMaHHH. Ono 6hlJIO, TaKIIM o6pa30M, Bl�Hym,n;eHo H36paTb HaH­ XYAilIYIO no31HTII.KY: JIA'TH HaBc-rpe-qy Boftne, ,He o6ecneqHB ce6H cpe,n;cTBat.i\n1, neo6xoWIMbIMH ,n;JIH ee ycnemHoro Be,n;eHIIH>> 42 • * * * H3p;3HHe TaK Ha3bIBaeMhlX JI116epa:JhHhIX 3aROHOB - 0 netiaTH OT 11 MaH 1868 rop;a, 0 rry6JIHqHhIX co6paH:rrnx OT 6 IIIOHH - TaKllie He npHB0JIO npamI­ T0JlhCTBO BTopoii 11Mrrep1I11 K yrrpoqeHHIO ero rroJim-EeHHH BHYTPH cTpaHhl. II0c.1rn IIO'ITH 110.JIYTOpaJieTHeii 6oph6I,I B npaBHTeJibCTBeHHhlX C<pepax Hano­ JI00H Ill pem11JICH, HaimHeu;, BhIIIO.JIHHTh .n;aHHOe HM B <peBpaJie 1867 r., B TpOH­ HOH peq11 rrpH OTRPhITHH oqepep;Hoii cecCIHI 3anOHO,z::t;aTeJibHOrO Kopnyca, o6e­ m.aa:e:e JIH6epaJihHhlX peqmpM. 8TllM OH paccl!HThIBaJI YMHpOTBOPilTh OIIIl03H­ qHOHHhle KpyrH 6ypmya3HH, BCe HacToiiqHBee Tpe6oBaBIIIHe (<Heo6xo,z::t;HMhlX CBo6o;i;». 3aROHOM OT 11 MaH OTMeHHJiaCb o6H3aTeJihHOCTb rrpep;Bap11TeJibHOfO rrpaBHT8JlhCTBeHHOfO pa3pemeHHH ,z::t;JIH HOBhIX opraHOB neqaTH, ycTaHOBJieH­ Haa q>eBpaJibCKIIM ,u;eRpeTOM 1852 r. Ü)];Ha1rn B HOBOl\rI 3aROHe no-rrpemaeMy coxpaHHJICH BbICOKHli rep60BbIH c6op, ROTOpbIM OHM o6JiaraJIHCh (B IIapHilŒ OH ,IJ;OCTHfaJI 50 ThIC. q>paHKOB), a 3TO npaiiHe aarpyp;HHJIO BhIXO)]; B CBeT ,n;eMO­ KpaT1I1IeCKBX II3)];3HHH. 3aKOH OT 6 HIOHH, JieraJIH30BaBIIII-IH rry6JIHl!Hhle co6paHHH, 3arrper:a;eHHbI8 ',AeKpeToM oT 25 MapTa 1852 r., TaK»rn 6h1JI, Ê cyr:a;HoCTH, BechMa KYI.I;hlM. Ero .n;eiiCTBne He pacnpocTpaHHJIOCb Ha co6paHHH, HOCHBllHe IIOJIHTIPieCKIIÜ xapaK­ Tep. 8 8TOM CJiyqae TpeooBa.JIOCh crren_HaJibHOe paapeIIIeHHe, KOTOpoe Bhl,n;aBa­ JIOCh TOJihKO B nepHO,IJ;hl H36:e:paTeJihHhlX KaMrraHHH ITO 3aHBJieHHIO, rro,n;nncaH­ HOMY ceMhIO >RHTeJIHMH KOMMYHhl, Ha reppHTOPIIH KOTOpoii npe.n;nonaraJIOCb YCTpOBCTBO co6paHHH. HpoMe Toro, HH O,z::t;HO rry6JIHqHoe co6paHne He MOfJIO COCTOHThCH 6e3 npncyTCTBHH Ha HeM IIOJIHqeÜCROro KOMHccapa Il ceRpeTapH­ CTeHorpaq>a, BeAm-ero '3anHCh npmmli'OCHBillilXCH Ha oo6paHHII petI•eii. IlpaBH­ T8JlhCTB0-HHhI0 KOMHccap1,1 OhIJIH Ha}J/eJI0HbI rrpaBOM paCIIIyCKaTb co6paHBH B Tex cJiyqagx, Kor.n;a OHH OTKJIOHH�lJMCh OT ,z::t;03BO.ï0HHOH aaROHOM IIOIB0CTRH ,!(HH, a opraHH3aTo.poB TaKHX co6tpa1nrü II opaTopoB - HapyIIIHTeJieii <<IIOjpHA­ KB >> - npHBJieKaTb li cy,n;eôHOH OTB('TCTBeHHOCTH. MaiiCKIIM 3aKOHOM O neqaTH, ecT8CTB0HHO, BOCIIOJlb30BaJIHCh OIIII03Hn.HoH­ Hhle Rpyrn 6ypmya3HH. Yme B nepBhle ;:i;Ba Mec,u:i;a nocJie ero Hap;aHHH B IIa­ pnm,e l[ B IIpüBHHQHR IIOHBHJIOCh OROJIO 70 'HOBhIX opraHOB 1rnqanr. B HX "tJIHCJie 6hIJIH RPYIIHbJe :m:6eipaJih'HO-pecny6�"11HŒHCHJie ra3eTbl 'li emeHe,IlieJihHHRH, •Bhl­ XO,IJ;HBIIIHe B cTon11n_e: «La Tribune» ( c 14 IIIOHH), <<L'Electeur>> ( c 25 HIOHH), Enquête parlementaire sur les actes du Gouvernement de la Défense nationale, t. 1-7. Paris, 1872-1876. (JJ;a;iee - Actes), t. I, p. 451. Pièces justificatives, N. 4. Dis­ cours de M. le maréchal Leboeuf. 42 A. S o r e l. Histoire diplomatique de la guerre franco-allemande, t. I. Paris, 1875. p. 37. 41 59
«La Revue Politique>> II ,ri;pynie. 2 uro;:rH rroaBII.,'ICH nepBhlH 'HoMep e·meinei�eJih­ Ho.ü ra3eThI <<Le Réveil>>, .Jr3,n;anaBme:ü-cH MeJI1m6ypmyamŒlM �eMOKparoM neoHKo6HH:a;eM IllapJieM ,D;eJie:KJII030M. Eme paHee, 1 HIDHH, B IlapHme naqaJI BhlXOl];HTh pa,n;HIŒJihHhl:Ü emeHep;eJihHHK «La Lanterne», na,n;aBaBmH.ÜCH Pom­ q>opoM. B KOpOTKOe BpeMH emene)]/eJ.IhHJIK aanoeBaJI IIIBipüKYJO nonyJIHpHOCTb :eo <l>paHIJ;llIIH 6Jiaro,n;a1pH OC'Tpoft, y,fflPITomarom;ei Kp.wrmrn 60Harrapnre-rcKoro pem11Ma, :u;apcTBYIO�eft ,n;HHaCTIIII II caMoro HanoJieoHa III. Tupam aToro IIa­ u;aHIIH npeBhlmaJI 100 ThlCH4 3K3eMIIJIHpoB. 0,n;HaKo yme B aBrycTe «La Lan­ terne>> ÔhlJI oompIIC:IWBalH, a Pomcpop IIplITOBQPetH: K 13 MecH:u;aM TIDpeMHoro 3aKJII04eHHH. EMy yp;aJIOCb CnphIThCH B BeJihrHIO, r.n;e OH npo,n;oJI>RaJI H3p;a­ BaTh CBOH opraH, II Ta:ÜHO nepenpaBJIHTb ero BO <l>paHIJ;HIO. IloJIHTH4eCKa.H o6cTaHOBKa B CTpaHe IIOCJie 113,lJ;aHHH aaKOHa O II8118TH, BO­ npeKH OiRII,D;aHIIHM npaBIITeJihCTBa, em;e 6oJiee o6oCTpHJI8Ch. << qeM 6oJihIDO «Lanterne>> OChlnaeT 6oHanapTH3M OCKop6JieHHHMII H npe3p8HHeM, T8M 6oJib­ mHii OH HMeeT ycnex. Ran HH3KO )];OJlïRHO naCTh npaBHT0JlhCTBO, 4T06hl CTaJI B03MomeH TaKO:Ü ycnex>> - IlHCaJI B IIIOJie 1868 r. 6ypmyaaHhlH pap;HIŒJI AJIJI8H-Tapme 43. 3TH me CJIOBa MOry T 6hlTh OTHeCeHhl B K BLime,n;mei B aB­ rycTe 1868 r. KHHro 6ypmyaaHoro pecrry6mnrnm:r;a 3meHa TeHo «Ilap:0:m B )J;e­ Kaope 1851 r.>>, ·KpyIIHhlii ycnex ROTopoii o6oHCH:HJICH rJI-aBHhlM: 1()6paaoM TeM, t{"l'O B Heii paao6JiaTiaJIIICb :rrpeCTYillI8HHH 6onauapTllCTCKOH RJfflRH, oc�eCTBHB­ meii rocy,n;apCTBeHHhlH nepeBopoT. HHHra B KOpOTiœii cpoK BLI;n;epmaJia 10 ua;n;aan:ii, B3 HHX 6 JI3,D;aHHlÏ B 1868 r. B TOM me ro;n;y noHBHJioch 7 :0:a,nanuii ;n;pyroii RHHrH TeHo <<IlpoBHHIJ;HH B 1851r.», Bhllllel];me:ü B 1865 r. II ocTaBaBmeiicH AO 1868 r. II01ITH He3aMe1IeHHOH. Bypmya3B0-0IIII03In::i;n:oHHOe l];BHmeHHe BCe paapacTaJIOCb. 2 IlOH6pJI 1868 r., B p;eHh noM:0:HaH1u1 ycorrmn:x, Ha MoHMapTpc1wM KJiap;6:0:m;e B Ilap:0:me, y Mo­ fHJihI .n;erryTaTa-pecny6JinKaa:u;a Bo,n;eHa, rror:0:6mero 3 ;u;eRa6pJI 1851 r. Ha 6ap­ p11Ka,n;ax CeHT-AHTyaHCKoro npe.n;MeCTbH, COCTOHJiaCb MaCCOBaH aHTIIIIpaBII­ TeJibCTBeHHaJI MaHmpecTaIJ;B.H IIOA JI03yHraMll CB060.n;1>1 II pecny6JIHRH. Ha .n;pyroii ,AeHI. pe.n;aKTOp «Le Réveil» IDapJII. ,[(e.TJeKJIID3 BhlCTynHJI HHH:a;HaTo­ poM o6m;ecTBeHHoii 11o;n;rrHCRH Ha coopymemrn naMHTHHKa Bo,n;euy. IIHH:a;Ha­ TJrna 6hl.rra IIO,D;XBaTieHa MHOrHMH OIIII03HIJ;HOHHhlMH raaeTaMH B Ilapume H B KpynHMX npoBIIH:a;naJinH1>1x :u;eHTpax - JI:0:oHe, MapceJie, TyJiyae, JI:aJIJie, Bop,n;o, KaHe, HaHTe, ABHHhOHe H p;pyrHx. HapH,n;y c pecny611:e:KaH:a;aMn: B aTo IDHpOKOe aHTH60HanapTllCTCKOe )];BHilŒHHe BRJIIOTIBJfHCI, TaKiRe BH,ll;Hhle opJiea­ HJloCT.bI H JI•erJITH'MHCThI; aa rrpe.n;eJia'MH <l>tpairn;HH R He'M'Y np:ŒM•ImIYJIH 1mOTHe aM:0:rpaHThl-pecny6m1RaH:a;hl, B TiacTHOCTH BHK'l'op froro H Jlyn BJiaH. IlpOTHB pH;o;a yqaCTHllKOB MaHn:q>ecTa:a;HH li IlO;ll;IlHCKH npaBHTeJibCTBO BO36y;n;HJIO cy,n;e6Hoe rrpecJie,n;oBann:e. Ha npou;ecce, KOTophlii COCTOHJICH 13-14 HOH6pH 1868 r. B IlapHme, c Hp1wn o6JIH4HTeJII.Hoii: peTILIO npoTHB noJin:a;eii­ c:Koro pemn:Ma BTopoii: llMIIepnu BhlCTYIIIIJI aam;HTHHK o6BHHHeMoro ,l(eJI0KJII03a TPHAJl.aTn:JieTHHii a;n;BoKaT - pap;HKaJI JieoH faM6eTTa. C aTHX nop faM6eTTa CHHCKaJI ce6e 6oJII.IDYIO IIOIIYJIHpHOCTb BO <l>paH:a;HB 11 aa ee npe;n;eJiaMH. 4eJie­ KJII03 li ;n;pyrne o6BHHHeMhle 6hIJIH rrpHroBopeHhl K paaJIHTIHhlM MepaM Haita3a­ HBH, HO IIO;ll;IIHCRa B Ilapnme H B npOBIIHIJ;BH ,n;eMOHCTpaTHBHO npo,n;oJimaJiaCh. Ilyiqe upé?RHero ipa3·ropaJiaCh Bpam;u:a H HeHaBHCTI, R HMIIepHH cpe,n;H rrnrpo­ KllX Macc q,paH:a;yac1wro Hapo.n;a. * * * <I>paH:a;yaCKHe pa6oTIHe HMe.m T8M 6oJihille OCHOB8HHJI HeHaBH;ll;8Tb IIOJIII­ :a;eiic'RO--OIOpooqpa-TIITIOORHH rHeT 60Ha1IIapTHCTCKOro pemn:Ma, 1ITO 0)'.1:BOBpe'MeHHü C 1rn;n;aHHeM Jrn:6epaJihHbIX aaROHOB B yro,n;y 6ypmya3HH npaBHT0JlhCTBO BTOH. AI J ai n-T a r g é. La République sous l'Empire. Lettres (1864-1870). Paris, 1939, p. 179. 43 60
poi HMnepHH nocTapaJiocb JIHIDHTh Jiyqm1:1x npe.u;cTaBHTeJie:ü pa6oqero miacca B03MO:iKHOCTH BOCilOJib30BaTbCH TeMH CBo6o,n;aMH, KOTOphle OHO <<p;apoBaJIO>> CTpaHe. B nepBoii IlOJIOBBH0 1868 r. npaBHTeJibCTBO opraH:U30BaJIO ));Ba cy.ne6HhIX npoo;ecca napumcxo:ü opranHaan,nH Mem,n;yHapo,n;noro TOBapHIIJ;eCTBa pa6oqHX, ceKII,HH ROToporo cyn::i;ecTBOBaJIH BO <DpaHD,HH C 1865 ro,n;a. IJ;enh 3THX npon;eccoB aaRJIIOqaJiaCb B TOM, lJ:T06hl penpeccJHIMH ycTpaH:UTh C IIOJHIT:Uqe­ CROH apeHhl HaH.6oJiee aKTIIBHhlX .u;eHTeJieiI pa6oqero H COD,HaJIHCTIJ.qecKoro )J;BH:ïKeHlUI .no BCTyIIJieHHH B cn;iy HOBhlX 3a:E-.OHOB. IlepBhl:Ü npon;ecc, HaqaBm.0.iicH B ,u,ena6pe 1867 r., 6bIJI aaxoHqeH B MapTe 1868 r. pocnycxoM nap:umcxoro ôropo l1HTepnan,uonaJia, xax He.noanoJieHHOÏI aaKOHOM Ta:ÜHO:Ü opran:uaan;HH Il o6JIOIBeHH0M ero lJ:JieHoB ,n;eHeIBHhlMII mTpa­ <paMH. qepe3 ]:l;eCHTb ,U,Heii nocJie BhIHeceHIIH rrpnroBopa no rrepBOMy npon;eccy 11HTepHao;:uoHaJia HarroJieoH III qacTIPIHo y.u;oB.ïeTBOpIIJI xop;aTa:ÜcTno o .iiera­ JI:uaao;nH CIIHAHR8JibHhlX naJiaT (npo<peCCHOH8JihHhIX o6'he,U,HHeHHH)' B036y­ :iKJ(eHHOe ua:u6oJiee yMepeHHhlMII 3.'IeM0HTal\fH rrapHiRCKHX pa6oq11x, CT8BHB­ IDHMH n;eJILIO «H3hlCKaTb MHPHhle cpe.u;cTBa» YJIYlIIIIBHHH IIOJI01R0HJIH Tpy;:vi­ m;HXCH u. CHCTeMaTHlJ:eCKH co611paBmI:IMHCH B naccame PayJih npn: noRPOBH­ TeJihCTBe 6oHanapTlICTCKIIX BJiaCTeii. C»H,U,IIKa.:IhHhle naJiaThl He 6hlJIH JieraJIH30BaHhl 3aROIIO):l;aTeJibHhlM IIYT0M, O)J;H8RO npII3HaHhI <<TepnHMhlMH>). 8Ta Mepa 6hlJia HanpaBJieHa R TOMY, qTo6hl pacROJIOTb pa6ollee ,D;BHïlŒHHe. Ho en::i;e .no BhIHeceH:nH npnronopa 110 nepnoMy npoo;eccy MnTepnan;HoHaJia, 8 MapTa 1868 r. 6LIJIO :ua6paHo BTOpoe 610po rrapIIIBCRO::Ü opraH:uaan,:u:u. B OT­ JI:uq:ue OT 11epnoro, B ROTOpOM npeoÔJia)J;aJIH 11panhle 11pyp;OHHCThl, npOTIIBHHRH IlOJIHTlflleCROH oopb6hl pa6oqero HJiacca, CTapanm.necH B CBOIIX IIORa3aHIIHX Ha npo:o;ecce y6eAJ1Th cnonx cy,n;eii B TOM, qTo oHn <<HnRor,u;a H n:ur.ne>> ne aa­ HHMaJIHCh IIOJIHTHRO:Ü, a «ncer,n;a B03,IJ;epm1rnaJIHCb» OT Hee caMH H «OTBepraJI:u IlOilhlTRH& .npyrHx qJieHOB nap:umcKOH opraHH3aD,HII 3aH:UMaTbCH ero, HOBOe 6ropo 6hlJIO COCTaBJI0110 rJiaBHhlM o6pa30M II3 COD,H8.'IHCTOB-ROJIJ10KTHBIICTOB, HMeHOBanmnx ce6H J10BhlMH npy,l{OHilCTaM.n. ÜHH 6hIJill CTOpOHHHKaM:u ROJIJieR­ THBHO:Ü co6CTB0HHOCTII Ha opy]];HH II cpe.u;cTna npOH3BO,U,CTBa, IIPll3HaBaJI:U He06xop;HMOCTb IlOJIHTilll0CROÜ 6opb6bI pa6o-qero K.rracca, ocym,u,aJIH ROHcepBa­ TDBHhle B3I'JIH}:r:hl 11paBhIX IIPYAOHHCTOB na pO.'Ib meHIIJ;IIBhI B o6n::i;ecTBe II Ha aa.na111I BOCilHTaH:UH. BTopoe napmHCKOe 6ropo l1HTepna�IIOHaJia B03rJiaBJIHJI Bhlp;aIOIIJ;IIBCH ,!(0HT€Jlh <ppan.u;y3CR0fO pa6oqero ,I(BHïlŒHHH 28-JieTHHH rrepe­ nJieTq:nR Jlyn-8:men BapJieH. YcHJIHHMH BTOporo napHiRCKoro 6ropo 6nI.Tia n KOpOTRHH cpoR, n MapTe­ anpeJie 1868 r., ORasaHa cy�eCTBeHHaH ,n;eHemHaH IIOMOIIJ;h 6acTOBaBIDHM B TO npeMH CTpo:uTeJihHhlM pa6oqn:M ï-Kenenhl nyTeM c6opa ,r:i;enemno:ü: cyMMhI B paa­ Mepe 10 ThlCHq (J>paHROB cpeµ;H <ppaHIJ,Y3CKHX pa601n1x pa3.JIH4HhIX npo<pecc:ui. llieHeBCRHM pa6oll:UM ORa3hlBaJiaCb TaRme HeycTaHH8H MOpaJihHa.R: nom�epmRa. PemnTeJibHa.a 6op1,6a BTOporo nap.umc1rnro 6ropo l1HTepHa:a;norraJia aa HH­ Tepechl pa6oqero RJiacca cpaay HacTopomn:Jia 6oHarrapTIICTCRoe npaB.nTeJib­ CTBo. Yme 22 MaH qJieHhI napn:mciwro 6ropo 6bIJIII nprrnJielleHhl K cy.u;y no 06B:unenn10 B rro,n;phlBHOH, HeJieraJILHOil ,D:8HT€.l:bHOCTII. Ha 3TOM, BTOPOM, npo­ :a;ecce BapJieH nponaHec CBOIO 3HaMeHnTyro pe1:1:h. ÜH oxapaKTepnaoBaJI 1rn­ IlHTaJIHCTn11ec1<y10 0611\eCTB0HITYIO CIICTeMy K8I{ (<COIJ,liaJihHhIH cTpo::ü, paa'be­ .n;aeMhIH HepaBeHCTBOM, CTpoii, Ha ROTOpbIH OR83bIBaeT nary6Hoe ,u,e:ÜCTBH€ OT­ cyTCTBHe B HeM COJIH,n;apHOCTH, ROTOphIH CKOBan, CJIOBHO meJie3HhlMH THCIŒMH, aHTn:o6m;ecTBeHHhlMH rrpeµ,paccy,u,Ra:t\IH >>. ÜH HpKO 01IepT1IJI THIB0JlhI:Ü, IIOJI­ HbIH J1Hll0HDH mnaHeHHhIH nyTh npOH3BO,]];liTeaeii o6m;ecTB0HHhIX 6Jiar H co­ IIOCTaBHJI ero C 1RH3IlbIO B ,D;OBOJibCTBe H HaCJiaîl{,]];0H ilHX, KOTopyro B0,]];YT JIIO,U,II, «HlPiero He npo.n3BOJJ;HIIJ;He, a TOJibKO IlOJib3YIOII�HeCH IIJIO�OM JI.Dill0HHH 99 % CBOIIX 6paTb8B>>. IloKa38B ,u,aJiee, lJTO R8IIHT8JiliCTII1I8CKOe o6IIJ;éCTBO OCHOBaHO Ha RJI8CCOBOM aHTaroHH3Me, BapJieH H3.i"10lliHJI OCHOBH hie npHHIJ,HIIbl MHTep­ HBJJ;HOHa.rra, paccRa3a.1 o ero .ueiITeJJbHOCTH n 1-.0He1IH0:rr ue.1n:. ÜH oco6o 81
IIOA"llep1�Hy.1 Bbip;amui;ym µo:1h noBoro l\.1acca, rrpoJieTap11aTa, 11cTop11qec1rnH MIICCHH JWToporo :rnl\J[10l-IaeTCH B ynnqTOiIŒHHH Bcex BH)J;OB 3RCII.JJyaTaIJ;IIH H r-waccoBOI O aHT,HOIIl1311H. PetJ:b Bapm:ma cop;cpmaJia u rrpy,r:r,oHUCTc1urn IIOJIOiIŒHHH. TaK, narrpnMep, T MeCTO o6pam;a.HCb l, 6ypmya::mn, BapJieH y6em;a;aJI ee ;o;o6poBOJibHO ycTyIHTb MOJIO)'.(OMY r-waccy, HOCyll.1,0MY B03pom,r:r,eHHe qeJioBetJ:eCTBY, T8K Kali ona <<AOJI­ iHIIa IIOIUITb>}, llTO Il3iHH.;Ja ccfür II Hü cnoco6na 6oJibll8 H)J;TH B HOry C Tpe6o­ BaI-III.ffMfl HOBOÜ 3IIOXII. ÛH AOIŒ3bIBaJI, l!TO 6ypmya3HH IIOCTYIIHT pa3yMIIO, -ecJIH ca�rn ôyp;eT rrprrneTCTDOBaTh noHBJienne IIp11meAmero en na cMeny non0ro 1-wacca H <<npep;ocTaBIIT e::\Iy B03MOiRHOCTb BblIIOJIHHTb CBOIO MHCCHIO ocyrn,e­ CTBJI8HHH cnpanep;:1nnocTII>> 41. Ilpnronop, BbmcceHHhlii nTopo.My 6mpo, 6hm 60.ïee cypon, 11eM npe.n;me­ CTBy101u;n:ü. I1apnmc1we 6mpo 6r-,1.:10 o6oHBJieHo pacrry:r:u;eHHhIM, a ero 'IJieHhI rrpHronopeHhl, IlOl\UlMO ,r:i;enemHoro IIITpacf>a, K Tpex11,,recHqH0My TIOpeMHOMY 3a­ KJII0110HHIO. II apnmcRaH opramrnau;mi H1ITepnau;noaaJia, o6'hep;HH.rrBmaH ne­ CROJibIW COT '-IJ18HOB pery.ïHpHO µ;efICTBOBaBIIIIIX ce1-m;H:Ü, 6n1Jia paaorHaIIa. Û.n;Har-rn, npecJiü)];OBaHIIH, I-WTOpbIM npamITeJihCTBO BTopo:ü: HMnepnn rron­ BepraJio ceRu;1m llHTepnau,nona:rn Bo <Dparru;11n, crroco6cTBOBaJin JIHillh pocTy nony1rnpnocTH :noïr 11.rea-.;:i;yHapop;HOIÏ rrpo.1eTapc1rnii opraHH3au;nn n ee BJIHH­ HRH Ha cppanu,y3c:noe pa6otree .ri;m1menrre. <<IlocJie Hamero ocym.n;err1u1,- coo6ID;HJI Bap.TieH B cBoe::\r BhICTyn.,eHHII na Ba3eJJhCKOM KOHrpecce MHTepnau;no­ HaJia B ceHTH6pe 1869 r.,- MHorne pa6oqHe, KOTOpbie JJ;O Toro BpeMeHH He HH­ TepeconaJIHCb HHrepnau,noHa:IO)I, .ŒpllXO,IJ;IIJIH K HaM H cupam1rnaJIH, MOiKHO ..,'IJI e�e npHcoe,n;:n:HIITbCfl K nameii opraHH33D;HH. MbICJib O TOM, qTO rrapnmc1rnH accou;na:a;HH IIPOAOJiifWC'T cym;ecTBOBaTb, 6blJia o6m;epacrrpocTpaHeHHOR H 7RHJia K8K B pa6oqux Maccax, TaK II cpep;n BCTp8BOIB8HHOH 6ypmya3HH» 45. JJ;pyroü lIJieH BToporo napmnc1rnro 6ropo RoM6o Taxme coo6m;aJI, qTo IIOCJie npo:u;ecca 1868 r. HHTepnau,noHaJI npno6peJI oco6yro npHTHraTeJibHYIO cHJIY .,n;JIH <<Bceii. MhlCIIHru;eiî u µ;eHTe.J:hnoii -qacTH pa6oqero naceJieHHH Ilapm«a>> 46. Pa6oqne Ilapnma H rrocJie BToporo npou;ecca llHTep­ Ily6nH11Hble co6paHBH HaUHOHa.ïa He OTK838.11HC.h OT H,l(eHRO-IIOJIHTHlJeCHOH B Ilapume 6opb6b1. Oun nepenec.1:n1 ee B MHOfO'IHCJieHHble ny6..,1nqHhle co6paHHH, rrpoucxo,n;rrnmne CO BTopoii IIOJIOBIIHhl 1868 r. B pa3JIHqHl:,IX pa:ÜoHax CTOJIIIIl,LI II CbirpaBIIIIIe orpo�1:Hyro pOJib B o6ru;eCTBeHHOR JRH3Hlt <I>paHn;nn 6J1nmailmnx .'IeT. 3arwH OT 6 HJOHH 1868 r., nprr ncex ero orpaHH11eHHHX H rrperroHaX, BCe me .rrera.ïTI30na:r Ta:Rne co6paHHH. Ilo HeKOTOpbIM CBep,eHJIHM, TO.:IhT-W 3a 8 MC-CHII;eB, C ITIOJIH 1868 no MapT 1869 r., B Ilap11me COCTOH.'IOCb OT 300 ,n;o 400 nyOJIHlIHbIX co6paHH:Ü, Ha KOTOphIX 6bl!IO npOH3He­ ceHO OT p;nyx J];O Tpox TbICHlI peqeÜ 47. Ha IIepBbIX nopax 3TH co6pa1nrn npoBO.rt;H.JIIICb npH aKTIIBHOM )"18CTHH 6yp­ :mya3HhlX 3:KOROMIICTOB II IIO.ïIITIUWB, npnJiaraBI.IIIIX 6oJibIDHe ycHJillH, GT�)fü,1 «OTBOeBaTb IIOlfBY y cou,ua.1JICTOI3>} II IlO)J,qlIHHTb ay,ri;HTOpHro CBOeMy o6paay MhlI.IIJI8HIIH. 8HeprHtIIIO ;a;ei1cTnoBam1 Il npaBI,Ie npy,ri;oHHCThl, c:MbIR8BIDH8CH B pHp;e BOTipOCOB C 6ypmya3HhIMil opaTopaMH. Ilpn o6cymp;eHHH na nepBblX rry6JHil!HhlX co6paHIIHX BO:IROHaBIIJero pa60'IH8 MaCChI BOIIpoca O meHCROM Tpyp;e JIH6epaJibH0-6ypmya3Hbre II rrpanorrpy,ri;oHHCTCRHe opaTophI, K YJJ.OBJieT­ BOpeHTIIO npncyTCTBOnanmero Ha co6paHnHx IIOJIHn,e:ücKoro ROMnccapa, orpa­ HH1IIrnaJTwcr. II3JiomeHIIe�I cpanTOB TI UIHpp D CHIIiR8HfUI 3apaOOT'HOH IIJI8Tbl -1 4 Procès de l'Association Internationale des travailleurs. à Paris. Première et deuxième Commissions du Bureau de Paris, pp. 164, 165. ◄ 5 Troisième proci.'s de l'Association Internationale des travailleurs à Paris. Paris, 18i0, p. 16. 46 <<L'Egalité>>, 20 mars 1869. 47 G. de Mo l i n a ri. Le réYeil du socialisme en 1868. «Journal des économistes», 1869, juin. 62
pa6cmH� B ro� HMDie'p1UI, HOOeraH o6o6m;eHIIll H BhIBO)J,OB OTHOCHTeJiblHO IIOJIO­ iReHJIJI meHm;HH B ycJIOBHJIX KaIIJITa.i'IH3Ma. 06cym;a,eHlie npHH.HJIO COBCeM lIHO:Ü xapaKTep u cpaay nacTopOm'.HJIO 6ypmyaaHyIO neqaTh, rrpaBHTeJihCTBeHHYIO H OIIIl03�HOHHyro, KaK TOJibKO B IIOJI0MHRY BCTYIIHJIH con;naJIHCThl-KOJIJieKTH­ BBCTLI. RoJIJieKTHBHCThl BCe 6onee aaBJia;a,eBaJIH pa6oqe:Ü ayAHTOpHei rry6JIJlqHhlX co6panHi. B AaJI1>He:0.meM onpe;a,eJIHJIHCh ;a,Ba po_ga 11y6Jn1qHhlX co6paHui: B n;enTpe Ilapuma, rf);e II0,1l;BH3aJIHCh 6ypmya3Hhle Hf);eOJIOrJI, co6paHH.H 6hlJill J11I6epaJibHhlMH B o6JiaCTH IIOJIBTlIKlI » peq>0pMHCTCRHMH B con;HaJibHbIX BOIIpO­ cax; B pa6oqHx pa:ii:oHax ORB BCe 6oJiee npHHHM8JIH peBOJIIOQHOHHO-COD;HaJIH-' CTHqecKBii xapaKTep. Ha BHX IIpOHCXOAHJIJI CTpaCTHhle ,r:çacKyccHH 110 caMhlM pa3H006pa8HhlM BOnpocaM, BOJIHOBaBmHM B TO BpeM.H pa6oqJix: 0 MOHOIIOJIHHX, 0 uaeMHOM TPYAe H 1rnyrrepH8Me, 0 6eapa6on1n;e, 0 CHH)J,HKaJibHblX na.rraTax, 0 BOCIIHTaHHH H o6paaoBaBHH, 0 pe.lHrIIII H aTeH3Me, 0 rrpHBHJierH.HX, 0 11paBe HaCJief);OBaHHJJ, 0 ROMMYHH3Me lI MIOTI03JIH3Me, 0 6opb6e qeJioBeKa C rrpupo­ ;a,o:ü, 0 COOCTB0HHOCTH, O rrpaBax H ofürnaHHOCT.HX .i:nqHOCTH B û0.Bjp0·M0HHOM o6m;ecTBe u 'llHOro.M APYfOM. Ilo cBH;a,eTeJI1>CTBY ognoro 11'3 yqacTHHROB 3THX AHCKyccui, oo�aJl'HcTa Booy.a MaJioHa, opaTophl, noKycHo BBo,n;H B aa6Jiy�e­ HHe rrpncyTCTBOBaBIDHX na co6paHH.HX IIOJIIID;eiicRHX areHTOB, IIpI13hlBaJIH pa6oqux B3.HTh B co6cTBeHHhle PYRH Bep;e1nrn CBOHX ,n,eJI, H60 ;a,o CJIX rrop IIOlITH BCe Te, KTO HX npe;a,cTaBJIHJI, o6MaHbIBa.JIH HX; OHH HaIIOMHHaJIH HM 06 HIOHe 1848 H f);ei..a6pe 1851 rOAOB, 0 TOM, qTO «con;na:11>Ha.H <pHJIOCO(pH.H OCHOBbIBaeTC.H Ha aTeH3!.le, Ha OTpun;aHHH qaCTHOÜ co6CTBeHHOCTH, C.lOBOM - Ha KOMMYHH3Mfl B caMOM mnpoKOM ero IIOHHMaHHH>) 48• BapJieH, CHCTeMaTuqecNH OCBem;aBmHii B CBOl:IX KüppecrroH,n;eHD;HHX Ha cTpaHun;ax mBein;apcKoi con;11aJIHCT11qecRoü ra3eThI <<L'Egalité>> cocTO.HHHe pa6oqero ABHilŒHHH BO <l>paHD;HH, B <peBpa.T.Ie ·1869 r. coo6m;a.JI: <<06m;ecTBeHHOe ,D;BH:>«eHne c ImiRAhlM f);HeM pacmup.HeTC.H n yr:iy6JI.HeTc.H cpe;a,H Hamero pa6o­ qero HaceJieHHH. C IŒlli)J,hIM ,IJ;HeM ycTpaHBaeTC.H BCe 60.T.Ihille II 60Jihme ny6JIHqHhIX co6paHJIH )J,JIH o6cym,n;eHH.H 3nOHOMH1I8CRHX BOIIpOCOB; :H30 ,D;HH B ;a,eHb pacTeT HX nocem;aeMOCTb... OpaTopa:M IIPIIXO,IJ;IITC.H paapbIBaTbCH Ha qacTH, qT06M o6cJiymHTb BCe co6paHHH, Ha ROTOphlx Bep;yTC.H npeHH.H 110 caMbIM HH­ TepeCHhIM, HO H CaMhll\.I CJIOlliHhlM BOIIpoca�V> 49• · Cpe;a,n BIIAHhIX opaTopoB ny6JIII'l!HhIX coi5paHHÜ ROHn;a 60-x ro,n;oB ){hl BCTpeqaeM HeMaJio HMeH 6yAYm;Hx qaeHoB IlapumcKoiî RoMMYHhl: BapJietta, AMypy, <l>JiypaHca, Pnro, Cl>eppe, PaHBhe, Jlottre, 8Aa, ,r(IOBaJI.H, Bp110Ha, lli.-B.HJieMaHa, a TaRme Apyrnx aRTHBHhIX ,n;eHTeJieii con;HaJIHcT11qec1rnro ABH­ meHHH: PycceJIH, raiHJpa, MQPO, Mu.:·lhe,pa , AH,Ape Jleû , Il. MeHK, .r(e--­ aHpe, ,[(IOKaca, Bro;:\aii, .r(e6oKa, J:(eJiaRypa. 8To 6hI.lH con;11aJIHCThl-KOJIJieKTH­ BHCThl, MHOrHe, 113 KOT10phlx Ha3hIBaJIH re6H nOllMYHIICTa�IH. Û)Vl'II H:J HHX npH­ Ha,n;Jie>KaJDI R rpynne JieBhlX npy,n;OHHCTOB, p;pynrn - R 6.rraHRHCTCROÜ opraHHaan:HH, T! PeTbH He npH'l!HC:I.HJIH ceo.H Hll K O:LHOH 113 cym:ecTBOBaBIIIHX B TO BpeMH con;uaJIHCTHqecKHX rpynn:e:pOBOR. Cpep;H HHX 6bl.1IO MHOrO qJieHOB llHTepHa­ D;HOHaJia. Ha BHAHhlx 6naHKHCTOB, KpoMe P11ro, <Deppe, 8;a,a, ,r(IOBaJIH, PaHB1>e, 6y­ ,n;ym,11x 'l!JieHoB IlapHmCRoi HoMMYHhI, opaTopaMH 11y6JI111IHbIX co6paHHH 6hlJIH iRaHTOH, III0B1>ep, rpaHme, Race, MapmaH, Mopo, 8M6ep, iRaKJiap 50 . 3Aec1> me BhlCTynaJIH li TaKHe H3B€CTHhle rrpyJJ;OHHCThI npaBoro TOJIKa, KaK <l>p116yp, ,., V «La Rev ue socialiste>>, 1896, t. 3.3, p. 654. Iln:ch�ro B. Ma::rona A. P1m:napy OT 28 �rnp­ Ta 1869 r. (9 <<L'Egalité», 13 février 1869. 50 Les réunions publiq ues à Paris. Paris , 1869 ; G. Molin a ri. Le mouvement socia­ liste et les réunions publiques avant le 4 septembre. Paris, 1872; M. Dommang e t. Blan qui et l'opposition révolutionnaire à la fin du Second empire. Paris, 1960. 48 63
ToJrnH, Illel\<rnJie, 8.---rr1roH, JlaHrJiya, Trn;eTHO cTapaBIIIHeCH coxpaHH.Th cBoe 6hl­ Jioe BJIIUIHH8 Ha napnm,CR:HX Jpa60"q}JX, Bce 'OOJiee mHpOKHè KpyrH. KOTOphIX npn:o6rn;aJIHCb K 110):I;JIUHHO cou;naJillCTlftieCKOMY WJHmeHHIO. « 'Y Hac H8 MOlli8T 6nITh 60Jihill8 HJIJII03ll:Ü HacqeT B3fJIHJJ;OB II TeHAeHII;H:Ü, fOCIIO}I,CTBYIOIIJ;HX B Maccax, - rrpe,a;ocTeperaJI q>paHII;Y3CKYIO 6ypmya3HIO B lIIOHe 1869 r. OpJieaHHCT MomIHapH,- 1I3 ,ll;8CHTH pa6oqHx, H.HTepecyrom;HXCH He TOJihRO XJie6oM Hacyrn;Hhll\I, p;eBHTb HBJIHIOTCH con;naJIHCTaMH HJIII Haxo­ AHTCH Ha IIYTH K TOMy, YIT06hI CTaTh HMH>) 51 • �hoT Bll,ll;Hhl:Ü 6ypmya3Hhlii 8KO­ HOMIICT, pe,n;aKTop caMofr Kpynao:ü opJieaHHCTCIWH ra3eThl «Journal des Dé­ bats>> CO 3Jio6oÏ! H HeHaBIICThIO no,ri;qepKJrnaJI, qTO COII;HaJIH3M, KaK IIOKa3aJIH ny6JIHqHI,Ie co6paHHH , He TOJihIW He YHHYITOiR0H, HO, HanpOTHB, (<HHKOr,n;a He nepecTaBaJI pacnpocTpaHHTh B Maccax CBOll paaJiararom;ne TeopHlU>, 1ITO «OH pacnoJiaraeT IIITa6oM li apMH8ll li l\f0lli8T npH H8B8CTHbIX o6CTOHT8JibCTBaX BLI8BaTb CTpamahle IIOTpHC8HHH>). MOJIIIHapH B03JiaraJI OTBeTCTB8HHOCTb aa TaKoe IlOJIOiR8HHe nem;eiî Ha rnpamITeJihCTBO BTopoii llMIIepHH, KOTQJ)Oe , ·<<C'l)pe,MHCh aacTaBHTh YMOJIRHYTb COII;IJa:IlICTOB, coqJio Heo6xo;ri;HMhlM JIHIDHTh CB060JJ;hl CJIOBa ncex 6ea HCRJIIOYI8HHH>>. BcJie,D;CTBHe 8TOfO 6I,IJia HK06hl napaJIH80BaHa KOHCepBaTHBHaH rrponaraH,ri;a, KOTOpaH B fO;D;hl HIOJihCKOH MOHapXHH BeJiaCh C 6oJihIDOH aKTHBHOCTblO II CJIYiRIIJia rrpoTHBOB8COM rrponaraH,a;e con;HaJIHCTHqe­ CKOH 52. 3Jio6Hhle BhlIIa}I,hl npOTHB rry6JIHYIHhlX co6paHHÜ: H BhlCTynaBIDHX Ha HRX opaTopoB, rJiaBHhIM o6pa30M YI.'IeHOB llHTepHan;noHaJia, HCXOAHJIH H OT ,a;pyrnx CJIOeB 6ypmya3HIL Mx npe}I,CTaBHT8JIH B 3aKOHO)];aTeJihHOM KOprryce ny6JIHlIHO KJieBeTaJIH Ha JIYllillRX J.lIO)];e:B pa6oqero KJiacca H peBOJIIOD;HOHHOH HHTeJIJIH­ reHII;HH, ll306pamaH HX - IiaK BCIIOMHHaJI BIIOCJie,n;CTBHH COD;HaJIHCT Jie­ q>paHC8 - <<6aH,D;HTaMR, rrporrone;ri;yrora;nMH KpoBaBhle 8KCII;8CCI,I H KpaiRH HJIH, no M8Hhmeii Mepe, JIIO;D;hMII IIOJ);O8pHT8JlhHhIMH, OIIJiaYIHBaeMhlMH IIOJIHD;Reii>> 53• ,D;erryTaThl JieBOH q>paKn;HH, 6ypmya3Hhle pecny6JIHKaHII;hl, He OTCTaBaJIH OT Apymx. C Tl)lroYHhl 3aKoHoAaTeJihHoro Kopnyca ip-ecmy6Jffl!KarHen; IleJIJieTaH B OTB0T Ha Tpe6oBaHRe HphIX 6oHanapTilCTOB ycnJIHTh rrpaBHT8JlhCTB0HHhle pe­ rrpeCCRH rrpoTHB opa TOpOB rry6JIHqHhIX co6paHHH q>aKTHqecKH npucoe]);IIHHJICH K HHM, 38HBHB OT RMeHR .TieBOll <f>paKII;HH: «IlpaBHTeJihCTBY 6hlJIO npe,[J;'hHBJieHo Tpe6onaHne, YIT06hI perrpeccnn rrpnMeHHJIHCh qam;e. IIpaBHTeJihCTBo o6em;ano BbIIlOJIHHTh :no. Borrpoc, IIOCTaBJ.l8HBhIH TaKHM o6pa30M, He KacaeTCH napn1n C B-000 }];bI)) 54• BapJie·H 6hm coBepIIIeHHû rrpaB, Ror;ri;a B q>eBpaJie 1869 r. nuca.rr B <<L'Ega­ litê» no IIOBO)];Y 3TOro He}I,OCTOHHOfO IIOBe,a;eHHH JieBhlX ,n;enyTaTOB: HH­ llero JIY1Imero II He Ollill}I,aJIII OT HamHX pecny6JIHKaHCKHX )];0II-yTaTOB ..• Kor,i;a )];0JIO n;ri;eT 06 HX rrepcoHax, Irnrµ;a µ;eJio H)];0T O TOM, KTO 6y,n;eT BepmHTh o6m:e­ CTB8BHhle µ;eJia, y HHX II.D:eT cephe3HaH IIOTaCOBKa, HO KaR TOJihKO pe1Ih aaxo­ p;RT O COII;HaJIHCTax, ROTOpbix HYiRHO OCYAHTh, TOf)];a Mem,i:cy HD.MM BO,IJ;BOpHeTCH cornacHe>> 55 . IloRaaaTe.JihHO, O.llHa:no, l!TO MeJIRo6y1pmya3'Hble Ae:MoKpaThl-HeonKo6nHUbI R HX opraH <<Le Réveil>> TaKme npncoe;ri;nBRJ111ch K xopy roJioCOB, ycep]J;CTBOBaB­ mux n RJieneTH'H'1JOO'KHX BhIIIa,;i;ax IIpOTIIB yqacTHIIKOB 11IY6JilJ1IHhIX cd6paŒIHH. 3a no;ii;nllChIO Cl>paHcya Cl>aBpa, 6paTa p;enyTaTa lliIOJIH <I>aBpa, B «Le Réveil» IIOHBHJiaCh CTaThH, <<pasofüraqaBmam> opaTopoB ny6JIH1IHhlX co6paHHÜ KaK areHTOB OOHarrapruCT-Cirnro rrpaBureJibCTBa, HROOhl OTBJI-eIŒIOIII;HX H3ipo,n:HbTe «MI>I <<Journal des écon omistes>>. 1869, juin. <<Journal des Débats>), 5 février 1009. 53 G. Le f rança i s. Etude sur le mouvemen t communaliste à Paris en 1871. Neu­ ;•hâtel, 1871, p. 46. •• Annales du Sénat et du Corps Législatif. Séance du 1 fé vrier 1869, p. 87. 55 <<L'Egalité >>, 13 février 1869. 51 52 ô4
MaCChl OT npaKT:u:qecKOÜ 6opb6hl 11jpOTIIB 1n1rreIJH.li. Ca�:1 ]J;e.JieRJU03, 1pep;aKT01p BTOÜ: ra30Thl, He 6LIJI CBo6o,n;eH OT uenpll.H3Hll K ny6Jill'IHhlM co6paHHHM 1I K llX yqacTHHKaM, XOTH OH ll OTMemeBaJICJI OT CTaThll COTPYAHHKa ero raaeThl. IlpaB:n:TeJILCTBO BTopo:ë: HMnepun yme B nepBhle Mecm::i;hl 1869 r. npHBJie­ KJIO K cy,n;e6HOH OTBCTCTBeHHOCTH OKOJIO 60 opaTOpOB ny6JIHqHhIX co6paHHH. ÛHH 6hlJill rrp:u:ronopeHhl K TIOpeMHOMY 38n."IIOlJ.eIIHIO Ha cpoKH OT 15 ,n;HeH ,n;o 8 M0CJill;0B 1:1 K ,n;eHemHhU.I mrpa<paM OT 50 p;o 2 ThlCHq <ppaHHOB. Cpe,n;H ocy­ iRI(eHHhIX aa ny6JIHIIHOe llOHOmenne o6m;eCTBeHHOll <<MopamI II p;o6phIX Hpa­ BOB», aa «Hanaµ;KH Ha npaBa ceMbll II Ha rrpIIHIJ;llil co6cTBeHHOCTH>>, aa <<no,n;­ c11peKaTeJibCTBO o,n;HHX rpam,n;aH R HeHaBIICTII II IllpeapeHIIIO no OTHomeHHIO K ,n;pyrHM», aa «IIOAC11PeKaTeJibCTBO K HeHaBHCTll II rrpe3peHHIO K lIMIIe,paTop­ CKOMy npaB:n:TeJibCTBY» 6hlJIO HeMaJIO COI:�HaJIIICTOB, Il0.:Ib30BaBIDIIXC.H Il-OIIYJI�p­ HOCThIO y napIDKCKHX 1paÔOq11x. B Maretpua.:iax npou;ec-coB, neqaTaBIDHXC.H B «La Gazette des Tribunaux», BCTpeqarorc.a 1nrena PayJI.a Pnro, HauoJiooHa ra:ë:HIPa, Bp»oHa, IleiipyToHa, A10Bam1, BpEcoHa, l\Iopo, <l>eppe, Erop;ai, BameJihpH, illoBI,epa, Ilnmoaa, AYypy, lliaaroHa, <D-0,prena, rapipo H MHornx �ymx�. :Uap;aHHe 3aKOHOB O ny6JIHquhlx co6paHH.HX II O neqam He IIPIIB0JIO npaBH­ TeJILCTBO BTopo:ë: HMnepuu K �eJIH, KOTOpyro OHO npecJie,n;oBaJio: IIOJIHTHqecKaJI o6cTaHOBKa BO <l>paHll;IDIH He CMJirq11JiaCh, a, HanpoTHB, o6ocTpHJiaCh. He y,n;oB­ JieTBOpllB pa6oq:u:x, crrpaBe,n;JIHBO npo,n;o:rmaBmnx ma.JIOBaThC.H Ha CBOe IIOJIII­ TIITieCKOe 6ootrpaBHe, çaBHTeJlbCTBO Bhl3BaJio HapeKa.HHH I1 ne IIlJ>H.H3Hh nMy­ �1:IX KJiaCCOB, Kpaiiue o6ecIIOKOeHHhlX li 03:IOOJieHHhIX IDHPORHM paaMaxoM ny6n:u:qHhIX co6pauuii, pacTylll;HM BJill.HHlleM B HllX con;:u:aJIHCTHqecKllX H,n;eii. He ?tl0Hee BeCKHM JJ;OKa3aTeJihCTBOM o6ocTpeHllH RJiaC­ POCT COBhIX rrpOTllBOpeqHii BO <DpaHD;H'II HBHJIC.H n,aJI1>HeiieTa11e11Boro �eHBH 1111:1ii IIO,A'belI CTaqetJHOfO ;rJ;BllïR8HllH B'O Bropoii IIOJIO­ BO :eropo:ë: DOJIO:BBBe BllHe 1868 r. B CBH3H CO CHH1ReHHff\l aapa6oTHOM IIJia­ 1868 r. Thl pa6otmx. Ope;:r.u )fHOfOlfllCJieHHhIX CTatie:K BTOro IIetpHO)];,a OTM0THM R!PYIIHYIO CTRqKy pa6o'tfHX MpaMotpHoro Ilp-OJI3BO)];,CTBa B IIa­ pHIBe·, BCIIhlXHYBillYIO B nOH�e 1868 r. n aaROH'CIIIBIIIYIOCH rro6e.n;oii 6aCTO-BaB­ mnx. ÛA,HOBjpeMeHHO rrpoucxo,n;HJIU CT8'9:Ril B TeRCTHJibHOll IIPOMhIIDJI6HHOCTH: qeTLipexcoT npHJJ;HJiblll;llROB mepCTH B BbeHHe (]J;oq>HH3), TRal!eii TeKCTHJih­ noro IllP0ADIPHHTHH BepTeJI.a B CoTTBH.ïh-JI€-PyaHe H 1pHp; ;a;pyrnx. PeayJI1>TaroM 3THX eTaqeK, HOOaBHCHMO OT HX IIcxo;:i;a, OhIJI pocr opraHH30BaHHOCTH ll H,n;e:ü:­ HOB apeJIOCTH pa6oq:ux, lIX Jiyqmee IIOHJD-IaHHe 3Ha'CleHIUI eAEIHCTBa H -cmrn:;r:i;.ap­ HOCTH AJUl ycnexa 1:IX OCBOOOÀHTeJibHOii 60tpbühl. IIooe;::i;oHOCHa.H CTa'CIIŒ Mpa­ MO!J)In;HKOB Ila,p:u:ma, KaK lI He CTOJih ycrrernHaH CTa111rn TKaqeii: CoTTBHJib-Jie­ Pyaaa, DIPOT0l(aJIH npH aKTHBHOÜ: IIOMOID;ll 6acTyIOm;IIM CO CTOfPOHhl pa601IHX pa3JIH11HhlX npocpecen:iî RaR B -caMOH <l>paH�lllI, TaK H B ;a;pyr1:1x crpaHax. T«aqaM CoTTBHJIH OKaaan:u MaTepIIaJihHYIO 110MOIIJ,h TKa1IH, JIIITorpa<f>hl n pa6oqHe ,n;pyrnx crreu;:u:aJibHOCTeÜ PyaHa, TRa11:u, np.H)];llJiblll;HRH ll RpaCHJih­ m;HKH )l;apaeraJIH, TeKCTHJihlll;HKH 8Jih6eq>a, 11epenJieT1IIIKH Ilapnma, IIPHAHJih­ rn;HRH CeH-MapTeH-,n;ro-BnBLe, Cea-Jiemep-;a;ro-Eyp-�enn 11 ;ri;pyrHx pa6oqllx n;eHTpoB <l>paHu;:u::u:. EJiaro,n;ap.a: opraH1rnyrom;eii poJIR feHepaJihHoro coBeTa I11nepHan;noHaJia B0CbMa cym;eCTBeHHYIO ;ri;eHeïRHYIO IIOMOIIJ;b OKa3aJIH 6aCTYIO­ m;nM TaKme pafioqne JlOH,IJ;OHa, MaH1l€CTepa, JlHBepny.rr.a. I1 eCJIH 6hr COTTBHJih­ CKHe TIŒ11H, BCJiep;eTBHe CBOOÏI HeopraHH30BaHHOCTJI, 111jpemAeBipe�Ie.HHO He rrpn­ CTYIIllJIR R pa6oTe, TO CTaqJ<a MOf.Tia 6hI IHieTh AJI.H HHX IIOJIOlliHTeJlhHble pe.3YJihTaThl. ]];eaemHhle IIOCTYIIJieHHH OT opraHnaan;IIiî H OTp;eJibHhIX JIHD; BO <l>pauqn:u: H 3a rpaHIID;eÜ, npo;ri;o.r1maJIH IlOCTYIIaTh Il IIOCJie Toro, KaK CTaqKa q>aRTIPieCKll 6L1Jia npeRpam;eHa. Pyancime pa6ot:J:ne Bhipa3IIJin «ne-qnyro 56 6 <<La Gazette des Tribunaux}>, 1870, janvier - mai. IIapeIBCl-<aR HOMMyHa, T. 1 85
rrpH3I-IaTeJibHOCTb )> T"eHcpa.TJbH01IY COBeTy 57. CoTTBHàlhCIŒH CTaq1rn, IIOKa3aB­ ma.H pa60lJHM perna10rqee 3H31I8HHe, 1-m1we IBŒIDT A,JIH HHX o,praBH30,B8HHOCTb 'li CûJLl1IJ;a1pHOCTh, ;']:êrna I�pymn�1ii. T'Ü.11!0!.. pa3-BHTHID pa6oqero ]J.B:HilŒHllH B Py­ aHC1KOl.'vl OKpyro. 'l'blCHl!H pa60lJHX PyaHa, 3Jib6eqm, ,D;aipHeTaJIH 11 OKpeCTBhlx° ;l\'leC'THOCTen: HalJaJIII o6'be;:t)IIŒThCH B o6m;ecTBa B3a'll.MOIIOMOID;H, CTal!KH BOOlJHIO npo,ri;e:.\10HCTpIIpOBaJUI, qTO reHepaJihHblll COBeT JlHTep­ HaI.J,IIOHaJia Il B03r.TJaB,1Jlel\1hie IL\I opraHH3füJ;HH B pa3JillqHhlX CT!PaHax HBJIH­ IDTCH ITOAJIHHHl>l'l\III Bblpa3IIT8JIHMH KJJaCCOBhlX HHTepecOB npo;reTa PIIa Ta. R'.am,n,aH CTa111rn noaTo:\1y cnoco6crBoBaJia pocTy nonyJIHpHocrn lIHT€1PHa­ I.l,HOHaJia B pa6oqHx �rnccax. Bypmyasna.H neqaT.b em;e 6oJiee ycIIJIIIJia TpaBJno coI.1,lla.1:JICTOB , y11acrHHKOB ny6JJHlJHhIX co6paHIIH, HaKaMaüciœe Bbl6opb1 1869 roµ;a HyI-Ie Bb16opoB 1869 roAa B 3aRoHonaTeJihHhlH "RopB 3aKOHOAaTeJibHhlii Ropnyc .rryc :n.orµ;a 9TH co6paHIIH npeBpaTHJJHCh B npe Bhl� B BX 3H8tfeBHe ' 6opHhie. IIpaBHreJihCTBO, CO CB08II cropORhl, pacnpocnpaHIIJIO no BCeÏI crpane, L'IaBHhDI o6ipa30:\I B ce:.IbCnlIX MeCTHOCTHX, rHyCHl>IH nacKBIIJih nop; Ha3BaH11eM <<Le spectre rouge>> ( «R.paCHhlH np1rnpa:m>), orpoM­ HhIM IlO TOMY BpeMeHU THpalliOM B CTO C JIIIillHIIM TbJCHq aK38MIIJI.HpOB. rJiaB­ HOe HaaHalJeHHe nac1rnn::rn 3aim101Ia.1och B TOM, qTo6hl coxpaHHTL aa npaBII­ TeJibCTBOM HanoJieoHa III ro:rnca KpecTbHH, aanyraB 11x 11ao6pameHHeM co:u;:rm­ JJlICTOB Ka:R CTOpOHHIIIWB p;eJiema npeCrh.HHCKOii 3eMJIH. ABTOpOM aToro ano­ HHMHOfO onyca 6hl:.r npop;amHhI:Ü: rKypHaJJHCT Orrocr BIITID, COTPYAHHR pHp;a ooHan�pTIICTCh--nx opraHoB neqarH, c 1867 roAa -pep;aKTop oq,IIq11oaHoft raaerhI «L'Etendard>>. 3roMy me aBTopy npnHa;J;JJemaJia 6pomropa «IIy6Jinq­ Hhle co6paHIIH B IIapnarn B 1868�1869 rr. >>, Bb�epmaBma.H neipeJJ: BhI6o­ paMH TPII 1rnµ;aHIIH. B Hei'1 3.'IOCTHO mrnpam.aJIIICh BhlCTynJieHlIH co:u;IIaJIIICTH1IP.­ CKHX opaTopoB. ÛHII :i:rno6pa.HmJIHCI, rrponoBe,IJ;HIIIŒMH i:i;apey6MHCTBa, rpa6ema, 8.JlO)l;eJIHIIH, ;a;ecnOTII3�Ia, <<OTpII:u;arom;IIMil BCHKYID lIH)];HBII.D;yaJibHYID CB06op;y>>. IlpII3hlBa.H 6ypmya3IIIO ycn.JIITb 6oph6y npOTlIB con;HaJIIICTJiqecKOH npona­ raa,w,i:, aBrop 6pomrop1>1 BHyma.::r coocTBennRqec1nn:1 aJieMeHTaM, qro co:q�aJIII­ CThI HBJJHIDTCH no6opHIII-;a1�In rpam;r::i;a.HCKOÎÎ BOHHbl II pa0pym:e:-reJI.HMII OCHOH­ HhlX YCT08B o6m;eCTBa: ceMbII, co6CTBeHHOCTH, peJIIIfllH. ÛTIMeTJL'1, lJTO npe,ro3h16opHhDI MaXHHaIJ;H.HM npaBIITeJibCTBa B-rqpoii HMIIe­ PIIlI y,i;eJIIIJI aneo;HaJihHoe nHnMaHne B Mae 1869 r. noBepeRH1:,1:a B ;a;enax Poocrrn ÛKyHeB B CBOOM coo6m:emrn B Ile-Tep6y1pr: <<IlpaBIITeJihCTBO cyMeJio BeChMa JIOB· KO IICIIOJlh80BaTb B CBOIIX HHTepecax 6ypHble MaHII�TaD;IIH Bbl6opHbIX co6pa­ IIHÜ B Ilap11me. Ero areHThl HaBO;:J;HHJIII ce.. �hCKHel\IeCTHOCTH II MeJIKHe ropo,II.a :H TaM tpacnpoC'I)paHJIJIH rrpe;:i;Ha:uepeHHO rrpeyBeJI.IPHmHhle CJIYXll O TOM, qTo IlpüIICXOAIIT B CTOJIJIU.e. npaCHbIH npH3paR 6hl.JI CHOBa C yernexoM Bhl3B3H K iKH3 HH cpeM HenpocBen:i;eHHbIX lfaC-C. ÜH n;p1rne.1: RetpenmTeJII:.HhlX H ROJie6Jirom;n.x­ CH no.ri; 3HaMH Oq>IIU.HaJihHhIX RaHp;11,n,aryp>> 58. M·IIHIICTepcTBO BHyTpeHHHX ,II.eJI yme c HHBap.H 1869 r. mnpmw paa,n:aBaJio cy6c11,II.HR rrpo;r:i;amHhnI pea1-rn;:u:oHHhl)I raseTaM, nafllPaBJinJio ,MnomecrBo cnen;n:­ aJihHO IIO,II.06paHHblX pe;::i;anTOpOB ra3eT B IllpOBHHIµ!ID. MnoroqHCJI0HHble ceKpeT­ Hhle Il;IlpRyJIHphl C COOTBeTCTBYIDII.l,IDHI IIHCTPYRD;IIHMII 6bIJIII noCJiaHhl IIIP0(p0K­ TaM , -M31PaM, :MIIpOBhDI cyp;h.H�I. ,l(enyTaThl--OOHanapTIICThI aa;n;onro AO aaqa.,1a Bhl6opoB ycTpeMH.-:IIICh B ,nerrapTa•)IeHThI , lJTOOhl <<CJiep;nri, aa noro;r:i;oft u crnMy­ :11IpoBa Th pBenHe CBOHX 1136rrpareJieH>> noqpep;cTBOM npe,II.BLI6opnoft nponaraH­ l];hI H IlOj(Ryrra CBOeTT areHTY1PhI (pa3;::J;f fqJ,J 30HTOB, He'll)pûMORae:MhlX naJihTO, 13e­ JIOCH1I8;r:I;OB II T. II.) 59. r; 7 Compte-rendu moral et matériel de la grève de SotteviIIe-li�s-Rouen. B rrp .HJJome­ mn1 K Publication du Cercle d'études économiques de l'arrondissement de Rouen. Rap­ port sur les travaux et la marche du Cercle depuis le 23 août 1008 lu dans la dernière Assemblée générale du 7 février 1'86-9, Paris (1869] . 58 ABIJP, KaHn,., A· 125, :i. 141. ÜKy,HeB - rop qa1wny. 15 (27) MfüI 1869 r. 59 ABITP, Haau ;x. 12. \ :i. 8'2. IIIrane.:1b6epr - ropqa1wBy. 26 anpe;m ( 8 MaH) 1869 r. . 66
Bypmya3Hhie 0111103HD;BOHHhie npyurrnpoBI-rn ,pa3BepHyaH IIIHpoRyIO II!P0A­ BI>I6Qi}JIYIO arHTaD;BIO, HatIIpaBaeHHYIO Ran upoTHB oqn1u;Ha:IbHIJX, TaK Il npo­ 'l'llB pa6()'qllx Ka11;a;B�aT-0B, Bl>IABHHYTI.Ix ny6m.PIHI.n1n co6paHB.H'Mn. OmecToqeH­ Ho conepHnqaH Memp;y co6oii B noroHe 3a p;enyTaTCKn�n1 1iecTaMn, 6Yi{)mya3Hhie cppaKI:i;n.u: ,n;eiicTBOBaJIII corJiacoBaHHo, 1wr;:i;a ,n:ie.10 •nacaJioc1, 6opI.6hl rrpoTHB OOU:BaJIBCTOB. 3a nepB:bie TPB 1rncan;a 1869 r. 6y,pmya3HaH O IIII03HD;HH UOMHMO peopra­ HB3aIJ;BB 60.,l:hillBHCTBa cy�eCTBYIOID;llX OITII03IIIJ;HOHHI,IX opraHOB neqaTH H3A�Jia 14 cne11;uaJII>HhlX npe;:i;Bhl6opHI.IX ny6..an1rnu;H:â lI <<46 HOBhIX IIOJieMnqe­ CKBX ra30T, HBJIHIO!qBXC.H B ee ,py1rnx HaCTOH�BM opyp;He).I BORHhl, IIPBMeHH­ eMhlM eIO C 6oJILIDOÜ p0IDBTeJibHOCTbIO B qaCTO C KpaiiHHM H8HCTOBCTBOM>)' KaK BCTJP8B01K0HHO coo6ra;aJI uaqa.JII,HHK 610po IIletiaTrr MBHHCTepCTBa BHyT;peHHHX A0JI B CBOeÜ )J;OKJl8J\HOR 3aIIBCKe OT 5 arrpeJIH 1869 r. 60 ÜH nop;qepRHYJI npn aTOM, qro XOT.H q.HCJIO rnpaBBT8JlhCTBeHHI.IX ra3eT Il!peBbIIIIaer 1.{llCJIO OIIII03HD;H­ OHHMX H ,A'OCTHraeT 180, 8TO KOJIHqecT:OOHHOe npeBOCXO)];CTBO He 03HallaeT n:npeBOCXOJl;CTBa CBJI» 61• KrrepBKaJIM, aKTBBHO BKJIIOllHBIIIHeCH B H36HpaTeJibHYIO IŒMIJaHHIO BBII)];Y pocTa aHTBKJiepBKaJibHOro JJ;BBilŒHHH BO Cl>paHIJ;HH, nepBOHaqaJibHO HaMepe­ BaJIBCh 6JIOKHpOBaTI.CH rJiaBHhIM o6pa30M C opJieaHBCTaMII IIPOTHB O(pBD;HaJII,­ HhlX J{aHJJ;B}J;aTYP· ÜHB onacaJIBCn, Kan 6hl 6oHanapTIICTCIWe upaBHTeJihCTBO B CJiyqae yc11exa He OT03BaJio cppaHD;y3CKHe BO:Ü:CKa H3 PH1Ia, l1To61,1 npHBJieqh Ha CBOIO CTOp ouy l1TaJIHIO B OiKB}];aBirreiicH BORHe Cl>p aHD;HII II pOTHB Il pycc1n1. O;a;aaKo 06o�Ha1IBBmniic.H B xo;a;e npe)];B1>16opHoii naMrraHHH ycnex pecny6JIH1mHcKHx KaH,D;H}];aTOB 3acTaBHJI K.JiepBR3JIOB B Tex MeCTHOCTHX, r)];e 61>1.JIO CHJILHO BJIBfilllf0 pec11y6JIBKanu;eB, 6:IORIIpOBaThCH C oqrn:u.1raJibffblMH KaH)];HJJ;a­ TaMB npoTHB pecny6JIBH'.aHCKBX. B 6ypmya3Ho-pecny6JinKaHcKOM :.rarepe mJia HanpHmeHHaH npel];B1>16op­ HaH 6opn6a Mem;a;y JIB6epaJiaMB H pa,ri;HKa.rrnMn. f.rraBapn TaR Haa1>rnaeMoro <<;i116epaJ.IhHoro c01ooa», npaBhie pecrry6.1HIŒHD;hl <I>aBp, CHMoH, ra,pu1,e-Ilamec Il ;a;pyme BMOOTe C opJieaHBCTOM Th('IJ}O:_\I H R0 He 6p,23roBa:In HHKaRHMH cpeµ;­ CTBaMB pa)];H ycnexa Ha Bhl6opax. Pa;a;BKaJI1>1 faM6eTTa, PomcJ>0p, A:n,TOH-ille, BaHce:.rb, Pacnaii:JII. H )];pyrue BhICTaBBJIB CBOB KaHJJ;II}];aTyphl npOTHB Jm6epaJinHhIX pec11y6Jrn:Kam:,eB RapHo, ÏHIOJIH Cl>�a, rapHhe-IIameca, fJie-B1rnyaHa, 8Ml\ŒHY3JIH Aparo, 8MIIJI.fl ÜJIHBbe. Rau;a;11,n;aTypa faM6eTThl 6a.r1.JIOTBpoBa.1ac1, B IIapHme, B nepBoM H36upaTeJII>HOM oKpyre, B pa6oqeM paiioHe BeJII.BH.Jlh, H o;a;HoBpeMeHHO B Map­ ceJie. BhlcTyrrrui: ua MHoro�cJieHHhlX npe,ri;Bh16opHMX co6pannHx B Ilapnme, Bop;a;o, Tyny3e, ABeipoHe, Rarope, HHMe, MoHTo6aHe, AmaHe II B ll;pyrHX ropo;a;ax, faM6eTTa Ha3MBa.JI ce6.a <<pa}];nKa:11,HhlM ,ri;eMoKpaToM>>, npIIBepmeH­ :u.eM IIpllHD;HIIa Hapop;Horo cyBepeHHTeTa. ÜH ofüI3hIBaJICH CTporo IIpII,n;epmH­ BaTh'CH KMnepaTRBHOro liaH,IJ;a'Ta, BPYllffilHOI'O e).IY 6e::II,BJI:IhCfilL\fII 11rn611p-aTe­ JIHMll 62• BeJinRHJl.hCKBH M8JH,IJ;aT, npB.1BepamHHOCTI, 'KOTOpOliy ;:J;OCTaB,H.i'la B '3'TOT ne­ pHOp; faM6eTTe 60JII>my10 nOI1yJI.apHocT1, cpe;r,n pa6ol!nx Ha:p :m1rn, cop;epma.TJ Ta:Iœe IQPOrpec·c:nBHl>Ie Tpe6oBaHHH, Ran CB06o;::i;a :IIPIHOCTII, 06ecnetLHBa1eM-aH 1 e cy­ 3a�OHOM, OTMeHa 3'aKOHa O <<IIO,IJ;03pnTe:n)'HbIX>>, nepeµ;alla Ha paœMOTJ}0'HH JJ;OB IlipHCHilUII.IX ;:i;eJI O IIO.'I:B'TIPI0CI-..:HX npecTyrr:ieiHHHX, npHMaH ,OTB8'1'CTBICH­ HOCTb -H BhIOOJ>'HOC.Th ooex ;a;oJiiRHOC'THhlX ;rn:n;, ynpa3�HeHne BhlCOKHX OKJiap;oB II CO!BMt0CTHT0JlhCTB, HOOrpaHB"'I0HHaH CBo6o}];a COI030B, neqaTlI H COOpaHHH c npaooM o6cyIBAeHH.H ,peJI11raooa1,1x, cfn1J1oc0<pcn11x, noJIHT'HllecK11x n cou;ttaJih60 Papiers et correspondance de la famille impériale, t. 1, p. 17. Note sur l'organi­ sation de la presse en vue des élections. 5 avril 1.869. 61 Ibid., p. J 9. 62 Lettres de Léon Gambetta ( 1862-1880). Paris, I 1938]. ô* 67
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<<Ily6JIHqffble co6pa1rn.H,- :nmpopMnpoBaJI IloJih Jlaq>apr MapKca Heaa­ ;a;oJiro ;rw rraqaJia Bbl6opon,- xopomo IIO,D;TOTOBIIJHI II011BY ,D;JIH 6op1.6hl He TO.:.IbKO npOTIIB rrpamueJihCTBa, HO H IIPOTHB OIIII031ID,IIII. IloBcIOp;y, rp;e B rrpo­ THBOBec <<CTaipHKRM>> 6hVIII BhICTaB.,'IeHbl Cejph83Hhie KaHAffp;aTyphl, RaR, HaIIpH­ :wep, ra:vr6eTTa n1poTHB Haprro, Pa�rraiiJih npoTHB raprr1.e-Ilameca, HarrTarpeJib I1 Pormpop rrpOTHB <DaBpa,-rrpOTIIB q>eBpaJihCRIIX repoeB BhICTyrraJIH 06m:111H­ TeJBI, If HM yp;anaJIOCb rrpHBJielib BHHMaHIIe CJiymaTeJieii. B IITOre HMeHa cDaBpa, Map:n, Ilameca, RoTophle He pemaJIIICh p;ame rroHBJIHThCH Ha co6pa­ H1u1x, BCTpeqaJIIICh CBIICTKRMH II mnKaHH0M>> 71• TaRaH me YlJaCTh IIOCTHrJia CuMoHa, IleJIJieTarra H pa,n; p;pyrHx JIH6epaJihHhlx pecrry6JIHRaHn,eB 72• Y6RHCTBeHHhle 1rno6JIII11eHHJI rJiaBapeii JIII6epaJihHo-pecrry6JIHRaHcKoii 011II03IID,HII co,n;epmaJIHCb B KHIIrax, 6pomIOpax, rraMq>JieTax COIJ,IIaJIHCTa OrIOCTa BepMopeJIH, 118CTh IWTOphIX BhlmJia B CBeT c11en,1rnJihHO R II36IIpaTeJII.HOH KaM­ rraHirn: 1869 r. Xa pa1nepII3YH 0<pun,11a:IhHYIO pecrry6JI111rnHcRyIO 011rroa11n,1no n n,eJIOM, BepMope.'Ih, n qacTHOCTH, IIIICa.rr: <<ÛHII He 6oHTCJI IIOTBOpCTBOBaTh peBû.lIIOIJ,IIOHHbIM CTpaCTHM Hapop;a, qT061,1 HCIIOJih30BaTh HX B CBOHX HHTepe­ cax; HO y HIIX H0T HII rreo6xO,r(IIMOH 3Heprnn, Hll cnoco6HOCTeH, qTofü)I B3HTh B CBOH pyKH pyKono)];CTBO peBoaron,11eii M ecan 61.1 TaKaH penoJIIOD,HH, HeocTo­ pomHo cnpoBOD,HpOB8HH8JI Hl\IJI, paspa3IIJ18Ch, TO OHJI nepBhle ,n;aJIH 6hl CHrHaJI peaRD,HH H nocrremu:.m 61,1 npHcoep;HHHThCH R CBOHM cero,n;HHIDHHM npOTHBHH­ RaM, 11T06hl IIO.r(aBHTb peBOJIIOD,IIOHHhlli illRBaJI, KaK OHH 3TO cp;eJiaJIH B 1848 rop;y>> 73• B IIOCJieC::IOBIUI K KHIIre <<t(e.HT0JIII 1848 r.>>, p;aTHpOBaHHOM 10 HHBapn 1869 r. Be,pMope.'Ih npIIxo;r::r:II.'I K npn:c1wp6Ho�1y BhIBOp;y O TOM, qTo <<A'IfCTaH­ l�Il.H Mem;r::r:y JIIOJ];b�III UIOHH [1848 r.- 9. }l(_] H .lJIOAhMH p;eKa6p.H [1851 r.9 . .iR.] ne TaR BeJI1:Œa, RaK uac XOT.HT y6ep;HTh Te II p;pyrn:e>> 74• B aToM Bep­ Mope.Tih BlI;r::r:eJI o;r::r:Hy II3 r:IaBHhlX npl'PIHH celIHa,n;n,aTHJieTHero cym;eCTBOBaHHH HMnepnn:. <<MMeHHO B CJia6oCTlI OIIII03HD,HH, B ee HeyCTOlillHBOCTH II 38RJIIO­ qaeTC.H CIIJia IIlpaBIIT0JibCTBa>>,- nop;11epRHBa.rr OH 75• IlpH3bIBa.H Ha1po;:(Hhle MaCCbl He B03l);epmnBaTbCH, a npHHHTh caMoe RKTHBHOe yqacTHe B Bhl6opax, OH npn 3TOM npel];OCTeperaJI IIX He p;aBaTh ce6.a o;r::r:ypa11I1Tb rJiaBapHM «JIII6e­ paJibHOfO COI03fü) - npaBhIM 6ypmya3HbIM pecny6JIHKaHo;aM Il opJieaHHCTaM. <<EcJIII rrapnmcRn:ti: Hapop; xo-creT BepHyTbCH R npaBJieHHIO 1848 r., T. e. oTcTy­ IIHTh BCIIHTh Ha .n;sa;r::r:u;aTh JieT, 11ycTb roJiocyeT aa rocnoµ; rapHhe-IIameca 11 HapHo,- IIHCaJI BepMopeJI1. B 1868 r. nocJie OTKphlTHH 1rn611paTeJihHo:ii RaMrra­ HIIJI.- Ec.'III OH X0118T nepHyThC.H K npaBJieHHIO 1830 r., T. e. OTCTYIIHTh Ha3ap; Ha 38 JieT, nycTb roJiocyeT 3a T1>epa. EcJIH OH xo11eT npop;JIHTh ROMrrpoMHCChl Il He,n;opaayMeHHH p;ByCMblCJieHHOH, y6JIIO,D;OlIHOH IIOJIHTIIKH, nycTh roJiocyeT 8a raBeHa, fepyJIH, iRIOJIH Cm�,IOHa. Ho eC.'TJ.H OH xoqeT H,IJ;TH Bnepe,n; IIO IIYTH CHoero IQporpeCCHBHOI'O OCBOOOIB)J;8HHH, rrycTh Ha6epe'T H3 cnoe:ü cpe,n;hl rrpep;­ cra-m,JTeJieM. rrpOIDIRHYThlX ero HOBhBIH R,::(8HM'lI, nax-o;a;nm;.n:xcn C Hll:M B �OC'fa­ ToqHo TeCHOM nOHTaRTe, 11T06hl BO ncex CJiy"'118HX 6h1Th Bhlpa3HT8JIHMH ero no.n;­ JllIHHhIX qyBCTB H HCTHHHhlX IIOTpe6HOCTeih> 76• Jiacpapr c11paBe)];JIHBO yRa3bI­ BaJI B OPJIIOM H3 IIIIC8M 1869 r. R Map1œy, l{'D() KHHTH BeplfO!P8fül ORa13aJIHCh BeChMa IIOJI93HhlMII )];JIH o6JI:rrqnTeJieH 6ypmya3HhIX pecIIy6JIIIIŒHIJ;8B 77• Bypmya3HhIX m16epaJioB pa3o6JiaqaJI B 1869 r. n 6JiaHRIICT Tpup;oH B cBoeü KHHTe <<llinpoHp;a II îHHpOH,[l;HCTbl>}. 8 nepBOH qacTH, :KOTOpa.a Ha3h1Ba0TCH <<iRIIpOH):(a B 1869 r.>>, OH, Memp;y npo1111M, nncaJI: <<lliIIpoH,n;a - caMa» onac­ Ha.a cpop1rn ROHTppeBOJIIOIJ,HII, n6o OHa HBJIH0TCH HaH6oJiee JIHD;eMepHoii Il HaH71 Apx1rn MMJI, Q). 1, e,;::i;. xp. 8226, 011. 5. Il. JJ.a<f>e.pr - Mapiroy. Ronen:: Ma.JI 1869 r. 0 TOM ï:Ke cM. «L'Egalité>> 2-9 mai 1869 r. Ro ppecrr0Hp:enn::1rn RoM6o H3 IIapHHrn. 72 J . Ad a m. Mes sentiments et nos idées v a a nt ·1870. Paris,1678,p. 373. 73 A. Ver more l. M. Jules i S mon . Paris, [1869], p. 5. 74 A. Ver more 1. Les ho mmes de 1848. Paris, 1869,p. 42ll. 75 A. Ver mo r e 1. M. Jules Simon,p. 1. 16 A. Ver more 1. Le peuple a ux élections. Paris, 1868, rp. 60-61. 77 Apnrn MM�TJ, cp. 1, e.:i;. xp. 8226, 011. 5. Il. Jfoq,apr - MapKcy. Rouen Ma.H 1&39 l' 70
6o;iee HOBoii ee <f>opMoÜ>> 78. Tp.u:,r�oH Harruca.1 ranaw ym,pno,1-rnro.u:u,1,e. 6Irn­ rpaq.»n IBro:rn CID10Ha H I'apHne-Ilameca, KoT-Oph1e 1 o;:r.Hai.w, ne 6nIJI.H B TO BpeMH ony6.JnIKOB3Hhl. ÜHH BnepBhl0 yB11p;e.'1II CB8T ::nimh B 1891 rop;y. <<Bo <I>paHqHlI rrpOHCXO;!l;HT oqeHh HHTepecHOC Jl.BHllieHne. IIapHïRaHe CHOBa H81J.HHaR>T npHMO-TaJiII IIITY)];HpoBaTb CBOe He}J;aBHee peBO:IIOil,lIOHHOe npOIIIJIOe, l:!T06hl IIO,ll;OO'TOB!l:l'l'bCH h'. rrpe.r:,;cTOHIII.eÏI ll'OBOii peBO:.IIOD;IIOH'HOii ÔO!pn6e>> ,- rm­ caJI MapKc Jlro;a;Bnry .Ryre.rrLMaHy B MapTe '1869 r. l);aaee MapRc, o6pa�aH BHHMan.u:e CBOero �pyra Ha o6H:JbHYIO IICTOPIIlleCnYIO n ny6Jnn:i;1:ICTJPI0CKYIO JUITepaTypy, IlOHBJIBmyrocH 3a lIOCJiep;Hlle TOp;hI, oco6o Bhl)];CJIHJI RH:0TH pecny6;JHHaHI::i;a 3. Teao, ïpa3o6Jia4aBinne rrpo:rrcxoi-R;::i;enue Bropoiî: 1nnie1pun:, n KHIIrll BepMopeJIH. <<3aTe.�I naCTYIIII.1Ja otrepep;b con;ua.'IIICTIP:IeCROH napnru, KO­ TopaH CTaJia paao6JiaqaTb OilII03HIJ;HIO Il pecny6.THRaHCRHX p;e:\10RparoB CTaporo IIOnp-oH>>,- coo6m;an Ma:pRc, Ha3hIBa.a: irnnry B€'1p�rnpe::rn: <<,UeHTeJiu 1848 r.» II ero naMqmer <<Ûllll03IIU.llH>>, KHlffY Tpu;t.oHa <<ÎRnpoRµ;a H iRHpOHl];I:ICThI>). Bocxnm;eHHhl:.Ü IIOJIHOnpOBHO.ii 06�eCTBeHHO-IJO::rnn1qecnoii IBH3Hbl0 Cl>paHII,HH, MapKc nncaJI: <<Il BOT füIIIHT BO BCIO :noTe::r y llapo;::i:_eih-m ncTop:nn>> 79• Maic1nre Bhl6opbl 1869 r. ;a;ocTamr.1n oypinyasnoïr onrrosIIIJ,HH npyrrHhIH ycnex; IIOlfTH Ha Il0.'1JTOpa MHJI.'IIIOHa ro.'IOCOB 60.i:hme, lleM BO BpeMH npe.n;me­ CTBOBaBmHX Bb16opoB 1863 r. 3a Hee 6n1::ro no)];airn 3 258 777 610JIJieTeHeft. Ilpa­ BHTe:.IhCTBo BTopoft HMIIepnn, HaIIpOTIIB, ITOTepH::IO 60::ree 800 ThICH4 roJIOCOB, IIOJIY4HB 4 477 720 6I0."1.'IeTeHeii. }].a H 3TIIX peay.1hTaTOB OHO ,n;o6nJIOCh 6Jia­ ro,n;apH g>aJihc:mpH1rnn;nn: BhI6opoB. Ha 8TO e;::i;nno;a;yrnno yRas1,rnaJia ;r:i;e�101{pa­ TJI4ecRa.a neqaTh <l>paHD,Hll JI ,n;pyrrrx CTpaH, B TO�I l!IlC:le PocCHII 80. RpecTh.HHCTBO B 60:IbillllHCTBe CBOelI ro.ïOCOBaao 3a oqm:u;na.TfhHbIX naH,n;H­ �aTOB, o.Ha3aB pemarom.yro rroro:i;epamy rrpaBrrre:IbCTBy. Pyccmrft rrocoJI B IIa­ pHme rpag> illTaIŒJib6epr ne3ap;o.'lro ;X.O BbI6opoB rrnca,ï B IleTep6ypr, -ciTo ec.;:rn: npam:1TeJILCTBY Hano.'IeoHa III n y;a;acTCH us6enŒTh rropameHHH, TO TOJibRO 6naron;apH 11oun;ep;m,P I.pecThHH, a Tanme 6.-irnroJJ,apH TO'.\ry, l!TO B ero pyKax coc:peAOTO"!eH1>1 <<Bce HHTH, Be,n;ym,He K 6ILpme>>. 1.no oHo «pacrroJiaraeT cpep;­ CTBaMH KüppyIIIl,Hil>>, 4TO OHO «HeÜTpa:.m3oBa.i:o B.JIHIHIIe IipyrrHhlX ropo;r:i;OB rrpncoe.n;11HeHIIeM R nx TeppIITOpDII n)TROB OT ce.îbCnilX n0::\,LV1YH rro,n; npe,A­ JIOTOM ,n;oBe,n;eHHH ROJIH4eCTBa ro.rrocyrom,nx i:i;o 35 ThIC. ;r:i;ym, KaK 8TO ycTaHOB­ JieHO aaROHOM }J;JIH Kam;r:i;oro ns6npaTe.!IhHOfO Onpyra>> 81• Ho II cpe;r:i;n KpeCThHH 6hlJIH CTOpOHHHRII pecny6JIM.I{aHD;eB. Tan, B ;z::,;errapTaMeHTaX PoHa, JOpa, ,I{y, 1:H'ep H B He-.ROTOPMX ,[{pyrnx RpeCThHH8 B OT;J;C',1:bHhIX �IeCTHOCT.HX or;r:i:aBaJI.!21 CBOH ronoca 6ypmyaaIIhIM pecny6JinRaHn;aM. Bo Bcex HpynHhlX ropoAaX OOJihIIIlIHCTBü nace.-::renn.a: roJiocoBaJio sa pecrry6:urnaHn;8B. Ha116o..11,ruee m�pameHne npaBJITC.JhCTBo norcprre:m n Ila�nme M Jl·JI-oHe. <<Ila·puw. 'II JinoH Haife-cJIH 1n1ne,p·IIII O;J;IIH Il'3 Tex y;a;apoB, ûT KOTOphlX npaB:HTeJibCTBa pe�o orrpan.rrnIOTcn,- coo61n;a.1 cou;na:rHcT KoM6o.- B Ila­ pnïne H.3 300 ThlCH4 H'36npare.rreii: 3a rrpaBIITe:IbCTBO rO.'IûCOB3.10 TOJibRO 70 Tbl­ C.HlJ, B Jlnone If3 60 ThICH4 l'OJlOOOBaBmnx - ne 60:.ree 12 ThIC}PI>) 82. Pa;:::i;11:naJihHble :naH;:t;HAaThI 6ypmya3nn He cy�re:in y;repmarb 3a co6oü ro­ .rroca, IIOJiy'leHHhle IL\10: B ne,pBŒ,I Type ro.ï0COBaHUH. Bo BTDPOlI Ty1pe-, COCTOHB­ llH':\ICH 6-7 HIOH.H, :.m6e1paJihHble RaH}];II;:taThl OTB00B8::IH y HHX 11aCTh 6IOJIJie­ TeHe:M: 6Jiaro.,n;apH 6oHanapTHCTa,M, CH.HBillJnI B TIX Il0Jlb3Y CBOU }WH;r:J;HµaTyiphI. Tan 6h1JIO, HanpHMep, C cDaBpOM, op;epmaBIIIIBI C IIO:.\IOm:hIO rrpaBHT0JII>CTBa G. Tri don. Oeuvres diYerses. Paris, 1891, p. 123. K MapKc - JI. Kyre.1:1,MaHy, 3 Mapra 1869 r. ri'.. Ma pK c n <D. 8 H r e .:i 1, c. Coll., 'T. XXVI, CTp. 8. 8° CM., HarrpHMep, <<ÜTeqecrneHHhle aanncn10>, 1869. ,\� 7, crp. 131. CoBpe:MeHHOe o6oape,ne:e. 81 ABilP, Kami;., A· 125, :i:. 83. IDraKe:n,6epr - rop,rnKoBy. 26 anpeJIH (8 M,a.s) 1869 r. 82 <<L'Egalité>>, 29 mai 1869. 78 79 71
Bepx Ha� Pormpop01u B Ilapnme. BJiaro,u.apa Tai-wiî me IIo,IUJ;epmKe 9:M:IIJih ÜJIHBhe, IIOTepneBIIIHii nopamenne B nepBOM Type fOJIOCOB.8.HIIH, 6hlJI Ha 3TOT paa Hs6paH B p;errapTaMeHTe Bap 83 . Bhl6op1>1 6-7 HIOH.H conpoBom,u;amic:r, BOJIHeHH.HMH B IlapIIme, Bop.u.o, CeHT-3TheHne, HanTe, MoHrreJihe, Tyayae, )];HïROHe, AM:beHe, JlHJIJie II B pH,u.e ,u.pyrHx ropü.JJ;OB. Pa6ollee HaceJJe<HHe, B3BOJIHOBaHHOe peayJih·TaTaMH Bhl'OOpoB, ,u.aJielm He BO Bcex cJiyqaax rrpHHOClIBillHX no6e.u.y pa,U.HKaJihHhlM RaH,1l.lI,1l.aTaM, ycTpeMJI.HJIOCb Ha Y.:IlUJ;hI li 6y.JihBapbl IIapHma lI )];pyrnx ropOll.OB C B03rJiaCaMII <<,[I;ia agpancTnyeT pecrry6Jnnm!>> B Bopp;o, HaHT, CeHT-3TbeHH H B .u.pyrHe Me­ CTHOCTH 6hIJIH BhI3BaHhI BOllCIŒ. IlüJIHIJ;Il.H H iIŒH,J.apMepnH, no 3ap;aHIIIO rrpaBIIT8JlhCTBa , CT8{PaJIIICh :8hl3BaTh CTHXIIHHhle BhICTYIIJieHIIH c Te::\I, l!TOOhI µ;aTb nono;::i; ,n;.TH perrpieccniî. B Ilaipn»m IIOJIIID;e:Ü:cKaH rrpecpeinypa y<:.TpaIIBa:ra eme,J.H8BHO C 7 no 11 HIOH.H MHIIMhie MaHmpecTaIJ;IIH C yqacTH8:M CBOIIX areHTOB - Tal{ IIa3hIBa8MhIX 6e..rro6JIY8H:ll1WB. ÜHH orJiamaJUI Y.T.IHD;hl II8HlI6M <<Mapc,eJib83hl>)' 6nJIH CTeJ{.T.Ia, orrpOKHllhIBaJIH KIIOCKH , coopyma:.m 6appIIKa,1l.bl, IlOMora.a TaKIIM o6pa30M rrpaBIIT€JII,CTBY npo­ ll3B0,1l.Ii1Th >MaCCOBhl8 apecThl. 3a 4 �H 6hlJIO apecTOBaHo OKO:IO 1 500 "IeJIOBe:R. IIapnïRCKIIe qJieHhI I1HTepnan;IIOHa.rrn ony6JIIIKOBaJIH 16 HIOHH B033BaHIIe, B ROTOpOM Bhlpa3HJIIl rrpoTeCT IIpOTIIB npOH3BOJinBhlX apeCTOB. ÛHII KaTeropn.­ qecKII aa.HBHJIII. 0 Herrpn11aCTHOCTH A8MOKpaTOB-COIJ;IIaJIIICTOB K npOBOl(ail,lIOH­ HhIM MaHmpecTaD;llH�I, conpoBom;i;aBmllMC.H aKTaMH 6eC1iIIHCTBa, H npII3hl­ BaJIH OKa3aTh MaTepIIaJihHYIO IIOMOID;h ceMhHM apeCTOBaHHhlX, OCTaBIDHMCH 6e3 cpep;CTB K cyIIJ;eCTBOBaHIIIO 84• BhrJia o6'bHBJI8Ha II0,1l.IllICKa; B3HOChI npHHlll\.laJIII tJJieHhl lfnTeipHan;nonaJia BaipJieH, RaMeJIHHa, JlaHmeBeH n )ll_pyrne. He ,1l.OBOJihCTBY.HCh rrpOII.3Be,u;eHHhIMII. apecTa:MH, rrpaBHTeJihCTBO II0,1l.BeprJio ,IJ;OMalll'HeMy ûOhl· CRY II apecry R0Cn0.7IhRO ,1l.0CHTKOB BlIJAHhIX ,n;, e.HTeJieiî pa,J;H­ IŒJibHO-pecnyfünnmHcnoro II CŒ.:i;IIa.:IUC.TII1IOCKül'O .U.BHIBeHnH, c-pe,IJ;H ROTOphIX ÔhIJJH 1IJieHhI MaTepHan;rroHaJia (BpaoH, Jle!ppaHca, Mropa, 3JinroH), 11eThI1pe pe):(aI{Topa raaeT <<Le RéYeil» II <<Le Rappel» H p.H;r:i; ,n;pyrnx 110JIIITH1IecKnx ri:e11TeJieü:. IloJin:n;eiîcKa.a npoBOKan;nH npaBIITeJihCTBa BTopoü: HMnepHn rroTeprreJia rrpoBaJI, H 8TO 6h!JIO rrpII3HaHo ,n;ame rrpe,n;cTaBIITeJIHMH 6yp:mya8HH 85• Bhl6ophl, rrpoIICX0,1l.HBllIIe B Mae-nroHe 1869 r., B001IHIO IIORa8aJin Henpoq­ HOCTh ÔOHarraipTHCTCKOI"O ;peIBH:.\Ia BHY'I'PlI CTpaHhl. ÜHn o6HapyiRIIJIH TaRme, HaCKOJihKO nop;opBaHO 6hI.1JO K KOHI.J;Y 60-x ron;oB BJIHHHIIe yMepeHHO-JIH6epaJih­ HhlX pecrry6JIIInaHn;eB cpe,[(H pa60'IIIX Ilapn.ma H KpynHhlX npOBIIHD;IIaJihHhlX :a;eHTpüB. 8to, BIIPOlJ.8M, npnsHaBaJIII BIIOCJiep;cTBHII caMn 6ypmya3Hhle pecrry6JllHtaHU,hI. <<Rame IIOJIOiIŒHne 6billO .KpaiiHe TH1IWJihlM,- 3aHBHJI B 1872 r. B CBOHX IIOKa3aHHHX CJiei];CTBeHHOH KOMHCCHH lliIOJih <I>eppH,- Mhl B aHaqlJ­ TeJihHOË: Mepe yTpaTJIJIII II04BY BO BpeM.H B:bl6opoB 1869 r. ÏKIOJII, (!>a.Bp O:bIJI II86paH TOJlhKO BO BTüpOM Type II TO C 6oJI:billlIM TPY.U.OM. Ha ny6JI1PIHhIX co6I paHIIHX npoTHB Hac AOIycKaJIHCh BhIIIa)l;hl, He rrpe.u.Be�aBmHe HII1Iero xopo­ mero>> 86• ,r:(a H caM <'.DaBp 3aCBHlJ,eTeJihCTBoBaJI, 1ITO BO BpeMH Bhl6opOB OH 12 paa 6e.sycrremHo BhlC'TaBJrH:I CBOIO IŒHp;IIJJ;acypy rrpoTHB Pom!popa. Oco6oe nne,ra • r.n:ieRne Ha Hero rrpoH3BeJia '.Frny.u.a11a, nocTnrma.H ero B Jfarnue, rAe, KaK eMy KaaaJiocb, ero noann;n:n ÔbI.ïH rrpo11Hee Bcero. <<MHoro pa3 rrocJie Toro, KaK H Bhl.XO,I(HJI ,c él'TilX [npe;J;Bb100P,HbIX.- 9. }J{.] Co6paHHH,- C006m;a:i: OH,- BC:Ie� M1He 1paa;:i;-aBaJIHCh 6paHb n: Ca:\Œie HeBepO-HTH:ble ocxop6JieH1IH: :M:eHH OOSHH.HJUI B II3MeHe... Üp;Hain,LJ;bI 1\IHe, R i\:fOeMy HBCl!aCTbIO, 01Œ3aJia 38IqHTY IlOJIHUlIH; 63 ABIIP, Ram:t;., /'.I:, 125, 84 85 66 72 JI. 169. 0:KyHeB - rop"llaRoBy. 24 Ma» (5 u:ron») 1869 r. <<L'Internationale)>. 4 juillet 1869. CM., nall'pnrep, L. Halévy. Carnets, Paris, 1935, t. 1, p. 217. Actes. t. V, p. 174. Déposition Ferry.
6hlJIO HaMepeHHe onpORHHYTb MOIO RapeTy, XOT0JUI c6HTh C nor H M0HH ca­ MOfO>) 87 . 3To, OJ];HaI·m, He auaqIIJIO, qTo C n;i:i;eiiBO-IIO:IIITIPieCRilM BJIIUIHHeM 6ypmya3HhIX pecny6nn:RaH.qeB Ha pa6oqn:e 1racchl ©paH.a;nn 61,rno 110RonqeHo. HaBe­ CTHhle CJIOH (ppau.qyacKoro npoJieTapnaTa ;i::,i;aJieIW em;e He OCB060,l];IIJIHCb OT B03;i:i;encTBHH «nycToi J);eKJiaMa.a;un» (8HreJihC) pecny6JinKaHCKHX IlOJIHTHqecRHX ;!1;0HTeJiei 6ypmya8HH. B 8TOM CKa3hIBa.rracb n;i:i;eiî:Ha.H He3peJIOCTI, 3HRl!HTeJihHOH qacTH q,paH.a;yacRoro pa6oqero KJiacca. Ü;i:i;nH H3 pyccRnx ,u;nnJioMaToB, xapaR­ Tepnaya B 1870 r. lliroJia <Da131Pa, Becb1rn MeTI,o rrnca.ï. o He:M:: <<Ero 60JI1>moe COCTOHHIIe IJ1pHHOCHT eMy ,lJ;OBepne 6ypmya, a ero pe11n ll.1I0HHIOT HapOJ:J;>) 8.8. <Dpann;yacIDIM con;naJIHCTaM He yJ:J;a.,rnch B irne-RIOHe 1869 r. 11pe;i:i;oTBpa­ THTh na6pamrn B 3aIWHO,IJ;aTeJihHhlll Ropnyc yMepeHHO-JIJI6epaJihHbIX 6ypmyas­ HhlX pecnyfüIHKaHn;eB <l>aBpa, C:1n10Ha II ;qpyrrrx. lhrnHHO OHII COCT3BHJIII 6oJih­ mnHCTBO JieBo:Ü: q,paRQHH B o6HoBJieHHoii 60Ha11apTHCTc1wii naJiaTe. <<CTapaa 0111103HD;H.H BOIDJia TopmecTByIOm;a.a B 3aROHOp;a T€.1IbHblll KOprryc )) ' - C ropeqhJO KOHCTaTnpoBaJI B HIOHe BapJieH. ÜH II p;pyrne I3lI):J;Hbie napIIIBCRIIe con;naJIIICThl C.IIpane�'lHBO cqn:TaJill CBoe:ii BamHeiimeü, HeOTJIOiRHOJÏ 3aAaqeii: 110.:IHOCTbIO JllIIDHTL 6ypmya3HhlX .nn6epaJIOB 1rn1rnro 6bI TO HlI 6hI.'IO BJIIUIHlI.H na pa6o1IHX. <<J:(JIH Hac,- IIHCaJI BapJieH,- BaIBHO II.MeTb B 0Illl031ID;IIH JIIO,IJ;eii:, KOTO­ phle Hac 11pe)];CT3BJIHIOT IIJIII, no RpaiîHeii Mepe, He HBJIHIOTCH HaIIIHMil Bpa­ raMlI. JlIOAll H8 «Jn16epaJ1hHOfO COI033>) TRK me onaCHhl ll,.1.H nac, RaR IIMIIepHH. Mhl BnAeJIH :ex aa pa6oToi nocJie IIIOHH 1848 r. M.bI JJ;O.ïlliHI>I 3a6JiaroBp eMeHHO HX p aOOH'Th, rrycTI> ]];ame HOOKOJibEO orepolIIlTCH, BC.ï8�CTBHe aTOI'O, na,n;enne HMIIepHH. Bamno, qT06hl O,IJ;HHM y,rr;apoM MDI MOI'JIII CORpymHTb BCe 1Ip1IT.H3a­ Hll.H - MOHapXHCTOB H napJ.CaMeHTapnCTOB>) 89. Pa3o6.ïél.1Ia.H JI1I6epaJibHhlX pec11y6Jin:KaHn;eB, con;naJincT BepMopeJih npe;qocrepera:i: << ...no«a Hapo;::i; He 6yAeT npocnem;eH Ha HX cqeT, OH He ,IJ;OJDIŒH Ha;qe.HThCH YBH)];eT.h ROHen; CBOIIM 6ep;­ CTBHHM. Mhl ]J;OJDRHhl II00TOMY C1IHTaTb CBOIIM ):(O:IfO.M copBaTb C HHX MaCKY no­ IIYJIHpHOCTH, yaypnnpoBaHHoiî HMH>> 90• RoJIJieRTIIBIICT Apucrn;q Pe:ë: np1I3hI­ naJI B q>enpaJie 1869 r.: <<Ilocrapaoo1ca rro:MemaTh TOMY, qT061,1 '3aBrpamHaiî Bpar OBJia;qeJI nepe,n;oBhlMH 11oan.a;n:aMn rro;q rrpe�vrnroM Toro, 1ITO on 6opercH 11poTHB cerOAHHmHero Hamero Bpara, n qT061,1 rocno,r::i;a opJieaHHCThI u rocrro,r::i;a pec11y6JHIK3HD;hI H3 UIKOJibl cpaB:pOB Il CII�IOHOB )IOTJilI nphI3Tb 1rnrnTaHbI, BhlTa�eHHhle ll3 or.HH H8IDIIMH pyRaMII>) 91• , 8TIIM, OJ);Haim, He orpaHIPUIBaJiaCh 6;inm.a11maH 3aAaqa con;naJIHCTOB. BbI6ophl 1869 r. llOK833JIH Il TO, 'l!TO II pa.n;IIKaJibHI,Ie RaH):J;JI):l;aTbI 6ypmyaanu CMOfJIH aapyqHTbCH IIO,IJ;A0PIBKOH HapoAa II J:J;06IIT.hCH ycnoxa TOJibRO n;enoii ;i::,i;aJieRo HAY�HX o6em.aHHH CBOHM II36npaTe.1I.HU, KOTOpbie OHH He 61>I.1HI HaMe­ peHhl BliIIlOJIHHTh. TaR, Harrpa,:w:ep, 6€."IbBH.'IbCRaH nporpaMMa raM60'ITbI, l'laK II npeABhl60pHLie o6em,aHHH ÏRIOJIH <PeppH, ,D;IlRTOBaJIIICh r.rraBffhIM o6pa30M T81{Tlftl0CKII·MH, a OTHIOJI.b H1e n,n;e.MHbUfH coo6pameHRH�III 92. <DpaB1-'Y3CRIIe co­ :u;n:aJIHCThl, CTpeMHBillH8CH yc1wpHTh n;qeiiHoe OCB060iR)l;€HHe pa6011nx OT RCH­ fUIX 6yipmya3HLIX BJIHHHBii RRR JII16epa�ïhHblX, Tal{ II pap:llI\8."IbHLIX, cq1,na;i:rrr' lJTO H0BhlIIOJIH0H.H8 ;pawrKaJiaMH ,II;aHHhIX IDUI o6em;aHHM naR pa3 II 6y;::i:eT cnoco6cTBoBaTb HX ,D;HCRpe�nTan;nn: B rJiasax pa6oqnx. Enquête parlementaire sur l'insurrection du 18 mars. t. II, Versailles, 1872, p. 39, 40. Dép osition Favre. 88 ABIIP, Raan;., 1870, �- 117, ,;i, 380. H. Op:roB - fopqaRouy . Bprocce;n,, 24 aBry cro (5 ceHTH.opr:1) 1870 r. 8 � «L'Eg alité>> , 19 j uin 1800. 90 A. Ver more 1. M. Jules Simon p. 6. , 91 A. Thomas. Le Second empire ( 1852-1870). Histoire socialiste, t. X. Paris, (s. a.,] p. 34.1. 92 8To npHaHaIOT TaKiRe HeR0T0phle 6y pmya3Hble ncropmm l! ny6mn:r.HCTLI. CM. J.P. T, Bury. Op. cit., p. 16-19; E. G. Gr en v i 11 e. Les hommes de la Ill République, t. I. Paris, 1873, p. 17-9. 87 73
3. ,[(AJlbHE:0illEE Yr .JlYB.ilEHIIE KP113HCA BTOPOll HMIIEPllll (1869-1870) Co BTOpoft IIO.TIOBJIHhI 1869 r. BO <l>pam::i;1rn. em;e 60.rree ycmnmoch peBO.TIIOI.J;HOHHOe )];BHiR8HHe. MapKC, IBHB­ HoBbIÜ IlOl];'heM mnü: He::reraJibHO B Ilap11me nop; HMeHeM A. BnJih­ CTa•IelJHOro l];BHiKCHHH H ycrrexn muca C 6 no 12 HIOJIH, IIHCaJI IIOCJie B03Bpam;eHHH, IIHTepHaD;HOHaJia qTo <<püCT )];BHIBeHHH>) TaM <<IIpHMO 6pocaeTCH BO <l>paHD;HH B rJia3a>> 93• Ilop;'beM )];BHIB0HHH BhlpamaJICH rrpemp;e BO BTOpoü IlOJIOBHHe BCero B MHOfOl!IICJI8HHblX CTal!KaX, BCIIhlXHYBIDHX 1869 roµ;a. Borrpoc B pa3JIHl!HhIX paiioHaX CTpaHhl. IIIaxTephl Jl yap­ � cou;naJIHCTB1IeCROÜ rrapTDDCitOro 6acceiiHa, yr.rreRorrhI AH3eHCRHX maxT CeBepnoro 6acceiiHa, 1:-mMeHHoyroJibHhlX Korreiî B �errapTa1:1e1lTax fap H TapH; .lIIOHCI-are C)rtfll:IhID;URH meJIRa, .TIIIT0Hlll;IIRH, Me;IJ;eII.ïa-­ BH.Tlhlll;HRH, 6poH30BID;IIRH, MeTaJI.TIHCThl p;pyrnx cnen;Ha.TihHOCTeiî, T0KCTHJib­ ru;1ua1, IBJIHIIIIHitII, 6y.10tJHHKII, ChlpOMHTHHRII, mopHHKH, CTOJIHpbI, mTyRaTyphl, :\-faJU-IphI, II81IHIIfi'.H, meCTHHIIKII, KapeTHHKII, pa6ol!He ra30BhlX rrpep;rrpIIHTIIii; MapceJihCKIIe JIHTeÜID;TIKII, II.TIOTHIIRII, R.apeTHHKII; IIPH;IJ;HJiblll;HRH 3Jib6eq,a II )lapHeTaJIH (PyaHCKIIÏI o:npyr); IBTyRaTyphl, JIHTeiin:i;HKH, pa6oqne MpaMop­ Horo rrpoII3BO,TJ;CTBa, Cblpü�IHTHlIKII, TRal!H, ID;eToqHHRII, R.Op3HHID;HKH, CTOJIHphl, ToproBhie c,-:Tyma�ne Ilaipna-rn; rr:ioTHHKa Bhl>IIHhI; maxTephI Ho-rp-.IJ:a:M-p;e-Bo 1rn�rn1-1Hoyro�ïhHoro paiîoHa Jla Mrop; na6oiîm;HRH BypryaH-iRaJibë JI CeH-Cn:u­ <p-opbeH-p;'030H; m.rrJIITHHI-.II Eyp-,;::i:e-Ileama; Ha6oiîn:i;11KH Byp-Jie-Ba.:1auca II f l\lHOrJie p;pyrne pa6oq11e pa3.TIIP:IHhlX paiioHOB II rrpoq,eccII:ii B8JIII CTf':leqHyIO 6opb6y BO BTOpüH IIOJIOBIIHe 1869 r. ÜHH p;ofürna.rrHCh XOTH 6bl HeI{OToporo yBe­ JH1I0HIUI 3apa60THOIÏ TI.1.aTbI, BBH)];Y pacTyrr:i;ero B3p;opomaHHH rrpep;M0TOB nep­ BOÜ He06XO;J;IUIO•CTil TI 1-rna1pTH1pHOM IVJaTbl ( OCOOeHHO C C0HTHÔpH 1869 r.), CO.Kparr:i;eHHH pa601:1ero µ,HH ,IJ;O 10-11 qacoB, yrrpa3p;H0HHH rpa6HT8JlbCIŒX IIITpaq>OB H ,n;pyrnx He3aROHHhlX OTlJJICJieHHH OT aapa60THOH ITJiaThl 94. HeROTOphre H3 nan6o.rree 3Hal!IITe:IbHhlX cTa':leR, ltaK, HanpnMep, CTaqRa rnaxTepoB RanreHcRnx iwneü. B PnKa1rapn (-paiion Ceim-3-rneHna), cTa't:l1rn. maxTepoB 06eHa, 6bI,TIII 110,r:i;aBJI8Hhl C IlO:UOII:i;hIO npaBJIT0JlhCTBeHHhlX BOBCK. Cpe,n;H 6acroBaBmnx n�1e.ïrrcb y6rrThie n paReHhie. Mnornx np11roBQPHJIII R TIOpeMHOMY 3aR:rI01:I8.HIIIO Ha pa3JIH1:IHhie C(PORII. cDpaHn;ysc1-me oprannsau;uu 11HTepnau;noHa.Jia, rJiaBHhlM o6pasoM rrapnm­ cRaH, JIHOHCRaH, pyaHC.Ka.H, :\Iapce:rhCKaH, npHJIOiRHJil:I 60JihillH0 YCHJIH.H )];JIH ORa3aHHH MaTepIIaJihHOÏI Il :\IOpa::rbHOB IIOl].AepmKH CTaqel!HHKaM, B qacTHOCTH, napHiUCRHM CblpOMHTHIII-.:au B .i-.o.:nPieCTBe o.i-.0:10 ThlCH1:IH pa6oqnx, ynopHo 6a­ CTOB8BIBHM IIOl!TII 1:18Tbipe �recJin;a, ,;'ll'IOHCRIIM cyqH.JihIIJ;Hn;aM meJIIrn, maxTepaM Jlyapc1mro H rrpü1IIIX yro.rlbHhlX paHOHOB, rrpHp;HJibllJ;HRaM 8JI1>6eq,a II MHOfMM p;pyrHM CTaqeqHnRaM. <<Ilü1:ITII BCe HamH CTal!KH 3aKOH1fHJIHCh ycnemHO, --' coo6ID;a.rr, nanpmvrep, 9 aBrycTa 1869 r. us JlHoHa A. PHIIIap 'lfJieHy fenepaJih· Haro COBeTa 11HTepnau;noHa:Ia ):.(rorroHy.- Yerrex CT31:IKH cyqHJibID;IID; , ROTO­ pbIM OHH o6H3aHbl IIHTepnan;noHaJiy, rrpon3Be.JI CHJihHOe BIIel!aTJI0HH0>) 95. Jin­ OHCRHe cyqH.TibIIJ;HIJ;hl OTBeTH:III na O.Ka3aHHYIO IIM IIOMOITJ;b BCTYIIJI0HII0M B HH­ Tepnan;nonaJI Il yrnrnToi'r 1IJI0HCKIIX B3HOCOB, necMOTPH Ha IIOIIhITRII aanyraTh HX perrpeccnHMII. To me cp;e.ria.riu n op;epmaBmne no6ep;y JIHOHCRHe 6poH30B­ rr:i;n:nu. CoTHH 6aCTOBaBIDIIX pa601IHX Jlrrona, H838BHCHMO OT ncxo.r:i;a CTaqeR., rrpHCO0,D;HHHJIIICb K MnTepHau;noHaJiy B HHJ];IIBHp;yaJibHOM 1I ROJIJI0RTHBHO1\I no1PH Ali'.8. 3a RopoT1mïr cpo.n:. i-.ar� cooorr:i;a:ioch B -oReTe feHeipaJiblmro coBeTa K MapKc - �1. h'.)Te.1LiraHy, 15 B.I0.1H 1869 r. n. M a pK c R <D. 8 H r e ;i 1> c. Coq,, XXVI, CTp. 27. 94 F. L'H u i 11 i e r. Op. cit., pp. 21-36. 95 Apurn llMJI, cp. 21, eÀ, xp. 111/1966. A. Pmnap - 8. ,l])orrony. JinoH, 9 (lBryCTa t869 r. 93 T. 74
B CmITHope 1869 r. Ba3e:IbCRO'MY Ronrpeccy, <<ToBapn:ru;ecTBO npno6peao 60.Jiee 10 000 HOBhlX eAHHOMhIIDJieHHlIROB cpe;n_n aroro reponqecRoro naceJie­ BHH... » 96• IIo.rroJl'HHJiach MapceJihCRaH opran1rnan;HH MnTepHau:IIonaJia. •<<Me:m;zynapop;noe TOBapnm;ecrBo pa6oqnx Ham:.Io s.n;ech ropHqnx cropoHHHROB n IIJiaMeHHhlX nponaraH,D;HCTOB» ,- coo6ru;a:rncb B IWHII;e 1869 r. B ROppecnoH­ ,p;eH�HH H3 MapceJur 97• HoBhle ceKII;HII l1HrepHan;noHa:rn B03HHNJU:I B :3TOT 11e­ p110� B CenT-3-rt,enne, Pyane, 3Jn,6ecpe, Be3aHcoHe, fpeno6Jrn H B ;a;pynix �tecTax. HapH,rr;y C HOBhIMH cem:l0JBBI l1HrepHa:n:noHa.r:ra, B 1pe3y.ahTaTe :\10IIJ;HOH BO.ITHhl craqeR B03HHKJIH TaK.me HOBhle npocpeccnoHa:.IhHhle o6'hep;nHeHHH cppaH­ �Y3CKOfO npoJieTapHaTa. qlICJIO B.X HaCT0.1:hIW BLipOCJIO, qro B03HHKJia Heo6xo­ .]:(IlMOCTb C08,ZJ;Ril11JI B RPYIIHbIX IIHAYCTpHaJII.IlbIX n;eHTpax cpep;epan;11:iî CIIHAII­ KaJibffiJX naJiaT. B HOH6pe 1869 r. 6hma c03AaHa napHmc:naH cpep;epan;HH. Ilpn­ Mepy Ilap:e:.ma BCRope nocJieAoBaJiu JlHoH, Mapce::Œ, PyaH. HacTOHTeJn.HaH aa­ Jlff'Ia ,ZJ;HH 3aRJIJO"qaJiaCb B TOM, qTOOhl C03;:l,aTh 06m;eHau;nonaJibHYIO cpep;epa­ n.nro CHH,D;HR8JII:,HhlX naJiaT. Bhlp;a10m;11ecH ycnex11 lIHTepHai:1;11ona:rn BO ©paHn;Hn B KOHn;e 60-x ro;:r:oB o6'bHCHH.11HCI, rJiaBHblM o6pa30ll Te:M, qTo pa6ot.Ine :\IaCChI HarJIH,IUIO YBll­ .n;e::rn B HffM IIOJ.VlllHHOfO 3aIIJ;IITHIIRa TIX R.'JaCCOBhIX lIHTepecoB, oopn;a aa HX CO�HaJII.HOO OCBOOOiR,!1;€HIIe OT KallHTa::incrnqeCROH 9KCIIJiyaTan;Hn ll YrHe­ T€HJUI . Ho HMeHHO -q:e:cJI0HHhlH pocT ceRIJ;lIÏI ll.HTepHaIJ;lIOHa::ia BO <DpaHII;IIH C oco60:ii HaCTOHTeJibHOCThlO Bhl,!J;BHraJI 3ap;aqy ;r:i;a.1:hHeiimero opraHII3aU,llOHHOro II np;e:iîHoro cnno-qeHHH ero pH,D;OB. B aToii 06:rncrn ycnexn Me.m,ri;yuapo;r:i;aoro ro­ Bapnm;ecrBa pa6oq1Ix 6hlJilI 3HalfilTeJibHO Cnp0�1Hee. IIpaBhie npy,IJ;OHIICThl XOTH 1f OTT9CHHJIHCb ROJIJieRTHBHCTaMll OT PYROBO,!J;CTBa, BCe eni;e HrpaJIH B lIHTep­ H8IJ;lIOHaJie ,IJ;OBOJlbHO 3Hal{HTe.J:hHYIO pO:Ib. Te:nyqecTh cocraBa opraHII3aIJ;IIH 11HTepna:ri;HoHaJia Ha MecTax, OTCYTCTBHe B HJIX neo6xop;H:\f0f0 ep;IIHCTBa, lI,D;eHH8H He3peJIOCTh MHOfHX qJieHOB,- TaROBhI 61,1::in OCHOBHhie c:rn60CTII 8TIIX op­ raHH3aD;IIIl. BamHbIM JJ;OCTHIBeHHeM cppann;yac:noro co11,naJIHCTHqecROfO ,D;BlDIŒHllH KOHIJ;a 60-x rOAOB HBJI}I.1I0Ch TO, lJTO cpe;:(n: rrepe)J;OBhlX ero )J;eHTe:re:iî HMeJillCb JIIOµ;H, IWTOphle OTµ;aBa.TIH ce6e OT1IeT B Heo6xo,n;H:.\IOCTil C03,JJ;aHHH li yRpenJie­ llRH IlOJIHTHlleCKOH opraIDI3aqHH mpoJieTapna Ta Ha 6a3e cem::i;:uiî lIHTepHaII;IIO­ HaJia, 011llll1;0HIUI PYROBO,!J;CTBa OT rrpaBOIIPYAOHHCTCRTIX 8JieMeHTOB. 0 C03p;a­ HllH COIJ;HaJUICTH1Iec1mii napTIUI, R8K ca�IOÜ Bamno_i;'r 3ap;aqe, CTOH�e:rr nepep; -q>pan�y3CKHM pa6oqrrM p;BnilŒHHeM, IlIICa:.I Mapr.:cy B ORTH6pe 1869 r. H3 Ila­ pn.ma IloJih Jlaq,apr, cocr0Hnm11:iî c HIIM B pery.-:-.urpHoiî nepe1urnRe 98. «IlpaBhle npy.n;oa11cT1,1,- n11ca:i MapRcy 22 HOHQPH 1869 r. ,ri;pyroii Bhip;a­ IOIIJ;HHCH cppam::i;y3CK0.H COU.J:IaJIIICT 8meH )::(ronoR, O)];IIH II3 ero copaTHIIROB B I'eHeipaJII,HOM conere,- c:iymaT ,n;.ïH Rac nmrexoii, n6o IIPY'AOHllCThI HBJIHIOTC.R. '' )IJIH T� .nHTepHaD;IIOHaJia TeM me, qe,M ,,IIOJ:lllTil:KII HBJIHIOTCH ,IJ;JIH 1pe•BOJIIOII;Hll>) . .,[J;ronoH Bl,ICRa3hlBaJICH 38 6onee aRTIIBHYIO nponaraHAY rrpHHIJ;lIIIOB llHTepHa­ �HOHaJia, ROTopyIO JI:OJiïRHbl IBHpORO pa3BepHyTh KüppecrroH,D;0HThl-KOJIJieRTII­ BIICThl, IIOJIHOMOllHH. ROTOphlx CJIS)zyeT pacmrrpTITh. (( 8 pHJJ,e JJ,8IIapraMeIITOB, -­ coo6�a.rr OH,- y HaC HMeIOTCH Hap;elliHI,Ie RoppecrrOH,D;8HTI>I. IlocTeneHHO Mbl ,crpynrrHpye11 Bcex KOJIJ1'9RTHBIICTOB Il OCBOOO;:J;IUICH OT rrpemHHx RüppecrroH­ ;n;eHTOB>). Amnon IllPll}J;aBa;c aToMy 1ieponpnHTIIIO orpm,1Hoe snaqemrn n cqIITaJJ, 96 K. M a p K c. ÜT-'IeT feHepaJII,Horo coBeT.a IV emero,.1,H0':\1y ROHrpeccy MeIB.Ayuapo;i;­ t1oro rooopRIIJ;ecma pa6otIHX. R. Ma p 'K c n <D. 8 H r e JI b c. Co11., T. 16, cTp. 39'5. 97 <<L'Egalité>>, 1 f d6cembre 1869. 98 Apnrn lIMJI, cp. f, e.u.. xp. 8207, on. 5. Il. Jiacpapr - MapKcy. IlapmR, 23 OKTH'6pH 1.869 r. 75
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B 06cTaHoi1kè pà8ôiiàpôBàlUUI, Bhl3BaHHOf0 B pa6oqIIX Maêëâx TpycJIIIBhIM IIOB0AeHll0M 6yrpmyaaHl>IX poony6.rrHRaHn;eB, Pomq>0p cqe.rr Tah--rnqecRII Bhl,ro;::J;­ HhlM AJIH ce6H He CKYIIHTl>CH B CBOlIX rrpeABhl60pHhlX o6ern;aHHHX. ÜH aaHBHJI, "ITO 6eaoroBopo-cmo npHHHMaeT HMIIepaTHBHhlll Manp;aT OT CBOHX 1rn6npaTeJieii, '°6em;aJI 6hlTb BepHhlM cJiyroii napop;a B cJiyqae cBoero n36panmi n 6e3 rrpep;­ mapnTeJILHOii KOHCYJil>TaI�HH C H36npaTeJIHMII He rrpIIHHMaTI, CROJil>KO-HII6yp;b -cep1>e3HLIX pemeHHH, p;ame He yqacTBOBaTb Hll B O;r:J;HOM fOJIOCOBaHHH B 3a1w­ iHO,Il.aTeJI1>HOM KOpnyce. MaJio Toro, B O,Il.HOM H3 CBOIIX rrpep;BhIOOpHhIX BhICTy­ IlJI0HHH OH AaJI IIOHHTh, qTo He HCRJIIOqaeT B03MOffiHOCTII nepeHeceHIIH CBOero MaH)WTa (<H3 3aKOHO,Il.aTeJibHOfO Koprryca Ha y.rrHn;y>> 102, BhI3BaB BOCTOpmeH­ HYIO peam:�HIO CBOHX uanBHhlX 1rn6npaTeJien. B l];8ÎICTBIIT0JlhHOCTH, Pomcpop 6bIJI y6emp;eHHhlM CTOpOHHHKOM KJiacCOBOfO COTpyp;HHqecTBa pa6oqHX c 6yp­ myaa11en. Bnarop;apH noro:i;epmKe con;HaJIHCTOB Pomcpop .n;o6H."1ca cBoeii n;eJIII. KpoMe nero OhlJIH na6pauhl p;enyTaTaM11 Tpn JIH6epa:ihHhIX pecrry6.,r:rn:RaHn;a: Aparo, RpeMhe, f.Jie-B1rnyan. Cl>paun;yacKHe con;HaJIHCThl, II npem.u.e Bcero q.;rnHhI l1HTepuau,HoHaJia ,[(ro­ non, Bapnea H APYI'He, He rrepeon;eHIIBa.,nr Pomcpopa Ka:n rroJIIITifqec1mro l);eH­ 'TeJIH. ÜHH no-npemHeMy cqHTaJIH cBoen BamHeiimen aap;aqei-i, roBopa cno­ Bal\IH BapJieHa, «IIO,rij}bIBaT1> npecTnm BCex 3THX 6ypmya3HhIX, 6oJiee HJIII Me­ uee pawrRaJibHhlX. rocrrop;, npep;cTaBJIHIO�Hx cep:oeaHyro orracHocT:o p;JIH co­ n;1rnJILHoii peBOJIIOIJ.IUI» 103• ,nrorroH Ha p;pyroii p;eHb IIOCJie BhIOOpOB maJIOBaJIC.H MapKcy na TO, 11To <<cppaHn;yacRHH napop;, con;ua:.rrrcTIJqecRHH no qyncTBY, ro­ TOB COBepmHTb peBo�'IIOIJ.HIO, 1IT061J1 rrp1rneCTII K B:I8CTII TaRHX JIIO]J;eii, RaR Pomq>0p» 104• ÛTp;aBaH coo.e HCHhIH OT1IeT B TO){, qTO Pomg>op Ohl.;l He OOJiee ,RaR 6ypmy2.3Hhlii p�IU{aJI, COI\HaJIHCThl TeM He 1rnHee 6hl.'lll BhIHYïRAeHhl IIOHTH Ha c6JIH­ .meaae C HHM, qT06hl ne OCTaTJJCH B CTOPOHe OT pasropanmeiicH BO Cl>paHIJ.HH IIOJIHTH'IeCRO:Ü 6opb6hl. PaccqHThIBaTb Ha pyKOBO,lVI�YIO püJII, n peBOJIIOIJ.HOH­ IIOM ,D;BnmeHnn OHH MOfJIH TOJihKO B TOM CJiyqae, ec.1JII 6:01 HMeJIH B CBOeM pac­ Il(WHïReHHH neqaTnhin OfPI'8H, HO OHH He pacno;raraJIH apep;CTBaMH, Heo6xo,r,;H­ MhlMII p;.rr.H coa;:r;aHHH co6cTBennoii raaeThI. Corpyp;HHqecTBo c PomcpopoM, npH­ eTynnBmIIM B .n;eKa6pe 1869 I'. R II3AaHHIO eme;i::i;HeBHOll raseThl IIOA naaBaH11eM «MapceJI1,eaa» ( «La Marseillaise>>), OTRphlBa:Io rrepe.n; co�HaJIIICTaMH B03MOïR­ HOCTh ne TOJIJ,RO BeCTH 6op1>6y rrpOTIIB Hl\fIIepmI, HO n <<OTCTairnaTh H noro:i;ep­ :iRIIBaTh peBOJIIOIJ.HOHnhlii con;HaJIH3M>>, Ran IIHCaJI Bap.;:ren 105. Pomcpop, co CBOei CTOpOHhl, B.Hp;eJI B mHpOROl\f npI:IBJI8lf8HHH con;IIaJIHCTOB R yqacTHIO n cBoeii raaeTe BepHhiii nyT:o R e�e 60.rr1,meMy yIIpo1IeHHIO cBoen nonym1pHo­ eTn B mnpoKnx Maccax. ffaq11:aa11 c nepBoro HOMepa <<Mapce::r:oeahl>>, noHmrnrneroc.H 19 p;eKa6p.H, eo:QnaJIHCThl aKTHBHO coTpyp;Hll'Ia:Ill B raseTe. ÛHll 3B8.'III cppann;y3CRIIM Hapo;:::i; na IIYTh aKTHBHO:Ü. 6opn6hI 3a <<con;naJihHYIO II p;e:'.I.IOnpaTn-crecRyro pecrry6JUIKY>>. ÛHH paao6JiaqaJIII cy�HOCTb II rro.n;on:reKy HOBOro, JIH6epa.HhHOfO Rypca, B3.H­ TOro HanoJieOHOM III. IlpHme.n;mee R BJiaCTJI 2 HHBapa 1870 rop;a JIH6epaJI:o­ Hoe npaBnTeJihCTBO BO r.rraBe C 6:oIBIDIIM pecrryo.1JnRaHn;eM 8MIIJI8:'.\I ÜJIHBhe OHH cnpaBe,D;JIHBO xapa1nepH30BaJIH RaR aHTRHapOAHYIO ROa:.IHIJ.HIO pa3JIH1IHhlX <f>paKn;Hii 6ypmya3HH, rJiaBHhIM o6pa3m.r 6oHanapTHCTOB Il opJieaHHC'l'OB. ÛHH pacRpI>IBaJIH aa-MhlCJihl H iMaHeBpl>I O!l).,ieaHIICTOB, CTp8}1J:IBillllXCH 38BJiap;e·TI, CO npeMeHeM BCeii IIOJIHOTotî BJiaCTU H npop;JIHTb TaIŒM o6pa30M pemnM ROHCTH­ TY�HOHHOR MOHapxnn. 102 <<Journal des Débats>>, 8 novembre, 1869. 10 3 < <L'Egalité>>, 4 décembre 1869. 164 ApxnB MMJI, qJ. 1 e,'l. xp. 6118, 011. 5. 8. )l10IIOH - MapRcy, 22 HOH'6p.a 1869 r . 1 105 T roisième procès de l'Association Internationale des travailleurs à Paris, p. 34. 3. BapJieH - 8. 06pa. 2·5 �eR-a6p11 1869 r. 77
Con;HaJI11cT:01 noµ:Bepra;m YHli lITomaroru,eiI RpHTHI-rn noBe,u;eH.ae JI.a6epaJI:o­ HbIX pe,cnyfüLHRaHn;eB, He TOJibHO T•ex, HTO BO rJiaBe C IlnKapoM OTKphlTO I1jpH­ C08)];.HHIIJICH R rrpaBHT8JibCTBy ÜJIHBI:,8, HO H ,IlJpyrnx, B03fJiaBJIHeMhlX <DaBpO�f,. ROTOpbI8 3aH.HJIH YRJIOH1IIIBYIO, ;'l;BYC1IhlCJI8HHYIO Il03HIJ;HIO, a 11jpaKTH•1IeCKH rro­ ' Mora.mr npnme)];unn1 I{ BJiaCTU :1u6epaJiaM T8illHT.b H3ipo.ri; HJIJII03HHMH O HOBûM Rypce. <<ÜIIH tiyHCTBYIOT,- 3a.HBJUI.:I ' a (<l\fapc8Jih83a>>,- lfTO BJiaCT.b Ha,u; Hapo­ ,IJ;üM, ROTOpbIH OIIH XOTe.7IlI npeBpaTHTb B opy.n;ne CBOHX lJ8CTOJII06HBhlX 3aMhl­ CJIOB, ycirn.T.Ih3a•eT II3 HX �p.Hü:IbIX pyK... Ilo3TOMY, CTpamac.b peB'OJIIOIJ;HlI, OHH HM0CT8 C T8M ne CM0IOT 01\KpbITO npncoe,u;nHHT.bCH K lllMII'8PHH» 106 • BorcTyrra.H rro6opHn:naMn <<,:i;e1rnn1paTn1I�RoÏI n can;na�ïbH-Oii pecrryoJIHRH>> ,. cou;n:amrCTbI CTapaJIHCb pa3'bHCHHTh, B 1I8M COCTOJIT ee 'IIPIIHTI;HIIHaJibHOe OTJIH­ lJH8 üT J1ro6oï1 6ypmya3Hoii pecrryi6JIIIRH, B TOM "CJHcJie oT aM•epirRaHcK-0i " mBeÏin;apcRoii. <<MbI XOTHM pecnyÔJIIIKH He pa.ri;n rocrrop;CTBa 'TOR HJIH HHOH IŒCTbI. •. a pecrryOJIHRII, ROTQpa.H u,pe;:i;cTaB.i'IH8T co6o:ii ,n;e:ÜCTBH1'8JibHOe ocym;ecT­ H�eRHe BCeo6m;ero na6npaTeJibHOro npaBa H 8AffHCTB8HHOH OCHOBOH KOTopoH cJiyIBHT 1iPY A>> 107• PasBnBa.H 3ro rro.10.meHHe, BapJieH HeeKOJibIW rroap;Hee rrH­ ca.rr: 1«fpH.n;ym;a.H ipeBOJIIOIJ,IUI, 1IT00hl 6bITb OIWH1IaT8JlbHOR, He �OJDRHa orpa­ HlllJ·llT ' bCJI ,npocroii nepeMeHoii npaBHT8.1:bCTB8HHO:Ü: 8THIŒTKH li :KO:Ü:-KaKllMll •1Ia­ CTHl!HbIMlI peq,opM:a�Ill. ÛHa µ;o:IiRHa pa,D;llRaJibHO OCBo6o,n;HTb pa6oqero OT BC.H'ROfO po,n;a 3RCIIJiyaTaIJ;IIII, 1mrnna:I.IICTHlJ8CKOD II IIOJIIITH1IecRO:Ü:, li ycTaHO­ BHTh cupaB8,D;JIIIBOCTb B o5m;eCTB€HHhIX OTHOmeHH.HX> ) 108• Û)UTaRo <ppaHIJ,Y3CRlI8 CO IJ,llaJIHCThl JI-MeJIH IQPaime 1HeJICHOO npel};ICTa'BJien»e. 0 <<,IJ;8'M'ORi)aTHlJOC.IOOll H ûOII;IfaJ.ChHOH pecny6JIHRe» 6y)];ym;ero, 'R ROTOpoii OHH CTJ)eMHJIHCh. <<Ynpa3�HeHHe ncex CT8CHHIOIIJ;HX Bac lllHCTHTy-'I'OB 6y,u;eT JI0rRJIM ;J,8JIOM, 'U01ITH 1BC8 'MbI CXOJJ;IDfCH B 3TOM mo:nipoce,- IDICaJI BapJI8H JIHû'HCKOMY con;HaJincTy A. P.amapy,- tITo :nacae-rc.H IIOCTJ)OOHllH 'HOBoro, ·ro S'TO 6yll,er Tpy,n;Hee, Ta.K JŒ,K y Tpy,n;Hin;HXCJI HeT em;e o6m;ero :MIHeHH.H Ha 8'TOT ClJ0T, 01I0Hh HHMJIOTHe H1M•e10T Boo6m;e 6oJiee HJIH MeHee onpe.n;eJieHHoe .rnpe�cTaBJI8HHe 06 OTOM>> 109. 8To 'IlOJIOiR9HlI8 IIOJIHOCTbIO IIO,D;TBepm,n;aJIH cTaTbH MHJihepa, CHCTe�faTl'PI8CKH rretJaTaBIIIHeCH ·B <<MaipceJibe3e» II BhlpamaBmHe, no Oilpe,:i;enemno BapJie­ Ha, ee (<COI::çHaJI1ICTHll•8CRYIO JIHHHIO>). ,[(e:Ü:CTBHT8JibHO, MHJib8p nponoornamaJI COOH CTO'pûB.HHROM p;eMüR,PaTH"lleCROll ipecrry5mnrn:, «e,D;HHCTBeHHOH ŒIOJIHTH1Ie­ ' CKO:Ü: cpüpMbI, 008Cll81IHBaIOm;en: IIO,D;.'rn)HHhlH C}"B0peHHTeT Hapo,n;a», pecnyfü.rn­ RH, B ROTûpOH ,r:i;omReH ocym;ecTBJIJITbC.H HOMl\fY'H1ICTIIll8C:IGIH IrpHRIJ;lFII II[JOH3BO,IJ,CTBa II ' 1pacnpe,n;eJieHJUI ( (<OT Ram,n;oro uo ero CUOCOOHOCTHM, Ra'IB.]J;O'MY no ero II-0Tpe6HOCTJI:M>)). BMecTe C TeM OH ,pa3BHBaJI YTOIIHlJ0CKYIO H,n;ero O TOM ,­ l:fTO TaIŒ.H pecny6JillRa �10lli8T ObITh ycTaH-OBJieHa (<He IIHa1Ie, RaK nyTeM rrocre­ Il8HHOI'O BB8,IJ;8HH.H CO.'IH)WPHOCTII JIHTepecoB B CHCTeMy o6�x 38ROHOB, a BTO, B CBOIO Ol!epe,Il;b, MOlli8T 6hITb i'.];OCTHI1HYTO 1ICR:.11oqllT8JI.bHO nyTeM oom;ero corJiameiHHH>) 110• Y6em,n;e'HHhI:Ü B T01I, 'CJTO JI RaIIHTaJIHCThl TaKme CTpeMHTCH K ycTpaH8'HHIO HIIIIJ;8Thl H ycTa'HO'B.TieHHIO crrpaB8AJIHBOCTH, OH IBCJl1I0CIŒ ;ri;oirn3hlBaJI HM, -crTo con;na.i:ncTbI 3a'OOTH'TC.H H o6 nx HHTepecax. «H He aTaRYIO oo6c1me.H1HocTL,- aaH'BJIHJI MnJibep,- H TOJibRO aacTa1BJIHIO ee 11rpaTb r y pü.ïh ,. ROTopaH eii IIJPHHap;JieIBifT npH 1pan;norra:ih'HOM ycTpo:ü:crne o6m;ecrna>> 111• C APYI'oii cT�OHhI, MLI BCTJ)etJaeM � cTaTMIX M».rrhepa n;u.ero ·peBOJIIOIJ;HH ll <<HapOMO:Ü AJIRTaTypnI>). <<PeBOJIIOD;HH,- IIH'CaJI OH.- eCTh no cyra,eCTBY ,Il;llr.KTaTypa Hapo;u.a, AHRTa Typa ).IaCC, Il OHa ;:J;OJIIBHa 6hlTb opraHH'30BRHa» 112• <<L a Marseillaise>>, 23 décembre 1869. Ibid., 6 janvier 1870. Ibid., 11 mars 1870. 109 International review for social history, t. II. Amsterdam-Leiden, 1937, p. 182-183. BapJieH - A. PHmapy. 20 HOJI6p11 1869 r. 11° <<La Marseillaise>>, 2S décembre 1869. 11 1 Ibid., 4 janvier 1870. 112 Ibid., 9 janvier 1870. 105 1o7 10s a. 78
Ho MHJihetp H1MeJI B AaHrHOM cJiyqae B BHAY nech:Ma RpaTIWB,pe:�teHHYIO penoJIIO· l�HOHHYJO AHKTaTyrpy, 'h"'OTOpaH, 6y;n;yqn ycTaHOBJreHa TOTqac 'liOCJie no6e;n;oHOC­ H'Oro IroJmTHqecKoro nepeBOpoTa 13 Ilapnme, npo,::i;oJimaeT cym,ecTBOBaTh TOJih­ Ro ;:{-O Tex nop, no«a npll'.Mepy Ilaipnarn He noc:re,J;yeT nposH�HH. IlocJie aToro Borrpoc o �aJn,Heümeii ()pra-HII3an;R'H •n:racTu noA,.TJeIBHT pemeH1110 Haipo;n;a. qTO tKacaeTCH yCTaHOB.1I0'HHH noc:ce pe'BO.ï!OIVUI IWJIJieRTH'BŒIOH COOCTBeH­ HOCTII na apy;n;HH H cpe;:{CTBa •IIpOH3BO,!lCTBa, TO Mll.lJheJ) BhICKa3hIBaJICH 3a �.Kcrrponpnau;HIO TOJII:.KO Tex npe�np1IHTlliÎ, BJia;r:i;eJihD;bl ROTOpbIX 6yeyT 3JIOCTHO ca6on1ip0Ban. MetJ>OIIIPHHTHH ipeBOJIIOD;HOHHOH BJiaCTII, Bcex mie npoqHx npe)l;­ IIpIIHHMaTeJie:H CJie;n;yeT TOJiblOO o6JioiR1ITh ,nporpecc1rnHo-no;n;oxoPJHhl'M iHaJIOPOIM� On ocymlI,aJI HaCHJihCTB8HHhie �Œpbl B 3TOH 06,1aCTH. B rrporpa•MMe peq,opM n�exo�noro nepno;:i.:a, npe,:paranrrrn:xcH MHJibepo:M r 'lIO'MHMO rrporpeccHBHo--110A()xop;aoro HaJiora II nepeµ;atrn pa001IHM acco.u;na­ n;aH'M IllpOMIJIIIJieHHhlX H TQPI'OB.MX npe;:i;npHH'THH, IIO.nll'HYTlJX JIX BJiaµ;eJI�a'MlI ,. co.u,epmaJIJICL IlYHRThl 00 ynpa3,ro:IeHJU[ nOCBeII'HhIX Ha:IOroB, opra·me:aau;11n o6MeH11:I1,IX Ily,HRTO'B H H3J)OAHhlX 6alflROB, 0 BBe,JNIIIIl ·Bceo6in;ero CIBeTCRoro o6y­ qeHHH, OBOOOAIJ eJIOBa, ueqaTH, co6paHHH, COI030B, 00 OT)IeHe ITOCTOHH'HOÜ ap­ MHH. Arpa-pHhliÎ •Borrpoc, 'RaR n •BOIIJpoc 06 ornomeHnn i-. nipecTh.HHCTBY, MHJŒep OÔXOlJ.HJI. On;eHHBa.H B n;eJI0M: con;HaJihHO-IIO:IHTIPieCFme B3r:rH;:thl MHJibepa, Mol AOJii:RHbl ROHCTaTlipOBaTb Ha..'IHtfHe B II.FIX 3I-..ïe:KTIJlf0CnOrO coeµ;lIHeJJHH peBOJIJO­ n;HOHHhIX H pecpopMHCTCRHX aµ;eii, B E'Ch)Ia 3Ha1IJIT0.;JbH0•2 BJUUIHHe rrpy)];OHHCT­ CKHX Teopn:ii. B BTOM OTHomeHHJI B3rJI.H:;IJ;hI Bap.neHa, Tanme c0Tpyµ;H1.Prnnmer,o B <<Maip­ çeJII>eae>>, 6hIJIH ropaaµ;o 6oJiee rrporpeccnBHhnn1. Ba1p:ieH oTipn:n;aJI <<ra1pMoHHIO HDTepecoBt 6ypmya3llll n II!pOJietap11aTa; OH He sai.p1,rna:r r:.ra3a Ha I11POTHBope­ q11H, pa3]I,0JI.HIOID;He 8TH .DtBa RJiacca, Il 61,1.1 IIiP0THBHll1'0)I co:xipaHeHHH 3a co-6� � CTBe'HHHKa:MH oipy;:i;n:u: rr-poH3BO;lJ.CTBa npaBa ,pacno,p.Harn ThC H HMM IIOCJie II000l1.,0HO-CHOH ipeBOJIIOil;HH. ÛHII lJ.OJiïRH:r.I Ô:r.ITh npeBparu,eHbI B I-.OJIJieKTHBHYIO coocT­ B8HHOCTh. Ho H B éllf)JieH ll,a.TJ.eKo e�e ne ocHooo;:rn::ccH OT npy;J;OHHCTCRHX aa6Jiym;n;eHJIH. ÛH OTpHI:�aTeJihHO OTHOCII:ICH :n H.TI;ee ;1,ll.KTaTypbI Iljl){)JieTapnaTa t naR n R np;,e,e qeaTpaJIH3oBaHao:a opraa1rnarvnr TJPYAa, I1Jpe)J.rro;qIITaJI O!J)IaHH3a� �RIO «cnpaBeJJ.,JIHBOro OOMeJia>> npo;::t;yKTOB T;py;i;a )IeJinIIX ca:�rnCTOHTeJihHhIX rrpOH3BO,Il,HT0Jie:Ü:. ÛH Ha3:hIBaJI ce6H OJI.HO Btpe1rn:, no;::i; BJllUIHHeM BaRyHHHa, C K6TOphIM IIOOHaROMHJICH B ceHTH'ôipe 1869 r. Ha Ea3e.1I.bCIWM ROHnpecce I1HTep­ Han;HoHaJia, <<aHTIIaBTOfpHratpHhIM IWMMYHHcTmI». Ha Ba3eJibCROM ROHnpecoo OH BLICl(a3aJICH sa OTMeny npaBa aacJieÀoBaHHH H He nop;,n;epmaJI B ôTOM BO­ �poce crop0HHHROB feHepaJihHOf{} C·OBeTa. ÜÀHa:no CB.H3b BéllpJieHa C BaRyHII­ HhIM 6hIJia KpaTKOBpeMeHnoft; u;::t;e11 Ba:nyHIIHa He yB:Ien.1n BatpJieaa. AKTHBHhlM lJ.-0HTeJN�:M cppaan;y3c1wro con;11a:rn:cTuqecnoro ,II,Bnm.ea11H KoHn;a 60-x ro)l;OB 6bIJI H IloJih Jlaq>aipr. Boph6y, :n-c>"Topyro on 'Be.JI 3a o6'he�Hneiane CHJI <J>paan;yac:noro ·npo.rreTapHaTa, 3a co3;:i;a·ttue, B -cracTHOCTll, napnaocKoii if>e­ ;r:i;epall,'HH lfmepHaD;ncmaJia, qeyy oaœcT01IeHHo mpoTirBoAeiicrBoBaJIH 1npyp;oBH­ CThl, OH coqeTaJI C YCHJIHHMH no pacrrpocrpaHeHHIO pe•BOJilOD;llOHHOii Teop'HH Mapm�a BO (f)paHD,HH. Jiaq,apT 6bl.:I O�HJ:DI H3 H0UHOfllX q,paau;y30KHX CO�Ha­ .,1HCTOB, HCJJhITaBllHX Ha ce6e :mtrHoe B.iIII.HHIIe Map:nca. Ûn.OJIO Tpex Jl8T OH npoBe:i B JloHp;oHe, r,n;e yqaeTBoBaJI B 3ace;:i;aa1Hrx feHepa:u,Horo coBeTa lIHTep­ Ha11;HoHaJia, qJieHOM KOTOporo ÔbI:I n36paH B }Ia1pre 1866 r. B 1868 r. Jlaq,apr B�HyJica B Ilaipnm. BJiaroAapH y�HJIHHM Jlaq,apra BecHon: 1870 r. OhIJio no;a;roTOBJieHo HOBOe cppann;yacKoe H3]J;aHHe YcTana MrrTepHan;uonaJia, B noropo11 6h!JIH ycTpaHeHhl lIPYAOHHCTCKHe HCRaiK0HHR, ;:,,onym,errrr1,rn B 1864 T. npn nepeBo;:i;e IIOJIOIBeHHII YéTaBa O MeCTe IIOJIHTM·lleCnOH OüpWhl B OC.BOOO,JJ;HT€.JhHOM ;:J;BHIBeHHH IIpOJieTa­ pnaTa. Jlaq>r.pr n�pe-neJI TaKme Ha cppaml,y3cRnii .HGhlR <<llHcTpyRn;nro AJIH �eJieraTOB BtpeMe'HH ' OI'O IJ;eHTpaJibHOfO COBeTa Ha iReueBCROM KOHr,pecc.e>) 79
MHrepnau.HonaJia ( 1866 r.); 1IaCTb npe,u;ncJioB1u1 MapRca R nepBoMy TOMy «Ka­ mITaJia>> ( 1867 r.); <<Ma1-nnpecr HoMMYHHCTH1IecRoii napTrun> (Ha1IaJio 1869 r.). RpoMe ro,ro, OH pacrrpocTpaliH.1 c;pe;n;n cppaHn;yac1n1x con;1rnJIHCTOB OTJJ;e.rrhHble rnponsBep;eH11.H Ma1pKca, nanp1nrnp. <<Hnm,ery <f>1111ococp1nn>, c Koropoii noaHa­ JtOMHJUICh, B i:racr.HOCTH, BJialHKH, Tpn;n;oH H µ;pynrn 6JiaBRHCTLI, a TaKme Jleo IDpaHKeJib - 60:rhrno11 110i:r1nare:rh MapKca, c yBJielleHHBM mTy;::i;:rrpoBaBmnü: d-{an:aram> H « 18 6p10Meipa Jly:a BoHanaipra». Jlaipapr, caM B npOill::IO)I rrpyµ,OHllCT' aRT.HBHO 6opo.rrc11 'B KOHD;8 60-x ro.n;oB rrpOTHB npy,u;oHHCTCIWTO BJIHHHIUI Ha <ppaHn;yacK08 pa601Iee Ainrmeane BJIIUIHHH, ÜT ROTOporo JUPIHO ê:My y)];aJIOCb OCB060JJ;HThC11 B 6oJILme:ii M�e, qeM MHOrIIM ;n;pyrHM <f>pam::i;ysoRI11M COD;I:IaJilICTa:M. B 1869 r. OH Ha.rrn:caJI cnerre:aJib­ HYIO CTaTbIO, HaIOpaBJI8HHYIO npOTHB IIpy,u;oHa, .II ,n;pyryro, B KOTopoii, B IlPOTH­ BOB0C Ilpy,n;oHy, H3JIOIBHJI B rronym:rpno:ü: <p�M1e ll,rl;8H <<Î\.OMMYHHCTHtiecKoro MaHHq>0CTa>> 113• ÜH B8.1I TaKIBe aKTIIBHyIO 6opo6y npOTIIB npoHII.RHOB0HH11 np;e:ü: Ea.RyHHHa BO <DpaHTI;IUO H B 3TO)I OTHomeHHH npeBOCXO,IJ;HJI Baqmmrn. Bap.rreH CBOHM BJIHJfHHe:M: na rrapHIBCRIIX ipa001IHX B TO BpeMH 6bIJI OO.H3aH rJIa- BHblM o6pa30M CBOe�1y oipraHII3aTopCKO)IY TaJiaHTy. TeoipernqecKne B3r;rn,r:r;hI B::raHKH 6bl::rn n3:.ro.meHhl HM B 1869-1870 ro,a;ax B pa6oT-e <<RannTa::r n Tpy;:i;>>, yBnp;eBmeii, OA1Ia1m, cBeT JIHmh B 1885 r. , nocJie �Mep ' TH ee aBTopa, n ne -oKa3aBmeii B:IH.HHIIH Ha <f>pa'H�Y3CROe pa6o1Iee W3Hme1n1.e .ROHn;a 60-x ro_;qoB. E:r:nma.amn�r copaTIDIImM BJian.R.'H OCHOBHLie noJioarnHM.fi 8T,OH 1paOOThl Obl.ïII, IIO-BTI;:J;II}IO)IY, H3B�THLI y.me B TO BpeMH. 06 8TOM, B tiaCTHOCTH, CBH�ere.1IbCTByer IIO.HBHBillaHCJI B 1869 r. 6pomropa 6JiaHKHCTa TpH)];OHa <<lliHpOHp;a H if'1-IP,OHll;IICThI», B KOTOIJ)Oll IlOBTOpHJiaCb H,TI;eH BnaHRH o peBOJIIOD;llOHHOH i"'.J;IŒ'.Taryrpe. BJrnHRH Ohl:I IIpoTIIBHHR0M Bceo6in;n:x BhloopoB H C03hlBa Yqpe;:r,nTeJibHOrO co6paHII.H IIOCJI0 II000)'J:bl peBDJIIOD;IIH, TaK KaK OH :C1IHTaJI Heo6xop;1nŒDI JIHillJITI, IIO.ITIITlll{eCRIIX Il!PaB BparoB fP0BOJIIOIJ,IIH. <<B TOT A0Hh, R<>r;::i:a 6yÂeT BhIHY T R."1Hil H30 pTa pa6o1Illx, OH ·6yp;,er B..'1,0IB0H B P,OT :«a­ ;ruITaJŒCTOB>) t- rrnca.11 OH 114. ÜH Bl,lCRa3hlBaJIC11 sa ycraH<OBJI0'1I'He peBOJIIOU.H­ ,OHHoir �KTaTyphI. 0;:i;HaKo ;:i:a:rbHeiiIIIne ero paccymp;eHHH o6Hai)ym1rnaror, qro _OH BOB-Ce He HMeJI B BH;::LY ycTaHOBJieHne LÇHRTaTypLI peBOJIIOD;HOH'HDro RJiacca, a nop;pa 31 yMeBa:J <<,rt:rr1naT�lPY IlapH.am>> na;::i; Bceii ocTaJibHoii <l>pam:i;:aeü, jpaœMa­ -'I'pHnae�ryro HM KaR <<IIO,J;:IHHHOe Ha�oHa:IbHOO npe]J;CTaBJITeJII.CT'BO». 8cy-TO _np;ero cnoero yqnre.1.a n no�xna Tn.::r Tpn;::i;oH, cp;eJiaB ee rrpeJJ;MeToM rnnpoRoii l:I3BeCTHOCTII. 8Hre.::r1,c, Illp01IHTaBmIIÏI 6pommpy, pe3RO pacRpllTilR0BaJI R;r:J;€10 .<<AHRTaTY1IH,r IIapHma>>. <<B.pom10pa Tpnp;oHa,- IIIIca.TJ OH 6 HIDJIH 1869 r. Map1œy,- IIHTepecoBa::ra )IeHH rJiaBHbDI o6pa30M H3-3a B'l'Opoii lfaCTII 115, TaR JŒR H He 3HaE.-OM c HoBeH.meii .1Hreparypoii o nepooii: peoo."Irou;nn. B ne-pnoii me ,-qacrn ÔOJihmaH rryTaHHIJ;a, oco6eHno no Borrpocy o Ue1I1ipan:o.aau;1ur H JJ;eu;eH11Pa­ _JIHaau;nH ... CMemHa MhIC:rb, llro AIIRTaTypa IlapHma Ha;ri; <l>paHi:i;ne-ü:, nory6HBma.a nepByIO ipeBO.'IIOIJJIIO, :\IOr;ria fü,I Tenepb 6oITh nonpocTy IIOBT0peHa, H' Û c JfHl,BI pesyJihTaT-o�rn 116. Tpn�OH n ;a;pyrne 6::rarnmcTI,I HaXO;:J;IlJIIICh B KOHD;e 60 ro)];OB no;:i: CHJibHbIM RJIIHIIUieM JI03ynroB II TJpa;:i.nunii cppam::i;y3CROH 6y,pmya3ROÜ: peBOJIIOI:t;lflI KOHn;a -XVIII B. 8ro MemaJio IIM rrpaBH."IhHO ouen1rnarb couHaJI1>Hhie OTHomeHHH HoBoiî - ee 3q>q)8KTHB­ ·arrox:a, B YCJIOBII.HX IWTopofr 0HII mn::m Il 6opoJIIICh, ;n;eJiaJio MeH HOH :ux ÔOph6y rrpornB RarrnTa:rns:\rn. Te me cJia6ocTH 61>1.JIH npnc� H IIIP0qn.M con;HamrcTair, B TO�r qrrc:ie ::reBI:.DI npy,r:r;oHHCTaM. J1;ri;eirno-TeopeTH1IeCRa11 He3peJIOCTb <f>paHIJj"3CRIIX COIJ,IIaanCTOB T!peBOiKHJia 'Ma1pi<ca Il �ue:ibc.a. (( qTO 0 � � m ApxHB HM.J, (p. 1, e;:r. xp. 8226, on. 5. Il. Jîaqrnpr - MapKcy. RoHen MaH 1:869 r. A. B 1 a n q u i. La critique sociale, t. I. Paris, 1885, p. 208. 115 BTopaa 11:aCTb 6pomIOpbl TpH.J:OHa Ha3bIBa:IaCJ. <<iKBpoH,n:a B 1793 r.>>, nepBaJI qacn - <<llinpoH;::i;a B 1869 r.>>. 116 <D Snre.'Ibc-I-t MapKcy, 6 1uo;in 1869 r. R. MapKc D <I>. 3HreJibC. Co11.. . T. XXIV, CTp. 211. 114 �BO
lit:0HH nyraeT y cf>pamzyaoB, TaK 8TO "tJepTOBCKaH rryTaHHII,a B TOJIOBax»,- UBCaJI MapKc B xom::i;e 1869 r. 8nreJILCy. «HecoMHeHHo, nyTaHHII,a BeJI11Ka»,- OTBeqan. -eMy 8Hre.JILC 117• 3a.Menroe BJHUIHHe Ha H)l;einyro mH3HL <l>pam::i;HH KOHl::i;a 60-x l'O,Il;OB oxa­ -3IdB8.JHI Memrn6yipmyaa.HLie )'.1;0MORpaTiaI, TaR Ha3hIBaeMhie HeOHK06HHIJ;hl. em;e 6onee, 'tJeM co�aJDICTLI, upexJrOHHBmHecH nepe)l; TJ)a)l;Hn;1uIMH neq>Bo:ë 6yip­ myaano.ii peBoJIIOD;HH, B ocooeHnocTII 11epe.r:,; HROOHHCKoii pecrry6mlKOH 1793 ro)l;a. Hoomto6Hlln;IaI, OTpamaBimrn pocT pecrryûmIKaHcKIIx nacTpoeimi �pe)l;H paaopHBmeiies MeJIKoii oypmyaaIIH, BII)];SJIII cBoii H,u;eaJI B 6ypmyaaao­ ,AeMOKpaTH11ec1mii pecny6Jn1Ke. C TQPOHHHKH K8IIHTaJIIICTHlJ8CKO:Ü CHCTeMhI rrpo11800,IJ;CTBa H 1IaCTHOii COOCTB8HHOCTII, neOHK06HHIJ;Id OIIOJ!liaJIHCh TOJlhKO npoTUB 'KpynHoi 6ypmyaau:u:. MeJIKyro 6ypmyaaHro onn ClJHTaJIH Heo6xo.!(HMiaIM coxpa­ HllTI,, H6o oua cyqaCTBye-r B npoHaBo)l;cTBe H )l;OCTaT01IHo TPY.ITTITCH» 118• He­ KOTopLie '.H3 111:HX Ha cJioBax OT)l;aBaJIH Aa:III> npe1ncym;ecrnaM con;:e:an:mwa, no l:QPJI aTOM o6napy,RHB8JIH Kpaiine TyMaHHOe O HeM rrpe,u;cTaBJI0HH0. 60-e l'O)l;'LI 6LIJIH 01'MelJ8Hiil BO <l>pann;HH TIOJIBJieHlieM HOBOH, o6mIIpno:ë: Jill­ Tal)aTypiil O nepBOii 6ypmya3HOH peBO.TIIOIJ;HH, 0 BhIJJ;aIOm;HXCJI 00 ,u;eHTSJIHX H opaTopax. CJieJzyeT OTMeTHTh KHBTY pa)l;lfKaJihHOro pecrry6JIHKaHn;a AJI1>cppeJ(a Eymapa «iKaB-IlOJIL MapaT, )l;pyr na,po.r:,;a>>, BhICORo on;eHeHHYIO 8nreJILcoM; RH•Hry ,u;eMoKpaTa iKopma ABeHeJIJI «Anaxaipcnc RJiooTc - opaTop po.u;a 1IeJio­ B0"lecKoro,, TaIOKe IIOJIY'IHBmyIO IIOJIOIBHT8JihHYJO on;eHKY Ma,pKca lI 8meJib­ ca; TpexroMHhIH TPYA 8pnooTa AMeJIH <<licTop1u1 Po6ec111>epa>>, e:ro me «McTo1rn.H Cen-iKrocTa» H M.HorHe PJ)ynre, B TOM "lfl!CJie RHHry TpnJ�ona «86epra­ �Thl». B 8TH me ro� 6hlJn1 nepe11a,n;anhl Tpy,u;hl MapaTa, Po6ecn1,epa, ,[(aHTOHa, Bepnw, pe11u: Mupa6o H )l;pyrHx 111m6ynoB 6ypmyaanoi peBoJIIOI:i;BH XVIII B. Ilpo1rnBe,u;0H:n:H Po6ec.nhepa, .r(aBToBa, BepH1,o c au:n0Tan;11HMH con;naJIHcTa 1:JepMopeJIH Biil)l;epmaJIH B 1866-1867 ro,n;ax ,u;Ba B3AaHHH. B IIHCLMe R ,[{I06ya OT 28 a:srycTa 1868 r. Ha TIOphMhl CeHT-IleJiaïRH BeplrnpeJI1> nacTOHlIHBo pe­ ROMeB)l;OBaJI eMy 3aHH�hCH llOAfOTOBRO:Ü TJ)eThero na,n;aHHH 8THX IIpOH3Be,n;e­ HHH, «ROTOplile ipa30IDJIHCh H na ROTOpble HMOOTCJI 6oJihIDOH cnpoc>> 119• B 1869 r. 6blJIIl Ha,n;anhl c annoTaIJ;HHMH Beip:,,ropeJIH HpommeJJ;eHHH MapaTa. HaBapcinie co6hlTHH 1870 r. B Ilapnme c HOBOii cH­ PeBoJDOqaollJllile Jio:ü no�1I01J)RHYJIH n:ry6nny KpHan-ca, rrepemnBaeMoro BIIICTfllEIIIUI BTopo:ü HMIIepHeii. Y6HiiCTBO npmm;eM IlhepoM Bo­ •- llapBlKe narrapToM 10 HHBapH HBHBilleTOCH R HeMy mypnaJIH­ ' B DepBYe M8C&qlil � CTa - ipecny6JIBRann;a BH1RTopa Hyapa, COTPYJJ;HBKa 1870 ro a. «·MapceJih03hl», BCROJibIXHyJio Bech pa6ol{B:Ü ITapH>B. 0RoJio 200 TLienq TPYMID;HXCH rneBHO npo.r:,;eMOHCTPHJPOBaJin cBoe B03Mym,eHne npoH3BOJIOM, n;apIIBIIIHM B CTpaHe, HBHBill.HCb 12 HHBapJI B 11pe]];MeCThe IlapH­ H<a HeiiH, Ry.n;a 6hIJI JJ;OcTaBJieH rpo6 c TeJioM Hyapa. Pa6ot1He 61>1JIB noJIHhl rOTOBHOCTH BhlCTyrrHTb npOTIIB HMIIepHH. ,[(JIH 3TOro ObIJIO J];OCTaTOlJHO 1pacrro­ .1mmeHHH rrpHcyTeTBOBaBmero B HeiiH Pomq>0pa, ROTophli, B cn.Jiy o6cTOH­ T8JihCTB, «)l;epmaJI n pyRax Bce ,u;nH»ŒHBe>> 120• Ha1rnnyne Pom<pop B <<Map­ ceJiheae» rrp11aBaJI q,pann;yoc.KHH napo,n; IIOROf f({HTh c ,n;nnacTJrnft BonanapToB. «BOT ym.e 18 JICT,- IIHCaJI OH,- Ka,R <l>pam::i;HH HaXO�HTC:H B OKpO,BaBJFB'HHhlX pyKax 3JIO)'.1;'80B, KOTOpble, ne ,D;OBOJihCTBYHCh paccTpeJIOM :pecIIY1()�JIHKaHn.eB na YJil'ln;ax, 38BJieRaIOT HX B rHyCHble aana,n;HH, lJTOOhl y6n:BaTh y ce6H Ha ,u; oMy. <l>pamzy3CKHH napo)l;, 'Hey>ReJl'H Tbl -ocë em,e ŒH> H8XO,ITT!llh, 1ITO C 3TH'M notpa UOKOH'tJH·Th?& 121• 1 17 118 T&r me, e1p. 247, 248. F. P y a t. Les inassermentés. Paris, 18{¼}, p. 60. IISJ ApxBB HM.JI, 4>. 240, e�. xp. 44 III/XXIII. Vermorel A. à Dubois G. Sainte-Pé­ lagie, 22 août t868. 120 Troisième procès de l'Association Internationale des travailleurs à Paris, p. 39. 9. BapJieB - 3. 06p:e:, 19 HHBapH 1870 r. 12 1 «La Marseillaise», 12 janvier 1870. 6 IlapmRCl<Ul l<OMMYBa, T. I Bt
IJorqTH nce 6JrnH1..:ucThI HBHJII1:c1, n Heiî.H. Ilo cJioBaM IllapJrn: AaRocTa, HX 6bIJIO OROJIO 2 ThlC}PI l.IeJIOBeR, (<XOlporno BOopymemŒIX II cep1>e-3HhlM o6pa80M opraHII3()1BaJIIIhlX>) 122• He6oJibllIHMH rpyrrnaMII OHll 6e3MOJJIBHO 1IlpüillJI'H B00H­ HhIM cTpoeM rrepeA rr,pucyrcnwnaBmHM 3AOCI> BnaHim. Ho HX BOïKAh, l'OTOBhli IlOBe•CTH B 6oiî CBûH OTp.HJJ.hl , H•e o6MaHbl1Ba.JI ce6.a: OH BHJ];0JI, 11.'TO IH0 OH HBJIHM'CH X03HHHO:M IIOITOi-l..OHMH. P01mpop me I<aTeropaqecKll OTBepr uacTO.R!HllH COIJ,Ha­ f cDJiypa·nca, qT061,1 rrox01p OH Ha.s1 rrpon.eccn.a qepea IJ,0H1W IlapHma Ha­ JHCTa rrpaBHJiach R KJia,IJ;6:a�y IIep-Jiamea. <l>JiypaHc paOC"tJ.KTLIBaJI, qro B 9TOM CJiy­ qae ona rrpenpaTUTCH B IIOJHITIPieCKYIO MaHn<f>ecTaIJ,IUO, li , 100:lM0mHO, 'IlpHBe]J;eT K cBepmeHHIO HMneprrn:. MaHmpecTa:r�HH He cocTOHJiacb. BnKTop Hyaip 61>m no­ xopoHe-H B Heiîn:. PemeHne Poruq>0pa, He3aBRCH'MO oT ,pyKOBOA'ft1Bm11x HM Mo� THBO·B, 6bIJIO rrpaBHJihHOe. BhlcTyII.TJ.0HHe 61:>IJIO o6peqeuo Ha ·rr�ameHn:e, Ta•K RaR paoo"t!He, 3a H0MHOfHMH HCiiJIIOtJeHHHMH, ne 6hI JIH BOopymeHhl, a ll<M upo­ TRBOCTOHJl1I B Ilapume ne Menee 60 Thl,CH1I noopymeHHhlX 'COJIART, ROTOfPl>UC npa.BRTeJibCTBO .u;epmaJio HarO'l'O"Be. IloM1BMO BOHCK napHiKCKOl'O rap,HlI80Ha, B ero pac,nopHmeHHH 6bIJia KaBaJietpBÜCI<aH Jl.B'BH3HH, c-poqHo Bbl3BalHHaH 1I3 BeipcaJIH H saHHBIDaJI, no npnna3y BOeHHOro MlIIIHCTpa, EnnceikR'He IIOJIH, ,ABoPen. HHAYCTpnu: T10n;r1,p11. BoeHHaH mKoJia o@Jia TaKme aaHHTa Bo:ÜcKa­ MH 123. <<I1cTH11'HOe cqacn,e,- rrncaJI 3Hre.111>c MapKcy, KOrJJ.a yanaJI o OOOhITHHX Cl>Jiyipanca, Ha noxopoHax Hya12 BïHBap.a B Ilapm-Ke,- t:Jro, HecMOTpH Ha 1pa ne BCilhlXHyJio BOccTaH:0:e. BemeHcTBo «Pays, -c.rryIBHT AOKa3aTeJ11>cTBoM· .mecTOIWrO paaoqa,poBaHHH 6oHanrupTIICTOB. Be;,,1> .r(JIH 'HHX H0T u11qero 6oJiee .me­ JiaTeJihHOro, Ra.K aaxBaTHTb en flagrant délit 124 BCIO peB0JilOD;B0BHYIO rraplliK­ c.KyIO Macey ene Ilapnma B µ,ame ene 1'.penocrnbix cren, 11Me10m;11x JIHWL JJ,Ba..: TPH rrpoxo�a, a B OTKphITOM IIOJie... A TaK KaR H'M0JIOC1, 60 Thl,Cjl'q COJI,n:aT, T O MOiRHO 6bIJIO .u;ame BffYCTUTh 'l'OJIIIY BHYTPh RpenoCTHOro BaJia , a IIOTOM '3aHHTI> ero ·B. tpaCCTpeJIHTb Macey ImpT0'C{blO H paaµ,aBHTb ee KOHHHu;eü Ha CB060;LJ.HOM 11pocTipaHCTBe Enue:ü:cRnx rronefr H Aoon10 Ae Heiin. rocno.u;n! 200 000 6ea­ opyIB'HhIX pa6otIBX l];OJiiKHhl fü,IJm C OTRphITOro IIOJIH aaBOeBaTh Ilap11m, 3aHH­ Thl:Ü 60 000 COJIJI.aT ! >> 125• IlncaT0Jlb-p;eMOKpaT lliIOJih BaJIJiec, 1BCIIOMHHaH BIIOCJiep;CTBHH O HHBap­ CIOIX co6I>ITHHX 1870 ro,n;a, rrm�aJI, "tfTO B 3TOT JtOHb B'l'OfPa.H H'MIIepBH «rronyqlf­ Jia, nwi;o6Ho BBKTopy Hyapy, nynro B cep;:i;n;e» 126• IlyJu1, OAJiaKo, ue OblJia CMepTeJibHûB, H o,gHO:Ü H3 HeMaJioBaiRHhIX Ilp.HlfHH 9TOI'O 6LIJia HeIIOJJ;"l'OTOB­ JIOHHOCTh peBOJIIOIJ,llOHHhIX ClIJI K OBE?IIHK0HHIO HMIIepll•H. PyKOBOJlH� e � eHTe­ JIB cpe)l€Q)aJI1>Ho:Ü rraJiaThI npo cpieccB0HaJI1,HblX oo'Le�11HeH11ii Ilapnma, KaK 'H ,u.eH'fleJIH napHIBCKOli opraHB3aIJ,BlI lIHTepnan;HOHaJia, CBOeBfpe.MeHHO He noarna.J HBJill HapacTaBmee )];BllIB0HHe. IlocJie y611iiCTBa H yapa OHll, 110 llJlH3HaBJIIO Bapm.:ma, <<He co611paJI11c1, 11 aapaHee ue Ji;OrOB8&)HBaJI1H.c.h» H AO 12 HHBa•pH ne IlhITaJIHCl> ,u;ame ycTaROBHTb CBH3b C paOOqlfMH. ÛHH BIIepBHe IIOOJI& y6H:iî:CTBa BCTpeTIIJlll,Ch C pa6CJIIHMH TOJibKO B Heft11 127• Cyroi no rrocJie;a;yrom;eii n�errmme Bapm�na, uapit:,KCKHe co:n.11aJIJICThI 113... BJI0RJIH H0'I\'OTCYphI:Ü YiPOK H3 co6bITIIH. 10-12 HHB-apH. «MM pemHJIM,- coo6m;an BapJietH 19 HHBa·pH pyaHCKOMY co:n.11aJl'llCTy 3MHJIIO 06pB,- B'HHMaTeJibBO CJie�HTh OTHbl'He aa IIOJIHTIPieCnHM ,IllBMiR6Hll0M B BO Bcex •CJiyqaHX upe.rtBapK- r. 122 Ch. Da Costa. Les blanqu istes. Paris, 1912, p. 31. 123 :QeHTpaJILHLIH rocy ;:i;apcTBeHHLIH noeRHO-HCTOpH"l!eCKHÜ: apxHB (�fBHA), (J>. BYJ\., ... 440, ;:i;. 187, JI. 7. feHepan-Maiiop IŒH3b BHTfeHmTeiiH - BOOHHOMy MHHBCTpy. Ilapum.. 8 q,enpa;r.R 1870 r.; CM. TaKme M. Domman ge t. Op. cil, p. 183. 124 <<Ha MeCTe npocTynJieHHHl (B ,H·poHH'leOKOM CMLICJie). 125 <I>. 3aren1>c - :K. MapKcy, 1 q>eBpaJu1 1870 r. K. Ma pK c a cl>. a Br e JI 1>- c. Coq,, T. XXIV, CTI), 285. 120 J. Va 11 ès. L'insurgé. Paris . 1923, p. 159. 127 Troisè i me_procès de l'Association Internationale des travailleurs à Paris, p. 132 · p Ba mrn - 06pn. Ilap0m, 19 HHnap.a 1870 r. 82
BOllCHA PA3rOHHIOT AEMOHCTPAIUUO, COCTOHBlllYIOCH B CBH3H C TIOXOPOHAMR B. HYAPA I<cUJ102pa�Wl K. CMumo><a TeJibHO OÔC YJKAaTb 'lleo6xo�hle marli. HacTpOOHHe ce:iiqac OOBhlille'HHOe, ;pe­ BOJitoll;lUI naW3n:raeTCH, JI MLI He ,IJ;OJDhÏil>I .n;orryCTI1Th, 1IT06hl Hac 3aX.'IeCTHyJia eTHXBH,. 128• B necK0Jih'KO 6o-.nee II03,nHeM: IIBCb}Ie, OT 26 mJIBapH, K JIHOHC'KOMY CO�HaJIBCTY A. PHmapy BaipneH -rrn:caJI O HOBI,IX: ·rrpa'K'I':HtIOOKHX marax COD;Ba­ ."IHCTOB B Il;0JIHX Jiyqmeiî llO)J;I'<Yf'OBKH .K peB0JIIOIJ;IlH, 00 O!J)f3'H'R30'B8H1HhIX B fla­ pHme ŒIOBhIX ceK'I{HHX MnTepHa'IJ;JloHaJia. «B c.1yqae, ecJIH B IlapH?l(e na'tfnere,i 6opL6a,- 0anpa1HHBaJI Ba,pJieH Pn , mapa,- cMomeM JIH MhI pacclfllTLîBaTI, Ha TO, 1JTO Bhl OTBJielJeTe 0T Bac BHHMaJIHe; IlOJih3yeTeCb JIH Bhl ,t(OCTaTOllJl[bUd BJI•HHH1H�M B JluOHe, 'ITOOhl Bhl•3Ba1'b ,D;Bumenne B cnyqae, ecJlH 'MLI IIOCT3BHM Bac B H3B0CTHOCTL, 111'0 HatI·BHae-'M a,u;ecb 6oï1? H AQr0BOpHJICH aa 8TOT ClJeT c BacTeJIBKa. MLI paœqn:'ThlBaIDI Ha Mapoonh. Heo6xo,n;ùMo, tJ:TOOhl Bce rrpo­ MLimnen.nLie ·n;eiITphl 6hlJIH owma-1roBO RaCTJ}OeHhI>) 129• Iln:chMO 3To IIHcaJIOCh n ycJiomurx .r,;aJihHeiimei'O o6ocTpeHHH II0JIHTRtie­ cxoii o6cTaHOBKII BO <l>paH�ll'li, Bhl3B3'HHOf'O BOopymeHHhlM uop;a1iJ1e-imeM 21 HH'BapH 1870 rop;a npa�HTeJILCTBe1IHhI1\Ill BOHCIŒMH Rpyrrmoii: CTa'lfIŒ pa6o­ l-Jl,IX npe�HHTB:ë: ill1JieË:;[(epa B Kipeao. E�e He 3a1tOH1IHJn1tL MaCiCOBL'ie y'BôJIL­ neHHH pa6oirn:x, yqacTBoBatBmHx B noxopoHax BHR1'otpa Hyapa, RaR na-qànHCh HOBhle yiBOJlh-Heil'HH -H apecThI pa001IRX 3a yqacTIIe B mrnapctroii c·TàTJKe. 10 c. JI:µ:mHRM l"hlCH'tJ paôoTJ:e:x npeJVJlPHHTJJÜ IIIReiîAepa Tpe6onaJIH nep-e,u3:11n B HX ne.n;eHHe ll0HCHORHO:Ü: KaCChl, cponp;a•:\fll KOTopoii pacnopHmaJiaey; aJO{HH.H­ CTpan;HH. B Kpeao OhlJIH Bhl3BaH1>1 soiicKa, cTàq1-rn: IDpHH1IJià ·. noJIBT.H'Ieciœii Ibid. International review for IlapHm, 26 HBB-apH 1870 r. 128. 129• social history, v. II. P: 1�. 3. B_apnea -:- A. Pnma.py.' 6* 83
xapaRTep. Hy.m,n;a H perrpeCCHli 3aCTaBHJIH 6acTyIOm;Hx !IlpHCTYIIHTb K p_a6oTe, 1-1e rroJiyqHB yp;oBweTBopeHnH cBoHx 'npe6oBaBH:ii 130• 27 H'HIBa·p.a napHIBCŒUie •Ce1rn;n1H lliHTepHa�llOHaJia orry6JIHKOBaJIH Ma!H.HcpecT: 3a IlOA'IIHChIO BapJieHa, MaJiaHa Il )]J)yrnx CO�HaJIHCTOB, B KOTOpOM 3aHBJIHJIH 0 C'Boeii COJI:up;apHOCTH C ipa601:rn:MH Hpeso, BhICTYIIHBIDHMH IIIPOTHB <<p8>K'HMa llüJI1ITlflI0-CROPO rHeTa II :rrpOMbiillJie-HHOH aHapXHH, o6peKarom;ero Ha HIUit;eTy HM0H'HO Tex, RTO crrooo6cTBOBaJI OllPOMHOMy HaKOilJI0HHIO Ra'lm.TaJia>>. Con;iJia­ JJIICThl Bhlpa.arnJIH pemHT8JlhHhIË: npOTecT IIpOTHB naCHJIHH, yqIDieH'IlhlX lta!IIH­ TaJIHiCTaMH H HX npncJiyïKHlII\'OM, 6onanapTHCTCRH-M mpa1B1ITeJILCTBOM, nap; ipa6oqHMH. (<He ,D;OBOJihCTBYHCb T8M, 4TO OHH He3a•R'OHHO AepmaT •B CBOHX pyxax BCe 8ROHOMIPieCR08 Morym;ec-TBO,- rOBOpHJIOCh p;aJrne B Ma!HHcpecre,- OHH xo­ THT em;,e pac110JiaTaTb, ,IJ;JIH OOXJPaHeHHH CBOHX a=reoopa'Bep;JIIIBhIX upHBHJiemii, B 'CeMH o6m;eCTB8-H-HhIMH CHJiaMII rrpIIHym;a;eHHH ( apMIIei, IlOJIHlVIei, cyµ;aMR lI 1np.), II OHH p;eÜCTB'IIT0JlbHO paorrOJiaraIOT BC0M 9TIH'M)) 131• 7-8 cpetB!PaJIH 1B Ilapnme oHoBa nMeJIH ·MecTo BOJIHeHHH. IloBo,rr;oM ,IJ;JIH HHX nocJiymuJI apecr Pomqmpa, npr-u'OBOpooHoro 'K 6 MecHqaM TIOpeMHoro saRJIIO­ qeHHH 3a cTaThIO, na11eqaTaI-IHy10 B «MaipceJ.11,eae» •BC;.IeA •sa y6nü:cTBOM BnK­ ropa Hyapa. MŒiorne pa6o"tJ1rn He HBHJHICh B MacTe.pch""lle. B pa3Hhlx ITYHKTax CTOJIH�hl fü,IJIH coopymeHI,I oappHRaJl_hl, OOJihillBHCTBO ROTOfPhIX BCKope aaxBa­ THJIH rnpaB1IT0JibCTBOHIHhl0 BOÏICRa. ca�rnH RiJ)YIIHaH 6app1nmµ;a, COOtpyme-,11HaH E BeJihBHJie rro np1I3hTBY CD.rrypam?,a, uaJia B Hoq1, c 7 Ha 8 q>eB·paJIH, no na �py­ ro:ii .n;enh, 'H8CMOTpH Ha -rrpoT ifBO,IJ;8�CTBH8 BOÜC'K, 61,ma BHOBh B03µ;BHmyTa 'H YA�ïRHBaJiaCh paoo"tJHMH go rJiy6oRo:ii 1HO"l!B. 7 II 8 q>eBpan1:1 6hlJIH npoH3BeJ(e­ f Hhl MHOl'f 'IHCJI0HHhle aipeCThI, B TOM 1UICJie 1IJI0HOB pep;aIDJ;HH II !BlI]UihIX co­ '11PY�HHKOB «MapceJihe3hI>>. Ü,IJ;HOMy Jl'Hillh Cl>JJypaHcy yp;aJIOCh 6emaTh B 'An­ rJIHIO. <<3a yqaCTIIe B MHTeme>> B O;rJ;HOM 'l'OJih'RO BeJihBIIJie ObIJIII npHBJI0"lJ0Hbl K cyp;eÔHoiî OTB8TCTB8HJ.HOCTII 94 qeJIOBeKa, r.rraBHhlM o6pa30M ·pa6o-qne. Mx 1IplIT'OBüpHJIH R pa3:IIftIHbIM cpoIŒM T10peM'HOro 3aI{."IIOqeHIUI� a tJaCTI, H3 HvIX TaR?Re R Ae-He.IBHOMY U11fpaqiy 132 . Co6hlmH 7-8 cpenpaaH CHOBa I11po�e)IOHCTP:0JPOB8!CII opraHn3ait;HOHHyIO cJiaoocTh peBoJiror:t;noBHhIX c:rrJI Ilapnma. Heyp;nBHTeJIMIO, "'ITO B1>1cTynJI0H11e 8TO «JI0I'RO rro,gamum 'IIO,TiiIIU:eÏmRJI}.JJI CHJia'MII, ROTOphFM OXOTBO UOMOI'aJlll 6yp­ mya BeJih'BII.lIH 11 MoHMaprpa>>. 1rn:n co�m;a:1 B IleTep6ypr ipycCRHii nocoJI B Ilapn.me rpaq> illra,IŒJu.6�pr 133• Ilapn:mcRHe Ce:In:t;HH llHTe,pHaJIIIOHa.ria B BbIIIym;eHHOM HMII o6pam;eanH H Ha 9TOT pa3, KaK II B HHBape, TIOC�"Je y6II:iîCTBa Hyapa 1 IIlPll"3hTBa.rrH ipa60"!HX R (<Tepne11:e:10 H CIIOROHC'DBHIO>}. y6em;::i:aJin HX B TOM, lITO «MOMeHT ]l;JIH pem:e:­ T0Jlb'HnIX H IJ:IeMep;JieJilHhIX ,ueiicTBilit em;e He HaCTYITJIJI>}. «PeBOJIIOD;HH 6LICTJ)O Ha,n;mrraeTcH,- rJiacn.rro o6pam;eIDie,- He cTaHeY me TOpM03HTh ee xon He­ TepneHueM, BIIOJIH0 3RKOHHhIM, HO B TO me Bp0MH :M:Or�HM ChlrpaTb naryo­ HYIO !I)OJlb. Bo HMH con;HaJibHOÎÎ pecny6JIHKH, 'fi ROTopoü Bce Mhl CTJ)e.M.0MCH, RO HMH cnaceHHH _Ae:M:oKpaTIIH Mhl npII3hIBaeM Bce:x TOBatp:mr:i;eii He ROMIIPOYe­ TllpüBaTh CTOJih 6JiarorrpHHTHOe IlOJI'O.iR0HHe» 134. 13 <peBpa.rrn 6hrn a;pecrosan Bap.TJen. no noc.rre 14-ll:]IeBHoro 3aRJIJ0qeH1u1 oclB-060:m.n;en ·6e3 p;onpoca. Co6hITHJI wrnap.H ·H q>eBpam1 1870 r. IJIOKa3aJIH, ImK B0JIHKa 6hIJla B TO BpIDUl Bo (J)paHTI;HH ,rrorry.rrmpHOCTh 6ypmyaaiHoro pa,n;nKaJrn Por:mpopa. 3ro o6cToJI­ TeJihCTBO 6ecrrO'KOHJIO OCIHOBOIIOJIOIBHHKOB HayqiHOI'O con;HaJIH3Ma. 3HreJILC 130 Ilop;poouo cM. P. Pon s o t. Les grèves de 1870 et la Commune de 1871 au Creu­ Paris, (1957]. 131 «La Marseillaise>>, 27 janvier 1870. 132 <<La Gazette des Tribunaux>>, 7, 8, 9. 17, 2.0 février, 2 avril 1870; «La Marseil­ laise>>, 4, avril i,870. 133 ABIIP, RaHn,., �- 116, :r. 118. ]:{oHeceHue ffiTa1reJI1,6epra fop11aKony. 8(20) èf>es­ p,aJrn: 1670 r. 134 <<La Marseillaise}>, 7 février 1870. sot. 84
i ._ ,l ' BAPPHKA.D:hl B BEJibBHJIE 7 <I>EBPAJIH 1870 r. I'pas,opa .\. • ,.'îayze.1.11 B IIBCbMe K MapRCy OT 19 HH•BapH c Heop;oôpeHHeM OTMeqaJI, qTo Pomq><>pa, J(OTOfllbIH <<IIprn::IOBe):(yeT BLO{HeHHe Mem.n;y oyp mya311eii H pa001IHMR... ORJ>Y­ maIOT -qpe -aMepHLIM opeoJI<m» 135. IlocJie apecTa Pom<potpa 8m-eJibC B rmch'Me K Map1roy OT 11 q>enpaJIH CIHOBa B03Bpam;aeTCH K 3TOMy B0npocy. Or;o;aBaH JIOJDR!Hoe c,MaJI'O:ii npeœe>> pormf>o,poocHoro o6pa3l::i;a, K0TopaH «oqmu, xQPOma» e OBOHX nanawcax Ha EoaatJI3tPTOB, OH B TO me npeMH c·qnTaJI •Kpamrn onaoHLI'M �JUI oo�·HaJIHCTH11ecKOl'O �HmeHH.H BO <1>,paBIJ;IlllI TO o6cTOHTeJihCTB·O, "t!TO 9Ta npecca «BLITecHHeT Bce ,JWyroe». 8nre."lbC. 6e3ycJioBHo, He cqHTaJI P.omipopa qeJioBeROM, ,cnooo6HLIM B03rmlBHTb peBO.'IIOIJ;ilOIIHYIO 6op1,6y <f>paHn;y3C-KOTO pa6oqero mrncca. «Supply [rnp11ToK] y.Moe K npoJieTapHary II3 ,IJJpyrnx KJiaccoB, HOTOphIH JillMeJI MOOTO p;o 1848 ro.o;a.- 33Rn:IOqaJI 8nreJihC,- UO-B'IIA'HMOMY, c Tex nop �pmeHHo n,peR'pant...-1c.H, n npur-0�1 1Bo ocex cTpaHax. Ü1I0B.HWJO pa6o"IH-M npHX-OAJITCH B-Ce 6oJibIDe H 60.rlbille paccqnThlBaTh Ha Ca.MUX ce6R>> 136• CTa1Iel!H00 �BHIBeHne <ppaHIJ;y3CKOfO :npoJieTapHaTa - CTalfKII nocJie mrnaJI)CKOii sa6acToB•Rn B Rpeso HeyKJIOHHO nepaoii noJioa.RBW HapacTaJio. t 8 70 roAa. HOBhle Rpyrrnhrn CTatIKH BCilhIX'HYJIH B C eH-.n U' a1n CosAaBBe uaplllKcKoii cf,eAepa� BBTepeaD)lo11aJ1a TeHe, Jlnoae, saTe)r B iiapTe cHOBa B Kpeao, B alll{)eJie I! <l> ypmaMOO, aa HeIO cTafJ.KH B Ilapnme, MapceJie, JlHJIJie, PyaHe 'H B 1pHp;e ,npyrnx HHAYCTpHaJihRhlx n;eHTpo.B. 23-AHR JlJ'IHJiac1, BTOpaH CTatJRa paÔO"IHX Hipeao, Ha"IaBmaH-CH 21 MapTa. l1 Ha aroT paa, RaR II B HHBa•pe, B I1peao 6bvrn np11-c.1IaHhl Boii:cRa. Cpegn 6a-­ cry10mux 6bIJIH npoH8Be,11;eHbl apecTbI Il em;e B XO)];e CTaq1m HatiaT CyAe6HhlH 13s <I>. 3Hrem,,e - K Ma·pKcy, 19 HHB.apH 1870 r. K M a p R c H <I>. 8 Br e ;i h c. CotJ., . T XXIV, CTIJ. 280. 136 Cl>. 3-Hre.rrbC - R. Mapm�y, 11 <peBpa.1JI 1870 r. K Ma p R c H Cl>. 3 Br e JI 1, e. Co'I., T. XXIV, CTp. 290. 85,
.. .. .. .., .. � - A,,, A .. ♦j ... ' J;::<" � ). �ABt\CT0BRA HA�3AB0.:(E lliAHTH H IlPE:S0 B. JIA BHJIJIET 20 AilPEJIH 1870 r. PAB0,:IHE 0PI'AHH30BAHH0 II0RH.I(AIOT 3AB0)l I'paewpa li. C.11umo,t.a no pue. A. Jla1-!co11a n,po�ecc npOTlfB 24 aipecTOBaHHhlX. ÛHH 6blJIH IIpHTOBOpeHhl R TIOpeldHOMY aa­ nJIIOtreHllIO' OT JJ.BYX Mec.an;eB )1,0 Tpex JieT. ÛKOJIO 100 paootIHX ·6hlJIH ·y1m.11ellbI. ToJib·Ko 8THM'II pe:rrpeCCliHHhlMII ?1-IepaMJI B.118.CTHM yp;aJIOCb ÀeaopraHH30BaTh CTa­ tJ8l!HHROB, MYilŒCTBeHHO 6opoBIIIIIXCH BIIJIOTb )1,0 15 anpeJIH. Ilo H0ROTOphIM J,aHHhl'M, OROJIO 30 ,CQJI)J,aT IlOH0CJJH cypoBoe H8K83aHHe 3a C01iYBCTBHe 6acTyIO­ In;liM 137. HexoTHLie ll 1rn1BaJiepHiic:nne Boiic:na 6h1Ju1 'BLI3Banhl Tarone B <l>ypmaMoo ( p;err. )J,JIH IIO)J,RB.lJeHlIH Ha1IaBII18HCH a'llpeJIH CT8'11KH JJ,Byx ThICH'q �a6oq:u:x MeTaJIJiyprH'l!ecKHx npeMpHHTH:Ü <<Byar, PaM6yp H K°&, T:peooB'8BIIIHX IIOBIJill0HHH 8aipa60'IiHOH IIJl8Thl. H HHM BCKOpe IIpHCOO�llHHJIHCb pa001IH8 TaKO­ ro me npe;u;npHHTHH B Top'I'poHe (JJ.err. II.Iep), · a TaKme IPYAOROIILI 6Jin•3Jiema­ lQHX meJie3HIJ:X PYAHHROB. HecMoTpn Ha 'MHOrotIHe.JieHHhie 81)0CThI cpe.r(n 6a­ CTYIO�Hx, cTal!Ka rrpoJJ,o:rn:rn:rnch. 3a apecTaMJI IIOCJieAOBaJI cyJJ,e6nhIH 'Ilpou;ecc, 3[ŒOfPIRBillRÏICn rrpnTOBopa)HI n ipa3:IIPIHLIM Me}JaM H8I<a3aHHH. TaK me, IŒR H B Ripeao, 3)1,8-Cb 6hWH apecTOBaHbl II CO.'I�aTbl aa C0qy:BCTBHe 6acTyIOm;H·M. Ha np11ai.rn uaip11mc1wro <l>e)lepaJI1,noro OOBeTa MHTepHan;uoHa.rra R pa6o­ "tJJJ1M - QTqHCJIHTb emeHe)J,8JlhHO 1 °/o OT ·aaipa6oTHO:Ü 11:IaThl )J,JIH ORa3'3!HHJI no­ MOII(lI C0MhHM apeCTOBaJIHhlX B l{'.pe30 H B <D yp maMOO - OTR.11FKIJYJI1reb M'HOl"'He napEiiHCKHC CelO:VfII 138 • C aHa.1orIPIHbL\HJ o6pam;eHHHMH BIJ:CTYIIHJIH Ta:Kme MapceJibCKaH li pyaHCirnH opraHH3aD;HlI MHTepHa.D;'HOHaJia. 06pam;eHHe pyaH­ CKOI'O <l>ei:i;epaJIHHOro COBeTa OT 6 ar rpeJTH YR83hlB8JIO Ha IIOJIHTK1I0CKHH xa•pa1.- H1>eB1P) 8 tLa Gazette des Tribunaux», 25 mars 1870; Ilo.n;po6uo cM. P. Po n s o t. Op. cit. Association Internationale des travailleurs. Conseil fédéral parisien. Souscrip­ tion ouverte en faveur des familles des détenus du Creuzot et . de Fourchambault. <I>o187 13 8 TOKOIIJiUI 86 (HM.JI).
Tep CTallKH .B Rpeao. «IlpOTHB ilŒHIIJ,HH, IWTOphle aao,IJ,HO CO CBOHMH MYffihHMB '1'1pe6y10T npaBa HWTh, ipa6oTaH,- roBopHJIOCI, B o6parn;eHHH,- BblCTaBJIHIOT .K8BaJI0pBË:CKH0 OORa.n;pOHhl; IIIPOTBB paooqnx, KOTOpbie AOK8i3hlBaIOT, qTo OHll HJHI THiR0JIOM Tpy.n;e ne 1-1oryT CB0CTH KOHII,hl C nOHII,aMJI, BhICTaBJIHIOT KPYilHbie BOOHHI:.16 CB.JlhU 139• Ha IIOMOIIJ;h 6a�TYIOIIJ,'HM npHIBJIH He TO.ïbKO <ppaH1,yac1nrn pa60111rn, HO R Tpy.n;a:m;Hec.H �pyrux cTpan. TaK 1 1Ha11pHMep, meneB-c1me pa6oq:0:e, mHBOIIHCII,hl no :lMaJIH, IIOCTaHOBHJUI OT111ICJIH'Th emeHe.n;eJJI,iHO no cppaHh-Y C qeJIOBe:Ka .n;o OKOH'la'IIH.H CTR1IKH B Rpeao. CTa1Ie'IHnriî KOMlfTeT n p;e1ma1pa:u;1n1 «Ko ,nce:ë: p;è­ MOK'paTlffl», 001y6JIB.IROB8H'HOË: no OKOHll8HMB. CT8l!KI: L Bblpa3H.:1 n1y60Ky10 npH3RaT0JibHOCTh 'BCeM 1IOMepm1rnaBIBl:IM 6acTy10m;Bx CBOe:iî COJil:I)];apnocTbIO. «Ra­ me ABJIO,- YR83hIB8JIOCb B )l.eKJiapaI(HH,- Bhl3B8JIO nceo6m;ee COqyBCTBHe, Mhl fD1J);.tBMC.H 8TBM H B CJiyqae H8A06HOCTl:I TaKme cyMee�I npOHBHTb 6paTCKYIO COJIB.AapHOCTb C pa601IBMl:I. A IlOKa M:hl BO Bceyc.rr:urnamrn 38HBJIH0M O Hame_M npnooeAff:H0HRH K BeJIHimMy Mem.n;yaapo.n;noMy TOBapMIIJ,OOTBY pa601IHX... aToiî 1 aBeHCTBe>> 140• Hap,emAe 6y;i:cyn:\ero, OCHOBa 1FHOro Ha p 01rn:.co 1I0TI:.Ipex �rncan;eB .n;Jn1Jiacb CTRCJIŒ napumc1mx :nne:iim;u,KoB, Ha-l!aB­ maaca 16 anpeJIH. 1\'IaTOpHaJihHYIO UOMOID;b JIHTeiîm;1n,aM OIŒ38JUI He TOJibKO MeTaJIJiyprR <Dpann,nn, no H AHrJIHH, BeJibrIIH, repMaHHn:. CTaqeqHaH •BOJIHa BCe illl:I'pe paaJIHBaJiaCb no C'ItPaHe. I{jpyITHblC C'faq1rn: lDie:In �recro, B 1Ia<�THOCTH, B AenapraM0HTe BepXïJIHË: Peim 141. B CTa1I01IHO:M ;J:BHiKOHHH <IIepBblX MOCHII,eB 1870 r. yqacTBO'BaJIH u C0JibC'KO­ X03HHCTB0'HHhle pa6011He. B o:npecTHOCTHX Jinona, Hanpn�1ep, nx 6ac-ToBaJio OKOJIO 7 ThICHll. MHorne CTa'llKH aroro uepnoAa wMeJI:a peayJibraroM co3]:{.aHHe HOBhIX ceKII,1:I:Ü: 11HTepHan;nonaJ.la H :MecTHLIX II!po(J>eccH0HaJI1>Hh1x 06'1,ep;11HeHHÜ. B He�epe, �TJ1u10me, BeaaHconoe, JIDJIJI-e, Bpecte, Py6a, Ty,pRyaHe, ,D;1:1m0He, Peii:Mce� Pe­ Te:.ce, foH(J>apoHe, Rone, Rpeao, <DypmaM6o, CeH-l{aHTeHe n no MHor1:1x APY­ ni:x IlyHKTax 6bIJIH C03AaHhl, 6JiaroAapa YCHJIHHM napHiKCKH.X R -M0CTHhIX oo­ n;naJIHCTOB, HoBI.ie ceKo,HR IIHTepHaII,HOHaJia. H 3TOMY BpeMeHH cym;ecTBeHH-O na1rnHHJICH caMhlH xapaiKTep H.IITepHan.1:10HaJia Bo <l>paHqIIH. «Ma �ra.BHaan.nR M0HhIIIHH-CTBa pa6oqHx M0JIKOË: npoMhIIBJI€HHOCTlf, IŒROH OH HBJIHJICH IIiPH CB00M OCHOBaHllll B 1864 r.,- nnmer no aroMy IIOBO,J;Y nporpeCCHBHhIH cppaH­ �Y8CKl:IH l:ICTOPHK iKaH �OTpH,- I1HTepHaII,HOH8.1 B Ol];HIIX ropo�ax yme npe­ BpaTBJICH, B ffi)yirHX HaXOA1{JIC.H ,aa rryTII K npeBpam;œra10 B 'M8 ' 000'BYIO opraHH­ 142• >) aa�IO pa6o10ll BCex 0Tp8CJI0H IflI)OMhlIBJI0BlHOCT,ll B IlapHime nac"DITI:.IBaJIOCb 1B a'IlpeJie 1870 ro,a;a 16 ce-Kn;Rft MnTepHa-r�110Ha­ Jia. Mx OCHOBHOH 6a30:ii HBJI.HJIHCh paoOllHe paHOHhl CTOJIH�bI: BomHJpap, Me­ )\OH, RJIHIBl:I, IlIOTo, BaTBiHLOJih, EeJihB11Jih, MoHMapTp, r peH0Jih, Jla BHJIJIOT, Monpym, Coo-.D:ooR, Meooa-EJiaHm. B cocTaB rrap1:1mcRo:ë: opraHuaan;11n Hn­ TepHa�oHaJia BXO.n;HJIH 25 ,oo 40 npocpeccHOHaJihHbIX 00-W�HeHR:Ü: Ilap:e:ma. Heo6xo�MOCTb o6'be)];HHeHHH napn.iKCKHX ceKIJ;Hli B BAHHYIO (J>e,n;epan;1no BCe uacroHT0JlhHee J:(llKTOBaJiaCii yeJIOBHHMH HapacTaBmero ipeBOJIIOII,HOHHOro ,IJ;BH1 memu1. 0,n;HaKO cœ,n;alHl:IIO TaKOH <J>e,ri;epaqnH conpoTRB:IHJIHCb 1rrpaBbie rrpy,a;OHl:ICThl BO rJiaBe C ToJieHOM, H K0JIJieKTHBHCTa-M npHIBJIOCI, Becrn C HII1Ml:I yrropayro 6op1:,6y, aaB�mH·BmyrocH '1I000J{OH. IlapnmcxaH q>eAepa:u;HH 6LIJia ooa,a;ana 18 M8!pTa 1870 r. Ha coopanmr ,n;eJieraToB ce1m;Hii HnTepHal(JIOHaJia, rnipe;a;cTaB­ JIHBIImX rJI'8BHhl·M o6pa30M pa6oq.e:e paÜOHhI, 6hI.1 rrpHHHT IIjpOeKT ycraaa 111 Association Internationale des travailleurs. Section de Rouen. Grève de Greuzot. Rouen, le 6 avril 1870. Jle:cTOBKa. <l>OToKone:a (:HMJI) . 140 «L Marseillaise» 18 avril 1870. a 1 141 L' Huillier. Op. cit., pp. 64-70. 142 J. D au t r-y. Le problème national devant l'opinion ouvrière à la veille de la Commune de Paris. fCahiers Internationaux)), rnro, � 44, p. 55. 87
6y,n;y�eii <J>eAepan;nn. Co3p;aHJie II81)IURCKo:ë: cpeµ;epan;1ur, KaK y1ma1,rnaJioe1> l.'t IqJOeJ,Te, lIMeJIO n;eJlbIO <<06Jiel'lIIITI, BCeB-03MO>RHLie CHOIDeHH.11 Me.m,n;y pa3JIBTJ­ HhlMlI pa6oqHMH rpynna:W.H>). All;MlIHHCTipaT.HBHbIM OlJ)faHOM cpe,n;epaI{HH, corJiaCHO npoeKTy ycTaBa, .HB­ .. 'IJI.JIC.H<De,n;epaJibHhlH COB0T 1Ii3 �eJieraTOB ceKqH:ë:, no 1 )l;8JI0r8.TY OT 50 qJie­ HOB I1HTepHaD;IIOHaJia. Raml];a.H C0IOJ;HH UMe.rra IJipaBo, IIO CBOeMy yCMOTpe­ mno, Ha3HaqaTb H CMe�aTb CBOHX ,n;eJrnraTOB. ,[(Ba.m,n;LI B ro,n;, B anpeJie11 B ORTHOpe, <pe,n;e,pan;HH )J;OJiinHa 6b1Jla rrepeCMaTpHBaTo COCTaB CBOero 6ro­ po. qJieHhl 6ropo -MOfJIH 6h1Th BO BCHKOe BpeMH OTOOBaHLI <l>e,l{eipaJILHLIM coBeToM. Cc1>IJiaHco 11a cooTBeTCTBYIOiqHe c1.1aT1>11 YcTana H1HTepHaIQimrnJia, npoe«-r BMeHHJI B o611aanuocTo <Dep;epaJinHOMy cone-ry IIlOMetJ>lliHBaTo peryJI.11pny10 CBJI.3b C reHetpaJihHhlM COB0TOM H HaIIipaBJI.HTI, eMy emeM0CHTJHO OTTJeT. feHe­ paJihHhlH CO'BeT, CO C'Boeii CTOp<)Hhl, )J;OJimeH 6hlJI, B OOOTB0TCTBHH C Yc-Ta•.BOM H·HT€!I)Ha�oHaJia H pemooHHMH EaaeJr&eiroro KOHrpecca 1869 r., ,noc:r.maT1,. Ram,n;I.Ie 3 M0CJJIIa naipnmcROMY Cl)ep;epaJibH-OMY COB0TY HHq>op-Man1no O IIOJJO-­ H(.0HHH HHT�Ha:I�HOHaJia B ,n;pyr:e:x cTpaaax. )];anee Y,CTaHaBJIHBaJIOCb, q-ro Kamp;a.11 cem:�1111, qTo6hl 6LITL npHHHTO:Ü: B co­ C'f aB cpe,n;epan;11n, 06,rnaHa npe,n;cTaBHTh <l>e]{epaJil>HOMY OOBeTy CBOii yeTaB n ,l.(BYX ::JR3eMilJI.Hpax, 0,D;HH H3 ROTOpbIX lflanpaBJij[JICH renepaJihHOMY COBeTy. Bornpoc o IIJm:HHTlI'H HOBOfr ceRn;HH HJIH o6m;eeTBa B lIHTepuan;noHaJI jpemaJiea renepaJihHhl'M COBeroM IIOCJie 3acJiymamIH MlI0HHH napIDKCHOH cpe,L(epa.QHH. reHeipaJI.blHOMy COBeTy IIpH1Hawrema.no TaKme npaBO KCKJIIOl!e.HlU:I 113 HHTep­ HaTI;HOHaJia TOR HJilI 1moii ceKD;mI. Ramp;hlii "'!Jiea MaTepHan;HoHaJia OOH3aH 6hlJI IIJiaTHTh emeMe-cHlfHhlH B8HOC B paa•Mepe 5 carHTHM-OB. HeyrrJiaTa B3Hoca ·B TeqeHHe 11Pex Me(mn;eB BJieHJia aa co6oii HCKJIIOqeHHe cOOTBeTCTByro�eii ceKD;lIH .H3 MaTepaan:HoHaJia. HeyinnaTa B3Hoca 3a Te"R)'ID;Hii MOC.HD; JI'HmaJia ee AeJieraron npaBa ipemaro�ero roJioca R <De,u;epaJU.'HOM COBeTe. JI106oii "'!Jien nap.0:mcKoii <pel);epan;1111 MHTeipnan;110HaJia »MeJI npaBo rrp•­ cyTcTB-oBaTo B Ka"'leCTBe CJiymareJI.11 na aacep;aHHHX «I>e,n;epan1,Horo eoBeTa. lJJieHbl npoBHH:QHaJibHhIX ceKIJ;HH, HaXOAJIBIDH0CH rrpoe3]J;OM B Ila:pn.me, IIOJIIr 30BaJHICb TeM me rnpaBOM. LJ:e.11TeJibHOCTb <De,u:epaJibHOro COBeTa ,n;oJDiœa 6hIJia o6cym,L(aTI.C.fl na OOil(eM' co.opaHlI'H napHm1cR1HX ceKD;nii ne peme o,l.(Horo paBa œ 3 Mec.HIJ;a. B cJiyqae, ec­ JIH TaHaH <püpMa ROHTP,OJIH ORa3aJiaco 6bl aaTpy,IOieHa, o6:m;ee co6paHHe MOfJIO füJTb aaMeH€'H-O onen;HaJihHbIM co6.paHHeM p;eJieraTOB, "'IHCJIO IroTOphlX ,IJ.;OJI.iKHO 61,1JI0 6@TI, BT!püe OOJibme 1I1ICJia qJieHOB <Dep;epaJIIYHOro COBeTa. HacTOH�Hii ycTaB - TJiacima IlOCJie�HH.H cTaThH IIP,OiHCTa - MOilŒT 6:r.IT'7 rrepe-cMOTp011 {JÔ�HM co6paHIIeM TJJie'HO'B cpep;epan;HH IIO 'J1l)e6oBaHHIO O)J;HOH 1HJII1' H0CROJlbK'HX rpyrru rrpH ycJI•OBHH, qTo 3TO T-pe6oBaHHe 6y,n;eT npe,n;cTa•BJieHO, no Me-Homeii Mepe, 3a M€CHD; 11,0 COQI)alHHH 143• 18 a1npeJI.H Ha o6�e:M: co6,paiIIIm qJieIIOB HHTepHaD;BOHaJia H .n;eJieraTOB 0T llPYIIIT nop; npe.n;cep;aTeJI&CTBOM BapJiena ycTaB· rrap11mcRoii q>ep;epaIJ;lHH 61.1JI yr­ ne·pm,n;eH. Cooora;a.a 20 arr,pem:r '00 3TO'M COOLITHH MapRcy, .Jiacpapr IIHCaJI: « qro 6:r,JJIO IIfPeHpaCHO Ha 3TOM coopaHHH - TaR 3TO IIO'l)peoHOCTb B n;eHTpaJIH3a:qHH 1 KOTO­ pyIO HOilhl'ThilBaJIH BCe tIJieHhI, H◊Hoe H TOlfHOe 1IOHHMa1HHe pa6otJHM RJI3CCOM CB00H HllJ)J,llffiH,IJ;YaJibHOCTH RaR RJiacca, CBOero aHTaI'OHH'3Ma R 6ypmya3H.M. RaK c-qacTJIII'BhI 6MJIH fü,1 Bi.1, phluatpn 1waocoBoii 6op1>6hl, upHcyTCTB0BaT1, np11 IIpOHBJ1€H'HH 3THX qyBCTB>> 144. Proj et de fédération entre les sections parisiennes de l'Internationale. IIMJI. Py,rcorrncI>. <l>oT0Komu1. 143 144 Apx1m HM.TI, q>. 1, :rn: 1870 r. 88 011. 5, e�. xip. 8209. II. Jia<fJapr - MapKcy. Ilap1tm, 20 .arrpe-
IIp·nMe.py 'Ila"pHJRCKHX CeKD;H:Ü: 'IlOCJl0)l;OBaJIH .lHOHORHe, MapceJibC�ne, ipyaH­ C':KH8. Bo Bropü:Ü: IlOJIOBBŒie arrpeJIJI 6hlJIH, TaKirM o6pa30M, C03AaHhl qe-rhlpe <I>e­ ,r:r;epan;HH MHTepnan;:mmaJia. Emrma:ü:maH Hacyrq1raH 3ap;a-qa 3aKJiroqaJia-Ch B TOM, '({'IOOLI OO'LeA1lfflHTI, BCe <ppaHizy3CKH0 cem:�lIH, IIO npn:ÔJm3.HTeJihiHhlM no.u;­ C"IeTa'M OKOJIO 250 TLICH'({ '({JIOOOB, 1B e.n;HHyro, o6IQ0H3IJ;HOHaJihHYIO <I>e,I.(epau;1no HuT�an;nouaJia. «HHTepuaIIBOHaJI ,r:r;eJiaeT a.u;ecb qyp;oca. Pa6oqne H'B'Ho 'IIJI­ TaIOT HOOPpaHlf11e.Hi110e ,tr;OBep:e:e K ToBR(YHIIJ;t'-CTBy; C0Kfl;IBI o6pa3yIOTCH e,me.u;­ HC"BHOt ,- IIBcaJia Jlaypa Jlaq>apr II3 Ilapn:ma MapKcy 145• 0 B1>1.n;aIOIQ1IXCH yc­ nexax HŒrrepira�uaJia c·ooom;aJI O.:\'H OBpeMeHHo n: ITo..ïb Jlaqmpr: «Ceillac pa601IHii KJiacc 6Jiaro,I.(3'pH HHTepuan;:nnHa;ry, KOTOphlii CO BpeMeHn: IIOCJTe,I.(H'lIX B.bl­ OOpoB ;I(OOHJICJI orpoM1Hhlx ycuexoB, KaK n: oJiaro;::i;apH (l)e;::i;epaJihHOii naJiaTe pa0011nx o6m;ecTB, C03HaeT OBOIO e'HJIY n XO'ICT }];eHCTBOBaTb BO 1ITO fü:d TO HH CTa­ JIOt 146_ 3a'MeTHhlii Il0,I.('1>0M paooqero )Y:BH11ŒHHH Il ymieXJI MnTepHaIJ;HOHaJia no6y­ W!Jnl 6yipmya'3HhlX pecny6JIH'KatHn;eB 0IQ8 60.rree ycn:JIHTh 6opn6y npOTHB CTO­ poH'HBKOB fP0BOJIIOD;HOHHOro CBepmeHHH 'HMTiepnn. IlpOTIŒ HlIX OIIOJPIHJIIHCb H0' TOJI:bKO 1IIp3BliC'8 -yMiepmmo-JraoopaJII>Hhle aJieMeHThl 6ypïKyaa1u1 BO rJia'Be c Iln:­ Kap<JM, 003,I.(aBmn:e 'll•M0IIHO B 3TO œpeMH COBMeCTHO C opJieaH1HCTaMn: TaR Ha3LtB3eMyIO orapLITyID Jie-ByIO. B oopn6y pemwreJinHO BCTYITIIJIH TaRme pa�n:Ra­ Jihl BO rJiaBe C fa'MOeTTOH. 19 a•npeJIH B ipelfff rrepe,r,; czy,r,;eH1I0.CROH MOJTO,IJ;eiRblO· Ilapuma faM-6eTTa aaHBnJI: «Heo6xo,r,;HMo mpmecTBeHHO npoooarJiaCHTb, l!TO­ HH npeaJipaeM uacn:Jin:e, coBepmaeMoe yaypnaTopaMn:» 147. B Mae OH 1BblCTY­ mrn n�eg CBOJU,fH .111pOIDJIOrO,n;H'lIMH :irn6npareJIHMH B BeJihl3UJie, H3JIOïRlfB •HM npOf!Pa'M'My TaK H33liCB3�hlX HerrpHMHplilŒIX rrpOTHB,HHIWB n:MnepIIB, ROTO(l)liCX OH B03rJiaBJIHJI, H n;pH 3TOM RaTeropll'leCRH OT:MemeB8JICH OT CTOIPOHHHROit peBOJIIOD;HH. «Herrpa.MB:pHMhle o6HsaHhl, cJiegoBaTeJihHo, OTBepran Bcex Tex, KTO XOT8JI 6LI IJlPn:6er.HyTb R llHblM cpe;:i:CTBal:M, RpoMe y6emgeHUH. EcJIH r,n;e-Jin:60 cym;eCTBYIOT TaKoro po;::i;a 3:IO}];eH, TO RTO 6n1 OHH IDI 6hlJil:f HX ua,n;o rrpega'B3Th npaBOCY,n;HIO... >> - 33.JIBHJI OH 148• 3ToÜ JIHHIIH IlOBe­ A0H1IJI faM6eTTa, KaR YB'H,rufM, CTPOrO 111pn:.n.epmHBaJICH B CB08H IIOCJJe;ri;y10m;eii IIOJIHTH"'IJ8CKOÎi p;eHT8JlbHOCTH. IIapn:mcRaH q}e;::i;,e.paD;'HH l'.hrrepHa:i�noHaJia e�a yooeTrnffffiJIOCbMaiicKBÎÎ Jia opraHn:3al\HOHŒIO oq>opMJITbCH, R8R ' eii .�t' f 870 mlOOBC� roAa aKTHBHO BRJIIO"CJIIThCfl B aHTHIIJIOOHCIJ;HT81PHYIO RaMrraHHIO. 20 arrpeJIH npaBn:reJiwTBo HarroJieona III orry6Jin:ROBaJio T8RCT HOBoii, JIU6epaJILIIO:Ü: ROHCTHTYIJ;HH, KOTQPYIO OHO «.n;apoBaJio» CTipaHe. ,UeRpeTOM OT 23 anpeJIJI <l>pancy3CKOMY Hapo.n.y ·IIIJ)€,1l.JiaraJIOCb nyTeM TIJieon:c�n:Ta OTB0THTb Ha BOIIpoc: «0;1;06pJroT JIH OH Jin:6epaJILHhle ipecpopMhl, BB'O)J;HBIIIlIOOH IJIMnepa­ TOpOM B KOHCTIITYIJ;HIO c 1860 r. upn cop;eiÎCT'BHlI BhICIIIHX rocy.u;apcTBeHHl>IX opraHoB, 11 paT,mf>IID;ll·PYeT Jin: on 00Ha'l'Y,C-RoHcyJI1,T OT 20 arrpeJI.H 1870 r.?» YTBep,rçe:TenimhlH OTBeT np:e: TaRoft nocTaHOBKe Bonpoca •03Ha1Ian OAOÔpeHH� nceii IIOJIHTII'({CCKO:Ü: cn:cTeMhl BTopoii n:MrrepHH II rrpHBepmeHHOCTI, npaBH­ T8nbCTBY HanoJieoHa III. <<):(aiiTe MHe HoBoe .n.oRasaTeJihCTBo Bame:ü: rrpn­ oopmenHOCTH,- 06paIQanc11 HanoJIOOH III K Ha-ceJienn:10 <DipaHn;n:n:.- ÜT­ BeTBB yTBep,n;HTCJILIIO Ha IIOCTaBJI0HHhlH BaM BOilpOC, Bbl ornpaTn:T e yrpo3y peBOJIIO�n:n:, nocTaBHTe H a npo11HhlH <l>YH,IJ;aMeHT nopHAOK H CBo6op;y II o6Jrer­ lJHTe rrepexo.n RopOHIJ tK MOeMy C'E>IHY� 149• Il.. 'Ie•6n:cIOIT fü,IJI naaHRtJeH Ha 8 MaH. 1 Apx1rn HMJI, <f>. 1, orr. 5, �À- xp. 8190. Jiaypa JI.acfrnpr - Map.Kcy. Ila·pe:m, 18 a:rrpem:i: 1870 r. 146 TaM me e�. xp. 8209. Il. Jiaq>apr - Ma p•Kcy. Ilapnm, 20 aupe;rn 1870 r. , 147 L. Gambetta. Discours et plaido yers politiq ues , t. I, p. 247. 148 L. G a m b e t t a. 1800-1879. Paris, 1879, p. 45. 149 A. Thomas. Op. cit. p. 385. , 145 89-
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y BJiaCTll , l'O.'IOCOBaHHe 8TO _gaJieKO ne oTpa.maJio nacTo.m::o;e:ü II03lUJ;ilH nenyT-a.... TOB B ûTHOIII0H1U:I ÜJII:IBhe l:I 1ero Ka6n.HeTa. ÜTKa3aB B co:x,ipaHeHIIH IIJI06H'C�H... 'l'3PHOM [{OMHTera, ÜJUIBhe BO,CCTaHOBHJI IlpOTHB ce{fa genyTaTOB R1pa:ÜHe npa­ Boro KpbIJia II npaBoro :o;eHTl{la; JieBaH <J>pam::i;HH, IŒR 06 3TOM CBH)I.0T0JII,CTByè� BblCTYUJienne ,a.enyrara Benrnna, 61,ma, oo cBoeii CTOpoHLI, HenoBOJibna neip­ cneRTRBo:ii poerrycirn 1rn6npareJihHhlX ROMHTeToB , coa,n;aHHLIX 6ypmyaanLIMn­ peClIJV6JIHIWHn,a•::\U:I. HeupoqHOCTh IllpaBHT0JlbCTBa ÜJIHBhe CRaaanacb paB'HLI·M o6paaoM B xo,n;e o6cylli)I.01H'Hf.I na T'OH lie COCCHH aaKOHOnpoeJITa O MyHHIJ;IHiaJlbHhIX COBeTax. 113 roJIOtCaMH npOTl:IB 82 .n;enyra Tbl BhlCIŒ3aJJHCI, aa rJiaCHOCTI, aaceii;aHJfH amx COBeTOB, Mem.n;y TeM IŒR npaBHTNibCTBO CTapaJIOCI, OTJIOiRHT'b pemeH:e:e Bonpo .... ca. Ha BTopoe BbicryrrJienne EeTMoHa, Tpe6oBaBIIIero paapemeHHH ny6n:u:qu1>l� coopamrü BBH;:t;y npu6.rm:IBeHHH MYHIU.J;HilaJihHhlX BhI6opoB, ÜJIH'Bbe OTBeTHJJ Ra­ TeropnqecRHM OTRa30M H CHOBa IIOCTaBil.JI BO'IIpOC O AOBepHH. Bropo:ü B01'-yM JI.OBepHH, IIOJiyqBHHblH IIM, TaR a-.e Ra!\ H nepBhlH 03HaqaJI JIHillh TO, 11TO MO"-­ MeHT ,ll;JIH OTC'tpaHeHHH II!pam1reJihCTBa en:i;e ne •naczyIIHJI. B AOBeceHHn AneKcaH.ri;py II OT 13 IIIOJIH 1870 r. ÜKyHeB npa·BHJIMIO orte­ HH·BaJI IlOJIOIBeHHe Ka6i1Hera Omrnoe KaK B 3aROHo,n:aTeJIJ.HOM 'KOpnyce, Tfl/k H BHe •ero, H o6'bHCHHJI BpeMeH1Hoe OCTaBJIS.HHe ero y BJI8CTH, ((B 3HR'LJITeJIJ.'HOH: Mepe Tpy;:t;'HOCTbIO OTblCIŒTb B HblHeIIIHeM COCTaBe naJiaTLI JIIO]];e:Ü, OilOCOOHLDt 3aMéHHTb fülOHHeT 2 HHBap.H C HeIWTOpbIM:U: ma'HCaMH na ycnex B na nponon� mHreJIBFt,oe cyn:i;ecTBOBaHIIe>>. 06IqHÜ BLIBOJJ;, KOTOphlM 3aRMPl:O:e:BaJl'OCI, ,n;oneoo;... HHe no 8 ' T-OM i Y BO'Ilpocy, 6bIJI TaIWB: <<11pII 3TOM ' IIOJIŒK0HBH nem;ei ,D;OCTaT01I1I� HCRphI, 1ITOOhI Bhl3BaTb rromap; COBMeCTHOe fOJIOCOBaime MOmeT C'BeprnyT'h Ra.1.. OHHeT ÜJIH'Bbe B Ta1-rn:iî MOMeHT, Rür]::(a 3TOI'O 6yii;yT MeHhme Bcero OïkHJJ;aTb) 16i. IJpeCJI8J:J;OBa'HH.H COIJ;HaJIBCTOB B nepHO]); IIO]:U-x>'l'0:8Ira :JI TpeTHii upo�ecc rrpoBe�eHIIH IIJI€0HCIJ;HTa He ocnafütJIH lIH .n;eHTeJIMIO,-­ Hurepua�uouaJia CTH I1HTepHaIJ;:U:OHaJia BO <DpaHD;lBI, HH CTRqeqB(JIN) ,D;BHmeFHH. Ha CMeey apec1'0BRHIIhIM Il ;nm:rpapu:aanmKM ,n;e11TeJHIM con;HaJ1lll--­ CTHll�KOOO ABllmeHHH IIpHIIIJIH BOBhie 6opIJ;I>I, C031);aBaJIHCI, BOBhl0 ceKlJ;HH lt KOMlITeTLI UnrepHar:i;nona.ïa. ToqHo TaR me II cTaqe"flBaH BOJIHa en:i;e III11p& paaJinnam, no c-rpaHe B Mae-nroJie, oxnarn:B 4>a6oqJix noqTII BCex oneu;uan1,HO­ cTeii H onpaCJrn:Ü npolI3BOACTBa B caMblX pa3JIHq'HhlX ,n;enapTaMOOTax 167• B Mrony3e (8nh3ac) n ero oRpecTHOCTHX B :e:ro:n:e 6acToBaJio 40 ThlcHq pa... 60"IHX xnonqar-o6yirnmHo:iî, MeTaJIJiyprn:qe,c1rn:ü H ):(pyrnx oTpacn:eü ·mpoMhlill:'­ neBHOCTH. Onn rpe6crnann co:nparn,ennH ipa6oqero JJ;BH .n;o 10 qacoB, 'IIOBhlme;... HHH 3apa6or,no:ü nnaTbI, HeorpanH"'IeHHo:iî c-BOOOJI.hl co6pann:ü 168• HecMoTp.H n.a ro, llTo B Mronya 6hlnn aaT!pe6oBa.HLI BO:ÜcKa, 6op1,6a �onman-ac1,. P�oo-­ qJIM YAaJIOCh BblpBaTh y IIipep:,rrpHHHMaTeJie:Ü qacraqgyro ycTynRy - f f-qae-0• BO:Ü: pa6oq1:1:iî AeHb IIpH COxtpa'HeHHH npemnero pa3Mepa -sapa6oTHOÜ TIJI8Thl. . Mem.n;y Te:M npaBHTBJibCTBO IlOCJie 6narorrpH.RTIIOro )1.JIH Hero nexo,n;a IIJ'I0'-6HC�Ta ,aa;::i;aJIOCb 1.1;eJibIO OR,OHqaTeJIIMO pa3rpoMHTb HBTepBan;1:1on:aJ1 '.BO <l>pailln;HH. B p,eIIIHTeJI1>HoM nop;aBneHHH peoo-nro�onHoro �H-meHHH BliyTIHl CTpaHhl, a TamRe B rro6e.n;oHOCHOH BHeITIHe:ii BOHHe IIIP8BHITJ;a.JI KJIHRa pacèqn­ TbIBaJia HaHTtlI BblXO}J; H3 fJIYOOROro BHyrpHIIOJilITHqecROI'O Kpl:I8HCa, rrpHH:HVa»� mero nce 6oJiee yrpomarorrviïI }J;.JIH 60Ha11apTHeTCRoro 1pemnMa xapaRTep. 22 'HIOHH 1870 r. B Ilap1:1me li' a'tJaJicH npe>r1:1ii rrpon,eoo 11HT0_PBan;.HoHana.. B ocaony OOBHHHTeJibHoro 3a1mroqeHHH no JJ;eJiy 38 OOBHHHeMlilX nerJIH MHOI'Ol­ "'IIHCJieHBhle ,Il;O'KyMeBTaJihHbie MaTepH'aJihl, KOHq)HOROBaBHlil-8 IlOJIHIJ;lICH JllPK 166 ABIIP, Raeu., .zl. 117, .i:JI. 21, 22. .D:onecenHe 0Kyueua aa HlUI AneKcaa;.i;pa II. IIa­ pHm, f( 13) lfJOHH 1·870 r. 167 J� B a r,b ère t. Les grèves et la loi sur les coalitions. Paris, 187t, p. 57. 168 ApxHB YlMJI, cf>. 21, e::.. xp. II/30. Minutes of the General Council of the I In'ter.i.. national. 1870. Council meeting, July 19; «La Gazette des Tribunaux,, t4 juillet 1870.
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�'IeHne pa6{RHX ropoAOB - Ha OO�Bamrn1rn ... l1lie'HHO TOf)J;a 1nnrnpaTO!J) 1pHCKHYJI Ha pemaTe.1hHYIO CTaBKY - Ha BO:ÜHy ·IJlponrn Ilpycc1uu 174 • Pac11eThI Ha 11o6e AOHOCHYIO OOHHY, KOTopaH yrcpoqaJia 6hI II03HIJ;'HH 6oHarra pTlICTCKOH peam: J;HH 'BHYTPH eTpaHhl, He IIM0JIII 110,!( COOOH pea.rrhHOH IlOlf.Bhl. 8To JIOKa3aJIH yme IIeiJ)Bhle c ,pameHIUI ABYX BOIOIOI.QHX apMHH. reuepaJibHhI:Ü COBeT 11HTepaan,norra.:rn ·B nepBbie am AHH BOHHhl, B BOB3Ba­ HHH OT HIOJUI roAa, rrpeACKa3a.11 6.1H3Rüe KpymeHHe 6oHanap THCTCKOH IlMIIepHH, H038BHCHMO OT 'IICXO,IJ;a BOeHHhlX ,Il CHCTBHH. ÜH oxapaKTepH30B3Jl BOBBY KafK o6opOH1HTeJI:&HyIO AJIH repMaHHH , HO B�recTe C TeM paaOÔJiaYJ:aJI npo­ BOK8IJ;HOHH YIO pOJib IlpyCCHH B pa3BH3hIBaHHH BOHHbl H arpecCHBHOCTb ee roc­ JIO)];CTBYIOID;HX KJiaCCOB. ÛH npH3bIBa:1 He1ie1 nrn:ï1 pa6o1!HH Iwaoc He p;orrycTHTb Bhipom,n;eHHH o6o.poHHT0JihHOH BO:Ü:Hhl B 33BOeBaTe.1bHYIO rrponrn <f>pa1n �y3c1rnro aapo;{a 175• - 23 ,.,, V U 1870 174 S. de Sac y. Lettres à ma fille. 1862-tSiS-. <1ReYue des deux mondes►>, 1 novem­ bre 1926, p. 143, 146. 175 R. Ma pK c. IlepBoe BoaaBaHHe reHepa:IhHoro conera Mem,:i;yHapo ,:i;Horo ronapH­ �ocTna paôo�rnx o q,pa nKo-rrpy ccKoii noüee. K Ma p R c n Cl>. 3 n r e .1 h c. Coq, T. 17 ,, CTp. 3-4. 7 IlapH'll<CKafI KOMMYRa, T. r
I'.,riaea m,pembH, BOEHHblil P_4-3rPOM <l>PAHQIIII * 1. IlEPBhIE IlOPAiKEHHH IIMilEPR:U. COBhlTJUI 7-9 · ABrYCTA 1870 r. B IIAPIDKE 6oHBHBIIIHiî ceo.11 r.rraBHOno�rnm:a;y10�HM q>ipann;yac1wiî aipMHH Ha­ rroJJ.eOH III HauepeBa.;lCH HallaTb IŒMIIaH"HIO cweM.IH0JU,HhlM BTOp­ ïlŒHIŒM q)paHII,Y3CnHX BOHCh'. B npe,p;e.:IbI fepM8'HHH ·Be îII03�ee 29 HIOJUI, µ,O 3aBeprneHHH MOOHJIH3aD;HH BOHCIK rrpOTHBHlIIŒ. ÛH pacc"l!HTbIBaJI 38BJiap;eTb TaNHM rryTeM KOMMY-HHKaD;HHM11 Memi],y CeBepo..\f H IOl'OM rep�ŒHIIH H rr,pe;:a;o-TBpaTJITb coep;HH0HH0 BO0BBhlX c� ,Ce-Be­ porepMaHCKOI'O COI03a H romnorepMaHCKHX rocy)J.apCTB, o6ecne'IHB, IJIO Me-Hb­ rneiî Mepe, HeiiTlpa.rrHTeT 3THX rocy;r:a;aIpCTB, ' B KOTOpbIX 6b1JIH CHJib'Hbl 8'BT'H' Ilpyc­ CKHe HacTpoeHH.H. H TOMy me rrpaBHTe:IbCTBO Bropoii HMnepnH "4eqJ03 CBOIO areiuypy ·B MronxeHe, liITyTrapTe, Rap:icpya, .[(apMmTap;Te H .n;pynrx nynR­ Tax paC'IllpüC11J)8BHJIO H µ,O II IlOCJie OO'bHBJI0BHH BOHHbI Be<pCHIO O TO'M, 6yll,TO Oll;HOÜ lI3 rJiaBHblX �eJieii <DipaHUHH B JTOH BOHHe HBJIH0TCH H3ÔaBJI0HHe rep­ Ma'BIIH OT ,npyccRoro I'OCUO.J;CTBa 1• Hapynurn B pe3yJI1>Tare BropmeimH A,aJib'Heiinmii. xo;i; IlJiaH:w «f,pami;y ac1wro 1nrnan;nH Mo6:e:. B IlpyccHH, <f)pann;yacKan apMHH, KaK ROM �OB8HBH H8 3TO HaJJ;eHJICH ee rJiaBHOKOMaH;(YIOIIJ;HÜ, Jl{ffRO B HX rrpoBaJI o;:a;epa-m:rn 6IiI pn;r:a; rro6e;:a; Hall; npyccanaM·B, a nepnhle me no6e,n;h1 <pipaHIJ,Y3Cnoro opymHH rro6yp;HJJH OhI ABCTpHIO n: llTaJIHIO aaHHTh CTO!POHY <DpaHn;HH. Hano;ieoH III roToB 6hl:i na nepBhlx nopax p;OBOJihCTBO­ BaTbC.H <<6JiaromeJiaTeJihHhL\1 neiiTpamITeTOM>) 3THX p;epmaB. IlpaB;r:a;a, B OTHO­ rneHHH ABcTplHI T8IWiî ,HeiîTpaJIHTeT, no imeHlIIO <ppaHIJ,y3cRoro npa'B'HTeJih­ CT'Ba, He HCRJIIOl!a.;I HeMe,;::i;:reHHOR ROHIJ,eHTpau;HH aBCTpHÜC'RHX B-OHCIR Ha 8BCT­ po-rr1pycc1wü rpaHHIJ,8 2. <DpaHIJ,H.H BCTYilHJia B BOHHY, ne H:MeH COI03HHKOB, lI � � Bonpoc O TOM, l!TO'� Ühl IJjpHoopeCTII IIX B caMOM Hal!aJie BOIIHbI, ecTeCTB0-HHO, HMeJI )::t;JI.H <f)pattuyacirnü CTOpOHhl 111epBOCTerreHHoe 3HalleHHe. IlJian cTpeMHTeJihHOII, :MOJIHIŒHocrroü BOHHhI, 1I3QpaHHhIÜ <J)pan11;yacKHM ROM8Hll;OBaHHeM, ll;IIh'.TOBa:rc.H BOeHHhL\fH H IIOJIHTH'lecRHMH coo6pame-H.HHMH. HarroJieoH III 6hIJI xopomo ocBe,:::i;oMJieH, o.1rnro;a;ap.H l];OHeceHHHM BoeHHhIX II ;:i;n11JI0MaT11:l1ecRIIX p;e.HTelleÏI <Dpattu;nn, H8'1HH8H C 1866 r .• 0 l!HC:IeHHOM 'IDp0BOC­ i e�reHII na)J. <f)panuyacnoii: H o ee ooJiee , oft ap::\lHII noenHoro Bp XOll;CTBe npycicR BhlOORHX 6oeBhlX :nal!eCTBax. Ilpang a, BTO 'He MernaJIO eMy aanep.HTb CTpaHy, 1 ABTIP, Ram�., ;:i:. 117, .,. 129. ,[{oHecemrn ORynena BecT.\l.a.Hy. Ilape:m, 14(26) mo.rn 1870 r. 2 ABIIP, nam�.• :1. 11 ï, :r. 169. nomrn ce<n perHoii: re.:1erpa:\n11,1 ÜRyHena Be,cni:aHy 3a .M 114 or 21 mo:ra (2 aB•ryc-ra) 1870 r.; :r. 165, 166. Ji:onecenne 0Kynena BecTMaHy. Ila­ pam, 24 HIO;IH (5 aBrycrn ) 1870 r. qg
5y,u:To Boe,nHaH MOII\h <l>panu;1n1 ;J;OCTlffJia - Ran OH Bbllpa3II:ICH B TpoHHOH pe­ qM npH OTKpbITHH aaKOHO,IJ;aTeJihHOH ceccHH 1869 r.- <<Heo6xo�HMOro ,pa3BH-' TH.SU, a ee «BOOHHhle pecypchl OTHhIHe HaXO,U:HTCH Ha BhlCOROM y,poB·He, COOT­ BeTCTBYJ()m;e,M ee MHJ)OBOMY npe;tHa3HR1IeHIUO>> 3• cDpaHI:�yacHOMy JIMirnpaTopy 6hlJI-O Ta:KJIŒ xopomo :H3B0CTH-0 H3 ,IJ;OHeceHHH npeq,eKTOB, 1ITO •no.n;aBJUIIO�a.H tJaCTh naceJieHHH <I>!pa'IIQH"B · He meJiaJia BOHHhI 4. Ha 3To YKa3hIBaJia n: <ftpaH­ n;yacRaH neqan; OHa coo6m;aJia 06 aHTlfBOeHHblX lfaHH<peCTaI�HHX B Ila,pHme, Jh1oae li .n;pyrllx ropo,u;ax li •noMem;aJia npoTeCThl cppaHn;yscRHX cè1<_n;1di l'.IHTep­ Han;lloHaJia npoTllB 3aTeBanmeiicH HOHHbl 5• <DpaHn;y3CROO npaB1HT0JlhCTBO, rrpan.n;a, ,npnJiaraJio He:MaJIO CTa·pa'HlfH, lJT06hI BHYillHTh napO,U:I IhIM MaccaM, 6y,n;To oHo BcrynaeT B BOiîHy, Bhrrro.'IHHH BOJIIO crpaHhI. TaR, B «IlpoKJiaMa­ QHH H ;pipaHn;yacKOMY. aapo.n;y» Ha-no.'IeoH III yrBepm.n;a:i, 6y.n;ro <<B•oeHHhI:Ü 1ŒH11 IIIPOanyqaJI ua o,n;Horo KoHn;a <Dpanunu R .n;pyroib>. R BToMy me B ' hlMnic.rry OH npH6er B 3aKJII011HTeJ.lhHOÜ petJ:H ·Ha ceccun 3aIWHO)J;aTe:IhHOro ·Roprryca B HIOJie 1870 r.: «BoiHa 3a'KOHHa,- 3aHBH:I OH,- Kor�a OHa n,eµ;eTCH C COrJ.Ia­ CBH CTpa.Hhl 11 o.n;o6peHBH ee . npe;i;-cTaBH'fe:Ieft... MbI CAeJiaJIH BCe, OT Hac 3a:­ BllCJ.fJI�ee, 1ITOOhÎ B'OOemaTh ee, H H IMOry ·3aHBHTh, 1ITO JflŒHHO H8U.HH BCH n;J:.. JllfROM B CBOe.M HOO)J;OJIHMOM IIOphIBe II!pû,Il;lU-.TOBaJia HaM Ham11 pemeHIIH)) 6• Ho ·HBh"TO Jiy"tJme Ca-Moro ffBTopa 8THX C:IOB He 3HaJI, HaCRO:IbRO OHH ·He COOT­ BeTCTBOBaJ.rH .n;e:ÜCTBHTeJII:.HOCTH, Ran He OTpamaJIH ,AeÜCTBHTeJib'HOCTll II Te IDOBHHHCTH110C'K'Ke MaH'Hq>ecTaitHH, C Y'IaCTlle:M U0.1HU.eiieRHX aretHTOB li )];i:l­ KJiaœ:e:ipoBaHHhlX 3JI0MetHTOB, ROTOplde rrpaBHTe:n..cTBO opraHH30BaJio B IlapHiK0 ll B npOBllHil;Hll, 'ITOOhl 38CT8-BHTb crpaHy ,JioBepHTh B ero :IiKTI.ByIO Bepc1uo. BOT no"tJeMy y HanoJieoHa III 1u1e:1nch Bce oc.HoBaHHH orracaiTbCH, qro 3a­ T»mnaH BOJÏHa BL130Be-T onaCHhle AJIH B03rJiaB.1HeMoro H:\I 1pemnMa BHY'llPHITo� JIIITBi'IOOKHe OCJIO>KH0HBH. <l>paHey3CKaH Ka�poBaH CHCTeMa , Boo6m;e rOBOpH, Il03BOJIHJia OhlCTpee, "tfeM npyccRaH CHCTeMa JiaH,n;Bf!Pa, CTHHYTb .n rpaHIIU,e y,ri;apHyIO rpynrry BOHCR B 120-150 T:blC. 110JIOBeK li nepeHTH B HaCTyrr.:ieHHe. Ü,J.HaRO, :nor�a 28 HIOJIH HainoJieoa III rrpHÔhIJI B Men., "tJT06bl Ha ,:i:pyroft �eHh rrepeiiTH oo CBOHMH Bo:ü­ cRaMH rpaHH�y, CTa.rro oqeBll�HO, 1ITO ocym;ecTBIITh 3TOT IlJiaH H9B03MOiK.tlO. Il J)Q'TllB'HHl( He Mor IIOMemaTb 29 HIO:IH cppaHn;yacirnMy HacrynJieHHIO, TaR KaR HeMel(RHe BOHCKa ein;e TO;JhRO CTHPHBaJIHCh n rpa.HHQe, HO caMHX 6oe-BhIX CHJI, Heo6XO.I(BMblX JJ,JIH HacrynJieHHH, n pacrropmIŒHIBI H:MIIepaTopa He OKaaaJIOCb. Bo:iic1-ca, KOTOphle q>paHQY3CKOMy ROMaH�OBaHJIIO y,:::i;a:IOCb R 3TOiMy BpeM'eHH cocpeÀOTOlfHTb Ha rpaiHHII;e, 6hIJHI lJHICJieHHO He,:i:ocra·T01IHbl �JIJI rrpe;:,;CTOHI:n;eii orrepa'II;HH .e: R roMy me He ooecrreqeHhI caap.aaœHHeM, 6oenpBna-caMH H rrpo­ BHaHTOM. Ilp.e:q-ugo:ii aroro 6bl.rra 3ano3;:i;aJiaH, 6ecrropH;:I;otJHaH MOÔHJIH3an;HH cppaHizy3CKO.Ü: apMH'll, ocooeHHO ee pe3epBHblX qacTeii, H HpaiiHe Hey;:i;oBJieTBO­ PH'TeJlhHOe ee CHaomemie, ROTOpoe <paRTH1IeCRH Haqa:IOCh TO.ITbRO IIOCJie OÔ'.h­ HBJI0HBH BOHHbl. CKJia;:I;hl BOeHHOro CHapHIBeHllH 6hIJIH o6hilJHO pacrroJI-Olliè·HbI �aJieKO OT Mec1' q>0pMHpoBaHHH BOlIHCHHX qacTeH. IlpH3BaHHOMy B 8/PMHIO 'He­ pe;:µ<o 1Ip11XOAHJIOOb HCRO:I·ecHTh COTHH, a .HHOH paa ThICH1I'll KJIJIOlfeT-pûB, qToObi aKIIIIHPOBaTbCJI, a aaTeM npIIOhlTb R :MecTy Ha3HatJ:eHHJI. ecnopH�01IHaH pa6ora meJie3HhlX �opor ycyryÔJIHJia nyraHHUY, II!PlI KOT01poü COBeJPII I8JI8Ch M,o6HJI'.H•3a�ItH. «IIITaoM H a;:i;MIIHHcTpaTHBHbie yIFpaB.;ieHHH, apTHJJJiep'IIii,cRHe u HHmeaepHble Boii-cKa, rrexoTa H RaBaJ1epnH, :na,:rpoBhle II peaepBHhie 1Ja,cn1,­ co-06maeT no aro:My noBOAY BoeHHhIÏI ncTopru-. A. Illroi-.e,- Hafü,i:saJinc:E. � � E Annales du Sénat et du Corps Législatif (,:i;a:i:ee - Annales ... ). Corps Législatif. Séance du 18 janvier 1869, p. 3. 4 Enquête parlementaire sur les actes du gouvernement de la Défense nationale. (�a.rree - Actes). T. I, p. 463-470. Pièce M 7. Correspondance préfectorale au sujet de la declaration de la guerre. 5 TaKue npoTeCTLI 6LIJIH ony6nu:noBaHhI B <<Le Réveil», <<La Marseillaise>>, a Ta.lŒŒ Il crren,HaJILHLIX JIHCTOBKaX. 6 «Journal officiel de l'Empire Française>>, 22 juillet 1870. 3 7* 99
B noea.na ]lO OTIŒ3a. Jlm;:i;n, ::roma�H, MaTepnaJibBaH 118CTh, I1pOBH8BT,- BCe 3TO B B0JIIPiafIIII0M 6ecnop.ag.Ke JI nyTaH:U:l{e Bnmpyma.'IJ.OCI, Ba fJI8BHhIX c6op­ f UblX_ nyHKTax. B Tf 'IeHne ,p.a,rta ;:,;Heii BoKaa.rr B Meue 111peAcTaBJIJ1JI Ra1pni-Hy xaoca, B .KoTopoM, RaaaJIOCh, neB03MoiKHo OhIJIO paaoôipaTnCH. ;uc He ipema­ JIHCb ocno6omgaTb BaroHbI; npHÔhIBm:n:ii npoBHa,HT BhlrpymaJICH H CHOBa rpy3IfJICH B Te me COCTaBhI, �IT061>1 6b!Th 'H8Ilp8BJI0HHhIM B J:{pyroii nyHRT. C BOR­ aana ce-Ho rre;penpaBJlH�TJOCh B rotpO'ACI·Œe CRJiaAJ,I, B TO apeMH K8K co ClWaJ(OB OHO rretperrpaBJUIJIOCb Ha B01i38Jlhl» 7• BJiarorrpHHTHhlii MOMeHT )J..lJH aacTyn.:i:eHHH 6hlJI <ppaa.qyacKHM KOMaH,J.OBa­ HH'eM yrryrqen. Harroneoa III co CBOHMH Boiic1mMH ocTaBaJicH B 6eaAeiicTBHH Ha rpaRH.qe. IloJiomeiaIIe Kpaiitte yxy,11.mHJIOCb AJIH <l>paH.qlUI TaKme B00>KHJ:{aH­ HhlM ,11;JIJI ·nee B3ph1B'OM H8'l{lfOHaJihHOfO qysc·TBa y iHeMl{eB, UO�OI)pe1_3a.BmerocH rrpy-c-cKoii nporraraH.a;oii. <l>ipaan;y.ac.Koe npaB-HTe.ilwrno yme B c·aMoM ua11aJie BOHHhl '.B001IHIO y6e;:,;H.lJO • Ch, HaC.KOJibKO �TfOiKHhl 6hlJIH ,ero npe;:,;oraBJieilHH O Il03H­ I.J;ll'H 10mHiorepMaHcKHx rocy;:,;apcTB B cJiy11ae OO'LHBJieHllIH 11M BOH,Hhl Ilip yooB'H. TeM BpeMeHeM He:MD;bl 6ecupenHTCTBeHHO nepeQpOCHJIH CBOH BOÜcRa Ha <ppOHT H coc,pe;:lOT01IH.TIH JIX Ha .1eBOM 6eipery PeiHa. ÛHH HaBH3aJIH <f>paHqy­ aaM He IIJpeAYCMOTpeuHyIO TeMH 3aTHiRHYIO, pery;i:JI,pHyIO KaMnaHHIO, rrpH KOTO­ poii OHH, K TOMY me, .TUlill8.1HCb rreipcneRTHB Ha rrpHoqpereBHe COI03HHKOB. (( JiomaJiyii, MO>I\HO CKaaaTh, qTo a.·pMHJI Bropoi HMnepHH AO CHX Il� Teipne-Jia nopameHHJI OJ' caMoii me BTopoü HMiletpHII,- IlHCaJI B 3TH AH-H 3arenbC.- Ilp» T8KOM pem11Me, CTOtP·OHHllROB ROTOporo DiPHXO,IµITCH �e� OJtaJPIITL· C no­ MOiqhIO I(eJioii, H3�aBHa ycTaHOBHBmeiic11 CHCTeMhl XH�BH110CKOPO oooram;e­ H:U:H .aa C1IeT Ka3Hhl, HeJih3H OlliH;::t;aTb, 11TO ara CHCTeMa He OXBaTHT BHTeH�ll'HT� CTBO BJPMHH..• H BOT HMeHHO B 3TOH o6.,1aCTH B03HHKaer TaKoii xaoc, ROTo.pLIH HhI3hlB80T npoMe�Jiem-re B A€HCTBHHX II011Tll Ha He;teJIIO B caMhlH KpHTH110CRHB nepHO.zt K8Mll8HHH. 3Ta He�eJihHaH aa�epmKa cy�eCTBeHHO 113MeHHJia IIOJIOiJŒ­ HHe A0JI Jt.1H HeMu;eB 8• IIpeRMYll{eCT'.BO B IIOJib3Y He:Mu;eB ooyCJIOBJIHBaJIOCb 11pem:;..,e. BCeI'O oco6bIM 3Ha'1IeHHeM, KaKOe npuo6peraJio npH 38THJB:HOÜ BORHe 11RCJieHHOe npeBOCX0.1(­ CTBO H0Me{\KHX BORCR, HaC11HThIBaBmlIX B:MecTe C ra,pHH3oHaMH H aanacHLIMH BOHHCKIIMH 11aCTHMll OIWJIO MllJIJIHOHa 11e.rroBeK, H3 KOTOpLIX CBldllle 500 ThlCR11 6LIJIH B HallaJI·e a·BrycTa 1870 r. cocpe;1.oroqeHLI Ha rpaHHqe. Bo cppaHQyacKoii apMHH 1IHCJIHJIOCI, Ha 6yMare ORO.ITO 650 ThlC. COJIA8T K Oq>HIJ;epoB, HO <paKTH­ t{0CKH B pacrropHllieHIIH fJI8BHOrO KOMliHJtOB8HHH HM0JIOCI:, IIIPHMeiJ}HO 300 ThIC. BoeBa.R no�roroBim KoMaa;:,;aoro H ,p.anoaoro cocraBa <f>paHqyacKoii aipMHH raKme aHatIIITeJILHo ycryrraJia 6oenoii no.;:u-oroBKe rrpyccKOii apMHH. cI>paurzy3CKHH reHepaJihHLIÜ: rnra6 - orcranoe, 610poKpaT1PiecKoe yqpemAeH:u:e - OhlJI B npe;::r,BoeHHhie l'OAI>I noqTH IIOJIHOCTI>IO orcTpaHeB OT yqaeTHH B BOSHBWX Me­ fPOIIpHJITHHX Il!p8BHTeJib-CTB8. B YCJIOBH.HX BOHHhl OH OKa3aJICH oeCIIOCOOHbIM cnpaBHTbCJI C IIJI8HHPOB8HHe)I 000BhlX onepaQHÜ, opra.lI'Haaqneii: 6oeBOB paa­ Be)J.I(H H T. À· Oa H8 MOI' H)I,TH Hll B KaKoe CpaBH8HHe C npyCCKHM reaepaJibHlilM mra6oM. IInoxo aoaJin cnoe ;::r,eno H reHepaJihl ,cppaa.qyooKoii apMHH, B 6oJibWB-H­ cl'B·e CJiyqaeB aaa.aaqa•BillH0-cH Ha KOltaH,wihle llOCThl OTHIO;I.h He aa B00HHLI0 .n;apoBaHHH, a aa npHHa.rviemHOCTh K oKpymeHHIO HMrrepaTopa. Aa H rJiaBBOKO­ Ma.H;::r,yIOII(Hii <ppaan;yac.1wü apMHeii He o6na,u;aJI HH BOeHHhlMH ;::r,a·poBaHHHMH, HH JIH11HhlMH Ka11ecTBa:MH, Heooxo�HMhlMH ;I.JIH yirnnoro K TBep;::r,oro pyKOBO�­ CTBa BOHCKaMII. cI>paaqyacK:ne pymhH acno no CBOD'M 6oeBhl:M K8110CTB8-M npeBOCX'GAHJIH rrnMel{I\He 11roJ.Ib1J8Tbie pym1,.a cHcTeMhI Apeii'3e, HO aHa1JHTeJI1>HaH 11acTI, qJipaH­ QY3CRBX COJIJ];aT, BCJie)I,CTBHe IIJIOXOH opraa:maaqHH HHTeHAaHTCKO:ii cnym6hl, He 6LIJia CHa6meHa 8THMH PYiKbHMH, a MHOfIŒ H3 Tex, KTO KX IlOJIY1fHJI, He yMe- Jho m A. Chuqu et. La guerre. 1870-1871. Paris, 1895, p. 15. Cf>. 3 H r e JI L c. 3alt:eTKH o ooiiHe. K. Ma p R c H Cf>. 3 are JI L c. Coq,1 C-Tp. 21. 7 8 100 T. 17�
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He IlOMOr nyTeM YJIHlJHhIX L(BH.iR8HHH ÀenyraraM JI8BO:Ü: q>paroµrn: B HX ,po61rnx YCHJUUIX OTCTpaHMTh OT RJiaCTH pereHTmy H aacraBHTb 3a1muop;aTeJII,HhIH ROp­ rryc B3HTh BJiaCTh B CBOM ,pyRH» 55. ,z:i;e:ü:cTBHT8Jll,HOCTI:,, KaK Mhl BHJJ;8JIH, O iltPO-­ Be1praeT 3T-O YTBepm�€HMe, yMaJIHIOI.Qee ,poJU. HapO;r{HLIX Macc 1Iap1nRa B ;{8Hb, 9 aBrycra H npHyR,pannrnaro�ee n0Be.n;en1re 6ypmyaaHhlX •pecnyÔJIHKaan;eB, ua­ ry6Ho IIOBJll1JIBIIIee, Ha ,AaJILHeiim1rii xo,n; BOHBhl. Co6hITIIH 7-9 aBrycTa nmm3aJnI cJia6ocTb tj>panu;yac1mro pa6oqero H co­ u;naJIHCTIPiecRoro 1;:I)BHilŒHHH, Bhlpaa1rnrnyrocH B H0000CHOBaHBOB Bepe 6oJih­ I.IU{Hc·rBa paoOlJIIX li ûO II.llaJIH'CTOB 'B rraTpHOTH3M 6ypmya3Jlll, ll ee roTOBHOCTI, IlOl,J;lfli'H lf . Tb CB-Oli 'KJia-CCOB.ble llHTepeChl OOIIJ;eHaD;HOHaJibRhIM. HaJH11I.H0 'f3KHX llJIJII03HH, rropom,ueHHhIX BOCIIOMHHaHHHMH O 1792-1794 roÀax, rJiy60KO y�­ py1IaJI0 pyKOBO,J;HIIJ;HX ;:t;eHTeJieÜ ff>paHqyacRoro peBOJIIO.D,1fOHHOro ):{BIDR0BHH ,z:i;ioII-oHa, Ba1pneHa, B.riaHRll, BhIHym;:r;eHHhIX ocTaBaThCH B ara pemaio�e ;:(HII BHe Cl>paH.U.HH, 'B aMHrpan;HH. J-{ronoH ITHCaJI O <ppa•H.U.Y3'CKHX 'COD;•HaJI.HCTaX, 'l(l''O OHH «COCTa:BHJilf -COrJiaCOBaHHhIH XOp C o yp.myaaBe:Ü:, ·KOTOpaJI IlOBCIO;:cy RpHtr.a­ .rra: <<3a6y\Ù,eM H3illl1 pai.JHOrJiaCHH, rrpHHOCeM ca:M.Lie �opor.He M.H Haie rrpHHf 1\lUU,l Ha aJITa1ph OTelleCTBa» H He 33Mf 'I8JIH, 'IJTO ((3TO Hll3KHH OÔMaHf » 56• B CKJIY H3JIOm·eHJHhIX npH1IHH COOhlTHH 7-9 a'BryCTa B·M:ecro CBepo«e-HlUI HMIIepHK aaBepIIIHJIHCb npHXO�OM R BJiaeTH peaR�OBB'Oi OOHanaprll1CTCKOH RJI1IKH BO rJI&Be c rpa$DM ;i.e IlaJI«Rao, yc·xopHBmei cBoe:ë: JI-OJIIIra.Koii Boennwii pa3TpOM <l>pa1m;1u1. 2. TIOCJIE.L{HEE IIPABHTEJlbCTBO BMDEPHII. CE}UHCKAJI KATACTPOG>A CocTaiB H0.Jroro rrpa'BHTeJihCTBa <l>pa•H.U.H.11 IIOJIHOCTblO OTBe11an ,aa;:,.a-'Ie, xoropyio craBKJia rrepe,u; coôo:ü: rroc­ B DepBlile JllePODPBRTIUI ne e:00M·n1ü 7-9 a:srycta MonapDJqec1rnH p.eaKn;HH: IIBBKCTepCTBa IlauICao •.rno6o:ii n;eHoii coxipaHHTL '6onarraipTHcTCKIIH pemn.M� He OCTaHaBJIHB3HCh nepe;i. 6ecrrom.aÀHbIM IlOMBJieH1ŒM MaJie:ë:mero IDPOSIB:Je­ HHH 1pecrryÔJIHK8HCKHX H8CTpoeHH:ii HapO,IJ;HhlX Macc. rnaBa npaBHTeJibCTBa :H BOeHHhlH' MHHHCTp reHepaJI MoHTOÔaH, «1pea1ni;H0Hep caMoro OTqaJIB.Horo JI 6eccoBeCTHOTO CBOHCTBa» (TaK oxapaRTepH30BaJia ero B Te Wl.H pyecKaH Âe­ .MOK.P.aTHlfe-CRaH raaeTa <<He;:i;e.rra» 57), 6hlJI nomaJioBaH B 1860 r. TKTYJIDM rpa­ . Kao aa CBOH BapBapcKHe H rpa6HT8JihCKHe Ji;e:ÜCTBIUI B K:e:Tae. ,3a <f>a �e IlaJIH 3JiüJJ;0'HHHH B AJimH1pe OH CTHï«aJI ce6e IllpOOBHm;a «duc de Massaere», «comte de Pillage», RaK 06 aToM nanoMHHaJia 11 aBrycTa JI0HJ:iOHCKaH «Pail Mail Gazette>> 58. MHHHCTpOM BHyrpeHHHX p;eJI 6hIJI naanaqeH npeq>eKT BaJHHeii-;­ mero p;eTiapTaMeHTa Cena AE,pn illeBpo, no OOBMecTH'feJihCTBY COXJPaHHBmu:ij­ aa co6oii B ÂaJihHeiime:M HOCT rrpeq,e1na; :MHH'H-CTpO� IOCTH:ll;Hll H Ky.rrhT.OB 3JieHnm:H Pipar paooqHx H con;HaJIUCTOB reaepaJihHlJH npoKypoip HMnepIIH fpaHCieippe; 'M:HITTIICT'püM 3eMJieµ,eJIHH H TC1proBJIH - oopHLiii CJiyra H (p8BOpHT HaIIoJieoHa III, B IllPOIIIJIO.M Ju1'6epaJihHhI:ii my,pHaJIHCT, �IOBe,pHya, ra3eTa Ko­ Toporo ·«Le Peuple Français>> me.r:i;po cyÔCHWipoBaJiacb 6oHarrapTHCTCRHM rrpaBHT0JlhCTBOM; MHHIICTpOM OOID;0CTB€-HHhIX pa60T 5apoH ffie1poM l\,aBBil� UOJiyqaBmH:ii rrepconaJil:,HYIO «IIeHCHIO>> ,OT HMIIeparopa; MHHHCTpOM .HHOCT­ 1 paHHhIX ,n;eJI - HpbIH 6omuiapTHCT KHH3b Jlacyp ,u; ÜBe1pHh; MHHHC'flPO�· tf>H­ HaHOOB - RPYIIHM.Ü fPIIHaacncT Manb, ,n;BamJJ,hI aaHHMaBmHii aToT nocT npII BTopoii HMrrepHH; MHHHCTpOM MopcKoro qJJioTa - a.l(MHtpan PHro ;a;e iKeayftn. TüJibRO MilHHCTp mpocBem;eHH.H Ï.KIOJih B,paM 6hIJI ,a;euyTaTOM JieBoro n;eHT:pa, CôcTAB - 55 J. Jaurès. La guerre franco-allemande ('1870-1871). Paris, [s. a.J. tHistoire so­ cialiste (1789-roü0) )>, t . XI, p. 247. 56 QHT. no RH.: O. Te stut. L'Internationale. Son rôle depuis le 4 septembre. Lyon,. 1871, p. 8. 57 <<HeJJ;e.JI.JI>> 2 ( 1�) .irnrycra 1870 r., crp. 1020. 58 <<Pall Mali Gazette>>, 11 August 1870. 110
s OTJUPIHe or CBOHX ROJ°':IJier, npHHa�ïeiHaBmnx :n IIipaBOMy 6oJihIDHHCTBy 3a­ KOHO;IJ;aTeJihHOro Kopnyca. HoBoe M'HH11CTepcT-BO yme 10 aBrycTa, B nepn1>1n �eHh c.n-oero cym;ecTBOBa­ HHH, HaJiomuJio aanpeT Ha pecny6JIHRaHcKne raaeThI <<Le Rèveil» H «Le Rap­ pel». Ouo 'OCTalBHJIO n Ilapume BO:Ü-C.Ra, BhI•;rnaHHbie 6 anrycTa na Ilp<JIHHHIJ;HH, XOTH OIDI OhIJIH Kpa.ii.H:e HYiRHhl Ha q>pOHT-e. 13 aBrycTa OHO 00'1:,HIBHJIO Ha oca.ri;­ HOM IlOJIOmeHHH J:(enaipTa.MeHT BepxHHH fapoHHa ( C a,n:MHHHCTpaTHBHhIM IJ;eHT­ püM B TyJiyae), a rlec:noJihKO 1103,n;Hee ;:::,;erra,pTaMeHThI Ille1p, HwB1p, BocToqHhie IlHpeHe-B H ,IIJpyrHe. Bce OOJI1>rnee pa•crrpocl'pa'Henne oca-,JROn:> ,no.rromeHHH BO <Dpam::i;Hn pac11;e­ HHBaJI'OCL aa ee up�eJirun1 IŒR noRaaaTeJCb c.rraoocTH rrpa.B'HTeJihCTBa Bropoii HMilepHH, paCTym;eii He-HalBHCTH R 'HeMy Ha1ceJieHH.R. Ha aTO y«a•3hlBaJIH «Times», «Pall Mali Gazette», <<Telegraph» H ;a,pyrHe aHrJIHHCKHe raaeThI. He MeHee CIŒIITH1IOORH OQ0HHBaJIH IIOJIOilŒHHie BO <l>paHIJ;HH ,D;HIIJIOMaTH1IeCKHe :mpe,n;cTaBHTeJiu paaJinqHhlX :rocy.ri;apcTB. BpHTaHCRHÜ nocoJI B Ilapume Jiop,ri; JlaiiOHC COOÔiqaJI B JloH,IJ;OB 12 aBryCTa: «06m;ee qyBCTBO T8ROBO, 1ITO BOBOe nopameHHe Beaa:Me.;:vrn:reJihHO ORameTC.R 1POROBhIM ]);JIH ,D;HBaCTlIH. MHeHHH ipac­ XO-MTCH �ame IIo BOIIIJ)OCY o TOM, KaROBhI 6YAYT rrocJrn,rr.cTBHH uo6e�hl. II1pH �TOM HeT HHKaKoi yBepeHHOCTH, qTo Il no6e�a <ppaHIJ;Y3CKHX BOHCK Ha IlOJie cpameHHH oRa»rnTCH crroco6HoH npeAOTBpaTHTh peB-0JI10n;1uo» 59. AHaJiorH11Hy10 -00:eHKy BHY1lPHilOJIBTH1I0CRoro IlOJIOilieHHH <DpaHIJ;HH µ,.aBaJI HecKOJlhKHMH AHHMH II03p;Hee ÜKyHeB: «,[(HHaCTHH, :nameTCH, IIOfllOJia. ,[(a.me no6ep;a, ecmr cy).tl:ITh no npeo6JI8MIOIQIIM B )laHHbIÜ MOM8HT HaCT1poeHIIHM, oRa.meTCH Hecrro­ COOHOÜ ee B03ll)O)J;HTh. ÛHa, ca:�rne 6oJibIDOO, OTQpoqHT rra,n;eHHe HMnepHH» 60• ÜKyHeB COOOIQaJI O BaCT1poeHHH cppaHn;yacKoii a,pMHH: «.L(HHaCTHH ••• He TOJlhKO JlHIDlilJiaCh IIOAAepmKH B CTpane, HO If yTpaTHJia ee B apMHH, eCJIH Cy,Il;HTb IIO Il0;::{po6HOC'f.HM, IlOCTynaIOr:qHM CIO;la H3 r.naBHOfO mTaOa>> 61• Co11;HaJIHCTH1IeORaH ne1IRTI> e�e poo11e H OTKpOB0HHee BhlCK83hlBaJiaCb O HO­ ROM MirHIICTepc'I'Be. BeJI1:i1rniicKa.R «L'Internationale>> rnrca.rra 14 a'BrycTa: «ÛKoaqa-reJihHO IIOTepHB a.rr.paBhIÜ CMhlCJI, OHII o6paa-oBaJIH caMoe pea'IO:J;HOHHOe MHHH..cTepCTB'O, 1Ca1me TOJlhKO MOiRHO c·e6e npe;i,craŒHfTb ... 06paa,oBaJIII:le TaKoro MHHHC'TepcTBa 03HallaeT, 1ITO cyn:i;ecTByer HaMepe.HHe B 'CJiyqae Ha:A()OBOCTl:I paiarpoMIITh Bech IIapHîR. IlyCTb ycTpa.H.BaIOT COBem,aHHH, iIIYCTh MHHT ce6H CHJlhHhIMH,- B'Ce aro He 00.Jiee, KaK Ha 48 qacoB. ÜHH �aJieKO He yii.r:(yT. 8THM MHHBCTpaM ae :o:36emaTh KpymeHHR>> 62• HeMeURIIiî << Volksstaat>> BH)].eJI B co3;:i:aHHll MIIHH-CTepcTBa MaXJ)OBhIX 6oaarraprHeTOB BepHhIH rrpH3HaK TOI'O, 1IT0 «KMIIepllH npooJIHmaeTcH K CBOeMy 'RO.HIJ;Y H yme He cq_1naer 6oJiee aeo6xo�JI­ Mh1M coxpaHHTh MaCKy npHJIHlJHH..• C 6e3tpaccyp;HOÏI H 6e33acTeH1IHBO-ll 6bICT­ poToii OHa CTpeMHTCH 'HaBCTpeqy C·BOeyY rra,::i;eHlUO>> 63• Ilpa'BHTe:i1>cTno IlaJIHRao, 11pHcB01rn ce,ôe HaIIMeHDBaHne <<MHHtI•CTepcTBa Han;HoHaJibHOÜ OOOpûHhl» H ',J;aBaH 8Tll.M IIOIIIHTh, lll'O ero e�Rli'CT1BeRHOH ,3-a,r:i;a11eü HBJIHeTCH IH3fHaHHe BTOprmerOC.R BO <DpaHUUIO Henp1nIT8.JIH, B CBOH.X o6parr�e­ HHHX K RaC·eJie.HHIO uey-CTaRHO TBep,::µLïO, llTO 6oipo6a U•PO'l'.lŒ 'B'H8IDHe'I'O Bpara MO_îReT OhITh ycnemaoiî JIHillb rrpH ycJ.IO'BlUI <<CIIaCeHliH OTetIOCTBa» OT «BHYT­ peHHIIX BpalI'o.B». IJa,pHïnCKHe pa60"CJH8 OtieHb CKOpo 1I10ll.RJUI, KOro, cqHTaJIO HO­ BOe 1IpaBH-T0JlbCTBO BHyTpeHHRMU Bpara),IH cDpaHUHH. JleBble ;::i;e11yTaThl, B TOM 1IHCJie raM'6eTra, ep;HHO;I,ynIHO rro:;:i;.r:i;epmIIBaJIII 'BCe MeporrplI.RTHH 'HOBoro MHBllCTepcrBa, KOropoe -OHM rrpe,J,CTaBJI.RJIII CTpaHe KaK « MHHHCT81pCTBO ;:i:enc TBH.R>)' CIIOCOOHOe' B OT .'IH"CJII€< OT rrpep;meCTBYIOlllero 1 u � r,9 L{HT. no J. C 1 are t i e. Histoire de la Révolution de 1870-18'71, t. I. Paris, 1875, p. 202. 60 ABITP, naRI(., ;::i:. 1'17, p. 329. ÜKyHeB - fop11aK0By. J1R1IHO. IIapRiR 4(16) aBrycrn 1870 r. 61 62 63 Ta:\1 me, ;i. 22·5. <<L'Internationalet, 14 août 1870. <<Der Volksstaat>>, 14. August 1870. Politische Uebersicbt. 111
ycrremHO <<OpraHH30BaTb HaI�HOIJaJibHYIO o6opoHy>> H HCIIOJIHeHHOe rOTOBHOCTH rro,n;qHHHTb 8TOÏI sa.n;aqe BCIO CHOIO p;eHTeJibHOCTh. Ilo.n;.n;epm1rn JieBhIX .n;erryTaTOB He !pas OTMelJ.aJiaCb caMHMH 'ÜOHarrapTIICTaMII, B TOM 'fHCJie rJiaBOH rrpaBn� TeJihCTBa 64• <<JleBaH cppaKn;HH naJiaThI,- coo6m;an B 8TH �HH ÛKYH81B rop11a­ ROBY,- rraTplfOTI:[qecKH 3aHBHJia, l!TO BBH;J;y yrpomaIOm;Hx C·Tpa'He onaCH'ÜCTeiî OHa He CTHH8'T npH6sraTh K peBOJIIOD;HOHHhIM Mepa·M. Ilo-BH�HMOMY, HM8HHO 6Jia.r-o,n;apH 8TOMY MOJPiaJIHBO}iY cor.,a-meHlUO HMnepHH e�e �epmHTCHI> 65. Oca;i;Hoe noJiooIŒHlie H mecroKHe perrpeccim He np.11PeBomo�eoHH&ie BCilbIWRH OCTaHOBIL"Ill, 0,1;HaJW, peBOJIIOD;HOHHhIX BhICTyinJieHHH 8 npoBHH�Bu. B'O (f),pa·Ha;HH. MhI yaHaeM o 'HHX Ha aHrJIHiicKoii, pycBMcrym1eaue oJiamœcToB B CROH, mB-e-nu;apcROH, 68JlhfHHC1WH rreqarH; 6oHarrapIlapeme 14 aBrycTa 1870 r. rHCTCI<aH rre11aTI, HHl!ero o HHX He coo6m;ana. RoppecnoH;J;eHT pyoc1rnro mypHaJrn <<.L(eJio>>, q>paHn;y3cRnii .n;eMoKpaT 8JIH PeK.JIIO coo6�aJI, qro oc1w1pe nocJie npnxop;a K BJiaCTH MHHHCTS!pcTBa IlaJIHRao B <<CeMll H.7111 BOC.hMH .uerrapTaMeHTaX>> (f)paHqHH npo-­ H30IIIJIH <<peBOJIIOII;HOHHhle BC'IlhlIIlnl1>), B peayJihTaTe qero TaM (<CB:HJP0UCTByeT BOOHHhlH p;ecrroTH3M» 66• HMelOTCH, B tJaCTHOCTH, raaeTHhie cse.n;eHIU-I 0 <<6ec­ nopH.n;Kax», rrpo:HcIIIe,n;m11x B JinoHe, Mapcene, Tynyae, JluMome, Bopp;o 57. Ilo HeKOTOphIM CBe�eHIIHM, pa6o11He H coo;.HaJIHCThI IlapHma Upe"}liIIpHHHJIB B 3TH AJIH 11-0BYIO IIOIIbITKY rrooy�HTh JilllBhIX ;:i;enyTaroB BOOrJiaBHTb .U.BHmeHH0 Hapo�HblX Ma-cc aa CBepme-HHe IBliIIepIIH. 11 asrycTa R HHM 6hIJia HanpaBJieHa ,rreJieran;.uH na 60 qeJioBei, or nap1DRCROÜ <J>e,n;eipaQHH 1JJa6oq:ffx OO'be,a.uHeHHH­ Ü�HaRo H 3Ta IIOIIl>ITRa He HMe.;Ja y�rrexa. *3THX MHHMhIX ·pecny6JIHKaHu;eB o6'beABJH.HeT c 6oHarrapTIICTaMH O,:l.HO qyBCTBO: nyCTb Jiyq:me IIOMffiHe-T OTetrn­ CTBO, qeM 6bITb CBHµ,eTeJIH}IH ero noôe;J;LI Ha� Bpa;roM nyTeM peBOJIIOll;:KHI>,-'- c ropeqhIO nucaJI no aT-O:My noBo;i:y 11:ieH H11repaaqH0HaJia Jleq>paHca, naxo­ ,IlHBmHiicH 1n cocraBe ,ri;eJierau;IIH 68• TpH AHH crrycTH, 14 aBrycTa, B Ilapn.me HMeno MecTo uey.I(aqHoe BbICTy1n­ JieHHe oJia-HKIICTOB npn yqacrIIII ca:\rnro BJia'HKH, TRÜHo upu61>rnIIIero B Ho11i:. 11a 12 a.scycTa H3 BprocceJIH no BhI30BY cBoHx npHBepmeHu;eB. BepHbie cBoeMy OIIlllOOtJHOMY MHeHHIO, qTo cnepllieHne IIMIIetpHH, He ocym;ecTBJieHHOe 9 aBry­ CTa, MomeT 6hlTb c ycrrexoM ocym;ecTBJieHo B JII06oi �pyro:ë: AeHL, oJiaH­ KHCThI He IIOHHTepecooaJIHCh H81CTpoeHHeM paooqHx Macc ITOCJie IlJiaqeBHLIX pe­ ayJibTaTOB coohlTIIÜ 9 aBrycra. Ha cipe;:tCTBa fipaume, nomepTBoBaBmero 18 TbIC. q>paHROB, IIOJiytJ8HHhlX HM B ,HaCJie�CT-BO, 6hIJIH npHOOpe.TeHLI 300 pe• BOJihBepoB II 400 KHBmaJIOB; R HI:IM npe.mno.:iaraJIOCh IIpHCOOWJHHTb opymue, KOTOpoe 6JiaHRHCThI ipacClJHThIBaJUI 3axBaTHTb B BeHC0HCKOM. (J>opTe OJ.Iaro.n;apH CBH3HM, ycTaHOBJieHHhlM C ero rapHH30HOM. Ilpuo6peTeHBOe opyilœe �OJIH(HO 6hlJIO 6bITh B p;e'Hh 13hICTYIIJieHlUI poa,n;aHO Hapo;:ty, IIOCJie qero na.n;nemaJio aa­ XBaTHTb IllJ)aBHT0JlbCTBeHHhl0 yqpem�eHHH. Ha ,IUJyx ooBem;a!HH.JIX, cocroHBmllxcH 12 li 13 aBrycTa npH yqacTHH BJia-B­ KH li ero 6JIHmaiiIIIHX copaTHIIROB, 6hIJIO rnpHHHTO pemeHHe BhICTynHTh 14 aB­ rycTa, rrpoBep;H rrpe.rr.napureJibHO rperhe coBem;aHHe yTpoM roro me p;HH. BnaH­ RH ,UaJI cornacIIe Ha BbICTynJieHI:le JIOCJie ;:{OJirHX KOJIOOaHHH, TaK RaK He 6L1JI y6em�eH B ero CBOenpeMeRHOCTll. ÛH yc-ryrrHJI HaCTOHHH.HM CBO'HX rrp.R.Bepme-B­ u;eB TOJlbRO IIOCJie TOO'O, KaK Te 3aBep11Jill ero, 11:TO «'HapO;:uihie MaCChl BOJIHYIOT­ CH, pe·BOJIIOII;llH fül'ûBa 1BhIÜTH aa YJIHII;Y, HYmHO Jillillh ornphITb IIOCJI�HIOIO u � u u u u u r. �uep1>-» 69• CM., Hanp1rMep,, Annales... Corps Législatif. Séance du 12 août 1870, p. 65. ABIIP, Ranu., A- 117, JI. 225. OKyHe-B - fopqaKoBy. Ilapum, 4(16) aBrycTa 1870 r. 66 «J:(eJio», 1870, .M 38 cTp. 87. 67 CM. raaen,1 <<He;:i;emrn, <<Times ►>, «Pall Mali Gazette•, doumal du Genève ►>, <<Gazette de Lausanne ►>, <<L'indépendance belge ►> aa 13-18 anrycra 1870 r. 68 G. L er r a n ça i s . Souvenirs d'un révolutionnaire. Bruxelles, [t90'l], p. 385. 69 G. G eff r oy. L'enfermé. Paris, 1897, p. 282. 64 65 U2
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fipaB11Te.,,1bCTBO IlaJHIRao IIOCJie yrBe,p�eHH.H 3aRoHa npHHHJIO BCe Metphl n I'OMY, qT()Ohl Ha ,I\e.rre BOCIIpeIIHreTB(}BaTb BoopymeHIIIO napo,J,HhIX Macc. «3a­ K0H OT 11 aBrycTa,- IIp113HaBaJI 'BIIOCJie·,J,CTBHH O,J.RH II3 oqnu:1,epoB Br-opoii HM­ nep:rrH,- BhIIIOJIHHJICH C Hapoqaroii Me,J,.JillTe.'IhHOCThIO, TaR RaR B03.,J.epïKHiBa­ :rHCb oT Toro , qTOOhl npll'6eraTh K aroMy ·cpe.n,crBy, Koropoe Boooym)l.aJio cTpax... B MoPIDIX MaJIO ql'O )];eJiaJIOCb ·BO IICIIOJIH8Hlle 3anoHa O BOOpymeHHII. Bac aa­ lUICJIHJIH - H TOJihKO. J:(a H ,n;ooHThCH ·3ati:HcJieIDI.H 61>1�10 '.HeJierKo•.• Opymn.a He RbIÀaBan11; aa aa1111cneHueM He cnep;oBaJIII opraHJiisau;rroHHhie Meph1; orpaHJ:Iqu­ BaJIHCL OJJJIRM 3aHooeHll0M B CIHICIUI>) 94. 8 nepByro Otiepe,::1,1, 3aqncJIHJillCb lIMy­ m;ae 'CJIOII HaCeJI0HHH, 1IpH4eM «II ·3.,J.BCb, - IIO CBH}];eTeJihCTBY roro me üq)lIII,e­ pa,- )l,e:ÜCTtBOBaJIH C 6o.rr1,moii OCTOJ)OiRHOCThIO... rrpo·n.JBOJJ:lIJIII 3aiIIFCb Hap;em­ HLIX JIIO�eü H IIpHTOM )];allie B rex 1rnapraJiax, r,J.e OHII Ji{ He IIJ)O,iRIIBaJIH>) 95 . 8TRM «HR,il;e?KHhIM JIIO,IT.HM» Bhl,rJ;aBaJIOCh B II0PBYIO oqepe,J,b opymHe, qacnrqno 'B OOMeH Ha HM0'Bfflll0CH y HHX PYiRbH ycrapeBmeii CIICTeMhI 96• 3aro B pHp;e ORpyroB Ilapnma, HaIIpHMep, B IUITOM, r,n:e 11peo6Jia;:I,aJIII MaJIO'IIMYIII,He CJIOH EiaceJieUHH, BOBCe He 1Ipo113BO�JUI 3aIIIICH. q TOOLI BOCIIpeIIHTCTBO.BaTb BOopy­ JReHIIIO TPYlCOBO.ro .HaceJieHH.H, npaBirreJihCTBO, IIO CBIIi'.I,eTeJibCTBy COBpeMCRHII­ Na, rrp116erJio K CJie)];YIOIII,-rot:y YX'HIII,peIDIIO. << nor.n;a T'pe60BRHlUI opyiRlUI y-qa­ CTHJIIICb. OhIJIO aaHBJreHO, qro opyame 6y)];C'T BhI;r:J;aBaThCH TOJihKO Tf··M naII,HO­ •HaJibHl>IM rnap.n;e:ün;a'M, ROTOpble HBHTCH 3a HH�[ B OO�lYHATIU)OBaHHH. J,faBeCTHOO qH'CJIO 6ypmya IIpIIoopeJIO OOMyIIAllpüBaHHe II IlOJlyrilIJIO pyiRhH, HO raRHX JIIO­ A0:Ü 6hIJIO H0MHoro. 8TC ,n;ocToBepHhlii <f>aRT>),- rro.n.-qepnHBaJI OH 97• TaRHM 00pa.aoM, 3a'KOJI OT 11 aBrycTa, KaK 11paBIIJIO, He BnIIIOJIHHJICH; ;i;ame B Tex CJry­ qa.ax, ROO'Aa paooqux aaq:n:cJIHJilI B nau;H0Han1>nyro rnap;:i;nro, nx ocTa'BJim111 6ea opym:u:11. BypmyaaHaH neqaTh aa npe.n;e:rn�rII <l>paHII.HH y1-ia3nIBaJia na <<napaJimry10m;ee ,n;eiiCTBHe ,nparBHTeJibCTBOHHbIX areHTOB », qIIHIIBIDHX BC0B03MOiRHble upe­ lIHTCTBH.H BOOpymeHHIO Hfü�eJieHII.11, KOTOpoe <<ropIIr HerepneHHeM C..1JYIBIITh HH­ repocaM oreqecTBa». JIOHAOHCKaH «Pall Mall Gazette>>, aanpnMep, ,rrpn aroM pacKphIBaJia ncTll'.HHyro npIPII:Iey oropo�pamrqec'KIIX :npoBOJI04eR, ephlnaro�x cn-oeinpeMeanoe BOopymeane naceJieHHH <DpaHII,III:L fa3eTa OTMe"CJaJia, qro <<IIpH­ HHroe pemen11e BoopymIITb ncex rpam,n:aH 6eo3 HCHJIIOtJeHHH - pe·CJiy6JIHKaH­ II,eB, COII,HaJIIICTOB li rrpoqHx, He HCKJIIOllaH HapymnreJie:Ü OOII�e·CTBeHHoro IIO­ P�Ka, BXO�� B 'COCTaB J,I,n-rep.HaII,HOHa:ia, Bhl3BaJio He)];OBOJibCTBO 6 Y]P my­ a-aaux CJIOeB. EcJIH ,Bcex 8THX JIIOJWH 1BOOpymHTh B II,eJIHX ooopOHhl TeppllTO­ p.u:11, TO qTo me, �HaKo, oy.,z:,;er noroM? Hro Hx pa3opym1:u? A 4To e-cJIH OHB rrpOBœrnacar ·poorry6mn�y? » 98 Co�aJIHCTHtreCRa.s1 neqaT1, nprufü o6nHCHH.::ra ca6oram •BoopymeH!IIH TPY­ ,rvn1�eror.a naieeJie'IIIIH <l>pa�RH erpaxoM rrpaBrrre.1.bCTBa Bropoii n:Mifiepuu ne­ p� BOOpymeHHhIM HapüAOM 99• ,r:{eiicrmneJibHOCTb orrpoBepraJia aaBepeHHH MHHHCTpa 'BHyTpeHHIIX µ,eJI, 6yp;­ TIO npaBJl'TeJibCTB.O «crapaJIOCb CO BCeH JIOH:IhHOCTblO BhIIIO.ThHJITb Bûe IIpeµ,rrn­ CffHHH, BOTHpOBaHHbie 3aKOHO,J;aTeJibHhlM ROprryc0)-1, II BCeMepHO BOOpymaJIO Ha�IIOHaJihHyIO rBap)\HIO IlapHma». 3a BCe Bpe�:IH CynI,eCTBOBaHHH 3TO,ro rrpaBB­ T0.JlbCTBa 1IHCJl0HHOCTb HaIJ;HOHaJibHOB rnap,J.lHI ,J.eJiapraMeHra Cena, BRJIIOlJaH Ilapnm, YiBeJillqHJiaCb BCero Ha 12-15 TblC. qeJIOBeK, npIIqeM TOJibRO qacTb 11'3 HlIX llOJIY11KJia ro)l.Hoe opyilme. BHOBb 3aqncJieHHhie HaII,lIOHaJihHbie f'Bap�e:ü­ �l:,I - B OO;[billRHCTBe CBOeM pa6otIH0 - ocra."IIICh HeBoopyme.HHbIMll AD KOHII,a cyIII,OCTBOBaHIUI lIMJiepHH. 8ro Il03,J.Hee ,rrpI13HaRaJI H MHHHCTP npocBeIII,eHHH 94 95 96 97 98 99 Actes, t. V, p. 475, 476. Déposition Chaper. Ibid., p. 476. Actes, t. VI, p. 440. Déposition Corbon. Ibid. <<Pall Mall Gazette», 11 August 1870. CM. , narrpHMep, <<Der Volksstaab, 13. August 1870. 117
ÏRIOJI:b BpaM. <<BIIJIOTh )J;O IIOCJie,JWIIX )J,He:ë: Mhl OTKa3LIBaJIHCb BoopymwrL ua­ lPO.I(IH,Ie MaCChI»,- aaHBMJI OH B CBOHX IIOKaaaHHHX 100• Ilo ooo6m;,eHHro cppann;y3cKoiî:, a TaKme 3apy6emHo:ë:, B qac'I'HOCTH pyccKo:ü, i IIetJaTH lOl B aBry.cTe 1870 r. Ha YJIHn;ax IlapBma MOmHO 6LIJIO 'BH)J,BTh Han;Ho­ HaJI:&HhIX rBap)J,eiî-1],'eB, npoxo)l,HBilIKX BOeH.HOe OOY13--e.HllO C np1DreH·eHHeM naJIOK, Tpocren, 30H'TOB BMBC'l'O BHiHTOBOK. PyocKaH raaeTa «H-e.I(eJIHt coo6m;aJia, qro TaKOH me icnoco6 BOBHHOro ooyqeHHH npHM8HHJICH H B' illaJIOBCKOM BOeHHOM Jia­ repe 102. Ilo TOMY me npRH.Q'H'Ily, 1ITO H MeCTffYIO Han;HOHaJibHYJO rBap,IUIIO, iBOOpyma­ JIH M061IJihHYIO rBap)J,IUO: opymHe Bhl)J,aBaJIOCI, IIO"l!TH .RCKJIIOqHT0JI:&HO ee peaK­ IJ;HOHHhIM qa1CTHM. HeROTOpbie H 13 HHX cnen;u:aJibHO rrepeBOAHJIHCb H3 :npOBHH­ D;H'H B Ila-pHm ,II}IH oxpaHhl <rnopH)J,I-ta>> 103. HanporHB, qacTH nap:amcKo:ü M06HJILHoi rnap,n,HH, He BHymaBmHe ,a;OBepHH npaBHTBJihCTBY, y,a;aJIHJIH'Cb 11!3 CTO­ JIHD;M. Ilo CBH�eTeJib1CT1By q>paHn;yacKOl'O HCTOpHKa-l);eMOKpara iRopma PeHa­ pa, •cJiyïKHBmero B 1870 r. B O)J,Hoii na 11acreii Mo6:eJibHOH rBapp;Jrn ,a;errap-ra­ M'0HTa CeHa, «rrarp:emcKyro Mo611J1wy10 rBap)J;HIO He XOTeJLH ooopyma-Tb, :e6o ee 6oHJIH-Cb, TaK Ka'K B IIOj.(aBJUIIOIIJ;eM 6oJibillH•HCTBe OHa 6hlJia pecny6JIIU<aH­ CKOH» 104• MeHbill0 ,rrpenHTCTBH:ii 1IHHHJIH 6oHarrapTHCTCK'He B;IaCTII coa,n,aHHIO Ha Me­ CTax TaK Hao3bIBaeMhlX BOJlbHbIX OTPH,J,OB (corps francs)' Ta:K RaK OHB KO'MnJieK­ TOBaJIHCb rrpeaMym;ecTB0HHO B3 KpeCTbHH, KOTOphlX Ha1IaJlbCTBO ycKJie.mro «o6pa6aTI>IBaJIO>>, 1ITOObI B CJiyqae Ha�o6HOCTH 6pocHTb npoTHB «MHTBH<HLIX» aJie­ M0H"fOB. ,[(a li rB006:m;e «TaKBe oTpH,:vù J1er11e 6LIJro H o6ya,r(aTb H paaorHaTh», KaK cnpaBe�JllIBo •3aMeTIIJI con;Hamrcr <DJ.CyparHc 105• AHTHHapo�hliî xapaRrep no;nnHKH rrpaiBHTeJILCTBa IlaJIH'Kao 1B aTO:çf no­ rrpoc,e 6bIJI \RaK neJib3H 6oJiee HCB'H 6ypmya3HhlM pecny6JIHKa•Hn;a'M. 06 8TOM CBBAeTeJihCTByer, :a tJatCTHOCTH, orRpoBe.HHoe rrp:esHaHIIe ÎRIOJHI CnMona: «Ro­ Jre6amre1> - wro 6hlJIO HCil'O - M0H<)J,y meJialH.He'M BOOpyH<R'Tb Ha<CeJieH'He Ilpû'THB Bpara 'H OOH3HhIO )J,aTb eMy B pyRH opymHe IIpOTH!B ,a;:e:Ha-CTHll>) 106• OTO me npH3.HaBaJI � <l>aBp 107• Ü,IV.Ia.KO B aBryCTe 1870 r., B pemaIOIIÇB'e- HeAeJrll q>paHK·O­ npyccKO:Ü BOHHhI, JieBbie �ruiyraTbI T:m;areJlhHO CKphlBaJIH OT HapO,IUihIX Macc ' H. II0,!1;JIHHHYIO ,cym;nocTb 3TOH IIOJIHTHK 1 CTOB B Ila­ 14 a'BrycTa, B )l,eHh BhlCTY.IIJ10'lfflH 6J18HRH Boe11111i1e uopaaceuun pume, 11acTH-M Peirac1«>:ii ap1,um, OTCTynaBmHM rrocJie 14-18 aBrycTa. nopameHnH B ÔJn.aace :e JlOTapHH I'IIH B HanpaBJieH:e:H HapacTaBBe KpBSBCa BepAeHa B illan0Ha-Ha-Map1rn, npyccaxu: \HaBHaaJI:H •Bepxon». 6oii: y ,a;epeBHB BopH:e (nJlll y RoooM6a-HyiiJIM1) np.H rrepenpane <J>paHU,Y3CK'Hx BoiicK Ha Jie.BhlH 6eper Moae.Ju1. Bou a·roT, He npHHe-cm:e::ü ycrrexa HII o,a;noii ua cropoH, aa)J,epman Ha n;e.nhle cyTKH rrepenpaBy cppaHn;ysoB qepe3 Mo3e:rb, 'ITO HMeJIO TH?ReJihle TIOCJie;:\CTBIH ,a;;œ q>pa.HI.J,Y3CK3Îi apMHH. 16 :e 18 aBrycTa OTCTyrraro:m;ue BOHCKa 6HJIH BhIHy,K)l.eHLI lllpHHHTb �Ba HOBbIX cpameHHH, HaBH3aHHhle HM H0IljpllHTeJieM, C'l'tpeMHBillHMeH OTp 1 eaar1, HM nyr1, Ha BepAeH :II orrecHHTb K Men;y. 8TH cpamemu1 - O]J.H.O y PeaoHBHJIH (.aJIH y Mapc-Jia-Typa), ,a;pyroo y rpaneJIOTa (HJIH y CeH-IlpHBa) - naHecJIH pemarorn;ee rropa!iReHHe Pe:iiHcKoii: apMKll. «BoeHHaH Mom;1, <l>paau;HH, no Bce:ë: BepoHTHOCTII, IIOJIHOCTbIO fHHtITOïReHa... ,- Im:CaJI 8HreJibC 20 aBrycra IIOA BIIe1{:-lTJieHHBM IIHTHAHeBHhIX 6oeB B 0Rlp0CTHOCTHX Men;a, npoHCXOAUBIDHX 14un Actes, t. V, p. 85. DépositionBrame. 101 <<J:(eJio», 1870, M 8. IIoJie:TiflleCKaH xpoHHKa, e:rp. 68 H Al). 1°2 (1He�t.ilH))' 9(21) anry<:Ta 1870, .M 32, CTp. 1053. 103 Actes, t. V, p. 85. DépositionBrame. 104 G. Re nard. Mes souv enirs (1870-1871). tLa Révolution de 1931, f· 15. ,0 G. Floure ns. Paris livré. Pars i ,1871, p. 56. 1œ J. Simo n. Op. cit., p. 267. 107 J. Favre. Op. cit., t. I, p. 37. us 1848». t. 28,
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yp;aqHoiÎ orrepau;1u1 y Mer�a. T,porn10, HaILpoTirn, 6hIJI y6e-�eH B TOM, qTo, ipacnoJiaraH a1pMHeiî ITO):\ Ila,p11IBeM. MOIBHO 6y]:leT ycMHpHTb peBOJIIOIJ,HOHHYIO CTûJIMIJ;Y n ,6e3 n:;pe)];Bap:n:TeJihiiOH rro6e,a:h1 na;i, rrpyccaRaMH. Tpornro oT,6hIJI B IIIaJroH TOJihRO 16 aBrycTa H 'B noq1, .aa 17 npK6I,rJI Ha Me­ cro naaHaqeHHH. 3.n;ech OH y3naJI o :IIopameHHH y Mapc-Jia-Typa. 17 aBrycra B IIIaJioHe •ohIJI crremH-o coaBaH BoeHHhl:ë: coBeT, B HOTOpoM yqacrooBaJIH npH6hlBIIIHH IL3 oHpecrHocreii Meu;a HMnepaTop, npHHD; Ha110JIOOH, Tpornro, MaH­ Mar,oH, HaqaJihHHH rnra6a 12-ro apMe:ë:cRoro Koprryca reHepaJI illMHTD;, a TaR­ me KOM3H,IVIP 18 6aTaJibOH-OB nap·HmCKHX MOOHJie:ë:, oocTaBJI.HBIDRX npe;:r,MeT 6ecnoIWliCTBa .rrpaBHreJihCTBa H y,n;aJieHHhIX n nep.Bhle me WfH B-OBHLI B IIlaJIOH. 05CT3HO'BRa TpelÔOBa::ra 6bI-CTl)OI'O UpHHHTHH npe,LJ.;Y'IIPe,ruITeJibHhIX Mep, 1101m B IlapHme em;e He craJio H3Becrno o HOBOM 11opame1IHH. EhlJIO pemeHo, qro Tpomro HeMe,ri;JieHHO· B03BpaTHTCH B Ilaipnm, ooJI,eqeHHhI:ë: IIOJIHOMOqHHMH Bo­ e:HHODO ry6epHaTopa Ilaipnma 1I IWMaH.,J,yrom;ero BDHCRaMH na.pHIBC'IW'l'O TapHH30Ha, no.n;roroBwT naceJieHHe K Bü3Bpam;1eRHIO JIMnepaTopa 'II rrpHMieT H,eo6xo;:i;n­ Mhle ,IJ,.iTH ôTOfO B08HHhle Mepbl 111• Tp-omro, ramtM o6paaoM, ;:i;ooaJicH cBoeü .u;eJIH: OH nOJiyqHJI meJiaHH-oe Ha­ :BHaqeHIIe 'li npn 3TOM OI'OBOpHJI B Irnllecrne YCJIOBHH CBOero C-OrJiaC'H.H, llTO BCJI0J]; 8a HUM B IIapmR npn6y,ri;yT 18 6aTaJihO'HOB Mo611:ieii, y ·HOTOphlX OH IlOJih3tOBaJICH HeorpaHH'lf-eHHhIM ;::i;o:oopHeM. B B03MOîKHOCTb B-03Bpam;eHHH B Ilapnm JllMileparopa, OCOOOHHO TIOCJie HOBOro IIlopame-HHH, OH, paayMOOTCH, He BepHJI 'H oTHIOJU> :He 6h1JI HaiMepea npeo,n;oJieBaTh ,n;JIH aroro conpoTIIBJieHHe IlaJIHHao H pereHTIIl'H, Bll,IJ;0BIIIHX e,LJ.;RHC'l'BeHHoe crrace1me HlMnepHH B TOM, qTOOhl p;iep­ maTh HarroJiieoHa III Bp;a;iu OT IIapHma. Tpornro aaro TBep�o pernnJI aac.TaBHTh l1aJI11Rao IlO)J;'IIHCaTh )J;OKyMeHT O Ü'l'O Ha3Ha'lf0HHH, KOTOphl:ë: OH IIOJIY4HJI OT l:lM­ rrepaTopa. BoaBpam;ffirne B IIapnm re.aepaila Tporruo 6hIJIO .BCTpelleao llaJI'HKa•o 'Il ,pe­ reHrme:ë: Kpaiiue 'Bpam,::1.e6ao. 06a OHH roTqac narrpaBHJIH Harro..rreoHy III ,n;ene­ · npemaero crpaTernqecKoro IIJiaHa LIIH, B ROT-ophIX HacTa1rnaJIH Ha coxpa•HeanH 11 na ero oTRaae or Bû3Bpam;errmi B IIapHm 112• 18 aBrycra rrpB6hlJia Ha lliaJio­ Ha OTBeTHaH p;enenra, 1B RoTopoi HanoJie-OH III orKa.:ihlBaJICH OT npHJIHroro a. IIlaJioHe pemeHHH 113• IIa.:rH:nao B TOT me ,r:i;eHb BTOpHllHO npeAIIBCM MaK-Ma­ roHy Hll:TH Ha ü0f;\I�HH0Hlle C ·BOHCKaM'l:I ,MapmaJia Baiaena 114, XOTH H 8T0My Bpe­ M8HlI eMy cTaJIH HC<Hhl .II.Ba o6croHre:rhCT'Ba, crrunmmae no;::i; y)];ap ycnex aTo:ii onepan;mi, a HMenno: HemeJiamrn caMoro EaaeH.a BhlBecm CBOB BOHCHa Ha 6JI0Kap;1,1 H Hecnoco6HOCTh illaJIOHCKO:Ü apMHH BhlIIOJIH'lITL B03Jiara!BmyIOCH Ha aee rpy�nyIO II OTB0TCTB0HHyro MH'CCHIO. IlaJunrno 6hlJI BhlHym)];eH no,11iIIHCaT1> npnKaa o HOBOM ,na.a-na'lfeHHH Tpom10 n o6Hapo,r:i;oBaTh ero yme yTpOM 18 aBrycTa: Tpomro !]JOJU{penWI coou: nacTOH­ HHH ooo6m;rorn:eM 06 omH;u;arom,-eM:cH npnfü)1nm na IIlaJioaa 6aTaJIOOHOB napnm­ CKHX Mo6RJien. IloJIHTnqeeKaH oocTaHOBKa ae TI03BOJIHJia 6onanaipTHCTaM co­ a)];aBaTh HOBbie oc;romHeHH.H. B 3aRoHop;areJihHOM Kopnyce B TOT me ]];0Hb IIa­ JIHKao )];ame npIIrrHcaJI ce6e •HHHIJ;HaTIFBY 1Ia3Ha11eHBH Tpoorno 115• 3aTo Tpomro Jiel"RO 0TKa3aJICH B CBOeM rrepB0:\-1 oopam;eHHH K IIatpHmàHaM 18 aBrycTa OT yrroMHHaHHH O B03-Bpam;eHHH HM IIe'PRTOpa. Tpornro HaC.TOHllHBO JI 1n,;iamniepHO IIJ)OBO,IT)IJI B iKH3Hh CBO'H JI{}JIHTlf1IOCNHe aaMhlCJihl. B nepBOM me o6pam;eHHH K napnmaaaM OH HCHO l);aBaJI IIOHHTL, l{TO He HaMepeH corJiaCOBhlBaTh CBOII .n;eiicTBH.H C mm:Heii npa.BHT0JlhCTBa B A0Mail'O­ rlllJ8'CKH 3aHBJIHJI O CB00H rOTOBHOCTH «He IIOJih30BaTbCH 'B.'la-CTbIO, HOTOpaH 0MY 111 T r o chu. Une page d'histoire contemporaine devant l'Assemblée Nationale. Paris, 1871, p. 31-32; Actes, t. V, p. 434. Déposition Schmitz. 112 Papiers secrets du Second empire, J\J� 13. Bruxelles, 1871, p. 46; Papiers et correspondance de la famille impériale, livraison XIV. Paris, 1870, p. 426. 113 Papiers et correspondance de la famille impériale, p. 426. 114 Actes, t. I, p. 29. Rapport Saint-Marc Girardin. 115 Annales... Corps Législatif. Séance du 18 août 1870, ip. 149. 120
rrpe�OCTa,BJIHeTCH oca,nHblM nonomeHHeM, a OCHOBhlBaTb CBOII OTHOill0HHH C Ha­ ceJieHHeM Ha IlpllHIJ;HIIaX IB3aHMHOf0 �OBepIIH>). ÜB ·3aBepHJI napnma!H, qTO CTO­ lIHQa 6yAeT OTHhIHe npe:sipam;eaa B n:eB'liP BoeHHoft 06opon1,1, B n.eaTp «Benn-1u1x y.cwu1i, BeJIHKHX mepT·B H 'IIpH}_rnpon>> 116• 19 a-nrycTa 'B crren;HaJibHOM pa3'bH'CHeHn:-H, Koropoe eMy np11m.i:oc1, .n;aTh B ra3eTe «Le Temps» no noEo,n;y CB·oero iIIepBoro o6pam;eHHH, BO.JMYTillBIDero rrpaBIITeJihCTB0HiHhle KPYTH, OH em;c ,pea11e IlO):(1I0PKHYJI CBOH pacxom)];eHHH C IIOJIHTHROÎÎ IItpaBHTeJihCTBa. T,pomIO­ npocTpaHHO pa3rnaroJibCT'BOBaJI O TOM, qT-o «II,J.E'H 06ecrre11eHHJI IIO'pH;�1rn CHJIOH IDThIKa H caoJIH» ·BHymaeT eMy «ymac H O'I'Bipam;eHHe>>, 1IT0 OH HBJIH0TCH npo-­ THBHHKOM «rrepcoHHq>HII.HtPO'BaHHOro rrpaBHTeJihCTBa>>. To.ilbKO <<6e3JIH1IHOe- IIJPa-· BHT0JlbCTBO,- n:e:n;eMeipno aaHBHJI T1pomro,- paccMaT1p1rnarom;ee COOH HCRJIIO­ qffT0JlbHO KaK npe.ri;cTaBRT0JIH aan.HH, MhlCJIHIII.ee H )];eÎÎCTBYIOIII.ee TOJibIW B HH-­ Tepeeax H8D;HH H HHKOrp;a B CBOHX co6CTB0BHbIX HHTeipecax, IIO;:J;1IHHHIOm;eecH KOHtipOJIIO Œl:aD;BH H CtJKT-arom;ee ero cnaCHTeJlhHhIM ,Il;JI.H ce6.a; npaBH'reJib'CTBO' npHMO)];YWBOO, HCKpeH'Hee, peBHOCTHO OTCTa,Hnarom;ee o6m;ecTB0HIIOe 6naro II OJIH�BOpHIOin;OO ofüQecTBeHHYIO 1IeCTb, - o6nap;aeT II'◊JJ;JIHHHoii Mopan1,noii CHJIOH...» 117. Cl>pamcyacKaH 'H 3apyoemHaH ne1IaTh BOCIIpHHJIJia o6a 'BLIC'fYIIJie­ HlUI K3K (('1IOJIHTH1IecKyro MamupecTaU:HIO», IIIPe]);CTaB.TI.HBillYIO lllpHMOH BMl301J;­ pe»œMy Bropoîi JD1nepID1. «feHepa;r Tpomro B p;eicTBHTeJihHOCTH TPOOY'eT OT­ Ka3a •Ha.Bcer,!(a OT JIIOOhIX q>OpM JIH1IHOrO npaBJieHHH»,- KOMM0H'Tllpû•BaJI BTR. BhICTyll,i"IetH'HH mBein;apcKHH oq>un:no3 <<Journal de Genève>> 118• B TOM me �yxe OhlJIH cocTaBJie.Hhl ABa cne�YJOII-VIX B033BaHH.H Tpomro: or 19 aBrycTa - «R Han;HoHaJibHoii: rBap)VIH IlatpHma, R �rn6e:JI1,noii rBaip�H, K COJl,l(a-TaM napnmcKoi peryn.HpH-OH apMHH lI KO 1BCeM :rrp01IHM 3am;HTHHKaM IIa­ pHma, 119, 11 or 23 aBryCTa -crreu.naJibHO oopam;eHBOe K IIpH6hIBIDHM ll3 illa­ JIOHa MOOHJIHM, paaMem;eHHhl�t B BOeHHOM narepe CeH-Mop no,n; IIapn.meM. IIpoTJI:BonocraBJIHH ce6H npaBHTeJibCTBY Bropoii: HMnep«H, yµ;,aJIJIBmeMy iB cBoe­ apeMH napumc.KHX MOOHJieii n-a croJIHD;hl, Tpomro B oopam;e-nun K HHM or 23 asrycTa 3aHBHJI: «JI noope6ooan Bamero ueMe,n.Jie.nnoro B03Bpam;eHH.H B­ Ilapu-m, u.60 Bhl HMeeTe ua aro npa,no, 1100 Barn ,n.onr Baxo;::i;HThCH 3,n.ec1,, uoo R Il.HTaIO K BaM IlOJIHOe )];OBepHe» 120• Tpomro 01,IJI yoem,n.en, qro TO:Ib1W yMe.il'00 ·3an:rphIBaHne C Harpo�bIMH Ma•C­ caMB, KOTOpoe OH ,n;eMarornqecRII Ha3hl'BaJI «llOJIHTKKOH -MOpaJibHOÜ CHJihl», crro­ COOHO npH CJI10H(H.Bill0MC.H Kpa:àne BaIIp.H.meHHOM IIOJI'Olli0HIIH npeµ,OiTBpaTHTb­ peBOJIIOD;HIO. IlpaBRTeJibCTBo ire pacrronarano 4Ieo6xo�Moii Boopym,eH11oii c·n­ JIOH, 1IT00hl no,n.aBH'TI, peBüJIIOIJ;HOHHOe !BhICTYIIJieHHe Hapo,n.a, ecJTII 6hl OHO rrpo­ HaoIIIJID: 13-i apMeiicKHi Kopnyc renepana BHHya, HaHOOJiee «Ha,n.emHaH oc­ HOBa» napH1KCKOf0 rapIDI30Ha, 6hIJI no Heo6xolJ,HMOCTH ornpaBJieu B Men;; oc­ T-aBaBillH-OC.H me B Ilapnme 1HOMHOl'01IHCJieRBhie c6opnhle Boiic1rn MaJio 1Jero­ CTOHJ'IH n BOeHHOM OTBOmemrn:, ç:i;a H .He BHymaJIH UOJI1f'ill:11I01CKOI'O ]liOBep:ruI. 3TI.H COOIOpame-HH.H Tpomro ornpoBeHBo nanaraJI ·B 3aKOHol];aTeJihHOM Kopnyce. «Ho paC.C1IHThl'BaÜTe,- Y'Oei>RAaJI OH .n;enyTaTOB,- qT-o 'B CJiyqae HOB,ON) TIOpameHHH RaM YÀaCTCH IIOCJie nponrp1,1ma 1IeTBeproro cpameHHH npOTHB HenpHHT0JIH Bhl­ HrpaTb B Ilapume cpameHH-e rrporaB Hapo.n;a. Heo6xo,IUIMo npe.n;ynp,e,n.mh CTOJIK­ HOBenue C Hapo)];OM npH IIOMOID;H -Mopa.llbHOH CIIJII,I. Bcro MOpaJibRYID CHJIY, KO­ TOpoi H pacnonara10, H npe;:t.Jiararo K yc;1yraM npaB-HTeJibC· TBa. Ilpomy nac ,. IlOBepL'Te MOOMy OllhITY, pa3pemHTe MBe IIOilbITaTbC.H Jrn:qHblMII ycHJIHHMH, li IIpHTOM MOpaJihHOfO CIBOHCTBa, Y,CTpaHHTb B03MOIBHOCTh TaKOrO CTOJIKHOBeHH.H.• ,[{a y Bac n H� rapHH30Ha» 121• ILpe;vrnraH cnon ycnyru npaBHTeJihCTBy ,. r «Le Temps», 18 août 1870; «Journal de Genève>>, 20 août 1870. «Le Temps», 19 août 1870. Supplement au «Journal de Genève», 22 août 1870. 119 « Journal de Genève» 23 août 1870 . , 120 «Le Temps» 25 août 1870; Actes t. I p. 293. Rapport Cbaper. , , , 121 T r o ch u. Op. cit. p. 39-40. , 116 117 118 121
T,pom10 B ,IJ,eÜCTBllT0JihHOCTH 3a60TIIJICH He O cox·paHeHHH 6onana,pTHCTCKOH HMIIe,pHH, a O CBOeii co6cTB8HHOH nonyJIHpHOCTB, KOTO!paH B03paCT3Jia C Kam­ �hlM AHeM. Ero ooipam;eHHH R HaCeJieHlUO, 3ByllaBIDIIe Bhl30BOM 6oHana1pTHCT­ CIWMy peanrMy, 6ypmya3HaH neqaTb na3IiIBaJia oo,paan;oM «6Jiaropo;o;Heamero naTpHOUl3Ma li qIIcTeË:m,eii A8MORpaTHll>) 122• feHepaJI CTaHOBDJICH <<RYMHPOM rraplliRCIWll 6ypmya3IUI>>, BOCXB3JIHBmeii Ha BC0 Jia�hl ero BOOHHhlB reHIIÜ, ero rrpe,u,aHHOCTI, <<HHTepecaM oTel!ecTBa>>. B 3TIIX ycJIOBHHX rrpaB·HTeJii.cTBY llaJIH­ Kao, y KOrroporo ,IJ,eHCTBHH Tpomro Bhl3hlBaJIH He;:{OBepne B llO,ll,03pHT8JibHOCTI,t rrpHXO,!lIIJIOCb Tm;aTeJihHO MaCKHpoBaTh CBOe IIO;D;JIHHH00 0THOmeHBe K reHepa­ JIY, 3a CIIIIHOB KOTOporo K TOMy me <<CTOHJIII 15 ThlCHll MOJI'O)J;LIX napHmCKHX MO6HJI8H, KM8BillHX BO Bcex 1wm::r;ax CTOJIIIII,bl pO;:{CTBeHHbie II Hllbl0 CBH3'll C naee.. .Jl8HlŒM� 123• BoHarra P'TIICThl ,CqIITaJIH ·Tam«e neo6xo,IJ,HMhl:M Clq>hlBaTh paai.iro­ rJiaCHH II Bpam,u,y, pa3'he,l].aBmHe npaBHTeJibCTBeHHbIH arrrrapaT, ll IIOMepmH­ BaTh y Hatpo,rr,a yoem;:r.eHHe B ·C.IIJIO'l!eHHOCT:Ii 1IIpaBIITeJihCTBa, 'B aq><peKTHBHOCT11 ero o6opoHHhlX Mep-0IIpHHTHH. B ,u,eücTBIITeJILHOCTII BOeHHhIH MHHIIcrp IlaJIHKao li BOeHHhlH ryoepnaTop llapnam Tpom10 cBoeii 'OOaHMHon Bpam�oü RpaiiBe ocJia6mIJIH o6opoHy IlapH� m.a: Kam;D;hl:ë: 113 HlIX HrHOpHJ)OBaJI pacnopm«eHIIH ,n;pyroro. IlaJIRKaO, Bpam­ ,u,eOHhIH C'IlpaTerH1Iec1<0My nJiany, IlfPHHHTOMy npII yqacTHII Tpomro B filaJioHe, HaCTOHJI Ha oTI-m3e HanoJieoHa III OT Hero. 20 aBrycTa B IIlaJioH HanpaBHJICH 1IJieH rocy,u,apCTBeHHOro COBeTa Pyap, 'ITOOhl OKa3aTL .n;aJibHe:ëmee ,uaBJieHHe na KOJrn6aBmerocH HMIIepaTopa II IlOJIHOCThlO rapaHTHpoBaTb ,ll;BHmeHHe BOHCR MaR-MaroHa Ha icoep;IIHeHIIe c apMIIeii BaaeHa y Meu.a. 21 a'BrycTa, ,u,o upn6hlTHH Pyapa � illaJIOH, MaK-Ma­ lloxo� MaR-MaroHa ron, C'lJIITaBmn:ii oIIaCHLIM OCTaBaTbCH )];aJiee B IDa.rro-­ R Men;y. He, KOTOpOMy, no HM0-BIDHMCH y He.ro CBep;eHHH-11, 1'aK IlapIDK HaKaicyHe �aHcRoi RaTae-rpoq>N. me, KaK III :Meey, yrpoma.rrn: aBaHrap�Hhle tJaCTH 3-n HeMeII,KOB apMIIlI, nepeopoCIIJI CBOH B.0:0:CKa B PeiiMc, oTKy,rr,a mrrn nyTII Ha Men; H Ha IIapum. MaK-MaroH K 3TOMy BpeMeHH y.KpeUIIJICH 'B CBOeM yoem_;:\0HIIH, qTO ,I(BHiIŒHHe Ha Men; IlpHB0-;:(0T K paarpoMy nocJie,IJ,Heü cppaH II.Y•3CKOH apMHII. llpnohlBIDIIn BCJie;:( aa MaK-MaroHoM B Pe:ë:Me Pyap rrhtraJiicH ysepHTb ero, tJ110 <<iHlPITO He -rpe6ye-T )J;BIIiKOOIBH apMHll x Ila­ pnmy»; o.B 'HacTa:HBaJI Ha neo6xo;r:oIMOCTH lI)trll 'lia 110Moin;» Baa-eHY BO na6ema­ HHe cep1:,eaHMX .ocJiomneHHÎÎ B Ilapnme. :MapmaJI, O)lHruKo, omaaaJIICH cJie�OBaTL :8TOMY IIJiaHy, COCJiaBIDHCb Ha TO, 11:TO OH «He MomeT R)J;TH Ha TaKo:ë: pHCK • -OlfYTlITbCH B OKpymeHHlI npyce1rn:x apMHÜ». Oa npocIDI Pyapa «H'3JIOHŒT& B .STOM .n;yxe B00HHOMY MH:IDICTPY MOTHBhl, no6ym;:1.a10�11e ero Ha11aTb orotyrrJie.. Bne K I1ap 11my» 124. Üp;HaK-O 23 ar»rycra, ,B JJ;0Hl>, 1wrp;a MaK-MaroH HaMepooaJicH BLICTYJil'ITh H8 PeiiMca B Hanpa-BJieHHH Ilapnma, o:a, HaIIpoTHB, ,D;BIIHYJI CBOH BoiicKa K Me�y. BrrocJie,D;CTBHH OH OO'l>HCHHJI CBOÜ OTKa3 OT rrpHHJITOro paHee pemeHIIH TeM, 11TO '22 aBrycTa rroJiy-qHJI .n;enemy OT Ba3eHa, coa.n;aBmyio y Hero BIIellaTJieH•He, oy�­ TO BaaieH oo611paerc.a n1,rcTyIUIT1> na Meu.a n qTo OH aacTaHe-T ero n oKpecTHO•CTHX MoHM0):0{ 125• B J);eiiCTBIIT0JI1,HOCTH cym;ecTBOBaJia )l1pyra11, B0CbMa BeCKaJI rrpnq:e:Ha orna.sa Max-MaroHa oT ,o.TcTyrrJieHKH R cToJI:e:n;e, a H·MeHHo, rroJiy-qen­ HaH -o�HoBpeM·rumo 'II3 Ilapm«a na KMH HanoJIOOna III �enema OT ooe.HHoro HH­ HHlCTpa, B KOTOpoÜ llaJIHKaO em;e pemHTeJII,jfl-00 HacTaH·BaJI Ha ].(BHHreHIOI K Me­ u.y, ccblJia.H-c1, Ha TO, ll"T0 aroro Tl)ooyror UHTepechl ooxpaHenus H'MllepH'II. ÛH -ciH-oBa -aaBepHJI, q-ro Ilapm« B oocromnm: o5opoH&TLCH 6ea noMU� apMB'II MaK­ MaToaa 126. «Le Temps'>, 20 août 1870. Actes, t. V, p. 67. Déposition David; cM. Ta10Ke. Actes, t. I, p. 27. Rapport Saint'Marc Girardin. 124 Actes, t, V, p. 15. Déposition Mac-Mahon. 125 Ibid., p. 16. 129 Ibid., p. 16. 122 123
120-TLICH1IHaJI apMHH MaK-MaroHa, Manonp:e:ro,n;HaH no CBOHM 6oeBLIM Ka11l'1CTBa,M AJIH TH'8eJl'Oro, p1ICKOBaHHOro nepexo;a,a qepea Ap,AeHHhl, He 61>IJ1a I[ TOMY me o6eorre11eHa IIp<>BllaHTOM. ÜHa ,Il,BHraJia-Cb KpaiiHe M8AJieHHO, C 1BhIHY7R­ J(eHHLIMH OTKJIOHeHllHMH Ha aana,IJ, B IIOHCRax npo,AOBOJibCTBHH. Bcne,ACTBHe- 8TO­ ro ee11ŒD;KOMY Kopnycy y;a;aJioc1, nperpa,ilHTb eii .nyTh R Men;y. Pac11eT:hl Ha BLI­ cTynJieHH'e Ba•aeHa Ha Men;a He IIOATBep,Il,·HJIHCb. He pennrnmH1C1> oKaaaTb co­ npoTKBJieHHe HeMen;KIIM IBOÎÎCKaM, MaR-MaroH B HO'tlb Ba 28 aBrycTa BaqaJI •<>TxoÀ ua aan� H 28 a'BrycTa npH6hlJI B Mea1>ep. Ho B TOT me ,AeH1, MapmaJI CllOBa 'llepeMeHHJI peme:mrn H 'B0306BOBHJI upepBaRHoe HM �HiReHHe Ha BOC'.OOR R Men;y, HeCMOTpH Ha TO, 11TO Il08HTI;lIH ero apMHH, BCJie,n;cTBHe- npoBOJI011KH C OTXo;a,o-M K MeaLepy, e�e 6oJioo yxy�rr:m.;rra,c1,. Il,p1111HHoii Bo·ao6aoBJieHHH aBaH­ TIOpBcTH1IOOKoro �.IDKeHHH K Meey, B nary6H-oCTll 1wroporo MaR-MaroH 6hlJI TaK T-Bep;a;o yoem;r;eH, HBHJiaCb 'Il0Jlyl!0HHaH HM 28 a.Brye-Ta Hû'B3H p;,enema OT IlaJIHKao: «Ecn11 Bhl noKmeTe EaaeHa, B IIapHme npoHaoii�eT peBOJIIOn;HH>> 127• lfHTetpechl AffHaCTlIII BoHanapTOB, RaK 8TO 6hIJIO yme He ipaa ·C Ha11ana BOHHbl, -011pe,n;eJIHJfH BOeHHhle ,!{8HCTBIIH q,pa11ni;yacKoii apMHlI. HaRHe me co61:a1T:n:H npoHcxo;a,HJIII TeM BpeMeHeM B Ilap:u:me? IlpaBHT0JihCTBO Ilan:n:Rao, IIOJI1>ay.acb JierR'oBepneM HaoeJiell'HH, rrpo,u;onmaJio .AepmaTb ero B He.Be,n;eHHH OTHOCHT8JlbHO IIOJIOïRBHHH Ha <ppOHTe. Jlomb o.J)H­ il(HaJibHhIX npaiB'B:TeJibCTBBHHhIX 6IOJIJieTeHeii rrepeKJIHRaJiaCb C 6eaaacreH1iHBhl­ .MH H3MhlmJiearuu.m: llleqar:u:. 24 a»rycTa, Kor,a;a MaR-MaroH Bo rJiaBe rrocJie,n­ :neii <J>pam:�yaciroii apMHH ôecnoMo�Ho 6.Jiym�aJI B ApAeHHCRHX necax, Hacene­ HHe Ilap:u:ma Bce ein;e He OhIJIO orroBein;eHo o rropameHHHX 16 H 18 aBrycta rrO·A Men;oM. MaJio Toro, cf,paH1:�yocRa.a .rre11aTb pacnpocTpaHHJia CJiyxH o TOM, 6y:A­ To HeMn;hl ohIJIH 16 a-BrycTa oropomeHLI R p. MoaeJih, n apMHII MaK-Maroaa -06ecne11eH IIOJIHhm ycnex ua no;a,cTynax K Meo;y. IIannRao B 3aKOHOAaTen:1:,noM Roprryce oq)IIIlHaJibHO no;a;TBepmAaJI coo6m;eHHH rreqaTn, II aaBepHJI HaceneH:n:e, o6e-cJIOROeHHoe CBe,n;eHHHMII 11'3 HeMen;RHX HCT011HHRO·B, B TOM, 1ITO HeMn;hl H 18 a,Brycra rroaecJIH rropameBHe. MemJ:(y reM BCH EBporra 6:hIJia rroJIBa cnyxo11 -0 ll'OCTHrmeit <l>pan:a;mo BOeHHOii Ka TaCTpoq,e. JleBhle ,n;enyTaTl:al 6h1JIII OCBe�OMJIBHhl O A8HCTB-HT9JlbHOM IIOJIO»teHHH Ha -q>poHre 128, XOTH H llhlCTYIIaJilI B 3aROHO,II.aTe.JlbHOM Roprryce C aarrpocaMH na &TOT cqeT. M IIM0HBO [IOTOMY, 1iTO HM 6LIJIO H3BeCTHO O HOBhlX rropame•H'HHX .q>paneyacKoi a.pMIIII, OHII ein;e TeCHee CBH3hIBaJIHCb C o pJieaHHCTaMH li YCTa­ HOBHJIH IIOCTOHHHLiii ROHTaKT C reHepaJIOM Tpomro. T1:,ep yme 21 aBrycTa, qepea TPH AHH rrœJie BoaBparn;eanH Tpom10 H'3 illa­ J.IOHa, c o�OQ_pen:u:eM OTMeTllJI, qTo «Tpomro CJierKa o- 6xaiRHBaieT napJJa'MeHT­ -cRyIO JieByro» 129, a necKoJII,RllMH Jl;HHMH rroame µ,ame rropnn;aJI reHepana aa TO, ;'ITO TOT CJIHillKOM MHOro BpeMeHH T!PaTHJI Ha JieBblX ,AeIIyTaTOB B ym;eipo,., CB-OHM BOeHHLIM o6HaaHHOCTHM. «8TO 011eHh xopomo H, 6hITb MOiR0T, ,a,eooxo.::urMO y,u;e­ _JJ.JITb .no 1ieTLipe 11aca B ,n;eifh rocrro.I(aM CII,MOHy, IIenneraHy, Aparo :u: APY'i"HM,­ -aaMeTWI OH rpaq,y ;a;'OcOHBHJIIO,- HO Ha.n,o TaKme yµ,eJIHTL 1IeTLIJ)0 B 60JJhID8 "IaeoB ,B A0HL HHcneRTHpoBaH•HIO pa6oT no yRperrneHHIO Ilapnma» 130• HMeIOTCH :M:H-oro1IHCJ10HHhle CB11JJ;0TeJILCTBa O H80.!QIORpaTHhlX BC'Tpe11ax Tpomro C JieBl:alMB ;a;enyTaTaMH IBO Bropoii IIOJIOBHIJe aBrycTa If HaqaJie ceHTH6pH 1870 r. 131, XOT.H -caM Tpomro B CBOHX II03.Itff0HJIUIX IIo:EmaaHllHX H rrp01IHX O<pHI:�HaJILHhlX aaHB­ .Jl0HHHX KaTerqpn:qecKII OTfI)Hn;aJI, l!TO Memp;y HHM 11 JieBhlMH J(eIIyTaTaMH 127 Papiers et correspondance de la famille impériale. Livr. XIV, p. 430. Actes, t. V, p. 76. Déposition Palikao. 129 D' H au s s o nvi 11 e. Op. cit., p. 38_,39_ 180 Ibid., p. 55. 181 J. Favr e. Op. cit., t. I, p. 49-50; J. S i m o n. Op. cit., p. 340, 421.3; Actes, t. V, p. 151. Déposition Favre; p. 'l!J7. Déposition Kératry; p. 99. Déposition Duvernois; p. 399. Déposition Guyot-Montpayroux; p. 74. Lettre d'ancien commandant militaire du palais du Louvre au général Palikao. Orléans, 7 juillet 1872; L'Empire et la défence de Paris devant le jury de la Seine. Paris, 1872, p. 144-145. Déposition Schmitz. 128 123
,cy�eCTBüBaJia l,aE:aH-JlllOO cwi;n, ;�{) cBepa...eHHJI HMIIepnn. ÜAHaIW B IJ0CJJ8AHHX tfIICJiax aBrycra OH rrpH3JianaJIC.H :pcreHTIIIe B BaJIJI"qlfJI y Hero T8IŒ.X CBH38:M. «Barne 1 B8JIIflIOCTBO,- 3a.rrmw OH,- 8CJIH Barna IIOJIII:UHH pa6oraeT xopomo, TO BaM ,II;OJDRHO 6b1Tb JI3BCC'THO, qro .fI Haxomycb B CHOIIIeIIHHX C 1IJieHaMH OllII0•3H­ J�HH. C1IHTaIO cnoeii 06.HsaHHOCTbIO 6bITb ocnep;OMJieHHI,IM O COCTOHHHH oôm;ecr­ neuHoro MHeHn.a, npom;yrn,rnarL nyJihC aroro MHeHBH>> 132• TpoIIIIO, no;u;o6Ho Tbepy, BCe 6oJieie CR:IoRm1-cH R 1rp;ee iRoaJIHIOIOHHoro npa­ RHTeJibCriBa If CTJIITa.TI, Hal, H Tbep, IIO·Jie3UhIM npeMeHHO co·rpy,II;HnqaTb C 6yp­ mya3HhIMH pocrry,6:.rHRaHI:�a,MII. C HX IIO.MOID;hIO OH pa,c,c1IHThlBaJI npep;OTBpatllTh­ peBOJIJOIJ;HIO H cocpe.,1oro-LJHTh BJracrb 'B c.BoHx pyRax. Tpomro crapaTeJihHO aano­ t�BhIBaJI icelÔe ·BC1e 6oJiee IIIlIP,OhYIO rrony.::i.HpHOCTb. Yme IlOCJie ero 11e -pBhlX oopa­ rn;eHHH R ,napHmaHaM Ha rro IIMH IIOChIIIaJUICh npHB81'CTBHH ,ga COTH.11.MH nop;­ Il'HCe:Ü: or 6ara.'IhOIIOB uau;n-onaJibHOH rBap,n;lI.H, OT MOOHJibHhlX rnap,,I(eftn;eB, OT' rpamp;aHCI\'OfO HaCOJI0H'I1.H p.Hµ;a OKpyr-oB Ilaprona, OT ih"'HT0JI•e:ë: �napTaMe'HTOB. B HHX Bhlpama.1-0Cb HeorpaHI. PieHHoe IIO:IHT.Hqe-c1me ;:J;OBepHe reHepaJiy, TBep­ .n;oe yoemp;,e,une B 1'0)1, �TO ooopoHa cDpaHI(HH OTHhlH-0 HaXO'AHTC.11 B B8pHhIX ipy1'aX. h HeMy, B ero pe-JII,lC'HI�IIIO, HBaHJI'lICb 'MHOr-OqRCJI0HHhie p;ooyTa.qHH. Ü;I;Ha ll3 HHX, OT HaI�HOJia:n,uoii rBap;:urn:, HaCTOHT8JibHO npOCBJia ero t!IpOBecTH ltaK lfOH(HO �Kopee BOeHHhIÜ CMOTP, a 38T8.M (<B3HTh 6pa3;J;hl Hpa'BJieHHH B CBOlt ,pyKH» 133• <<ÜH :mu;er nony.JIHipHOCTlI JI npeycnenaeT B 3TOM, qTO, na MO:Ü B3fJIH� ,.. conceM He nJioxo npn co3p;aBIIIHXCH o6cro.HT0JihCTBax»,- -OTMeTBJI T1,,ep n JJ;Baµ,­ n;aThIX qncJiax aBrycTa 134. Ilo,n;aBJI.HIOIIJ;ee 60:n,nnIHCTBO rrpHBeTCTBeHHhlX a,J,pecOB, .nocryIIHBillllX Ha HMH Tpornro, HCXO,'(.IIJIO OT 6ypmya3HhIX CJI08B, rrpe;v1aranmHX eMy B pa�e CJIY11aen Hap.11.n;y C MOpaJibHOM no;çi;epmIWH TaKme MarepHaJibHMe cpe:µ,CTBa WIH op­ raHII3a.a;:m1 ooopoHhI. Ho ·II pa,6011He MaccM Ilapu:ma, a TeM 6onee npoBHHn;1u1. BBe;:J;eHHhie :B aa6nym;reHue �eMarorIITJeCRHM 3aHrphlBaHHeM C HIIMH noeHHOfO ry,ôepHaTopa, ·IIPOHHKa.rrIICh ;l,OBeJHie�I R HeMy. ÜHH He rrop;oapenaJIII O 6eaµ;e.ü­ CTBHII reHepana, y6ern�eHHOro B H0Il03:\fOiRIIOCTH OTCTOHTh IlapHiR. MnepTHOCTI:,.. Tpomro, noarJianJIHBIIIero Ho:MnreT o6opoHhI IIapHma, Boa6ym;1.aJia HapeRa­ HHH qJieHOB 3Toro HoMIITeTa, O,],JIH H3 ROTüpbIX aap;aJI eMy ,n;ame HpOHHqeoRH:Ü Borrpoc, RaK ,CJiep;yer H�IBHOBaTb B03rJiaBJIH€'.MhlÜ -HM ROMHTOT - RoMB� -060,poHhI ( de défense) IIJIH 6e3,n;eiicTBHH ( de défaillance) 135• T�p TaRme, 1rnK Mhl 8HaeM, OTMfflJaJI 6e3p;0HT€JlbHOCTb Tpomro. MapRc cnpaBeAJ1HBo paaooJia11a.rr yme B :no BpeMa <f>paHn;yacKyIO oypmya­ aHro, KoropaH 'CTparnHJiaci, cnoero Hapo,;:i;a ropaaÀo 6oJihme, 11eM rrpyœRHX oK­ KyrraHTOB, H ue rnyma.rra,Cb C03;:I.U.Ba Tb y nap0,1HhlX Mœve JIOmH100 y6emAeHHe, 6y,l];ro ITapHiR rrpeBpaiu;aerc.a B MOID;HhIÜ u;eHTp o5opoHhl. ÛH 11Hcan o npecTyn­ HMX aaMMCJiax 6oRanapTIICTOB: «Ilo MOeMy MHeHHIO, BC.11 aa�HTa IlapHma illiillb IlOJIHD;eÜCKHÜ <pape, lJTOObl YCIIOJWIITh napIImaH, IIORa rrpycca.RK He 6y­ ]:(YT CTOHTh y BOpOT II IIOirn J-18 crracy'T nop.flâo-,,.,, a lIM€:HHO wmaeTIIIO 11 ee Ma­ M8JIIO.ROB >> 136• CroJib me HCHhI -6hlJIH Map1rny npOIICKH opJieaHHCTOB, -crpe,MIIB­ llilIXCH R BJiaCTH. <<B Ilaipnme, IIO-BH�HMO:\-IY, aaHHThl lICRJIIOqnreJihHO TeM, qro­ OhI y,ll;eipmaTb na,ceireirne or •BhICTyrr.-:renn.iî ,:(o rex rrop, noRa 6y,n,yT IlPHHHThl ne­ oox-o,a;IIMbie MetphI ,ll;JIH nepe;r:i;a-qn Bpe)IeHHoro rripanneHHH trustees 137 ÜpJiean­ CROH WIHaCTlIH>>,- IIHca.1 OH 3Hre;n,cy 22 aBrycTa 1870 r. 138 1 L'Empire et la défense de Paris devant le jury de la Seine, p. 96. Déposition Rouher. 133 Actes, t. V, p. 43'6. Déposition Schmitz. 134 D' Ha u s s o n v i 11 e. Op. cit., p. 39. 135 Actes, t. V, p. 70. Déposition David. 136 K MapKc - <D. 8Hre.i:bcy, 2 ceHTH6pH 1870 r. K Ma p K c H cl>. :3 H r e JI b c. GoCI .. 132 T. T. XXIV, CTp. 3'90. 137 << YIIOJI'llOM01IeHHLIM» ( aHr:I.) 138 K. MapKc - <I>. 8are.:ihcy, 22 aBrycT.a 1870 r. R. Ma p R c H cl>. 3 H r e JI 1> c. XXIV, CTp. 389. 124 Cori..
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8rn CJIOBa MapRca MOTJIH 61>ITI, c IIOJIHhlM OCHOBaHKeM OTHeceHbl lI R Cû'­ o6�HHRaM opJieaHBC'TtOB - 6ypmya3HbIM pecny6murnHr,;aM, IlOMOraBmHM BBO­ MTb B OÔMaH Hapü;l.Hhie Ma'CChl. faM6e'TTa y.me 11epea .rtBa ,IJ,HH nocJie Ha3Ha11e­ BHH Tpornro noeHHhlM ryôepHaTopoM IlapHma YTBepm,u.an B 3aKQ.Ho.,U.aTeJibHOM 1wprryce, 6y,tr;TO .rteJio noopymeHHH uan;HoHaJI&Ho:ë: rBap,u;KH 611aro.rtapJI reaepany TpomIO 3Hall:HT0JibHO ynyqmHJIOCb 139• HeCKOJibKHMH J{HJIMH Il03Aaee raM6eTTa IIpB IIOM0PJRKe IlHKapa IlOTpe6oBaJI, 1IT06.bl ROMilJieKTOBaHHe H BOopymeHHe­ HaqHOHaJibHOH rnap,rvm 6hlJlO ,D;OIBepeHO l'OJibRO OJtHOMy TpomIO, XOTH JI8'BbJe ;:tenyTaThl 6hlJIH O·CB0,D;OMJ10HhI O TOM, 1ITO HHKa'KHX C�€1CTB0HHLIX C_l\BKrOB B aroii o6JiaCTH He npoH30illJIO. Tpom10 He TOJILRO He BOOpymaJI paôoqee Ha­ C0JI0HHe Ilap:�u«a, Ho H 11a;1,aJI 24 aBrycTa .npHRaa o cpo11Hoü BHCiaIJIRe ua Ila­ pHma Jl111II;, (<He HMeIO�HX cpe.rtCTB :R cym;ecTBOBaHHIO, np.e:cyT-CTBHe KOTOpLIX B Ilapnme rrpe�cTruB.JIHeI' yrpoay ;l.J.IH o6m;·ecrBeHHoro nopH�a H ,IJ;JIH JIH11Hoü 6eaorraCHOCTH 1RHTeJieÜ:, KaK II f{.JIH HX HM�eCTBa, a TaKme JIHD;, ROTOphle CBO­ HMH Jt0HCT,BHHMH npeIIHTCTBYJOT ocytn;ecTBJI0HlllO MeponpllHTHH, HanpaBJieB­ HhIX K o6ecne1I0HHIO o6m;ecTB0HO.H 6e30IIa'CHOCTH» 140• HapymHTeJie:Ü: ,u.aHnoro, npnKaiaa cne.rtonano npe.rtaBaTb c Y'/1.Y BOeHHoro TpHoyHana. Tponno cc1a1JiaJICH •Ha eT. 75 .n;eRpera OT 24 'fJ.0KaopH 1811 r. H Ha aaKOH OT 9 aBryCTa 1849 r. o6 oca]{­ HOM IIOJlOiK0HHH. IlpHKa3 TpomIO 6bIJI BC'll)01I0H B0CLMa coqyBCTB8HHO ,peaK�H­ OHHhIMH iKpyraMH KaK 'B caMO.H <I>paHIJ;HH, TaK B aa ee .npe,u.eJiaMB 141• cBeCTHHK EBponhl>> npaBHJILHO y:Kaablna.n, KOro HMeHHo HMeJI B mt)cy Tpo­ m10 B c·B -oeM npHKa3e: <<Ilpo.-::reTaputi H pa6otrai B006in;e -ne TOJILKO ne npHHH­ MaeTCH B COCT_aB HaIJ;HOHaJibHOH rnap;iHH, HO no iIIOCJI8,u;HeMy npBKaiay Tpom10 Aame ;!1.0JI>IrnH 6yÀeT c- oBepmeRHo noKHHYTI> Ila.pam, iroo OH He B COOTOJIB'llH aa­ rOTOBHT.L ]J,JHI ce6H JRH3HeHHhI0 rrpnnachl Ha BCe BpeMJI ocaAiaI>> 14�. Mn-0roq11cJreHHbie o6i.rcRH 'Il apecrhl, rna•BHiaIM oopa•30M opeAH pa001Iero Ha­ ceJI.eHHH, IIOCJie,,rJ,OBaJIH B Ilap:nORe 3a Il1PIDia30M OT 24 a•BTycra. B OJ{HOM TOJibRO MoHMapTpe B Ho111, Ha 25 anrycra 6RJIO apecroBaHo OKOJIO 800 11eJio,BeR. Ilo �o6m;e.HHIO «He,u;e.rrH ►)' 26 aBrycra IIOJIHD;'HH apOOTOBaJia Âo 1500 1I0JIOBeK, cpe­ AK KOTOpLIX 6bJJIO «MIIOro pec.nyoJIHKaHr,;eB, con;aaJIHCTOB H HeHa'BHCTHhIX AJI» Bropo:ë H'MIIepnn mypHaJl'HCTOB ►> 143• MaCCOB1a1e OOLICKK K apecTLI npo.n;onma­ JIHCb H B nOCJie;zy10nµIe ]WH. CpeAH ipa6o11Hx yc:e:JI:e:Banoc1, peooJIIOJ.\HOHHoe6pome,u11e, Bnyma.Bmee 60.rri,moe 6ecnoKoiic-rBo 6onarrapTHCTaM. B ,11ocne.n;RHX 1IHCJiaX aBrycTa O�HH Hia rrpaB.blX µ;enyraTOB 3aKOHOf{.aT8JlhHOrO ROpnyca nu­ caJI: «HMrrepHH norHOJia H, no Bcei BHAHMOCTH, BM0CTe C Heii BC"lle&HeT H .na­ JlaTa, 11·60 !HaIDH KOJI.rrern H3 JieBOH <f>paKn;HH He 'CKphlBaIOT OT HaiC, 1ITO OHH C 6oJILmHM rpy.n;oM c�epmR1BaIOT aaBcer.i:i;araeB KJiy6oB, JIIO,u;eii 113 rrpe'fJ.MOOTBii. HacTyllHT MoMeHr, Kor.a,a OHH ne cMoryT 60J11>me HX YAepmaTb, u· ror;l{a noTOK XJILIHeT 11epe3 KpaË:>> 144• ,[(s:ameHKe IlpOTHB KMIIepHK ycHJIHBaJIOCb li B npOB·llHD;HH, 0 1I8M C'B�eTeJIL­ CTBOBaJIO BB0.r{0HH0 ocaAHOro IIOJIOIB0-HHH 1B HOBLIX pa:ë:ouax: 17 aBrycTa-- B: rropTO'BhlX ropo;1ax illepoype, . Jiop11aHe, Pomq,ope, Tynone, 20 aBry-cTa - BO BC'6M �rraPTaMeHTe Boc'T01IHLie IlupeaeH, 22 airrycTa - :a µ;enap-raMeHTax Illep H HLOOJp 145• B KOMMy-He Ap.KHa.H-HeBH AenapTaMeHTa HLeBp 6una 23.an­ rycTa npommeµ,eHa (<Il:OIIblTiKa rrpH3BaTb HapOA K BOCCTaHJIIO», ITOAaBJI.eHHam m�apMepneii: 146• Annales... Corps Lé�islatif. Séance du a> août 1870, p. 164. «Le Temps,,, 27 aout 1870; «Journal de Genève», 'n août 1870. Cw. ABITP, K8111(., � 117, JI. 351. H. OpJion - ropqa.KOJJY. Bp10ccen, 14(26) .aBryen 1870 r. H2 «BeCTHHK EBpoIILI&, 1870, RH. IX, CTJ). 393. 141 «He�eAA», 2G aB<rycrn (4 ceHTHOpa) 1870, c-rp. 1111. 144 Actes, t. V, p. 12.5. Déposition Trochu. 145 •Le Temps» , 19, 22, 25 août 1870; «Journal de Genève,, 24 août 1870. 148 Ibid., 215 août 1870. 189 140 141 12e
HAPllf-.ATYPA HA HAIIOJIEOHA III Mem.rr,y TeM MaK-Ma.rcm BeJI cBoro apMHIO - rroCJieA­ HIOIO apMHIO Bropoii H'MrrepHH - R KaTacTpoq>e. Ero­ ABHmeHHe na BOC'l'OK, IŒK YKa3LIBaJI B TO BpeMH 8.HreJihC, MOrJIO HMe 'TL ycnex TOJ'IbKO B 0]1,HOM cnyqae: eCJ'IH 61,1, BLICTYIIHB H3 Peiî.Mca, OH pemH;ICH CTpe­ MHT0Jil,HO a TaKOBaTb rrperpamAaBmyro eMy rryTI, 3-ro H0M0IJ;KYIO apMHIO, H, aa­ CT8JBH1B ee orcrynHTh, pac4HCTHJI ce6e AOpory Ha Meu;. Ho MaK-MaroH He pe­ munc.a Ha HaCTynJI0H'He, a TOJlhKO yKphIBaJICH 0T rrpecJie,J,OBall'HH HeMeIJ;KHX BOHCR. «3To - xy,n.mee, 4TO MOlKHO 6hlJ'IO rrpe)J.IlpHHHTh>>,- IIHcan no 8TOMY IIOBOJlY 3HreJ'IhC em;e 26 aBrycra, IJlPeABH,IVI «rroqTH HeCOMHeHHoe IIO!J)aiReHHe>> Ma·K-Marona, B peayn1,rare qero ocraTKH ero ,pa36HToii apMHH «Moryr 6h1Th OTT0CH0Hhl Ha H0H'l1PaJibHYJO TeppHTOtPHIO HJHI rnpHHYiRA0HLI K KaIIHTYJIHIJ;HH>). Y6emA0HHI,IH B TOM, qro 8TOT 6eaipaccy1J;HhIH IIJ'IaH BLI3BaH He BOOHHhlMH, a IIO­ JIHTHqecKHMH coo6pameHllHMH, 3HreJibC IIHCaJI: «Bor Bropa.H HMII€Œ)HH BO BC0H CBOeÜ Kpace. C!(eJiaTI, 'BHA, 1ITO H1H1Iero He rrpOH30IBJIO, CKphlTI, rropameHHe 8TO caMoe fJia.BHOe. HarroJieOH BCe IIOCTRBHJI Ha OÀHY KapTy H upourpan; a rerrep1, MaK-MaroH, KOrAa ero maHCLI Ha BLIHrphlm COCTRBJIHIOT O;J;HH npOTHB 'A0CHTH, CHOBa co6.apaeTCH HrpaTI, va banque. qml CKopoo <Dpa.H�H na6aBHTCH 127
Tam-rx .rrro;:i;eü, TeM Jiyqnrn p;;ia Hee. B aToM ee eAHHCTBeHHaa 'Ha;:i;e;«;::i;a>> 147• Ilpy.ccmrn Boiicirn, ucrroJiu3ya 'BOCHHhle rrpm1Mym.ec1Ba, 1wrophre IJIM �a:1 caM MaR-MaroH, rrpo;:i;omt<aJIH ;:i;n1uaThCH aa1rnpepea eMy H cenepo....BocroRy. 3ax­ B3'THB neperrpaBhI l.!epea peKy Mea (Maac), npyc-caRH 30 aBrycTa HaHecJin: MaR-MaroHy TameJ.Ioe nopamenHe 6n:aa BoMoHa, oropocnB cppaHqyacRHe Boiî­ cRa R oRpecTHOCTRM Ce,zi;aHa. 1 ceHra6pH .na paccBeTe neMen;mrn no:ÜcRa B cocTaBe 4-:ü H Tpex :noprrycou 3-:ü apM1n1 ncrynn;:rn: B 5oii no.:i; Ce;:i;aH011 c no:üc.1rnMn MaR-MaroHa, aama ThBIII B ya1m�1 ,npocTpaHcrne Mem,1.y pe1wii Me3 H oe:ihrHiîcRoii rpaHHu;e:ii. Pa.cno­ .rrara.n 'l!lICJICHHhUI rrpeBOCXO.!];C'I'BOM, n:p ynHLIMH II03'II.Q1IOHHhIMl1l npe:ITTty�eCT­ BaMH, OTJl.H'l!HOii apTHJIJiepirnii, HeMqhI HaHeCJIH cpp am:i;y3CKOH ap MHH, cpamaau III0HCH H Ha ;)TOT pa3 C �OOJihillHM MyaŒCTBOM, CORpyunneJibHOe rropame.HHe. ÛKOJIO 3 qacoB ,rr,HH Ha qeHTpa:rhHOii RpenoCTHoii ôamHe Ce;:i;aHa no pacrropame­ HHIO HaxoÀHBmerocH a;:i;ech HarroJieoHa III ÔhlJI Bb16pomeH 6eJibl:iî q)Jlar. <l>paH­ u;y3CRHii HMrreparop BCJie,;:( 33 TeM OTIIpaBH:C npyccROMy ROpOJIIO II030p Hoe lIO­ CJI3HHe: <<)];oporoii MOH opa T, TaR RaR H He cyMeJI yMepeTh cpep;H CBOIIX BOHCK, MHe ocTaeTCH 1BpyqHTh CB,OIO mnary Bame-My B0.Jl'H'l!eCTBy. ÜcTaIOch Bamero Be­ JIRqecTBa goopbIM ôparo.M. HanoJieoH>> 148• Ain o Raninymrn;IIH cppaHu;yacRoii apMHll oLIJI no,:vrn:caH 2 ceuu16pa J:eHe­ f{laJIOM BHMII<peH0�1 11 cpeJih;:(MaprnaJio�I MoJihTKe. 3 ThIC. yoHThIX, 14 ThIC. 1pa­ H0HhIX, 3 TblC. pa3opymeHHblX Ha 6eJibfllHCROH rpaHHn;e, 83 TblC. B38 rhlx B rrJieH coJIAaT, oq>m::i;epoB, reuepa.rroB no rJiaBe c Ha110JieoHOM III - TaROBLI paa­ Mephr BoeHHOH RaTac·Tpücphl, nocTHrmeir BTopyro :e:Mrrepnro y CeAaJia. «<l>paH­ .QY3CŒ{füI RaTacrpocpa 1870 r. He 'U:MeeT napaJI.rreJieii B HCTOpim HOBOro, Bpe­ M0HH! - n11caJI B aToii CBH13H MapRc. - Ona noRaaaJia, 1ITO ocpHqHaJILHaH ·<l>p a,an;11H, (J)p aHIJ;HH Jly11 EoHarrap Ta, (J)p aHD;U:H IIpaBHIIJ.}IX RJiaCCOB H HX l'OCy):(a p CTBeHHhIX na,p a3HTOB - rHHIOIIJ.IIH 'DpYII>> 149. -O'T 1 $. 3HreJihC. 3aMeTRII o BOHHe. R. MapKc H <D. 3ure..ILC. Co11., T. 17, (,Tj) 67. 68, 69. 1 48 J. J au r ès. Op. cit., p. 10. 149 H. M ap R c. IlepBhln: Ha6pocoK «fpaa<J(aHcKoi BOÜHbt BO <DpaHil,BH>>. R. Ma p R c lfl $. 8 H r e ,"I b c. Coq., T. 17, CTJ). 521. 14 7
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rryTeM Bce-o6m;eii n CBooop;Hoi:i: rro,u;alJM rD.1ocoB, MhI aaHB.'Uie}I, lJT0 Jl yn-H:a.no­ JHH)H BoHarrapT 'M ero )];IIHH'CTIUI HaBcer;::i;a rrpeRparllJI·H u;.apCTB0BaHIIe ,BO <l>paH­ I{HH>> 29. 8To fü)wa H0Ba>I rronhlTIŒ o6Manyrh napo,u;: H11a.rromHTh HanoJieoHa I J f, 'Ile npoBoarJiamrn pecrry6JIHRII. -Y.'IOBRa, o�a1m, He y�aJiach. <<A Pecuyu­ .rn1Ra? - pa3J];8JIIICh CO BCex CT0P0H f0JI0Ca.- MM XOTIIM JJ.BYX Bem;eii: HH3JI0meHIUI, a 3areM Pecrry6JIII1rn:l>> CJioBa 3TH np11Ha,n;JiemaJIH 0JJ.H0MY na 6JiaH­ KIICT0B. C HoBoft cnJioiî aaaByqaJin Tpe6oBaHIIH pecny6JI:o:Rn. HacTynHJI KpH­ rn:qecRIIft M0MeHT. IlpoB03rJiaClITh B T8ROH o6cTaHOBRe pecny6JIIIRY, 3HalJlIJIO paa,n;eJIHTh BJiaCTh C 6JiaHRHcTaMH. raM6eTTa 6poCIIJICH R II0HBIIBIIIeMyCH B 3T0T M0MeHT B aaJie <l>aBpy. MrHOB8HHO ;J;0f0BOpllBillllCh, o6a OH:O: IIO]l;HHJillCh Ha rpH6yHy. <<XOTII.Te Bbl IlJIH He X0THTe rpam.n;aHCKOH BOHHhl,- B0CRJIBRHY:I <DaBp,- aa1wnna10 Bac, ne ycrpairnaftre RpoBaBoro ,IJ;HH ••• , He BhlHymgaii:Te xpa6pbIX q>panu;yacKHx co:i;:i;ar... nanpaBHTh npornB Bac opymn:e... BygeM am e,n;HIIOJJ.YIIIHhl; IIYCTb nac o6'b8,D;HH.HeT H,IJ;eH narpllOTH3Ma H ,u;eM0RpaTHU>>. O,n;­ HaR0 Tpe6oBaHIIH pecny6;nnur ne npeRpam;a..rrnch. Tor,u;a <l>aBp BhIRpHRHy.rr: <<Pecuy6JI1nm? Ho Be,n;h He ap;ech ee c::re,u;yer npoBoarJiacHTh, a B paTyIIIel>>. «fpam,u;aHe, aa Mnoii, B paTyrnyl>> - Bropivr eMy I'aM6eTTa. Coii,n;H c TpH6yHhI, o6a OHII npo,u;oJima.rrH npn:ablBaTI,: <<B paTymy! B parynry!» O;a;Ha1m 6JiaHKH­ CTbl HaC'TanBa.rrn: «HeT! 3;i;ech ,n;o.;r�Ha 0hfTh rrpoBoarJiamena Pecnyfünnrn! MM ee npoBoarJiaIIIaeM! Pecny6JIH:na nponoarJiameHa!» MelliJzy TeM faM6eTTa n <l>aBp, HanpaBJIHBIIIlleCH R BhlXOAY, yB.'I8nJill aa co6oft lJ8CTI, npHcyTCTBYIOIIJ.HX. Mx CT0pOHHHRII aa6poca;rn ro.::rny MH0iR8CTBOM RJI01IROB 6yMar:o: C Kpynno HaqepTaHHblMH Ha HHX cJioBaMH: <<B parymy!>> 30• C6nThle c TOJIKY JIIO]J;H, He cnoco6n1,ie na-aa cTOHBmero B aa:re myMa, pa3o6paThCH B npoucxo,n;m:r�e.M, no.KIIHYJIH BcJie,n; aa JieBhIMH p;enyrara�nr aa:i aace,u;aHnfr. llcTHHHl>Ie no6ym,u;eHHH ,n;erryraroB, YBJie:KIDHX 3a co6oii Hapo,IJ;Hhle MaCChl na 3aKOHO,n;areJihHOfO ROprryca B paTyIIIy, o6hl1IHO 3aMaJI1IHBaIOTC.8 6ypmyaa­ HhIMII HCTopn1mMI1. <<Bo <DpaHD;HH peB0JIJOD;HH HMeeT CB0B Tpa,n;Hrvrn:,- aaHB­ JIHeT, HanpIIMep, aHr:Iniicnnii n:cTop1m BapII.- lIMeHHO B paTyrne 6hI.'IH o6pa­ aoBaHhl BpeMeHHl>Ie npamne.1hCTBa B 1830 u -1848 rr. B rJia3aX <l>aBpa, KOT0p.bIH caM 6blJI ,u;eHTeJieM 1848 r. II 06.1ap;a.'1 ceHTIIM8HT8JlhHhlM CRJia,n;oM xapaR­ Tepa, napaJIJieJib c 1830 II 1848 rr. 6:blJ.ra CTOJ.Ih me aaMaHlJllBa, CK0Jib 011e­ B.II,rt;.Ha, n aro no6y,n;n.rro ero c:re;::i;oBaTb no cronaM JlailrnpTHHa» 31• TaRoro 1pop;a 06'1,HCH8HH0 onpoBepraeTCH npemJ];e Bcero npH8HaHIIHMH caMHX 6ypmya3HhIX ,pecny6JIHRaHn;eB. TaK, .iHIOJih <DaB,p 0TI.;:poBeHHO 3aHBHJI BIIOCJie,n;cTBIIII, 1ITO rwr,n;a 4 ceHTH6pH OH yBn,n;eJI na 'l'IJ)HOyHe 3aRO.e:op;aTe.'IhHoro Ropnyca 6.naHKH­ cTOn, B •HeM 0ïKHJIIl <<BOCIIO:\IHH8HlIH 06 ymacax» MaHCh'"iJIX �e:ë: 1848 r. 32 IloaroMy on H 6pocIIJI B ro:rny RJIHlJ: <<B parymyl» «8To BHeaanHo npIIme,n;mee Ha YM pemeHn:e,- npnaHaBa:r OH,- HMeJio TO npe:e:Mym;ecTB0, 1ITO OCBo6o­ m,n;aJio naJiary oT napo,n;a, npe,a;orBpam;a.rro npoBa.ooe CTOJIKHoBeHne, K0Topoe MOrJio rrpOH30HTH B ee CTeHaX, cphIB8JI0 ,n;epaKoe npe,n;npHHTHe, B peayJILTaTe K0T0poro pyR0BO,IJ;CTB0 ,JJ;BHlli8HHeM o:naaa:rocb 6hl B pyKax H0IICTOBOÜ, Rpa­ MOJihHOH napTHH>) 33• He C00TB8TCTByer ,u;eiicTBHTe:.IbHOCTH li ra p0Jih, ROTOpyIO 6ypmya8Hhie HCTopIIKH OTBO,rµIT B co6hl1'1ll.HX 4 ceHTH6pH f.aM6e-rre. ÜT;J;aBaH �&Hh ero YCH­ JIIUIM <<yMepHTh HeTepneHIIe TO:Illbl n 06ecne1IHTh aaROHHhIH nepexol( BJiaCTH B PYKH npaBIIT8JihCTBa, 3aROHHO na6paHHoro naJiaToft», OHH BMecTe C TeM YT­ Bepm,n;aIOT, "'ITO faM6erTa OTHIO,D;b ne 6hIJI 3-4 ceHTH6pH TaKIIM np0THBHHK0l\f Actes, t. I, p. 183. Rapport Daru; J. Si mo n. Op. cit., p. 397-398. J. Si mo n. Op. cit., p. 401-403; J. Favre. Op. cit., p. 75-77. 31 J. P. T. Bury. Gambetta and the national defence. London, [1936], p 61; . me E. Lavisse. Histoire de France contemporaine, t. VII, p. 247. 32 Actes, t. V, p. 150. Déposition Favre. a3 J. Favre. Op. cit., p. 77. 29 30 136 CM. raK­
ycTaHOBJI0HH.H peeny6:.IH-KH, NaKlC\1 OH II03J;Hee ca:\[ CTa1pa:IC.H ceoH npe,:i;cTa · BHTb 34 • B )];0HCTBHT0JibHOCTH faM6eTTa, Na:n Ha ;no yna3bIBaIOT HCT01IHHKH, H ,ri;o R IIOCJie Ce;:i;aua aKTHBHO 6opoJICH npOTHB IIpOB03r:.rameHHH pecny6JIHKIL 06 3TOM CBH)];eTCJlhCTBOBaJIO He TO:IbKO ero IIOBe,[l;eHHe B 3aIWHO)];aTeJihHOM Kopnyce 4 C0HTH6pH 1870 r., HO H ero p;aabHeIÏIDHe .n;eii:CTBHH B paTyme, Kyp;a OH HanpaBHJICH B,lJ;OJib Jl0Boro 6epera Cetthl BO rJiaBe MHOrOYJ:HCJI0HHhlX Macc O,lJ;HOBpeMeHHO C Cl>aBpo·M, HanpaBJIHBillHMCH Typ;a me BO r:i:aBe Tex, KTO ABlf­ raJICH B,lJ;OJih npaBoro 6epera. Y MocTa CoJI1>q>epHHO Cl>aBp CTOJinHYJICH c reHepaJioM Tpornro, BepxoM Ha­ npaBJIHBmHMCH K 3aKonop;aTeJibHOMY 1mprrycy IIO nacTO.HHHIO KB0CTopa na­ miTM reaepaJia Jle6peroHa, coo6Ill.'RBrnero e:\Iy 06 0TcTyn:imn1H npanwre:ih­ CTBeHHhlX BoicK y Byp6oncKoro gnopu,a. TpomIO TOJihKO qTo nepemHJI CHJib­ noe IlOTpHCeHHe. 06cTylIHBillaH ero TOJina npH3hIBaJia ero npHBeTCTBOBaTb BMecre -C !HeIO «eou;na:IbHYIO pecny6..'IRRy>>. Ou ÔpOCIIJICH np01Ih OT Hee, ,ri;aBH KOIIhlTaMH CBoei JIOilla]J;H T0CHHBillHXCH NpyroM JIIO,ri;eii. IlpH BCTpe11e C Cl>aB­ poM TpornIO HMeJI KpaiHe B3BOJIHOBaHHhlH BII,i'.J;. Cl>aBp coo6m,HJI eMy O saxBaTe 3aKOIIO]J;aT0JlbHOro KOpnyca Hapo�OM H O Ha:'.\rnpeHHH JieBhlX ,u;enyTaTOB c<f>op­ MHpOBaTb B paTyme npaBHT0JihCTBO. Tponno, IIO CB:n.ri;eTeJibCTBY 01I0BH,l];IJ,a, O]J;o6p11JI ]J;ffHCTBH.H Cl>aBpa H ero KOJI�'Ier, 3UHBII."'I O CBOeM rrpHC00,U:lIH0HIHI K HHl\l II IlOBepeyJI o6paTHO K JlyBpy 35 • 06a IIOTONa MaHn<f>ecTaITTOB BO r::raBe c Cl>aBpOM u IlponosrJ1ameRBe faM6eTTOH II01ITH op;rroBpe�IeHHO rrpH6bJJII'[ K paTyIIIe pecny6JDUCB B paryme OKOJIO 4 qacoB llHH. Ha ee <ppOHTOHe pasBeBaJIOCh npacnoe attaMH, BO]J;pymeeeoe pa601111MH 36 • Il.1om,a;:i;h rrepe,n; a,ri;attHeM K»me.rra JllOJ.,\hMH. IIpaBHT0JlbCTB0HHhl0 BOHCNa He Ona3a.'Iu corrpOTHBJieHHH Hapop;HbIM MaccaM, ycTpeMHBillHMCH B IIOM01IJ,0Hl'le paTymn: Bc:i:ep; aa rrpH6hlBIDHMH p;e­ ayTaTaMH, KOTOpbIX, no BhlpameHHIO Cl>aBpa, (<BHeC>) Ty,ll;a JIIO.J];CIWH IIOTOK. BypmyaaHLie pecrry6JIHKaH:o;hl aacTaJnI B paTyme onepep;n:BIIIHX HX 6JiaH­ R.ac·1·0B H H00HK06HHIJ,0B, KaK pa3 HaMepeBaBIIIIlXCH or:.raCHTh B rrepeIIOJIHeH­ HOM ]J;O OTKaaa aaJie CIIHCOK 1IJI8HOB peBOJIIOIJ,IIOHHOro rrpaBHT0JihCTBa. HapH AY C HeKOTOphlMH JieBhlMlI ,n;enyTaTaMn, B TOM YJ:HCJie Pom<f>opoM, B HeM <f>nrypn:­ poBaJIH H'Mena BJiaHKH, Cl>nypa1Hca, ,[(eJieNJIIo3a, II.11a. CTpeMH'Ch BhipBaTI, B�'Ja-CTL H·3 :PYK 6.11aHKHCTOB li HeOHfü)OliHU,eB, cDaBp �ffHOB0HHO nan6tpaJicH Ha Tp:o:6yny H IIOCJie 6eaycrremHhlX ,n;eMarorHYJ:eCNHX rrpH3hIBOB <<BeCTH ce6.H RaK non;o6aeT BeJIHKOH HaIJ,HH, KOTopa.H BHOBI:, o6peJia CBo6o,r:i;y>>' 11poB08rJiac11JI pecrry6JIHKY, TaK KaK µ;an1,neiimee conpoTHBJieHHe 61,mo He6eaorracHLIM 37 . TeM BpeMeHeM coo6m;nHKH Cl>aBpa, JI0Bhle p;erryTaThl, CIIeIIIHO COCTaBJI.HJHJ B O):Î;HOM H3 IIOMem;eHHH p;Bop:n,a rro,n; oxpaHOÜ: npe;u;aHHhIX HM HaU,HOHaJibHhIX rBap)l;eiu,eB OKOH1IaTeJihHhlB CIIHCOK 1IJI8HOB BpeMeHHoro rrpaBHT0JibCTBa, TaÏÎHO HaM0110HHhIH HMH em;e 3 C8HTH6pH; OH COCTO.HJI H3 6ypmya3HhlX pecny6JIHKaHn;eB H opneaHHCTOB 38• CoBem,aHHe JieBhIX .n;enyTaTOB, O,rt;HaKO, aaTHrHBa­ JIOCh, H 6JiaHKHCTaM rrpep;oCTaBJIHJiaCb B03MOIBHOCTI, orJiaCHTI, COCTaB peBOJIK)­ {\HOHHOro npaBHTeJibCTBa. Ho OHH He cy�ŒJIH BOCIIOJII.30BaTI.CH 6JiaronpH.HTHO CJI07RHBIDHMHCH )J;JI.H aToro o6cTOHTCJibCTBaMH: CNa3aJiaCb HX CJia6aH CBH3h C mHpOKHMH CJIOHMH HaceJieHH.H, rrpem,11;e Bcero C pa601IUMH, HX HC)];OCTaT011HaH rronyJI.HpHocTh B uapo,n;e. R TOMY me HX CHJihl OhlJIH pacrrLIJieHhI. qacTh 6JiaH­ KHCTOB no yKa3aHHIO BnaBKH ycTpeMHJiaCb OCBo6om,n;aTI. IIOJIHTH1I0CKHX aa­ KJIIOlJCHHhlX na TIOpbMhl CeHT-IleJiamH. Bypmya3Hhie pecny6JIHKaHIJ,hI, Ha­ rrpoTHB, 6pOCHJIH B paTymy BCe CBOH CHJihl, 1IT06bI He ]J;OIIYCTHTh K BJiaCTll CBOHX rrpOTHBHHKOB. BJiaHKHCThl C HeTepneHHeM om11,11;aJIH rrpH6hlTHH CBOHX <D. 34 35 36 � 7 38 1.' P. T. B ur y. Op. cit., p. 62. P. Rob iquet. Souvenirs d u 4 septembre. <<RE>vue bleue►>, 1889, t. 44, N 10, p. 312. Actes, t. V, p. 390. Déposition Be scherelle. Actes, t. V, p. 390. Déposition Favre. Ibid., p. 299. Déposition Kératry. 137
TOBap1nri;eii BM0CTe C uaxo,11;irnIIIHMCH B TIOphMe PomcpopoM, C IIOMO�hJO ROTO­ poro OHH paccqlIThIBaJIH npOB03rJiaCHTh peBOJIIOIJ;llOHHOe npaBIITeJihCTBO. Bc1wpe Pomq)Op )J,eiÎCTBIITe.':IhHO npn6bl.1I BMeCTe C 6JiaHKHCTaMH, corrpOBO­ ïH,IJ,aeMblH orpoMHoiî TOJinoiî:. IloBH3aHHhl:Ü RpacHhIM mapq>oM Mapa, OH TplI­ yMcpaJihHO CJI0,IJ,OBaJI B OTRpbITOH ROJIHCIŒ, npn:BeTCTByeMhl:Ü Hapop;oM. «Pom­ q>op - Map Ilap:ama! >> - nec:incb Boar.:irnchl. B paTyrne Pomq>opy 6hlJI npyqeH CilHCOK "tJJieHOB peBO.TIIDIVIOHHOro npaBIIT0JlhCTBa, ROTOpbIH eMy Hap;JiemaJio OrJiaCHTh H3 mnrn co6paBIIIIB1CH Ha IIJIOm;a,n,:a. B CIIRCKe 6blJIO R ero IIMH. Ho B 9TOT pemarom;nii MOMeHT p.H)l;OM C PorncpopoM OKa3aJICH iKIOJih <l>eppn. ÜH yBJrnK Pomq>0pa B ,n;pyroe rro�i:em;enne, rp;e aacep;aJIH JieBhle p;enyTaThl H r;a;e OH 6bIJI BBe,n;eH B COCTaB ccpop.\:lupoBaHHoro HMII npaBHTOJihCTBa, COCTOHBmero H3 O,D;HIIX P,erryTaTOB OT IlapIIarn. TaKIIM o6pa30M, K BJiaCTll He 6blJill ,IJ,OIIy­ �eHhl npe,n;cTaBIITeJin pa6o-rrux. BBo,r:vr Pomcpopa B cocTaB co3p;aBaeMoro RMH npaBHTeJihCTBa, JieBhie ,n;erryTaTM rrpec.rre,n;oBaJIH H p;pyryro n;eJib: IlOBblCHTh aB­ TOPHTeT 9T0f0 npaBHTe.lhCTBa B rJia3ax HapO,IJ,HhlX Macc, cpe,IJ,H ROTOpbIX Pom­ q>op IIOJih30Ba.:ICH npoqrroii IIOIIY.JIHPHOCThIO. ÛHH He ycMaTpnBaJIH ,n;.rrH ce6H RaRHX-JIH6o Hey,n;o6CTB OT y-rraCTI1H Pomcpopa B IIpaBRT0.TihCTBe, TaK KaK He IIe­ peon;eHHBaJIH ero IŒR IIO.lIITII lieCROfO ].l.0HTeJIH. <l>aBp B 3TOT ,n;eHh 3füIBH.TI, qTo upe,n;rro-qnTaeT MMeTb Porncpopa B COCTaBe rrpaBHTeJihCTBa, qeM BHe ero. Pomcpop Cbirpa.JI HeMa.1yIO pü.lb B 6opb6e 3a B.TiaCTh, rrpOHCXO,IJ,HBme:ü 4 ceH­ TH6pH Mem,n;y 6ypmya3IIhBIH pecrry6JIRIŒHD;aMH H 6.TiaHKHCTaMR. Ma ABYX npa­ Bl1.T8JlhCTB, OAHOBpeMeHHO rrpe,n,JiaraBIIUIXCH B 3TOT p;eHh B napniKCKOH paTyme, 6oJiee 1IpHeMJI0MhBI ;:J;.:IH Pomcpopa, HeCOMHeHHO, 6hIJIO 6ypmya3HOe npaBH­ TeJihCTBO. He,o;apoM OH Bhlf,"'IH,IJ,en: Ta:KHM B3B0.1:HOBaHHhIM, Iwr,n;a eMy nopyqHJHI orJiaCHTh COCTaB peBO:IIOI:i;HOHIIOro npaBHT0JlhCTBa, B ROTOpoe OH 6blJI BBOAOH IIOMHMO CBOero COfJIUCHH. <<B OI:i;erreHeHIIll, C 6Jrnp;HhIMH, COMRHYTbIMR ry6aMH>} CTOHJI PoIIIcpop na CT0,1e y ORIIa paTymH, BhIXO,D;HBIDero Ha IlJIOID;a,IJ,b. 06 9TOM BCIIOMHB:a,1 B IIOC.:Iep;CTBIIH mr,n;eBIDH:Ü ero B TOT MOM0HT 6y,n;ym;niî HCTO­ pHK Ü.Tiap, B TO Bpe�IH ,o;nap;u;aTn.:IeTHHH HaD;HOHaJibHbl:Ü rBap,n;eeu;. BMecTe CO CBOIIM APYrOM, TaKme 6yp;yII.J,nM IICTOpHROM, ,[(e6n,o;ypoM ÜJiap HaXO,IJ,HJICH Ha IIJIOII:i;a,J:i;II y paTYIDR 39 • BcrrOMIIHaH Brroc.rre;::i:,cTBllII OOCTOHTe.JibCTBa, npH ROTOpbIX 6bIJIO coap;aHo 4 ceHTH6pH 1870 r. pecny6,'IHIWHCROe rrpaBIIT0JihCTBO, iKIOJih CnMOH )];e­ �rnrornqecKH rrpurrnca.;i Ha!pü,IJ,HhIM � : rnccaM n,n;ero co3,IJ,8'HHH 0roro npaBnTeJih­ crna H3 O,lJ;HHX rrap:umc1- rnx p;enyTaTOB. ÜH IlpH 81'0.\I IIOJl'10pIDIBa.TI ,00 CBOH­ CTBeHHhIM eMy D;HHH3MoM: <<ECJIU 6bl He 3Ta cqaCTIDIBaH RJ);eH, Mhl, 6LITb MO­ jfWT, yme 4 {'.,eHTH6pH 1.nie::m 6h1 I-{o�rn:y:Hy, a BCJieJJ; aa He:ü qepea BOCeMh �eiî: upyccaRoB» 40 . Ta:noe .me n:IeBeTan-rrec:noe yrBepmp;eHne BMcRa3h1BaJioc1, n ,J:JpyrHMH 6ypmya3HhIMII 1pecrry6.TIHRaHI(a:\IH, a BKyne C BHMH RpüB8BhlM na.;rrn­ qoM <ppaHu;yac.Rnx pa6oqJix - ThepoM 41. Ha:K TOJihKO HOBOe 6ypmya3HOe rrpaBHT0JlbCTBO C y-qaCTHeM .Pom<popa 6bIJIO ccpopMHpoBaHo, n�rnHa ero q;renoB 6bIJIH or.TiameHhl R3 OKHa paTymH. B co� CTaB rrpaBHT0.TihCTBa BOlli.;JII 11 ,n;erryTaTOB J ieBO:Ü q>paRIJ;HH: <l>aBp, <l>epp:u, 8�1. Aparo, HpcMbe, rapHbe-IIamec, Pom<pop, IleJIJieTaH, fJie-Bn3yaH, faM­ ÔeTTa, Iln:Kap, CuMOH. Tpn rroc.rre,n;HHX 6MJIH na6paH1,1 p;erryTaTaMH OABOBpe­ �rnaao n Ilapnme n B rrpOBHHIJ,IIH, HO 6aJIJIOTHpOBa."TJHCh B npOBHB�HH. IlocT rJTaBbI IIpaBHTeJihCTBa 6n1::c rrpep;OCT8B.TieH <l>aBpy. TaR am JIOBRO 38B.1:a)];e.'IH 6ypmya3Hble pecny6JIHKaHD;bl R napHiKCKHM My­ HHil;HII8JIRTeTOM. Ro Bpe.\IeHII npH6blTHH B paTyrny Pom<popa, KOTOporo IIa­ pnmCKHe pa601I1rn XOTe.lII BUl]eTb ?.rnpoM, 3TOT IIOCT 6h!JI yme nepe;r:,;aH 6ypmy­ a3HOMY pecrry6::umaHIJ;Y 8Tbeny Aparo. B noc11emaoM Bhl,IJ,BIIiKeHHR aToii 39 p. 263. 40 41 138 A. Au I a r d. SouYenirs du 4 septembre. <<La Révolution française>>, t. 73, 1920, J. Simon. Op. cit., p. 414. J. Fa v r P.. Op. cit., p. 93; Actes, t. V, p. 9. Déposition Thiers.
TIPOB03I'JIAillEHJIE PECilYBJIHHJI B IIAPUIBE 4 CEHTfIBPfl 1870 r. Coepe.1-iewtaJt epa«,opa
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TJ npncyTC'TBH'H q.,:ena 0000:ro npaBnTe:u,cTBa p�cny6JI.mm.n�a fJie-Birnyana OJ],HHM H3 6onanapTHCTOB, npo.,n;OJiffiaBIDHX CTOHTI, B KapayJie, oxpaH.srnmeM pa­ �ryn1y 45. Rpacnoe 3HaMH - CHMBOJI pecrry6:iHKH Tpyµ;a - 6hlJIO 3aMeHeHO Tpexn;BeTHLIM 3HaMeHeM. Ha nepBOM aace,n;aHHH npaBHTeJibCTBeHHOfO CoBeTa BellepoM TOfO me ,AHH 6bIJI o(}>Hn;HaJlbHO c(}>opM.11poBaH E.a6HHeT MHHHCTPOB BO rJiaBe c Tpomro, OCTaBIDHMCH TaIOKe BOeHHLIM ry6epHaTOpOM IlapHma. Ero aaMeCTHTeJib iRIOJib <DaBp IIOJiyqHJI nopT(}>en1, MHHIICTpa HHOCTpaHHhlX ,n;eJI; MHHHCTpOM BHyTpeH­ HHX ,I\0Jl 6hIJI naana1IeH faM6eTTa, MHHHCTpOM cpIIHaHCOB - IlnKap, MHHH­ CTpOM IDCTHD;HII � RpeMbe, BOeHHhl�I MHHIICTpOM - reHepa.rr Jleqmo, MOp­ CKHM - a,,n;MHpaJI <DypHIDOH, MHHHCTpOM rrpocBem;eHHH - CnMOH, MHHHCTpOM o6m;ecTB0HHhIX pa6oT - �opnan, MR�HCTpOM 3eMJie)];e.JIHH II TOprOBJIH MaHLeH. IlpaBHTeJILCTBO HOBO:Ü 6ypmyaanoii pecny6.rr1n-a1 IIpHCBOIIJIO ce6e H8HMeHO­ B3HHe «npaBHTeJibCTBa nan;noHaJibHOH o6opOHbI». * * * IlpuBe.,n;eHHLie (}>aKTLI IIOJIHOCThID IIO;:t;TBepm,n;aroT TO"CJKY apeHHH MapKca n 3nreJII»Ca o pema10m;eii püJrH napnmc,h-oro napo,n;a B peBOJiro:u;:wn 4 cenT®PH 4ô_ PeBOJIIO�H 4 C0HTH6pH 1870 r., E.aK naMH IIOKa3aHO, 6hlJia COBepmeaa 1pa6otIHMH H BceM TPYAOBhIM JIIO,AOM Ilapnma, cBeprun1MH HMIIep1110 Hano­ __-rreona III BOnpeK:e: aKTHBBOMY npOTHBO,n;eiicTBHIO He TOJihKO MonapxHCTOB, HO II 6ypmya8HhIX pecny6JIHKann;eB, ,,n;enyTaTOB JieBoii (}>paK�H 3aKOBO,AaTeJIL­ HOro Kopnyca. Jlumennhle na,,n;Jiemam;ero peBOJIIOIJ;HOHnoro pyKOBOJJ;CTBa ( co6hl­ THH 4 C0HTH6pH 011{0 paa IIOKa3a.iIH HBIIO]J;fOTOBJieHHOCTb coo;uaJIHCTOB) ' pa6o­ '1He aacTaBHJIH Jl0BhlX .,n;enyTaTOB npOB03rJiaCHTh pecny6JIHKY BonpeKH HX BOJie. B pHJJ;e npoMhlmJieHHLIX n;enTpOB - JI11one, MapceJie, TyJiyae H JJ;pyrnx,­ r.,n;e npOT:e:Bo,n;e:iiCTBHe 6ypmyaaHH 6LIJIO Menee CHJlbHbIM, l!eM B Ilapnme, 6hlJIH coa.,n;aBhl peBOJIIDD;HOHHhle RoMMYHhI. 3a ROpOTKOe BpeMH CBOero cyin;ecTBOBa­ HHH OHH, KaK YBH]J;HM, ycneJIH ocy�eCTBHTh, oco6eHHO B JlHoHe, PHA paJJ;HRaJib­ HhlX IIOJIHTHqecKHX H coo;naJILHblX MeporrpHHTHH H IIpllHHTb IlOCTaHOBJieHHH, HeROTOphle H3 ROTOpbIX npe]J;BOCXlIIIJ;a.TIII ,n;eRpeTbl IlapHiHCROH. RoMMYHhl 1871 r. , □JIO]J;hl, .,n;o6bIThle 4 ceHTH6p.H '1870 r. cppaHD;Y3CKHMH pa60lIIIMH, npH1.'.BOHJIH opneaHHCTbl Il 6ypmya3Hhle pecny6JIHJ.iaHD;hl. IloJIHTH1I8CKOe JIJif.Il,O 6yp­ myaauoro npaBHT8JlhCTBa (}>paH:u;yacKOÜ pecny6JIHIŒ 1870 r. KpaTKO, HO Bhlpa3HT0JlhHO oxapaKTepH30BaJI BCIIOCJie,n;cTBHH B. II. JleHHH: <<Jln6epaJihHhle rrpoii:­ .n;oxn' aaxBaThlBaroT BJiaCTh>> 47 . MaBeCTHe O RpymeRHH HMilePHIi H O npOB03f.1Iaill8Hfl:[[ pecny6JIIUŒ 6hlJIO BCTpe'IeHO C 3HTY3Ha8MOM HapOJJ;HhIMH MaccaMH ©pano;nn, B TOM lIHCJie 3HalJH­ f -reJibHOH 1IaCThIO RpecTI.HHCTBa, KOTopyro OKOf qaTeJILHO OTTO.i.IKHy.110 OT HM­ nepHH ee noaopHoe nopameHne B BO:ii.He. XapaRTepHo, 'ITO }];ame KOHcepBaTHB­ na,i IIpecca Ba JJ;pyroi ,n;eHb IIOCJie peBOJIIOD;HOHHblX co6bITHH 4 ceHTH6pH IIH­ caJra O TOM, KaR maTOK 6blJI 6oHanapTHCTCRHM peiHIIM BO <Dpano;HH. <<3a 15 -qacoB,- nO]J;llepKHBaJia «Figarm>,- pyxHyJI Tpon, npo;::i;epmaBmniicH 19 JieT. 3p;aHHe, YB0H'laHH0M E.OToporo IIOCJIYIBHJIO -qymeaeMHOe BTOpmeHHe, pyxHyJio, rro;::i;o6no pbIXJIOH, xpynKoii Macce, HMeIOin;eH 6.JieCTHIIJ;YIO BH0illHOCTb JI ny­ cTyIO BHyTpeHHOCTI,» 48 • 45 Actes, t. V, p. 390. Dépo sition Bescherelle. 46 K. Ma pKc. IIepBLIÜ Ha6pocoK ((fpam,naHcKoii BOHHLI BO <DpaHQIUU>. K. Ma pKc u: <!>. 3Hre.rr1,c_ Coq,, T. 17, CTp. '513; <D. 8Hre:ILC. EBporreH-CKHe pa6oqHe B 1877 r., K. Ma pKc u <D. 3H r e ;:r 1, c . Coq., T. XV, cTp. 402. 47 B. li. JI e H H Il. IfaaB qTeHIUI O RoMMyHe-. Coq__ T. 8, CTp. 180. 48 qHT. no P. Robiquet. Op. cit. p. 313. ,
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CBOilX KJiaCCOBl,JX ,opraHU3aI�HH U H3'bHBH.'IH P.OTOBHOCTh orpaHUqHThCH oopwofi npoTHB npycc1rn:x OIŒynaHTOB, u;e.'IHROM ,n;oBepHBIDHCb PYKOBO,ZJ;CTBY 6ypmya3Horo npaBHTeJihCTBa. B 8TOM 3aI,:noqa;rncb HX rJiy6oKaH om.0:6Ka, npHB0,D;IIIa.fl H OCJia6JieHHIO CHJI pa60 11ero Ii:Iacca H, B ROHff'IHOM cqeTe, R OcJia6JieHHID o6opoHOCIIOC06HoCTII cDpaHTI;HH. BJiaHKlI II 19 6JIHmaiimnx ero copaTHHROB BhlCTYIIHJIH 7 ceHTH6pH B nepBOM 1l0Mepe cnoeiî ra3eThl, Ha3BaHHO:Ü: HMII <<ÜTe'IeCTBO B onaCHOCTB.», C ]);eKJ1apa­ u;neii, B ROTopoft 06':b.HBH:.CH HOBOe 6ypmyaanoe rrpaBnTeJibCTBO Bhlpa3HTe­ :rnM <<HapO,ZJ;HOH MhICJIH H Han;noHaJihHOH o6opOHhl>>, o6em;aJIH OIŒ3hIBaTI:, eMy <ŒHeprHlIHYIO>> H <<a6coJIIDTHYIO>> nop;p;epamy H rrpH 3TOM 3aH.BHJIH, l!TO niepep, JlHIJ;OM Bpara>> He ,D;OJiarno 6h!Th (<HHRRI-aIX napnrii, HHRaKHX OTT0HKOB», ·11To �BO HM.H o6�eCTBeHHOf0 cnaceHlUI... ,D;O.TI.iRHl,J HC"tJe3HYTb BCHRfül OIIII03HD;HH, BC.HKoe HecorJiacne>>. ,[I;eRJiapa:u;1u1 3a:1rnHtIIIBaJiach, npaBµ;a, npeµ;ynpem�eaueM, 'tJ:TO, npncoe,ZJ;HHH.HCb R npaBIITeJibCTBY, 6JiaHRUCThl OT HM0HH cppaHn;yac1wro napo,n;a noaJiararoT na Hero 06.HaaTeJihCTBO <<CKopee noxopoHHTh ce6a BMecTe c RaMn no;a; pa3Ba:rn.Ha�1n Ilapnma, 'IeM no,n;rrIIcaTI:. rroaop n pacqJJeHeHHe (l)paHiîJfII» 5• Ho 31'0 3a1IB.ïeRirn JIHlllb no,:z:qepRHBaJW 11.X Rammyro Bepy ·B ,HO ' BhIX npaBIITeJieii. AHaJIOflI"lJHYIO 1103HIJ;:HIO 38HJ:l.'Ilf HeOHRo6:o:n:a;hl. 7 C0HTH6pa .UeJieRJII03 B nepnoM HoMepe Bü300HOBHBlllei-îcH <<Le Réveil,. IIllOOJI: «MM xomM o�oro,­ LfTOOhl o-Teqe,cTEû 6Lrno cnaceno, cnaceno .·no6oii neHoiî. MH ne ocTaHOBHMCH ilH rre:pe.n; qeM, 1f'TOOhI A'06HTLcn: 3Toro. · Mhl ·3a6yA"eM -sce, ·aacTaB:HM y;MOJilfilYTh HamH 1IYBCTBa II 3a�IBHM TeM, B lJbUX pyRax �axo,n;IITCH cy,n;1,6a crpaHhl, KeM 61,1 OHH HH 6hlJIII: <<BnipBHTe <l>paIIIJ,HIO II3 pyR HH03eM�a Il Mb! oy,n;eM 6JiarOCJIOB­ :JHTf> Bac>>>> 6• IlapnmCKHH <l>e,u;epaJibHLIÏI COBeT JfHTeprran;HoHaJia B OTBeT na aanpOChl H3 npoBHHD;HH O TOM, NaRyIO noa:m::,;nro CJie,n;yeT 3aHHTh no OTHOUieHHIO K HOBOMY npaBHTeJibCTBY, paaocJia:r BCNOpe IlOCJie 4 ceHT.H6p.H aa IIO,D;IIHCbIO Bap:reHa, MaJioHa, Baxpyxa n;upRy.'I.Hp, B RoTopo:M aaaBJIH;i: << lJ:ac ne,n;0Bep1u1 n pac«oJia ne nacraJI. Ha Hac B03JiaraIOTC.H TOJiblW µ;Be o6H3aHHOCTH, KOTOphle HaM na;1.­ :rnmHT BMilOJIHlITb: o6opoHa Ilapnma n npHHHTHe Mep npe,n;ocTopomHOCTH npo­ nrn pacTepHBme:ftc.H, omeJioM.ïeHŒroir, Ho He rro6e�8HlHOH peaxn;mu 7. feHepaJibHbl:Ü: COBeT MrrTepnau;noHa:rn BO BTOpOM, COCTaBJI0HHOM MapKCOM, R033B3HHII O <f>paHRü-IIpycc1rnii BOR.He OT 9 C0HTH6pH 1870 r. rrpep;ocTeperaJI cppaHn;yacKHX pa601IIIX OT yB.'Ie"ll€HHH :.ro3yHraMH COBepmeHHO HHOH HCTOpll'Ie­ CNOH 3IIOXH. B B033BaHIIII IIO;r:I.1ièpraIBaJIOCb, qTo «HM HYiRHO ne IlOBTOPHTI, npo­ IIIJioe, a IIOCTpülITb 6y,r::i;ym;ee>>. Op;noBpe)IeHHO c y-qaCTHeM B o6opOHe cnoe:ü crpaHbI pa601IHe ,D;OJIIBH.hl <<OCHOBaTeJILHO yNpenHTh opraHH33D;HIO CBoero co6CTBeHHOro KJiacca>>. H�rnHHO B oTO:.\I BHAeJI renepaJII.Hhlii coBeT saJior ycnexa pa6o-qero RJiacca B ero 6op1>6e 3a yrrpo11eHHe pecrry6]1IIKH, 3a Boapomp;eHHe <DpaH:a;HH, 38 co6cTB8HHOe OCBo6om,r:,;eHHe. B B033BaHHH cop;epma:.rnc1, n ;:,;pyrne BamHeümne npeµ;ocrepemen1rn:. IIpn­ BeTCTBYH yqpemp;eHne pecrry6.'III RII BO <l>paHD;HH, reHepaJibHl>IH COBeT BhICKa­ :-3hIBaJI BM0CTe C Te�I cepbe3IIble orraceHIIH no nooop;y TOI'O, lJTO 3Ta !I)OCrry6JIJIRa «npoBosrJiameHa He 1rn:n cou;na:n.noe 3asoenanne, a RaR nan.uonaJihHaH Mepa o6opOHhl)) II HaXOlJ.lITCH B pyn:ax 6ypmya3HOro npaBHTeJibCTBa, yuacJie}J;oBaB­ mero or HMnepnn <<ee cTpax rrepe,r:,; pa601IHM R.raccoM>>. fenepaJI1>Hhl:Ü coBeT o6pam;aJI BHHMaHHe q>paHil,Y3CE'.IIX pa601IHX na orraCHOCTb opJieaHHCTCROH pe­ CTaBpau;nH, o6JiefqHTL ROTopyio, corJiaCHO 3a:MhIC.IlaM opJieaHHCTOB, npH8BaHa BHOBI:. yqpemp;eHHaH pecrry6::rnna. Bo33B8HHe BMecTe c reM rrpe,u;ocTeperaJio cppan:a;y8CKHH npoJierapnaT rrpOTIIB rrocrremHhIX ,u;en:CTBHH, yKa3LIBaH Ha TO, 'ITO <<BCHRaH IlOII.hlTRa HHCnpoBeprHyTI. HOBOe npaBHT.eJII.CTBO, Torµ;a RaR ne1 1 1 5 6 7 «La Patrie en danger>>, 7 septembre 1870. «Le Réveil», 7 septembre 1870. Dans l'impossibilité où nous sommes. [Paris, 18ï0]. Jl:HCTOBI-rn. MMJI. cDoTORonnK.
S E C O N D A D DR E S S. Ilf out fim i:nanifesto of the 23rd of July we s.aid :" Tbe_ d.a th-kneil of the Second Empire ha& already sounded a.t Pana. Jt will _ by a parody. But !et us not for�t ,bat it is the Government5 end, as 1t �n. and th• ruhng claUM of Europe who enabled Louis Napoleon t-0 play during eighte-en ,...,. t.be feroeious fa.r� of the Rutt>red Erttpir:." T�u•, even before wu operations ha.d actua.Jly aet in, we treat.ed the Bona• part1st bubble H a tbing of the put. If w! wen not. mist.a.�en as to the vitality of the Sèeond Et11pin, •e were- no, wrong 1n <Mlr apprehermon lest. the German war sbould" lou its strictly de fenaive charaoter aod d� into a war against the Fnmch people.,. The wa.r of def�nce �ded, in point of fact, with the sun-ender of Louis Bonaparte, the Sedan e&p1tulation, and the proclamatfon of the Republia at Paria. But lo� belote these H'fllt_a, tbe nsry nioment that the utter rottenness of the Imperiah,t arms bec&tne e 'rident., � Pruasian uiilitarr camuilla h&d nsolnd upon conquen. There lay m ugly obstacle in t.heir way-Ki"'9 Willimn.'• .,..,,. proda.mat.ü;,u at tAe co.-acca.t of tM wcr. In bis apeech from the throne to the North German Die� be bad solemnly deel&red to inake wu upon the Emperor of the Fren�, and not 12pon the French people. On the 11th of August be had ùsued a. ma.n1festo t.ot.he French n•tion, whe-re he said: "The Eroperor Napoleoo baving made, by land and sea, an attack on the German na.tion which de.sired and :.till desira to li•e in _puce wi\h �• Fren� people I have usu med the comm.and o( _the German arm.1• to �l .lu aggrunon,, a.n<1t I have been led by milito.ry effffr. to t:rou tMf1'aW.ti4r• of Fra.-ac,. ,, Not content t.o u1ert the defensive ehaT&Cter of the war by the atatement that be onl1 a.uurned the comm&nd of the G erznan armiee "to r�l �11.," be addod that he wat only ")ed b:, 1nilitary eYenta" toc� the frontiers ot P'ranoe. A ·deten&ive wu doos, of course, not exclude offenaive operaUooa, dictat.ad by " milit.ary e•ents." }IAqAJIO BTOPoro .B033BAHIUI I'EHEPAJibHOI'O COBETA. UHTEPHAUHOHAJIA no IlOBO)];Y <I>PAHH�YCCROll B0.0:Hhl npHHTeJII. yme noqTH CTY':IHTCH B BopoTa IlapHma, 6hl:ra 6i.1 OTtJ:aHHHhlM 6eay­ MHeM». feHepaJILHhIH COBeT paao6JrnqaJI aaxBaTHHqec1nrn nnaHhl roc­ IIOACTBYIOID;HX .ItITaccoB IlpyccHH 11 y1mai.rnan, 'ITO no6ep;a IlpyccHH np1rne,1:,;eT � IJary6HLIM IIOCJieACTBHHM _AJIH _AeJia pa6oqero KJiacca BCeX CTpaH. ÛH npH3hl­ BaJI pa6011ux K 6op1,6e npOTHB 3RXBaTa :3Jib3aca H JloTapnHrHII, 3a 1IpH3HaHHe q,paH�3CKOii pecny6JIHKH 8• Bce 8TH yKa3aHHH, »MeBmHe orpOMHoe 3HalleHHe ,IJ;JUI q>paHn;yaCKHX pa6o­ qIJX, OCTaJIHCb AJIH HHX B TO BpeMH HeH3BeCTHbIMH. Bo33BaHHe He 6bIJIO ony6JIHKOBaHo HH B JieBopecny6JI:e:KaHcKHX raaeTax <<Le Rappel» II <<Le Réveil», HII R 6JrntnœeTcKo:ü: «La Patrie en danger». E.AHHCTBeHHblÜ 6y1pmya3HhI:ii oprau, Hane"'laTaBIDHH B083BaHHe, ycTpaIUl.1'I ll3 Hero BCe OTHOCHBmeec.a K «npaBH­ TeJILCTBY uan;HoHaJibHOH o6opoHbI» 9. Jlnmb B ROH:a;e ceHT.H6pH 1870 r. Jla<papr coo6m;un MapKcy H8 BopAO 06 ony6JIHKOBaHnu HM B MeCTHo:ii ra3eTe «La Tri­ bHne» tppaHizy8CKOro nepeBOAa B033BaHH.H «c MHOfO"llHCJI0HHhlMH ymacaro­ ŒBMH oneqaTKaMHt. On C rope"llbIO ROHCTaTHpoBaJI, qTo B033BaHHe He nplIBJie­ "l'iJIO K ce6e BHKMatlUUI <ppaJI�yaoB, <<a OHll MOf.'IlI 61,1 MHOfOMY nayqIITI,iCH 113 "CJTeHH.H 8Toro .AOKyMeHTat l O. 8 K. M a p K c. BTopoe B033BaHHe feuepa.ïLHoro CoBeTa MeiK,IJ:yBapo,a;Horo TOBapH­ rn;ecTBa pa6o'IIHX O q>paHKO-IIpyccKoii BOB.He. K. Ma p K C l'i Cf>. 3 H r e JI b c. Co11., T. 17, crp. 274-281. 9 <I>paan;yac-ruùi C0�HaJIHCT OrIOCT Ceppaiie, COOOIIl.'1Bllnt:H 06 ,HOM BII0CJie�CTBKH na aace;i;aHHH feHepa:ILHoro conera HHTepHaq11oaa.ïa or 28 q>eBpa;u:1 1871 r., He Ha'3BaJI ;noiî raaerhl (Apxus HMJI, cp. 21, e�. xp., Il/30. Minutes ... 1871. Council meeting, Februa­ ry 28). 10 Apxnn HMJI, cJ,. 1, e,J.. xp. 8223, orr. 5. TI. Jfacpapr - l\fapncy, 1870, oKo;xo 25 ceH­ Taopa. 10 IJapIImCKafI hOMMYHa. T. I 145
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<::TB.RH H BoopymMTh cnocoonoe aoc:o:Th opyarn:e HaceJieHHe. 9 ceHTHQpH B CTaTLe <<Ü60tp0Ha Ilap.H.ma>> OH y1<a3hIBa.1 Ha B03pacTaIO�yIO B Hapop;e T1pe­ Bory no n-OBOp;y roro, 1.J:T,O, B CTOJIHu;e I]PH HeAOCTaTIŒ BHHTOBOR li rryme:n 6eap;e:ÜCTBYIOT BO€-HHhie n1pe�IllPHHTIUI. B TOT me AeHb B 6JiaHRHCTCNOM 1wy6e � � npasuTe.IThC'TBO HCII0JI.b3OBaJio AJIH npo6I,IJl,O Bhl,D;BliHYTÜ' TpeooBaHHe, 'IT0OhI U3BO:., tCTBa qpymHH MeTa:wy1pn11Iec1me aaBO,::(hI 6h1Bmero rrpe,n;ce,1aTeJIH 3a1rn­ no,n;aTeJibHOro Rüpuyca lliHeü.;1e,pa 54• ,UeKpeT o rrpaBe, cBOOOµ,Horo npoHaBo;:i;­ CTBa oipyiRHH, I-13AaHHhIH 5 CeHTHfüm, q>a:nTn:q,e.cKH OCTaBaJICH ::m�pTBO:Ü oy:KBOM. HecMOTJPH Ha rrpH3hIBhI JieBOH nellarn, s Ilapnme, uo ,u;aHHhIM HOOHROOIIH­ c1,oro opraHa << Le Combat>>, N Ha1Ia.1y oca.n;1,1 ocTaBaJIHCh HeBoopymeRHLnur OROJW 100 ThIC. ,pecny6JIHRaHu;eB, ro;.,;HhIX n Bo-0nuo:ii c.11ym6e, 55. B oJiaHKHCT­ CROM ·RJiy6e oipaTOphl yarn 15 ceHTH6pH pe3RO CTaB11JUI BOil)poc O TOM, '1{1'(} <<HhlHeIIIHoo npaB:o:Te:IheTBO OTI(a3hIBaeTCH BOotpymaTh veBœHOIJ,llOHeipoB» 56• Co oce 66JI1,meir HacroiîlfHBOCTbIO ;:i;o61rna.1nc1, opyanui ,ll;JIH ocex aTHX JIIOÀeï1 H HeOHROOllHll;hl. <<8n1 ;iro;:r,H Tpe6yroT 0tpyï1rnH,- nHca.;ia raaeTa «Le Com­ bat».- Ha;::(o HM ):(aT1, opyarne: ec."'IH ero neT, ero Ha�o orhlcnaTb; ecJIH en> H€ Haxo�HT, €rO Ha;i,o npOH3B€CTH... 0 lleM me JJ.YMaIOT 'Te, RTO B3HJI Ha cefor -o,praH:n:aa:q:nro H8ll;HOH8;JbHOÜ rsap�:011, no RaRO:Ü npeCTYIIHO:Ü Hepap;HBOCTH JrnmaroT ORH -0Te11ecTBeHHy10 apMnIO Tanoro 6o.-i1,moro qncJia co.rr,a;aT?» 57• Il1P"H :pacIItpeJJ.eJieHHH rraT1pOHOB npH,:tepïnHBaJIHCb Toro me I]pHHit;HIIa, qTO H np·H pa3Aa'le opymHH. <<Ilo1Ie:\1y OJJ;HH 6aTaJILOHhl rro.rryqun rraTpoHhl, Mem.:i;y 'TeM Ka:K �pyr:ue llX He HMeIOT? Pa3B,e �nyCTHMhl rr1pHBHJier:u:-n B T3RO::Ü :Mo­ M(ŒT?» - aarrpam1rna.11a 17 ceHTHV!J)H reHepaJia Tpomro raaeTa «Le Corn­ hab 58• BJiaHRHCThl, B cBoro 01.J:eipe]!;L, yRa3hlBaJIH Ha oreyrcrBne na1)poHoB y-1pa6oll:U:X, aalfHCJieHHhIX B JJaIUWHaJihHYIO fBélJPjJ;liIO, ,:(allie y Tex, RTO oxpaHH:J rrapHiRCRHe q>opThl, UM8BllHe nepBOCTeneHHOe 3HaqeHHe ,[J;JIH o6opoHbl Ilap 1 nma. EJiaHRHCThl OTMe'l!a:m: li TO, ll'I'O B l{lH,a;e CJiyqaeB Han;HoHaJILHhlM rnap­ .:r.eiiu;aM - paÔOlfllM BbI,J;aBa:Il:ICh HerO;J;Hhle naTpoHhl 59• He Jiyqm•e o6cTOH.10 .n.eJIO C OOMYH,a;HpoBaHHeM Hau;HoHaJibHhlX rnaip,n:eiiu;eB, He HMeBmnx B03MO'îRHO­ CTH upnoqpecTH ero aa COOCTBeHHhIH clleT. Mnor:u:e na HHX ocTaBaJIHCh 6ea o6yB11 Il o,a;em�. RoMaiIIAOBaHHe He 3aooTHJIOCh H O TOll, 1IT06hl CHa6AHTb HX IIaJiaT­ ImMH l];JIH aaI:qH'fhl OT oceHHeii Herroro�hl. BnaHRH, HeOAHOJ()paTHO y1rnahIB8B­ lllHH Ha '3'TH q>aRThl B CDORX BbICTYilJieHHHX B rre11a TH H B RJiy6e, He BH,L(.e.:r B HHX HHller,o Y�HBHTe;JhHOro: MOHa1pXH1IeCRH HaCTpoeHHOe ocp:e:u-epcTBO npu HOMepiHRe npaBIITe�-:rhCTBa, y:na3bIBaJI OH, IllPO,U:OJimaJio OCTaBaTLCH BO rJiaBe­ Hau;HoHaJihHOH H MOOHJihHOH rBa1p}lHH. MHoroqncJieHHhle CBH,J.ereJihCTBa aToro,.. � IIJPJIBO,rfHJIHCh Ra HapO;J;H'blX COQpaHHHX, B RJiyoax, Ha C'TpaHHIIax peBOJIIOit;HOHHOÜ ne11aTH. ÜT'hHB.TieHHhle 60Ha1rn1pTIICThl 1pacnopHIB3JIHCh BOOpymeHHC::\f uapoÂa. B va6011eM EeJihBM.1e, Ha�pHMep, BIIJIOTL .n.o Ha1Ia;ia oca�1,1 paa,a;a1.J:eii IHlTJPûHOB Be,n;aJI 60Hanapn1CT ,UenyTIOP, 6hlBlliHH IlOMO�HHR reHeipa.JihHOI'O , aH­ npoKyipopa Bropon: 11:MiletPIUI 60. JlenITH:MllCT Ma1pRH3 ,n;e fym HB.i1H�lCH R,OM 61 ,J;HpOM K'OHHOl'O a.cnajI.püHa H3UHOHa:IbHOH rBaipp,nH • RoMaJI,UHJpOM Bamneii­ mero cpopTa MoH-Ba.!!ep1,eH (Ha :no yna3hlBaJI 12 ceHTH6pH BJiaHRH) 61,m <<70-Jie-r:uJiiî K-opcHRa:Hou;, e,:i;nHcrB'eHŒIOH aac- .11yro:ë: Romporo HBJIHere.a ero npe­ �aHHOCTh MMIIepwm> 62• Bno::rne ('CTE'CTBeHHO, lITO aTOT Bpar pecrryo.JHRH BC.R­ lleC.KH TQpM03HJI HOOpymeHne q>opTa. l"tO'MaH;:i:HpOM 56-ro 6aTa:.IhOHa Han;BoHa:Ih­ ' O:Ü rBap,:,;HH OCTaBa.::1cH HpbIH 6oHarraprneT, ,::(eMOHCTpaTHBHO IIO,::(qepnHB3BillHR H 1 r-4 <<La Patrie rn dangeri>, 10 septembre 1870. «Le Combat», 23 septembre 1870. 56 <<La Patrie en danger>>, 17 septembre 1870. 57 <<Le Combat», 23 septembre 18,0. $S Ibid., 17 septembre 1870. 59 <<La Patrie en danger>>, 14 septembre 1870. 60 Ibid., i20 septembre 18,0. 61 Ibid., 18 septembre 1870. 62 Ibid., 14 septembre 1870. 55 156
<:EOIO npMBetpilŒHBOCTh ·JIMIIeplnl li AOme;i:mnii B CBOe:H HarJIOCTH AO roro, qTo {)Tl--.pbITO npH3hIBaJI COJI,IJ;aT KpHqaTb: «,[{a 3ApaBCTByeT Hl\,IIIepaTop! » «Hao;Ho­ Ha,!JhHbie rRap.a;eiil(1,1,- coo6�aJia no aroMy uoBon;y 6:i:aHKHCTCKaH raaeTa,­ corrnaJIH -C Hero :)IlOJJeTLI H 3HaKH pa3JIIIqHH, C.rOMa.::m ero mnary H IIOBOJIOKJIH H T1op1>My Maaac• 63• IlpnBO;t;HJIHeh 11 �pynrn no;r:i;OORhle npnMep1,r. HoBhle qmtpMB.püBaHHH MecTHO:Ü Hau,noHaJihHOH rBa1p;r:un1, C,OCTaB.TJHBIIIli0-CH r:caBHhIM o6pa30M 113 pa6oq:e:x, B tPHAe C.îylJaeB caMQ,qJIHHO H36HpaJIH ce6e B h'.O\'IaH�HJPl>I na p 1 mRCKHX C-OQ.HaJIHCTOB. TaR, 14 cie-HTHOPH 61>1JI na6paH KoMaH­ ;:1;11.poM 169-ro 6aTaJiwna naQ.H-OHaJIImoiî: rBap;:i;nn MoHMap-r:pa BJiaHim; -IWMaH­ ,n;11poM 63-ro 6aTaJihOHa HaD;HOHa:IhHOil rBapp;Hll Be.'1hBIIJIH - <DJiypaHc; 138-ro fünanwua - 8;i; 14-ro - PaHBhe; 204-ro - �Tle&.po; 158-ro - lliaKJiap; HH-ro - IBro;:ci. BaJIJiec; 61-ro - Paaya; 238-ro - Tu6a:i1>;u;n 64; 208-ro MHJii.ep 65 H T. A- Kol-taHAHPhl - cou1rn.1IIcThl H )J,eMo.KipaThI - rn.pn3hlBaJIJr TaJILOHhI iK caMOOTB0,pm-eH,HOH 38�HTe pecrryo.lHRll lI caMJI IIOKa3blBa.'IH rrpH­ Mephl oe33aBeTaoro -c.aymeHHH lIHTepecaM Hapo;i,a. <D::rypaHc, Ha 1rrpHMep, B npu­ h:aae 63-My 6aTaJI&Oay ,IIpH3hIBa;c: <<IIo6eJ,HTh II.ïH yliepeTb,- Mbl TB8!p�o aTOfO xorHM. MLI noKameM, RaR MhI :IIO'OH)t cnoe or-eqecn�o . .Mhl c·pamaeMcn ae pa,1n -0.1non. TOJihKo <l>paH-QlfH, HO H pan;a ncero 11e:10BeqecTsa, 1pa;i;n caMoiî pec11yô­ .11n1mire1wi IlpyœH'H..• Ilapnm �o.11men rro6e,;::i;HTb HJIII craTb BTOipoii Caparocco:ti Il ciropee uoxopOHH·Tb ce611 IIOl]; co6cTB8iRHbDill 1paanaJIHHaMH, qe'M c,,n;aTbCH>> 66• Xyme o6cTOHJIO p;eJio C KoMaH,UHhIM COCTaBO�( MOOit:IbHOii rBapp;HH: CO Bpe­ ;\f(\Hff BTopoi HMneipHH OH OCTaBaJICH TIO'ITH HeTpOHYThBL ffo)rnHA,Hpbt M06.H.::Ib­ HOB rBapAHH, no Meipe Toro KaR BhIHCHH:IaCh IIOJ{.:IHHHaH cy�H<)CTb IIOJIHTHKH noBoro 11paBHTeJILCTBa, CO BCe 60JI1>meü OTRpOBeHHOCTbIO BbipamaJIH ,C;IOBOM ll )J.eJIOM CBOH KOHTpl)0BOJIIOD;HOHHhle HaC11POeHIIH. CwaHHD;bl up,orpec­ C.H.BH.blX nap11mc1œx raa-eT B ceRTHOpe 1870 r. IIeCTpIIJIH 11HO l'OWCJI0HHblMU co­ o6�eHHHMH 06 OTRphITblX BhIIIa,a;ax oqrno,epoB }f06U.1hHOli rBap,a;HH npOTHB pec­ rry6JmKB H pecny6nn1rnnue-B 67 • B ra3eTe «Le Combat» 6hl.'IO noMe�eHo JIHCbMo )l00D.1IhHOro rBap}:\ei111,a, B 1-.0TOpü�I rrpaBII�1bHO OTMel!aJIOCh BOIIHIOm;ee HOCOOT­ BPTCTBne Me>R.JlY Hac:ripoeuneM MHOfOl{HC::IeHHOfO pH;I,OBoro CûCTaBa M-OOHJlbHOÏI rBap�HH, BOOl,Aynie'BJieHHOfO pocrry6:rn.KaHCh"IL\IU, IIaTpHornqoo.KHMH lIYBCTBa­ lUJ, JI uacrpoeHMell peam�ROHHOro :KOMaHJ].HOfO COCTaBa. <<BOJLHYIO�ee R BeJIH,, ., 1:lP-CTBeHHOe aipe.:inm;e,- IIHCaJI OH,- IIJpe-;::J.CTaB.lHe'f COOOH IJ,BeT MOJIO�e>KH MOÔH:I.bHOH rBapJJ;B·B, npoxownr�eii: BOeH.Hoe ooyllemrn Ha yJinn,ax H nnom;a.n;Hx Ilapuma.•• Co BpeMeHH penoJIIOIJ,Irll 89 r. cI>paHu;1u1 He BII;I.eJia HHqero rroAo6Horo. Û,I:(HaKo opraHH38UlUI MOOU.1bHOH rBap�llll npOTIIBOpeqHT rrpHHIJ,HIIa:M pœrry6JIHKH K HH B Roeii Mepe He OTBelJaeT 11011pe6HOCTHM: MOM8HTa... He- HB­ )HieTCH :Hl 8HOMa.ITTieR TOT <J>a,KT, qT,Q B-0 r.1aBe 3TOH HaI�HOHaJibHO:H MHJI'HQ.lUI CTOHT JIIO,r(H, KOTOpLlû He TOJlbRO noJiyq11:.rn1 CBOU IlOCThl Bpa3pe3 CO BC8MH ,pec­ rryO.T(MK3HCRHMll IlpllHil,Hlla'M'H, H{) H Ha3HalJeHhI naBlIIHM npaBH1'0JlhCTB-OM? Ta­ lWP IlO.'lomeJIHe MOiKeT npHBecTR R nary6HblM IIOCJIO�CTBl UIM>) 68• HeaaMe,r:p1:e:œeJihHO OTCTJ)aHiiTb CTaphIX RO)IaH;J;Hp'OB II 3aMeH.HTb HX HOBbIMH, lI3Ôpa.HHLIMH npHMhIM rOJIOCOBaHJ-18)1 H3 lllIC.13 Han:6oJie·e CilOCOOHLIX H JJ.OCTOH­ HhIX JJIO�eii,- Ta.KOBO 61>1:io 0,r(UHOJJ.YlllHOe HaCTOH"lfHB:Oe Tpe6oBaHHe peBOJIIOQTI­ <>HH>OH ne11arn, yqacTHHKOB HapO�HhIX co6paHHfL Ilo)]. 1pacTyID;llM AaBJieHHeM Hapo�HblX Macc npaBHT0JlbCTBO 6hIJIO BCë am BbIHYïK)];eHO H3]J;aTb J].eKpeT -o BbToopax KOM3.H,r(Horo cocTaBa )lOOH:IhIIOÏI rBap:i;Hn. BbI'OOphl 61>IJIH Ha3HaqeHhl -oa­ 1 63 64 65 «La Patrie en dangen, 16 septembre 1870. ApxuB .HMJI, q>. 232, eA. xp. 7 III/XXV. J:{eJieKJII03, Ba6paHHhlH KOM8H;:J;BpOM O,L{Horo OTKaaaJICII OT ;r,;1111, aToro DOCTa, BoeBHLIMH 3H3HB.RMB. COCJiaBmHCb Ha JJ3 TO, 6arnm,OHOB Ha�BOH3.JlbHOii rBap­ qTo He o6Jial].aeT cne1waJ1hHLIMII ApxBB .HMJI, q>. 232, eA. xp. 64 III/XXIV. CM., aanpuMep, •Le Rappel», 8 septembre 1870; «La Patrie en danger>>, 14 sep­ tembre; «Le Combat», t6 septembre 1870. 68 «Le Combab, 16 septembre 1870. 66 6 7 157
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{'}Œa,p;ax, C IIpeAOCTaBJieHHeM: 'HX �"Ia�eJih�aM raipaHTHH B B03Me�eHBH CTOH­ MO·CTH 3TRX TOB8lpüB IlOCJie BOÜHhl. ,UJIH ·lŒiKAOro 1-rnapTaJia rrpe�naraJIOCb 1136pa'T:h ROMH-CCIIID no yqery rrpo,aoBO.'lhCTBe-HHhlX IIpü:lYin'OB n HX paa.n.alle Haoe­ :reHlUO B OÔMeH Ha 60H1>I, 110.zviem:aBrnHe 11€1J)lI0,1HlleCKOMY pacrrpe�eJieHHIO 110 01r,pyraM, B OOOTB0TCTBHH C llH-CJIOM II!POiRirnarom,Hx B HHX îKHTeJieÜ H C yqeroM rrpo�O • Jl.iKBTeJihHOCTH oca,u;hl. 20 OIQJ)yrOB 1lPOOOBaJI OT MYIIH�lIIIaJIHTeTOB o6e,cne"tJeHHH Bcex rpa�aH :Irn,!V[ema�1nn1 iKHJIH�HhlMH ycJIOB'lUIMH, B qacTHOCTll rrpe;r,ocTaBJieHHH Hym­ �aIO�B'MYCH HaOOJieHllIO iRBJihIX IIOMerqeIIRÜ, IIOlUIHY'fhlX 'HX BJia·;:,;eJI1>�aMH. B traCJie o6qpo.HHLIX MetporrpHHTHH npe;i:.rraraJI'OCh HeMe)];JieHHo rrp·oBe·CTI[ Bhl60fI)LI uonoro ROM:81HJ(Horo cocTaBa MOOHJihHOH rB81J)AffH, RaR Momno OhIC'I1l)ee CHa6�HTL Bcex rpam.n.an ,u;o6poKa"tJ0CTBeHHhlM OrPYiIHieM, a TaKme ,11.0CTarotI-HhIM ROJJlf'le-cTBOM rra-i,pO'HOB H CHapHmeHHH, HeOOXOWJMhlX ,11.JUI ycnemHoro orpa­ memu1 Bpameciro:ë aTaRH; 'Hc11on1,aoBaT1, Ha oôopoHHhIX 1pa6orax HaceJieHHe, Re IIO,ttJiema�ee Ilfl)ll3hIBY B Ha�HOH8JihHYIO fB3.1P;r:J;HIO; y,craHO-BHTh IIOCTOHHHblH o6m,ecTBeHHhlÏI KOHTpûJ.lb Ha)); o6opoHHl,IM'H MeponpHHTIIHMH, npH6eran K no­ MO!qH meHII(KH H A0Teii. ABTophl rriporpaMMhl ,.;a1rne TfPOOOBaJill 06'bHBJien:1u1 Bceo6rqero Ha6opa B OilOJPieHHe, a TaRme p0RB'H3HIJ,H'H BCero, 'ITO Heo6xo,n,HMO ,II.JlH o6opoHhlj HarrpaB­ JieHHH B llJ)OBHH�HIO ]1;0JieraTOB roJH ycraHoBJieHUH CBH3H C M€-CTHhlMH pecrry6JIHKau�aMH, «c TeM, qTo6hl CTHMy-JIHponarh naTpHOTHqecKRH 3HTY3'Ha3M <Hace­ Jl0HHH, paCCTpo11TL rrpOHCKH peaKD;lIOiHepoB, npe,;::t;OTBpaTHTh H3MeHy, Y,CI-WPHTh npH6htTHe BOJIOHTepoB Ha IIOMO�h Ilaprrmy H, He m;a;v1 iKH3HH, IllP'RHHTh B c11y11ae Heo6XO]l;HMOCTH KOMaH,II.OBaHHe Ha,u: HHMH>>. IloA IlJPOnpaMMo:ë ana'l1IJIOCL 48 rroa:rrHceiî - 1IJieHOB Mnre1pHa�HoHaJia, 6JiaHKHCTOB, pa�KaJILHLIX peerry6JJl!Ka:H�eB. He MeHee 11 IIO�IIHceü IllPBHaA­ JiemaJio 6y,n;yrqHM 'IJieHaM Ilapumciwn HoMMYHLI, a pH)l. no,n.u11ce-.ü - JJJPYl'HM aRTHBHhIM yqaCTHHKaM 1()0BOJIIOD;HOHHhlX COOhlTIIÜ Maipra - MaH 1871 r. Ouy6JIHRoBaHlie n mHpoxoe pacnpocTJparreHIIe B Ilaip,Hm:e II1ponpaMMhl IJ;R 20 OKJ)Yl'OB 6hIJIO pac�eHeHO «rrpaBHTeJihCTBO�I Har:t;HOHaJibHOÜ o601poHhI» KaK Ha11a11O ,pemHTeJil>HOfO HaCTYIIJJeHHH <<p;e�rnrorHH>>. ÜHO OTIW3aJIOC:h IllPHHHTh �eJJera�HIO, HBHBIDYIOCH 16 ceHTH6pH B ,paryruy, qr,06:hl rre�pe;1;arh qJieHaM rnpa­ BHTeJILCTBa TeKCT lllpOrpaMMhl. MoHapX'HCTbl, 06-oll,peHHhie aHTHHB.jP,0)'.l;HOÜ UOJlH ­ THROH Bp0MeJIHoro rrpaBHTeJihCTBa, BCe HpOC'THee o6pymHBaJIHCh Ha rra1pH1RCRHÜ rnponeTa11nmT, Ha con;HaJincroB. Aq>Hmn :UR 20 o-Rtpyron cp:nrnaJim�1> ,peaKqnoiHe­ pa.MH H ,u;eMoH-c-rpaTHDHO cmRraJIH"Ch. EonanapnicrcirnH raaeTa <<Le Français>>, II[JO�o.rrmaBmaH Bhlxo;tlfTb B Il aip:ame n rrocJie 4 cenur6pH, paapa3HJiach KJieBe'f­ HnqecK:e:MH Bhlna;i;aMH IlpüTHB (<B03tp-O,IlHBmeiicH CTapoÏI rraipnm 15 MaH R HIOHb­ CIŒX ,nHe:ët. 3aHBHB O TOM, qro <<I'1pacna.a: aqn1ma I130tpBaHa H paCTOIITaHa>>, peRKD;'BOHHhIÜ opraH ,cooo�aJI O IlOÀI'OTOB:JHIDm;e-:ucH ,opraHII30B8HHOM <<corrpo­ TllBJl01IHH 'AeiP30CTH0MY BhlCTYIIJie.HIUO>) ipeBOJIIOil;IIOHe1poB H OTRJPblTO npR3bIBaJI R opyiKHIO «Bcex nopHAO"t!HblX JIIO;L1;eii, rraT1pIIOTOB ll A06iphlX rpamAaH>>. <<He uo8BOJIHM napn:e: peBOJIIOll;HH,- fJ)03RJia raaera,- B3HTL B CB(}H PYR11 UHHJJ;lla­ TRBY BhlCTYIIJieHHH H CMeJIO IIO](HRM8M rrpornB y.'.IIPIH:hIX ipeBOJIIOqno•m�1POB 3Ha­ Mfl CBOOOJQ,I>) 81 • Ilo IlOBO;:J;Y 3Toro HarJioro ROHTl)peBO:IIOll;IIOIIHOfO BbICTYIIJI0HHH ·pacIIOHCaB­ illHXCH MOH8.JpXHCTOB neoHKOOHHCKaH <<Le Combat» rrnca.'la 18 ceHTHÔpH: <<IIpa1mreJihCTBO IIOJiyqHJIO npep;ylljpe-m;::i:eHne. BoT OHII, II:.IO;J;bl ero Kpaiin,e.ü Hep,e­ nnne.ïihHOCTH, ero o6xo�wre.:IhH,OCTil C rnycHOÜ OOHarrapTlICTCI-rnÜ rrapnrnïr, K0'1'01paH BMeCTO Toro, qro6hl ipaaopyinHT:hCH, rro:nra l'OTOBHüCTII BCTYilHTb B BOHHY npoTHR 1pecrryfü1HKH... EcJin 6bI npaBine.'l:hCTBO c caMoro Ha"tJaJia 3arnpHTano B TIOpbMY 3THX JiaKeeB, rOTOBhlX CTa Th Ha 1w.;1errII rrepe;::i: HOBhDf X03HlfHOM, ... :\H,I He OhlJIH 6bl CBH)];eTeJIH�IH HeBe1pOHT'JIOfO 31pe.'IIIIIJ;a, a IBieHHO TOPO, IŒK IJJt 81 CTaTI..H Ha 6oHarrapTHCTCKOii: raaeThl <<Le Français>> ( an-rop François Baslay) 61..rna rreperre'!aTana B paao6Jia'IHTeJILIIhlX :u:e.1:11x B rneTe «Le Combat>> 18 ceHT116p11 1870 r. 11 TiapmHCfiall HOMMyHa, 'f. I f6{
J 0iEHMa OOHanaprnCThl npH3hlBaIOT R opym:mo B yc�Tf'ÜBHHX rpecny6..11ll1ŒHCK0f() P 82• >} IQPûTlfB p,ecny6JIHRaHn;eB IlepBbie me1 ABe HeJ);eJIH rrpe6hIBaHHH y BJIRCTII <<npaBIIT0JII,CTBa Han;110HaJib­ ROH o6opoHhI» o6HaipymIIJIII aHTIIH81PO;J;HYIO li éUITHHa�oHaJII,HyIO cym;HO-CTI, ero ·BHYTJPeHHeif II BHemHeiî rroJTIITIIKII. Byipmya3I-lhie p,e,crry6J1111mHa;h1 II opJ.Ie­ a.HirCThl, 3axBa"TIIBilll1C n:mcTb 4 ceJrrH�pH 1870 r., BC8H CBOeÜ ll;8H1'8JII,H'OCTblO rro�a3aJI'II yarn B ne,pnop;, npeJJ;mHC'TBOBaBirrnft oca,;i;e IlapH.ma, qro OHH TOJIL'KO q>üpMaJIL1HO - IIOA p;aB.îe.HJfe).I :gapO,[(HhIX liaCC - IIpüB'03fJiaCHJUi pecnyO.T.ŒRY, ' M8H 1Hn ::vra;r•eiimero Ha:�rnpeH'lIH 3aJIOiRIITh ocHOBhl ee npoworo cym;eC'TBOBa­ ne H HnH. B3HB Ha ce6H 3a�aqy OTCTOHTb 6eaorraCHOCTb II reppHTO!PliaJihRyro u;eJIOC'î­ lHOCTb <P1paHII;IIFI, OHII no;::i;qrrHFI::ITI IlHT0JP8CbI CTpaHbl :KJiaC-COBhIM IIHT€fI)eCaM 6yp­ mya3FIH. I'ny601nrn IllP-OTHBotpeqnH, pa3,a;emrnrrrn:e <f>pann;yac1rnii Hapo� II 6yipmyaanoe << II1PaBHT8JihCTBO nan;noHaJihHOH o6opoHhI», npnBeJIH K _p;aJihHeiîmeMy o6ocTpe­ RHIO RJiaCCOBOÜ 6qpb6hI BO $paHn;IIH. Bqp1,6a cppa:Hn;y3CnIIX 3Ja6oqnx li rrpnM­ I<flyBmeË: R HH:M rrepe;::i;oBOH qa,CTII M8JinOÜ 6yp.myaaHH IIJPOTirn IJ)8aRD;'IIOHHhlX CHJI aa ocym;e,cTB:I8HIIe aa;:i;aq peBO.JIIOII;IDI 4 ceHTH6pH HaqaJiaCb, IŒK BHAHM, )l;O ocaAI.I Ilap11ma. ÜHa mpnm1:ia ern;e 60.11ee ocr,,p1>1:ft xapa1<Tep co BpeMe-HB OCaAhl. 82 <<Le Combat», 18 septembre 1870.
I'.,1 a a a ut e c ni a .C/, KJIACCOBAH BOPhBA B IlAPlIJKE BO BPEMH Ero OC�t\.,Ubl HEMEIJ;I(flMII BOlICKAMII (19 CEHTHBPH 1870 r. - 28 HHBAPH 1871 r.) * f. J{AJihHEfffilAR BOPhBA CHJI .I(EMO:KPATHII JI CII�l PEAIHUIII no BODPOCAM BBYTPEHHEll II BHEIDHEll IlO.lHTJIKH DOCJIE HAqA.,TJA OCA�bl � caµ;a IIapHiIŒ Ha11a:rac1> 19 ceHTH6pH. Crom1:u;a 6b1.aa o6Hecena i-.pe­ IIOCTHhIM Ba;IOM ;rJ;.'IHHOil B 34 n)I n ro.'ImIIHoii B 6 )1. BaJI JIMeJI 94 6aCTIIOHa. Bo:npyr Hero IIIe.:! �OB. lliHpIIHOii: B ·15 lI, a B-1Ie1pe11:H uero, B 1,5-5 1-ar, OhIJI II pa311em;enhI 16 cf>oproB. Yn1perrJieHnH Ilarpnma, nocrpoeHH1>1e em;e npn IIro�ïbCKOÜ )rOHapx:Im n npeAHa3H allaBlli.HeCH Jl:.:IH 110,u,aB.1e-n1IH BOJ).lOlliHhIX paoo-crnx BOCCTaIIHII, :.WOLTUI CJIYIBIITh H B 6opb6e rrpoTHB qyme3e:MHhIX BŒÏCN. R naqaJIY ocap;1>1 B IlaipHme OhlJiü oRoJI-0 130 rhIC. pery.··:u1pHhlx BOHOK, o:no�10 300 TI,lC. (254 6aTaJibOHa) H3D;JlüHa:n,HE.IX rBapµ;eii:u;eB II 115 'fhIC. MOOllJieÜ. He-Me:c�Koe me xoMaH,r:,;oBa-HHe Ha uepBhIX n°'pax vacrro.·rnraJio )I.JIH oca;'.J.nI Ila­ p1rma :ooero 120-150 ThIC. 60.üo;oB. Ho Hall,fIOHa.:JhHi:lH rBa;p;:i,H.a Ôl>I.i.Ia IliIOXO Boopy.meHa n ooyqe-Ha, a 6oeBoü �yx <ppam::i;y3cnnx ,pery.rrH[)HhlX qacreii H M06HJibIIMx rBa,pJJ,-eün;eB 61,ur uo.n;opBaH rrpem1nn1rr rropamruurHMll. 3To no1rn3aJia yme nepBaJI BoeHHa.H CThPIRa y cTeH IIapnma, rrpn IJJarniioHE\ niponcme.n;ma.H 19 ceHTH6pH u aaRoHqHBIIIaHCH rro6eJJ,OÜ HeMneB. Yme B ca1I0:\1 HffCJaae ocap;hI liIOJih <PaBp or11paBIIJIHa'laJ1o oca�w. lleperoBopw B 4>ep1,epe CH B He:\teIJ;RYIO CTaBRy 19 u 20 ceHTH6pn B cDep1>e-pe :\IelliJIS n1n1 H Brrc1rnpHOM BeJUICh rreiperœophl 0 nepeMIIJ)RB o aa1w10qennn rreipeMmp-HH. IInp aH Ha crpaxe, qwaa1�y8cRoÜ 6ypmya3HH nepe;:( COÔCTB-€-H'BbBI H8!J'Oµ,O)i, IljpyccRHH RaHD;J'Iep rpo3II:t <PaBpy, qTo (<00."'IH Ilapum Be 6y,r:,;BT B3.HT B re1rettne HecI..o:rrhIUIX JJ,Heiî, ITlp3BHTeJibCTBO (<l>paHIJ.HH.- H. ;(.) oyp;er CBeprHyTO 1repHhlO>> 1. ÛH TP,000naJI rrepe,naqH HeMeD;KOÜ aipMH.U HeC.nO:lhRHX IQPeIIOCTeii II 0,:$0f0 :na napnm­ CRHX cpopTOB. BoaMym;eHne, oxBaTnBmee Ilapm-R npn H3Becr1rn: o neperoB�­ pax, aacTaBHJIO rrpaBnTeJibCTBO OTR.:IOHIITh yc.rrOBil.H BHC:\Iap1rn 2 JI TotpHŒCT­ B2HHO 38HBHTL, qro OHO CTOIIT 3a (<COIIPQTIIBJieHIIe J;O IIOCJie)];Heii RJP8ÜHO­ CTH>> 3. Ha AeJie me npaBnTe.:IhCTBO npop;o.1man:o BeCTII raÏIHO, C IIOM:üIIJ,hIO pa3JHPIHhlX areHTOB, B 11acTHOCTII a1repHRam:�eB <Po,p6a 1I Be,pHcaiî.na, IlefJ)ero­ BOphI c B»c�rnpKoM. Ocoo1>1e na:r;emp;hI B03.1ara.rro ono na Mnccino T1,epa. RanHTyJIHHTCKHe H3CTp-OeHHH �PélBlITe.1bCTBa OTipama�1HCh Ha BOeHH:bIX ;::{eÜ­ {'1'BIIHX, KOTOIJ)I,Ie BeJIIICh :npaÏIHe m1:rn. 0 BbI.1aa1-rnx napnmCI-mx BOÏICh B ne1pBbie He,U.e-JHI ocagE.1, Rai-. II II03.J:Hee, 8Hre.1bC rr:vra.1: «Bce OHH IllpllBOAHJIJl - u Récueil officiel des actes du Gouvernement de la défense nationale pendant le siège de Paris (AaJiee - Récueil». Paris, 1871, p. 408. 2 Procès-verbaux des séances du Conseil du Gouvernement de ;a défense nationale. 1870-1871 (AaJiee - Procès-verbaux). Paris, 1908, p. 146-147. 3 Récueil, p. 413. 1 11* 163
K 3Ha'IHTeJihHhIM IIOTe,pHM y cppa-ttn;yaoB, noHeceHHhlM 6eJ BCHKOH IIOJI:b4 3hl... >} • B Te1Ie'Ime 20 ceHTH6ipH, BO BpeMH BbIJia3KH B HanpaBJieHHH Iùia�rnpa, Offll IIOTepHJIH ceMh nyrne:n H 3 Thl('. qeJIOBeK IIJI0H'HhlMH. Han;HOHaJibHaH rBap­ AlUI :FfCIIOJlh30BaJiaCh TOJlhKO ,D;JUI HeceHHH RapayJihHOH CJIYïKOhl, a Me:m;zy Te'M , He BBO,D;H ee n 6oii, HeJih3H 6L1.�10 p;o6HThCH y cTeH IIapHiKa 'llHCJieHHoro Ilij)e­ n,ncxollCTBa Hap; He:Men;KHMH BOHCKaMH. R TOMy me IlJPP13HTeJibCTBO JIHillh BO BTOpo:ü ;:ceIŒJ];e OKTH6pH HatJ:aJIO HaJI8lliHB8Th rrpOH3B0,ll;CTBO opyJ.CHH B IIa­ pII:me. PeaRqHOHHhl8 Rpyrn, B rrepByIO 01Iepe,n;b MOHatpXHCThl, o,n;o6pHJl'H IIOJIH­ TIIRY npaBHTeJihCTBa. ÜHH npH3hrna:rn K RaTIHTYJIHD;HH neipe,n; IlpyccHeü H pacxBaJIHB8JIH Thepa Kan <<e]:l;HHCTBeHHOro qeJIOBeRa, RoTOphIH MOilŒT ipac­ ce.HTI, ouaceHIUI, Bhl3B8'HHhie 3a rpaHHn;e:ü ycTaHOBJieH'H0M pecny6JIH­ Irn'HCI-Wro CTP,OH BO <DtpaHn;I-m» 5• l-iapop;Hhle coôpaHHH IItpHHHMaJIH pe30JIIOD;HH npo­ llo:uu�HH T8CTa rrponrn MHCCHH Thepa. IloJIJITHKa npaBHTeJI.b­ peBOJIIO�HOHHhlX rpynn crBa no,:i;nepraJiach nce 6oJiee peaKoÜ RpHTIIKe. Ü Ha­ ,n; B Bonpoce :no peBO.ITIOIJ;HOHHaH Il0'll8Th H HapOA'Hhle KJiy6hl Bce 0 BOÏÎHe H MBJ)e ,e·IIJ;e He T8pHJIH Ha,n;emµ;hl BhIHY,WITh npalBHTeJibCTBO rrpOB'OJUITb IIaTpHOTHlle-CKYIO Il )];e:uoNpaTIPieCRYIO IIOJIHTBKy. IlopameHtJeCKO:Ü ,[ÇHIIJIOMaTlUI npaBHT0JlhCTBa JieBhle Kpym IlpoTHBOilOCTa­ B'l:IJI:H CBOIO IljporpaMMY RH8IlIHeÜ IlO.:IHTlflHI. TaK, <l>JiypaHC aaHBJIHJI, qTo JI1IIDb yrJJyoJieHHe iPeBOJIIO:qHII H COI03 C rpeBOJIIOIIHOHJlhlMH CHJiaMH EBpOIIhl MOryT BhlBeCTH <l>paHIJ;IlIO Ii3 II30JUIU,lffi li no6yµ,HTb eBponeÜCKRX MOHapxOB co,n;eü:­ CTBOBa'Th - H3 OOH3H'Il IIOB'TOpeHHH COOhITH:Ü 1793 r.- 3a,KJIIOtJeHHIO CD'p8Be,n;­ .1HBOro MHpa Meaç:,;y IIpyocneü H <l>paHn;Heii 6 • JleBa.H nellaTb 3BaJia R COI03Y C IIOJI:&CKJI'M'H, 'Hp:IaHp;c1rn:�rn:, IITaJibJIHCKHMH peBOJIIOD;HOHepaMH; OHa np.HBeT­ CTBOBaJia npu6bITil'8 BO <DpaHIJ;HIO fapu6aJih,!J;H, KpHTiliKOBa.n:a npaBHTeJib-CTBO 3a OTRa3 OT IllP0,lI;JIOIR8HHH JIOJihCRifX 3�IHI'paHTOB oopa3oBaTh CBûll OT!PHW>l j.(.,'IH yqacTHH :B o6�oHe Ilap.rrma. CJie,n:yeT, O)];BaKo, OTMeTHTb, qro B BOeHHO:Ü nponaraH.J);e JieBOÜ ne1Iara 1Ipû­ CI(aJih3hIBaJIII rro.n;11ac IIIOBII.HIIC11I1Ie<'.KlI8 HOTh'JI. ):(ame y BJia'HRB BCT:petJaIOT­ C.II paccym,n;eiHHH O !]peB{)CXOACTBe :IaTllHCROH, <<cpe,n;H38MHOMO!PC1W:Ü» 1pachl Ha.a <<rY,HHa:\UI>} 7. He pa3ofüJall8JIH peBOJUOI:,;HOHelI)bl H ROJIOHHaJihHYIO IlO;IBTJI­ I-�Y upaBHT8.:.IbCTBa, KOTopoe, 60HCh IIOTejpHTh A.rrmnp, 0Tl(a-38JI0Ch 0T :}lhl­ C:.IH BhlB8CTH OTTyp;a BOJ".ICRa. XOTH OIIII ObIJIII Hy,nHbl AJIH o6opoithl <I>paH­ UIIIl 8• Bo�i:ee Toro, Hno6nHcnaH raaeTa «Le Combat>> npe,n;Jiara.'Ia p;ame Hanpa ­ iRJJ;aTb <ppa·H I:J.y3Cn1IX BOIIHOB IIOC.î(? BOÏIHbl YlJ8CTRaMH 38.M:CH B A:.r,Rnpe Il B ;rIJpyr11x q>pann;y3CRHX IW:IOHHHX 9. PacTym;yro Tpenory 11py;:i;Hrr:,;:axcH Ilap11ma BhI3h1.BaJin IloaomeH11e rrpo;::t;DBO�"'lhCTBeHHbI€- TPY;::J;HO-CTII, HalJaBilIHOCH yme ·B Hapoi:i;uhlx Macc ceHnr6pe-oKr.H6ipe 1870 r. C 1PhlHRa 11c11eaJI11 MaCJIO, H ux Tpeôosaum1 M:0."'IOf.O, MHCO, HÏIUa. IJ;eHhl Ha OCTa.JihHhle IliPOl(YRThl .r-reIIJPeipbIBHO poc:rTI. A B OHTHope cTaJio T1py:::i;llo ;a;ocTaBaTh xJieô, He xBaTa;rn TODJIHBa. Ilap:amaHe e,111 :nome:n 1 co6aK, i.1pb1c. fa3er1>1 ne-tJaTaJIH pen;enThl npH­ 1 rOTOBJieHHH 6.iro;:,. II3 Ta:noro :\IHca 0• B ocain;i:e-HHOM ropoµ;e ipoc.TJ:a 6è31pa60-Tnn;a. Ilpe;a:npHHH:\raTe:rn rro:i:L3ona.1nc1, 3nn1, qToo:61 cnna-.arh 3apa5ornyro n::raTy pa6oTaIOiqH:\1 11 . Bypmya, IDieH ;:(CIIbDI H 3arra,cbl IIJpo;::i;ynTOB, MeHhille - o .u:i;yIIJ;am1 4 <l>. 8Hre.1bC. 3a�rnnm O BOHHe. h. MapRc II et>. 3nreJILC. Co11., T. 17, CTp. 241. 5 «La Guerre il lus trée>>, 21 septembre 1870. 6 G . Flou r en s . Paris livré. Paris, 18ï1, p. 85-91. 7 <<La Patrie en danger», 18 octobre 1870. 8 ProcPs-verbaux. p. 121. 9 <<Le Combat>>, ï octobre 1870. 10 <,Le Rappel », 3û octobre '1870: «Le Combat», 28 octobre, 1 novembrè 1870. 11 Enquête parlementaire sur lïnsurrection du 18 mars, t. II. Versailles, 1872, p. 551, 612; <<Le Combat>>, 15, 27 octobre 1870. 16-1.
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�1e1p )l.JUI o6qpoHhl, !HO OÔOCHOBhIBa.,iu nx, ncxo;vr II3 nponpaMMhI IIHTeipHau;110HaJia 20• B Ha-qaJie oKT.mipH peBOJIIOD;HOHHa.H netJa Tb eiffH8JIHffHIPOB8Jia O UpüAOJI­ iIŒIOII(eMCJI HOOJiaroIIOJIY1JHH C IIpüH3BO]I.CTBOM rryrnen. CRop,o C ce-Hcan;HOHHhlMH paaooJia-qe-HHHMH IHa '8Ty -reMy BhleTyIIHJia ra3eTa <<Le Rap,pel». ÜKaaaJioc1,, 1ITO R1PynHeiinm::ü B Ilaip1tm0 BoeHHhliî saoo,n; ReiîJih, He crOBQpHBIIIHCh c rrpaB11Tie-JihCT.BoM O qeaax, Iljp0Iq>aTHJI Ilf){)II3B0,ZJ;CTBO arpyJ{rrfr. Ha ,n;p,yrn:x npe)J.IIP,HH­ TlUIX p;eJIO OOCTOJIJIO He Jiyqme 21. 06cJie)J.OBaHIIe, npoBe,II;eHHOe ipa6olfHMH :.n;e.11eraTaMH, rr<>Ra3aJio, 1IT0 npon:3BOJJ;CTBO pymeii: TaRme He :HaJiaiKeHo. Ilapm« OXBaTHJIO B03MYIIJ;0HH0. Pa6o1IHe co6paHH.H 'I)pe•6o,BaJIH �a:qHoHaJIH3an;nn ·Bo­ eHHO:Ü IJJPOYLI.IIIJI0HHOCTH. TaR, HailpHMep, pe30JIIOD;ll.H Haipü)I;HON} oo6paHBJI JI] o:rqpyra OT 13 ORTHqpH 1870 r. rJJRCHJia: M8CTeiJ)CRHe, <fla6pHKll n ,n;pyrne npeA:fip1u1nu1, KOTqphle Moryi 6LJTI, ncnoJ11,a,0BaHM ,n;.r1H 1I3I'OTOBJieHHH OïPYiKHH, cHapn,n;oB HJFH MaTep:e:aJioR ]];JIH aToii n,eJI:e:, no,ri;Jiemar 31rn111porrpnall,1IH 22• Paa­ ,n;aBaJIHCh Ta.KiKe T1POOOBa1HHH coa.n;aTb cTien;HaJihHYIO opraHH3arr,n:ro pa601I:e:x BO­ eaHo:ë: 11poMhIIIIJle1IHOCTH, CIIOOOOHYIO B3HTb Ha ce6H IIJP,OJI3BO)WTBû opymn:H 23• T,peôoBaHHH 1Pa6otmx, HaIIIPaBJieRHbie Ha y.:IytJrueHHe- o6op-oHhI, 6hlJilI IlO,[{­ i(epmaHhl MeJIKOH 6yp mya:me:ü, a TaKme 60:iee COCTO.HT8JII,HhIMH naTpHO•TJiI1Ie­ Cira ;nac11POOHHLtM::e: 6y:pmya. JleBo6ypmyaaua.H <<Le · Raippeh> BhicTyrraJia aa HQpM:eipoBamre IIJ)O.z:cyRTOB, iHO HCR8Jia CIIOCOOnI IIpüBeeTH -ero 6e3 Y:IQ€tp6a ll,JUI. cno6o� TQPr<>BJill 24• HeKOTOIJ)I,Ie 6ypmya-3Hhle raaeTM pacc4HThIBaJIH np::e: IIOMO� HOpin�poBaHHH npop;yxTOB BhIT8CHJiITb Me,"IKYIO ToproBJIIO. ÛH:II n1pe;{­ .-r:1araJ11I n0ipyqni. pacrrpe.n;eirnmrn IItpo.n;yRroB HecKo::r1,n1n1 KlPYIIHhlM irnra­ auHa1n 25• Ilpa:sa.a: 6ypmyaauaH npecca OTKJIOHH.J:a ca:\1y10 MhIC."Ib o JJ/pamne.ilb­ cTB0'H'IIOM peryJIHpOBaHBH 11pop;üBOJibCTBeHHOrO cna6meHll.H. <<Ho,pMHl)OBa­ Bll0 ['II011()00Il0'1ŒH.- H. ).l.], ROTOporo Tpe6yroT 3TH l'OCIIO,[{a [T. e, pa6o11H8! - H. .r(.], yeTanoBHTCH caMo no ce6e, RorAa IllPOAOBOJihCTBeHHMe 4Ipo­ )J.y«Thl CTaHyr em;e 6onee fP0]l;K'II Ha pbIHIŒX>>,- II,HHl!lIHO aa.HBJIHna opJiea­ HHCTCKaH «Journal des Débats» 26• IlpaBHTeJil,C'l'BO, HCIJbITbIBa.H ,[{aBJieHHe RaR 00 CTOp,o:IIhI BaYTJ)eRRJIJI BOJIBTBRa pe3.KII,HORHhlX, TaR lI ]J,eMOI�paTlflieCRHX R,pyroB, illJIO DpaBBTeabCTBa no nyTH IIOJIYl\leiP, 3aII03]J,8JI1,IX ycTyrrOR, 3HraaroB. BCe:MH CHJiaMH n;errJIH:HCb aa BJiaCTh. Ero KOJie6aHHH n H-ep&IIIllTCJILHOCTL ,paa,IQpaman ,n:ame ero cropoHHHKOB. «R-or�a B tpeayJI1>TaTe ynopHHx Tpe6oBamdi »ceü ne1IaTH npaBHTeJibCTBO pemaeTCH 11ro-Hiroyw, c]J,e­ ·JiaTh, TO Heipe,�o CJIY1IaeTc.H, 111'0 HOBhlH rrpHE8-3 BCe CT8BHT B:HOBI, no� B-0IllPOC&,- n«caJia O]);Ha upanan ra3eTa 27• . Y.cTynaJI 11acro11TeJI1>HhlM Tpe-6oBaHH.H:M Hatpü;:t;HhlX Maœ, upaBHTeJI1,CTBO B ORTm>pe B3HJIO aa Y1JeT nyczyrom;He IŒ8jpTHJphl, H8JIOïKHJIO Be-aHa-q»TeJII,HLUÏ HaJior Ha mm;, 6emaBnm:x na IlapHma, H oTcrpotJ:HJio Ha Tp-H Mecan;a nJiarem :KBapTKpBOH nJiaThl. O�aKo )l;ame 6ypmyaaHa.H <<Le Raipipeb oTMeTHJia, 1IT0 MEl()hl 8TH 3all03]);aJIH 28• 0rKJIOHHH neipBOHa-qaJII,:HO MbICJII, 0 H01pMHpOBaBHH H TaKcan;HB IJlPOAYKTOB KaK «IPeBOJIIOD;H'OHHoe MeporrpH.HTHe>> 29, JJiPaBnTeJI1,­ CTBO B KOHD;e eeHTH6p.H 6LI:.ro BhlH�eHO ycTaHOBHTh TBepÀDie n;eBhl 1-Ia M.HCO 20 «Le Combab, 29 septembre, 6 octobre 1870; «La Patrie en danger», 4, 10 octobre 1870. 21 •Le Combat», 7 octobre 1870; «La Patrie en danger>>, 8, 11, 14, 22 octobre 1870. 22 •La Patrie en danger», 16 octobre 1870; «Le Combat>>, 17 octobre 1870. 23 «Le Combat», 28, 29 octobre 1870. 24 «Le Rappel», 15, Q.7 sept_embre, 12 octobre 1870. 25 <<Le Siècle», D;HT. rro �<La Guerre illustrée>>, 5 octobre 1870, p. 161-162; <<La î,ibertét, 2·5 octobre 1870. 26 lJ;u1·. no G. Lefrançais. Souvenirs d'un révolutionnaire. Bruxelles, 1900, p. 404. 27 IJ;nT. no «La Patrie en danger>>, 23 octobre 1870. 28 «Le Rappeb, 12 octobre 1870. 29 Enquête parlementaire sur l'insurrection du 18 mars, t. II, p. 390-391 . 167
'll xJJe6. Ho OHO HH1Ie.ro He c�e�'la*i:o, 1ITOO.bI aacraBHTL -rqproBn;eB npo;:r,anaTb np,oÀyRThI no 3THM n;·eHaM. B ORTHOpe,, ROT)l.a IlpD.L{0B-OJl&CTBeHHOO IIOJIOïlŒHHe em;e 6oJI·ee 06ocT1pnJioc1,, 6u.1 U3)l.aH AeRJper, ipa31pemaBmHii ORpymH�M MapHHM BB•OgJIT.b I\8\}JTO'fIHI J-Ia MHûO 30. Ilo acpnmaM Toro BIP,eMeHH MomHo npocJieAHTI., RaR napn.mcirae oxpyra OJVl:H 3a i'.JJPY I'HM BB0JI'H 1rnpT01IIŒ. Ho TaR IŒR BCe ORpyra IIOJIY1ilaJIH OlJ;B:HaKOB,Oe ROJilf!IeCTBO MHCa, XOTH 1f1IC.,'I{) JIX JRHTe.. 1eiiD ROJIOOaJIOCL OT 50 �o 150 TLIC., ro H tHOpMhI Ha MHCO B pa3HhIX paiioHax ROJIOOaJIHCh 0-T 50 '11.0 100 r Ha lJeJIOBeKa 31• CaMhIB HH3IUie Ho,pMM 6hIJIH ycraHûBJieHhl B Ha:e:6oJiee rycro Hace.n:eHHLIX ipa6otIHX RBaipranax Ila,p m-Ra. ,[(aNrn Ta1wii ROHCe,pBaTHBHhlH Ha6JIIO�ateJI&, IŒK COTPYAH1:IR pycc1mro IIOCOJI.bCTBa BO <DipaH:qHH JlOOHTL6B, OTM011a.JI, 11TO npo­ ;J;OBOJihCTB0HHaH IIOJIHTIIIŒ npamITeJihCTBa <<He 6eaynpe'11Ha,. 32.,' C:KOH.bIBaH 1peBO..'IIOIJ;lIOHHYIO a:KTH.BHOCTb HapoAHhlX Macc, npaBHTeJlbCTBO ynopn,o 6olJ)OJIOCh IIiPOTHB BCHRoii HHHI.(liaTHBhl oonay. TaR, Jf,JIH 6otpn6hl nipoTH� cneRyJIHD;lUI B IX ORpyre, no 'HHHD;HaTHBe MeCTHOro lroM,HT0Ta op;ineJILHOCTH, 6hlJI OTRphlT MyH1rn;:nrraJihHhlÜ MaraaHH. IloJiyqas: Irtpo)J;YR'.Thl H3 IllPaBHTeJih­ cTBeHHLIX ,CI(Jia;];OB, OH IlPOAaBaJI HX no TBep,lV:dM �eHaM. Haq11Ha-HHe HMeJio ycnex. ROMHTeT co6npaJICH {YI'�hlTb em;e ill0CTL TaKHX !.lara·3l[IHOB H ·BLipa3HJI na�em)J;y, qro n )J;pyrne oRpyra nocJie)J;yJOT ero np11Mepy. Ho H aro Meponp11a­ THe IIORà3aJIOCb npaBHT0JlbCTBY onaCHhIM. ÜHO npuocTaHOBHJIO Bhl.Aa1ly npoJJ,yK­ TOB lWMHTeTy IX oRpyra, MOTIIBHPYH :3TO TeM, lfTO «c�ecTBOBall'He rioAo6Horo lrrnra3HHa nponrnopeqHT :3ROHOMH1I0CKHM npHHD,HilaàrU. Mara3RH 6hlJI aaRIJ)hJT �::. TpomIO 'lJ.OJiro rotpMo3HJI IliP'OH3Ho�cTBo rrymeR B Ilaipnme. ÜH c nipe�HHeK OT3hlBaJICH oô «opy�iîHoii JIIIXOpa�e», OXBaTHBmeii HaœJieB;He CTOJUID,hl, li JIHillh B ROHn;e OKTHÔpH caHR�HOHHpoBaJI c6Qp -c,pe,p;cTB Ha IlfPOK3BOAC'tBO nymeK, CTHXH:ÜHO na11aThIH T;py)J;HID;IIMHCH. �BhlJIO IIOT€11)HHO meCTb HeJJ,eJih, noxa paapemHJIH napnmana M AOOhlTh cooe IIymKH aa co6ct:BeHHhlii cqeT»,nncaJI napnmcKnii Roµpecnoa;:i;eHT pyccRoro mY[)HaJia 34• C60ip ,l(eaer Ha nymKH IIJpomeJI B Ilc1Jp11.me J\PR orpoMH011 aHTya:e:aaMe Ha­ cene,H'HH. Brrepe�, )J;ame no npH.ana'HHIO ôypmya3Hblx raaeT, mJnr ·paooqnie 35• «Be.n;HH.RH OTRaa1:,rnaIOTCH OT Ryc:Ka x.n:eoa, llT06hl IlpüH3BOJ:ÇKTb O!PYARH, KOTO­ phlMH .mpeue6pera,eT npaBHT€JihCTBO»,- IIHCaJI Tp�oH 36• PeaJIH3a:r,;HJI BüeHHhlX nao6perennii raro«e 'BCI:PieCHH T�Moa11Jiac&. lfa Ma­ TepHaJIOIJ cire�CTBeHHOH KOMlIC,CHH, 0 BOCCTaHHH 18 MapTa, nanp:e::Mep, 'BhlHCHH0TCH , qTO 3a.mrrraTe."IbH.ble 6oM6hl He 6.bIJIH BHe;tpeHLI B IIpOH3BOjl,�'VBO, TaK J{aR npaBHTeJihCTBO no6oa.1och n;osepnu, JTO �eJio MacTepcKHM: «IlepeAaTh a.co cTpamHoe opymne B ipy1u1 11e,pHn, aHa11n.10 Ohl pac.KphlTh en Ta:aHy ero npoH3BO�CTBa, a 3T0 p-aHO HJIII II03;{HO II03BOJIH.lï0 Ohl HCIIOJib30BaTh ero npoTJ'CB B-OHCI,, noc.riaHHhlX }J,JIH 3a�l1T.bl nopHp;Ka BO �peMH BOCCTaHBR lJ IlaipHme>> n. <<Harun npaBine::rn:,- .KoacrarHpona.1:a raaeTa «Le Combat»,- IUreTyrc.a a XBOCTe •o5m;ecrneHHOY.O .MHeHHH H ycryrraIOT eMy JIHillL, 1wrµ.a µ,eJIO �OXOA}!T )J;O RpaiiHOCTH>> 38• Ho npaBHTeJILCTBO He rrpocro JIJieJI10Cb B XBOCTe. ÛHO C03Ha­ '1'0JihiHO o6MaHhlB"aJio Hapo�hle :.\taC-Chl. Jlame �ome)J;mHe 'iJ.O Hac CK)71Ilhie npô:­ TOKOJihHhle 3a.rrHcH ero aace.r,;annii ;i;aIOT HpKHe rrpRMephl aroro. TaK, o6cy.m;:,.aH nonyJIHpHoe 13 HapOAe rpe6oBaHJie nocJiaTI, B npOBHHIJ;HIO peBOJIIOIJ;HOHBhIX K0� o V Les Murailles politiques françaises (;i;a.1ee - Murailles), t. I. Pari�, 1873, p. 145. Ibid., p. 208, 209, 251, 261, 264. 32 JI e o H T 1, e B. 06opona Ilape:a<a. CII6., 1871, cTp 5-t. 33 Murailles, t. I, p. 230; «Le Combat», 1 octobre 1870. 34 «ÛTf f'l0·CTB8HHhle- aaTIHCRH», IIIOHh, 1871, CTJ). 13'1. 3s «Le Rappel», 24 octobre 1870. 36 «La Patrie en danger�, 27 octobre 1870. 37 Enquête parlementaire sur l'insurrection du 18 mar5, t. T. p. 424. 38 «Le Combat», 6 octobre 1870. 30 31 :162
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6pomeHJie M ' . B nap.IURC.RHX raaeTax Il)POAOJDRaJI.H fiOHBJIHTbCH ifl'HChMa coJinaT, a TaRilte MOpHIWB. B 3THX IlHCh•Ma.x oqmu;ephl ' H renepaJihl paaooJiatJ:aJIH'Ch Ral'.. CKpbIThie �rnnapXHCTbI, o6pe1rnrom;ne apMIIIO Ha nopameHHe, li BLI;::{•B:U:ra.rroch Tpei6onaHHe ci,r:i;eJiaTb apMllIO ;r.e.ÜCTB:0:T0JlbHO narµrnuaJihHOH H pecrry6JIHRaH­ CIWH 50. ÜAHaKo peBoJirou;uoHHhie A0.HTeJlll Ilapnma ne BemI nponaraHALI 1B pe­ ryJIHPHhIX lfaCTHX, n ROMaHAilpaM y,a;aBaJIOCI, rJiymHTL aaqaTRH na6JII01);aBIDIIX­ CH TaM peB0JIIOIJ;l!I.0HHhlX HacrpoeHHH. Pea1m;IIH C ' yMeJia, :na:n yme ·6LIJIO c1rnaa.H'o, IIpeBpaTHTb B C'BOIO OIIOpy H MO0H'JibHYIO rBapp;uro, B cocrane ROTOpoi 6.hlJIO M.Horo IIOJI11TH1IOCKH OTCTaJI.hlX Où10JPieHIJ;€B II3 0T,J;a:reHHLIX ,rl;0'IIapTa:àfeHTOB. ÜCOOeHHO ROHCepBaTKBHhlMH 6blJUl 6pe-ron11,h1. cJierrn rro,J;tIHHHnm.e:ecH renepa.Jiy TpomIO. Peain�nonnhle �o­ MaHAiflPhI naTpas:nrna:n1 Moon;ieii ,na pa6olJIIx H Han;::aonaJIL'HhIX rBa,pAeïn�eB, IIOC.bIJiaJIH 'HX ripOMHTh IIOMe�eHHH .1e'BhIX RJiyo<>B II ra3eT Il apecroBhlBaTh pe­ BOJIIOIJ,HOHepoB. BnyTpH MOOIIJihHon rnap,n;HH 6hIJIH, BnpotieM, n JIIO,qll, THl'OTH·B­ IIIHecH HaBHSaHHOÜ HM rnycHOH püJU,IO. Hor�a Ha Hapo}QIOM coopaHHH O�H H3 MOOKJieii npmrnnec peam:i;HoHHYIO pellh, BCJieA :aa HlftM BLICTytl'IIJI ,mpyroü, aa­ nepnnmuii co6pa1aue, "tJTo npep;hIJJ;YIIO!« opaTop H-e OTJ)amaeT naeTJ)Oeirn.H Mac­ chl 'MOO.HJieü H "tJTo B ôoJihillRHCTBe CBDeM on.u: pecnrïJI:aRa-nn;LI. Rmrl'M:eHTHPYH 3TOT q>aKT, «Le Combat» IIHica;i:a, tfTo peaR�HH IlhlTaeTCH naBJI3hlBaTL Mo6:a;i:b­ soü :rnap.Ji;RH TaKyIO a.e r.By-cnyIO 1pOJih, Koropyro OHa :arpaJia B HIOHLC.KD:e �RH 1848 r. 51• Bhloophl R0MaH;UipO'B naqH0Ha;i1>noi rBap,ïJ..HH npoxo�JI.H :e: nOCJie HaqaJia OCa')];hl, no Mep-e apraHH3aIJ;lfH 1HOBhIX 6a-raJibOHOB B aT.Moccpepe OCT{)OH 6opwLI H npHMOI'O BMemareJibCTBa rrpaBHT0JlhCTBa. TaK, 1B 159-M 6aram.oae BJiaCTH .IILI­ TaJI]ICL upoBeCTH B KOMa·np;zq>hl 6aTaJihOHa CBoero lJ0JIOBeKa. ÜH� )];Bam� -OO'b­ HBJIJIJIH H0i,IJ;0Ü·CTBIIT0.T.II,HhlM II36paHHe 6JiaHKHCTa rpaHiRe, R JHIIlih IIOCJl0 TOrO RaR 6araJihOH B TpeTHli pa3 H3ÔpaJI I'panme CBOHM K0MaHAHpüM, 6LIJIH BLLHYiK­ �0Hhl Yl'BepJV{Tb 3TO II36paHHe. He cyMeB IIOMernaTh Bhl6opa:M JieBhlX nOMaH;tHJ)OB, npaBHT0JILCTBO npHHSl­ �ïOCI> HX rrpecne�oBaTI.. O;rnn ROMa.HAHPhI npe;i;aBa.HHCh IBOOHHOMY cyÀy, )]J)YrHe II-OA'BHpraJIH<:b mecroqaÜmei T1paBJie. TaKOBa. ·HalJipHMep, :IICTCfPllJI KOMaH]lllpa 146-ro 6aTaJihOHa CarrJia, apecTOBa'HHOftO peaK�HOHHhlMll rBap;z:i;e:ë:�aMB 3TOI'O 6aTaJibOHa 52, KOMaHÂÜpa 163-ro 6aTaJil>OHa CHpHJIJIO, apeCTOBaHHOro •110 npB­ l{a•3Y reHepaJia ToMa. O;:I,HaRo C:apn:rno 6hl.rr ocBo6omµ,eH u BBOBh .o:aopaH RO­ Ma.HAHPOM ÔaTaJibOHa. IlpaBHTe."TJhCTBY YP.aJIOCb OTCTpaHHTb OT KOMa.H;J;OBaHaH 6aTaJihOHOM BJiaHKII. BLrny.aqen 6hl.rr Bhl:ÜTII B oTcTaBKY BapJieB. HeyAa1IHhlMH OKaaaJIIICh, O�HaRO, npOHCRll rrpOTHB TaKHX ,ROMaHB.I\POB 6aTaJibOHOB Ha�HO­ HaJII:.HOH rB3.IPJJ.HH, KaR 3�, JleBpo, JlaRaM6p, iKaRJiap, fpaHme, <l>Jiypanc. M:aJibep 'II HeR'◊Totpbrn µ1pyn1e. B OKTH6pe Ha1IaJio CIŒ3brBaThCH IIOJienenHe OCHOBHOÎÎ MaCChl nan;ROHaJIL� HhIX rBap,u;e�e-B. Poc.1a poJih BhIÔOpHhIX ROMBTeroB no11;paa,u;eJieHHii Ha�.u:o­ aaJibHO:Ü rBap,IJ.Hll, TaR lia3hIBaeM:hIX «ce-MeimhIX OOBeTOB», IIOMOraBIIl'HX ROMa'H­ JJ.ElpaM nannoHaJIWIOÜ rBap;:i;nu II BMecTe C TeM KOHTpoJIHpOBaBm:HX 'HX A0HT0Jib­ HOCTb 53. Bo MHOrIIX oara.lJhOHax OHH CTaHOBHJIHCb opraHa·HH 6oiph6LI UpûTHB pea.KD;HOHHl>IX oqmu;epOB H orropoii nepe�OBLIX ROMaH,z\HPOB. Ilo CB.HJ,IJ;eTeJibCTBY û,J;HOro oqmu;epa, B fül)K}:(OM 6aTaJILOHe n noqrn n KaiK­ ir,oi poTe 6bUIU ,UBC BJiaCTII - B:IaCTb «cel\'leHHhIX COBeTOB», COC'l'OHBillHX 3aqa­ CTYIO R3 npocThI.X COJI,ll.ar, Il B.1aCTb 1rn6pa'HI1hIX o<j}nn;epoB. qJieHhl «ceM:eË.HhlX COBeTOB», II0 ero C.T(OBaM, IItpeTeH;:J;OBa�ïII Ha ynpa'BJIO-HHe rro�pa3AeJieH'B.eM H 3a­ CTaBJIHJIH oq>.o:u;epon orqHThlBaThCH rrepe;:{ HRMH 54. •La Patrie en dangen, 23 octobre 1870; «Le Combat», te octobre 1870. «Le Combab, 2 octobre i8ï0. 52 Ibid., 11, 1'2, 19, 24, 2ï, 31 octobre 1.870; «La Liberté», 2'2 octobre i.870; Procès­ verbaux, p. 1.07. 53 Il. Re p iH e H ne B. JlcTOpHH Ilapnmc1rn:ü: RoMMYHLI. M., 1959, CTp. 65. 54 <<La Patrie en danger>>, 3 décembre 1870. 50 si 172
IloJieBeHHe Ha�HOHa:IhHO:Ü rBapAHH BCTpHBOiRHJIO rrpatBHTeJiheTBO. ÛHO BBeJro B 6aTaJibOHax 'B00HHbie cy.n;hl, iaanpeTHJio o6pa3-oBaHue UOBhIX pa6o"l!nx 6a­ TaJI1110HoB. JleBa.H IIelJaTh BCKpbIBa:ia IIOJIHTHlJeCJœii CMbICJl 8THX �eKpeTOB; OHa no;.i;qepKHBaJia, lJTO «rerrepb peam:::ÇH.H C.MomeT, OUH­ pa.HCh Ha B00H.HI:ilH ycTaB•.• pawpyiIDITb OaTaJihOHhl, )J;YX KOTOphlX eii He H,pa­ BHTC.H» 55• B Ha.u;:e:oHaJihHOÜ l'BapA.HH HOBhle ,u;eRpeThl, ecTeeTBeHHO, Bhl3BamI H8)J;OOOJlbCTBO. 91-ü 6aTaJIOOH, ŒiaIIPIIMep, IlOTpe6oBaJI, lJto6hl HH O;l(IIH rBa[)­ Àeeu; Re MOI' 6LITh npe,a;aH cy-;zy 6e3 COrJiaCH.H «ceMe:ünoro COEeTa>>. 13 ROMaH­ ;1HpOB 6aTaJihOHOB orry6JIHKOBaJIH o6m;H:Ü nporecr UpOTIJB ,u;eRpeTOB upaBH­ T0Jih'CTBa. IlpoTecTl,I BhlHOCHJIHCb Ha MHOrlIX co6paHJI.HX IIOJ(paa�eJieHHli H KJiyOOB. HnTepe-caM peaK.a;H:e: CJIYiRHJIO raKme nepa1BHOMepHoe pacnpe]J.eJiemrn opy­ mHH cpe;:vi no;i;pa3AeJieBHH nau;noHaJibHO:Ü l'Bap;vrn, rrpo;:i:om«aBmeecH II nocJie HalJaJia ocap;Id. PacupeJJ;emmue opymHH qacro HCIIOJib30BaJioc1, RaK CJP0lJ:CTBO ;l.HCRpe,n.HTarvra Heyr-o,iI,HldX .rrpaEHTeJihCTBY KOMaHJ.a,.npoB. 3ro Kpa-COlJHO OIIHCaJI BJiaHR0.: «Ror�a .ïReJiaIOT OTc-npaHHTb RO!ŒHw,Ipa, TO ero 6aTaJihOH He CHaô­ ma10r. H a-reHThl HamenThIBaIOT naqn:oHaJihH:bIM rBap�e:ün,aM, qro 3TO .KOMaH­ ,II.Hp BHHOBeH B HX nym;i,e. «OH He 3aHHMaeTCH 6araJIE,OHOM, OH He X01IeT H ue yMeeT lJTO:-HlIDYAJ> 110JiyqHTh»,- TaI{OBo c�rnpn�:ihHoe 06Bn1He-Hne» 56• JI.nmh HeKOTOpBie paoorme 6aTaJihOBhI 6hIJIB xopomo Boopymeiuhl. TaR, Hanpn:Me1p, 6eJilllBIUibCKHe CTpeJIKH, B03rJiatBJI.HeMhle cDnypaHC'OM, 6hIJill BOOpymeHhI xopo­ IIIHMH py,RhHMH illacno, KynJieHHhIMH e�e ;J;O aaqaJia ocafl.hl caMHM .KOMaH­ .I{HpOM 57. IlocroHHHhle ney�a'IH peryJIHpHhlx qacreii y cTeH IlapHiRa JI Becrn o nopa­ arnHHHx <ppaHizy3CKHX BOH'CK B APyrHx pairoaax crpaHbl YCHJIHJIH CTp0MJI0BHe 1'J)YJVIID;HXC.H CTOJl�hl aKTHBHO YlJaCTBO'BaTb B OOeBbIX l];0HCTBR.HX. ToJih.KO B cepe;:\HHe OKTH6pa npaBllTem,crBo no;:i; ,TI.aBJJeHlieM pacrym;ero •B03Mym;eHH.H na­ p·nmcxoro naceJieHH.H naocHBHhfM xapaRTeipo�1 o6opon1>1 IIap'HiRa H3l);aJio-p;eK1peT o6 o6paaoBaHHH OTpH�OB �o6poBOJlhD;eB Il3 COC'TaBa Ha�HOHaJibHO:Ü rBap;a;HII ,J;JIH yqac'TH.H B 60.ax 58. Ho H aTy BhIHym,::i;ennyro ycrynRy rpy;vim;n:Mc.H Tpomro llbrTaJICH H'CIIO;J'I,30BaTb B CBOllX JfHTepecax. B�1ecro Toro, lJT06l:il opra'HH30Ba'fh MapmeBhle oTpH�hI Ha 6aae cym;ecrByrom;nx no�pa3,rr.e;iemr:ü, ImK upe;1,JiaraJia .'IeBa.SI IIff'laTh, npa1u1reJibCTBO HaMepeBaJIOCb BbI,:J;e.J.IHTh lIX H3 COCTaBa Hau;no­ HaJibHO:Ü rBap,u.HH, CJilITh e peryJI.HpHbL\III "TlaCTHMII II CMeHRTb 0.a6paHHhIX B HHX oqrna;epoB Ha3HalJeHHhlMII 59. PeBOJIIOD;HOHHhlH Jiarepb paara;:r_a;i: 3TOT �iaHe,Bp. <<Ilo,J, rrpe.�JioroM BBei,ri;eHHH Ha:a;HOHaJibHOH rnap�H B 60:ü ee p;e3opraHH3YIOT ... OTmnrnH ee JIY"l:fIDHe 3Jie­ M:0HThl»,- nn,caJia <<Le Combat>> 60• ,I:(e.rreK.JI03 o6BIIHHJI rrpamueJihcTBo B ToM, qTo OHO xo11eT JIHIIIlITh nan;n:oHaJihHyro rBap;::r.nro ee Hapop;uoro xapaKTepa 61• B ROH{\e OKT.H6p.a no Eonpocy O ;::i;oopOBO.;l:bIJ;ax COCTOH..10Cb COBem;anne oqm:n.e­ pOB HaI\KOHaJihHO:Ü rBap;QIH no;:i; npe;:::r.ce;::i;are::mcrBO)I cDaapa. CoBem;aBHe rrpom.rro 0'1!0Hh 6ypHo, oqrna;ephl pe3KO KPilTilKOBa:nI npaBH:TeJihCTBO. Ho ClJaBp OTKa3aJic.a o6cymµ;a-rh co;i;epmaHJie ;n:enpera II noc:ie ocTphrx cnopoB npe1pBa.. "J C'OBe:m;aaHe 62• Cone:m;aH1rn .HCHO noKa3a."IO, HaCKOJlhKO OOOCTipHJUICb QITHOIII01UUI :�rnm,ri;y '00.J.IhlIIlIHCTBOM oaraJibOHOB HaIJ,IIOHa:IbHOH rBap;::i;.1n1 II npaBIITe.JihCT130M. 3To CKa3aJIOCh na 3aIUICH µ;o6poBO:IbJJ;el3, rrpoBC,J,f'HHOM B IWHJJ;e OKT.HOip.H. .r(eRpeTbl npaBBTeD,CTBa o uan,BOHaaeoii rBapABB m. ,., 5 5 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 ,- V «Le Rappel», 7 octobre 1870. «La Patrie en danger>>, 14 octobre 1870. Enquête parlementaire sur l'insurrection du 18 mars, t. Il, p. î3, 178-179. «La Liberté,., 16 octobre 1870. Procès-verbaux, p. 254. <<Le Combat», 24 octobre 1870. <<Le Réveil», 20 octobre 1870. G. F 1 o u r e n s. Op. cit., p. 124-1:zg; <<La Patrie en danger>>, 1 novembre 1870. 173
,IJ;o6pOBOJih�eB 3ailJIC'LI13é:l.'III )13phl B ropa,.ecrneHHOÜ OOCTa'HOBKe, HO pa6oq_He He OJJ,06pHJIH C03,IJ;aHHH :.raprneBbIX or:pH,1lOB 63 Il HB...UIJUICh Heoxorno. He1wTopLrn ÔaTaJihOJIM Har.:i;nona.1:1>Hoiî rnap;i;nn: 3aHBHJIH, 11ro xorHT npn­ HHTh yqacTlle B 6oeBhIX ,:i;eiiCTBllHX n IlO.l:HO):[ cocraBe, coxpaHJIH CBOIO opraHlI3aD;HIO. IlpannreJihCT Bo sroro He paapemn:rn 64. B "Borrpoce o6 IIcnoJih30BaHHH HaI.J;IIOHaJu,Hoi1 rnap,::i;un Hp:no cRa3a.,1cn: crpax Jipa'BilTe.TI:hCTBa Tpomro rrepeA co·6crBeHHhI M Hapo;1:o::\I. (< PeaRIJ;llOHephI,- crrpaBe;I;JIIIBO 'IUICaJI EJiaHRH,- 6on:T­ CH pcnomou;w:u 60:n,rne. "IIe:.I Bn.l"hre:.rb)Ia n BHc)rap,Ra. 250 000 na:u;:0:ona.::r1,nhlx rnap;i;e:ü:u;,eB •rrpe,r:i;:vrecnrii ::\l·oryr cTa'rh peBo.:1101:v1orrnoii apl-meii. Bor rro-qelty ne iR8JI3IOT, 1IT06hI OHII Boo6m;e cra.i:n apMIIeH>) 65. 3. HA qA"lO 60PhEhl 3A nO�HIYHY MaccoBhie oipra1rnaa1uur na pnmcRnx rpy�1nn;nxca nepHoJI,a ocaJJ,hI, Tec1rn:, a rropoi-î: H BhIT€-CHHH C03,J;aHIIhlE'- 6yrpïf-.ya3neii oipraHhI yrnpaBJieHIIH, TaH.'IH B ce6e 8a11aTRu nonoii nap-o;:uroü n.1acnr. Jlooyaro)I, Bhrpa3HBillHM cTpeM:renne rrapliiRCKHX T\PY;:t;.m:�HXCH h coa:::i;annro HOBOH B:J.aCTll, II0CTeneHH{), CTa.rro T1pe60BaHHe C03)J;aHJIH H'.ü:\DIYHbI. Ro:\n1yna rroHIDiaJiaci. rpy�Hlll;HMHCH Ilapnma 1rnR Paauoniacua B 0011poce o ropo�ci-,:oe ca�rnyrrpaB:ienHe. ÜIDI TpOOOBaJI.H rrponeBw6opax KoMMYHbI 1enIIH ).IYHilIJ;IlIIaJII.Hbix BhI6opoB B Ilapnme. lJJJeHhI BpeMe-HHOl'O rrpaBIIT8.1bCTBa BbICTYIIaJUI 3a TaEIIe Bb16ophl em;e B 6bl'l'HOCTb CBOIO JJ,enyraTaMII OIII1031ID;IIII B 3aIWHO;:(a re.J:I.H0:\I ROprryce B-ropoii HMIIepHH. IlocJie pe-BO· JIIOII;IIII 4 ceHTJI6pH Bürrpoc O MYHIID;HII3.?IhHhIX Bhl6opa'.X OlJ8Hh CRopo cTaJI rrpe;rµieTo::-.1 ocrpoii 6oph6i.r. Co F!J)e'.\H:'Hn oca,:v,1 H oco6 eHHO )IaHH<pecran;ni-i 20-22 ceHTH6pH OH ya-.e 'He cxo;u1.-( C 'IlOBOCTKH ;J;HH. 20 ceHnr6pH Ha coôpaHIIH 230 ;:i:eJieraTOB ROllHTeTOB 6,Il,IIT8JihHOCTH, 06C- YAlfBillHX nporpaM�Iy II.X rpeooBaHnii, BCe nyHRTbI 6hl.rrn IllPHHHTbI 8;:(HHOr:.ra,c­ HO H TOJII,RO IIYHRT O nO)D-IyHe - Ô0."1bIIlHHCTB01'I l'O.i""IOCOB. Ha -aaceJ:(aHHH RJiy6a <<ÛTeqecrno B OIJa'CHOCTII>) 21 ceHTH6pn: oparophl, TpoooBaBmHe CMem;eHBH rrpaBHTeJibCTBa, ,n1>1cRa3aJIHCh rrponrn ' BLroopoB B RolIMyny. TaKHe BhIDOphl, ro­ BopHJI O,i'.J;IlH II3 HHX, (<OC.ïa6HT peBOJIIOD;IIOHHbie RO:MHTeTLI>>. Ilp.u-cyTCTBOBaBmIIe na -coopaHIIII -q;reHhI IJJ, 20 Oh'.pyroB, HaIIpOTBB, BhlCTY'IIHJJil aa Bl>IOOpbI, Tan RaR UR 20 o,KpyroB ctJ1naJI H0'B03:\IOif-.HhBI <<IIpIIHHTh nacn;r1,crneHm.Ie :uephl npo­ THB npaBn-re:.rh-crna>> 66• E:raHl'lII 3fürnn::i, 11:ro, no ero :\fHeHIIJO, <<Jryqme Bcero co.xipaHHTb craryc-RBO>>. T. e. ne na-6rrpaTb RoMMyay. Brrpo1Ie:u, no ,nro1y BO­ rrpocy ÔhI.ïII paanor.-1a-cnH II rpe;i;n caMIIX 6.rraiffiIICTOB 67• Ma1unpecran;nn 20-22 cenn16pH 6hI.:JII Bbl3BaH1>1 c:ryxa)III o TieperoBopax npaBIITeJILCTBa c BHcMapMaHBq>ecTa1wa npoTe:o co3b1Ba nO)r rr ;i,eRpera:MII rrpaBI:ITe:r:ocrBa o Bh16opax B Han;JIHa�uonaJibuoro co6paumi oHa.11,noe co6paHHe II o :.\IYHIIIJ;IIIIaJII,HhlX Bhloopax. R B�� xoMMYHaJibnwx Bblôopo8. Ha3HatJ:enne BhIÔOpon B Ha:u;ao naJILHOe cOOpamrn na KoJ1e6aHH11 npaBuTeJibCTBa 2 OJ.;THOpH upnneJ10 R OTRphITOM Y paap1,rny 6JiaHRIIc-ron c rrpaB1ITe:n.cTBO)I. <<Bpe"}rn:mrne npaBnTeJih­ crBo - i.[Hllih rr.rroxaH IIO�,J,e.î:h'.a IBIIIepHH,- rrnca., E.1aHiilI 19 ceHT.H6pH,- ORO 60JI1,me 6oHTC-H peno:iroqun, 11e)r Ilpyccnm> 68. A Ha cJie;i.y10m;II:ii ,zi;em, B.1-aH.RII 3aHB.HJI, 1ITO, <<ycROpIIB BbI60pbI B "Ytipe,:::i;nren:bHOe co5paHJle, rrpa'BHTe:n,CTBO <I>aKTil.1IeCRH 'IIO,:I_ a;ro B OTCTélBf.Y)). I10-;no::it1y OH npe,::i;::rara;r aaMeHHTL npa1nneJJb03 Murailles, t. I, p. 222; <<L'Iilustration», 29 octobre 18ï0; «La Guerre illustrée>>, -N 29. p. 226. 64 <<Le Réveil>>, 1 novembre 1870. 65 «La Patrie en danger», 4 octobre 18ï0. 66 Ibid., 24 septembre 1870. 67 Ibid., 23 septembre 18ïO. · 68 O. E .i: a H n B. Ua6paHHhle rrpon3Be�emrn. �I., 1952, crp. 291.
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Pomreaa, <l>. lIHa, 8. I-ù.1:Ha, B. Illenhruepa 73• Pa.n;nKaJihHo-6ypmyaanLie aJie­ �reHThl CTpeMHJIHCb, TalHIM o6pa3>0M, 003,D;a'l'I:, RoMMyHY 11'3 JIIO,n;e:ü: 1848 r. 'll 4 ceHTH6pH H C ee IIOMOIIJ;hIO IIpHMHpHTh HapO;IJ;HI:de MaCCI:d C 6ypmya8HI:dM IIpa­ BHT8.TJI,CTBOM. BMeCTe C TeM HX nporpaMMa Tpe6oBaJia OT npaBHTeJihCTBa npo­ Be,IJ;eHHH naTpHOTlPieCROM H ,IJ;8MORpaTBqec1wii IlOJIIITHKH. Ilo31n:�HH 1-rn<0HRo6n·HCKOË: ra3eTbI <<Le Réveil» 61,1Jia 6Jra3Ra R 11001UI,IIH «Le Rappel>>. <<Le Réveil>> no,r:,;tJ:ep1rn:BaJia, tJ:To «RoMMyHa 6y,n;eT ecTeCTBeHHhIM nocpep;HHKOM Mem;:i;y IlapnmeM II npaBHTeJihCTBOM». Ho B OTJnJq11e OT <<Le Rappel>> BTa ra3eTa IIepBoe BpeMH IIOMepiK«BaJia 11,n;e10 npoBe,n;eHBH Bhl6opoB B RoMMYHY HB011HhlM IIyreM 74• ,[.(pyra.JI H80HK06HHCKa.JI ra3eTa, «Le Combat>>, ne ycTaBaJia noBTOpHTh, 11ro npoTHBopeqnii Mem,r:,;y rrpaBIIT0Jih­ CTBOM H HoMMYHOH ne cym;ecTByeT, HO qTo OTHOfileHHH MemJzy HHMH 6yJJ;YT aaBHCeTI:, OT IlOJIRTHKH IllPaBIITeJibCTBa. ECJIH ORO corJiaCHTC.R: Ha C0-8,IJ;aHHe RoMMYHLI, Mem,ns HB:Mn BOOHHRHeT eJOIHCTBO. EcJIH ner, RoM•Myna 6y�eT oo­ s.n;ana HaIIepeRop npaBHT0JII:,CTBY, H, BO3MOiKHO, 38M8HHT ero 75• B 11ocJie,r:,;n10ro ,[(eRa;:i;y OKTH6pa raaeTa neo,n;noxparno noBropaJia cnoii npH3hlB npaBHTeJihCTBy. <<C BaMH, npOTHB Bac HJIH nanepeKop BaM, IIOAYMRHT0 00 3TOM>>,- rnrnaJia oHa 76• Ilpn ::JTOM B co10ae npaBnre111>cTBa H KoMMYHbI raaera «Le Combat» BH)leJia rapaHTHIO He TOJILKO npoTHB peaK�H, HO H npor11B... «aHapxH-B>> ! <<Ünwa,n;hIBaH BhlOOphI B HoMMyny,- rrncaJI <l>. flua,- ...meJiaIO'I' Ha6emaTb aHapXBH, HO Ha ca:MOM ,n;eJJe Be,IJ;yT K Heii.•. ToJibKO H'OMMYHa MomeT ,n;aTb IIpasn:TeJlbC'l'BY TY CII:ry, HOTOpaH HymHa, 1ITOOI:d IIOROH1111Tb K31( C HHO­ CTpaHHhlM HameCTBHeM, T8H Il C rpam,IJ;aHCKOii BOHHOH>) 77• <<Le Combat>> He orpaHH1IHBaJia ,n;eHTeJILHOCTb HoMMYHLI My1u1n;1111aJinHhIMH paMHa!MB. RoMMyHa, no )1H0HHIO rasen,1, lf;OJI)KHa BhlIIOJIHJITL H o6�erocy;a;iap­ CT'S0HHhl€ aa,[(alJH. Ona (<,IJ;8HpeTHpyeT no6ezy II peB01IIOI{HIO, H3rOH.HT HeM�eB 11 peaKlJ;HOHepoB ... H npR30B0T BCe Hap<>Ahl OCBOÔO,Il;iHTbCH OT ·KOpoJie:0'. H 3i)HCTO-­ HpaTOB, IIpOB03rJiaCHB BCeMHpHyIO pecny6JIHRy»,- YTBepm,[(a]I HeOHKOOHHeq racTHHO. <I>. Ilna me, pacmBpHH cq>epy ,Il;0HTeJibHOCTH II B1IHHHHH KoMMYHhI, IIHCaJI, l!TO (<OHa npH30BeT K ce6e, Ha BpeMH BOBHhl, 11pep;cTaBHTeJieii 12 HRH6oJiee RpynHhIX ropo,n;on <l>paIIu;:mI» 78• Xora rnpeAcTaB.'IeHMH MeJI1w6y;JJîRYa3HnIX HeosiRo6HHD;0B o RoMYyne,. 61,mn nyraHHhI :a HerrocJieµ;oBaTeJibHhI, B ce me rpe6oBaune KoMMYRbI OO'be.:lll� HHJio rrapHmcRyro ?vieJIRyro 6ypmya311ro c pa6oqnM 1-maccoM. M TO, qTo neo­ HRo6nHqhI y.me BO npe}IH ocap;bI B KaKOH-TO CTeIIeHH paccMaTpBB3JIH 6y,11;�y10 RoMMYHY IŒH o6m;erocy,r:,;apcrBeHHYIO B.iiaCTb, IIO,Il;fOTOB:IHJIO HX COTpy}J;HHtJ:e­ CTBO C 6Jrnn1u1cTa:MII IIOC:Ie 18 �rnpra 1871 r. l]J{ 20 ORpyroB, B KOTüpOM IIpeOÔJia.U:.aJin npyp;OHHCThl, OTBOAHJI ffOMMyHe lJ:HCTO MYHHIJ;Hil8JlhHhre q>yHKIJ;IUI. B TO me BpeMH OH HaMetJ:aJI npoBe}J;eHIIe RoMMyHoi'I con,naJJhHI:.IX MeponpnHTHH, -q:acTIPIHO ocym;ecTBJieHHhlX ero no3,n;­ Hee. B B033BaHHH lJJ{'. 20 ORpyroB, onyfüIHHOBaHHOM B OHTH6pe, yRa3I:dB3JIOCb, l!TO RoMMyHa ne p;oJimHa rrpeTeH,zwnar1, Ha o6m;erocyp;apcTBeHHYIO BJiaCTb n .ROHTpOJIBponaTI, pemeHII.H n ]J;eHCTBilH n,eHTpaJibHOH BJiaCTH. Ho KoMMyHa IlMeeT rrpaBo COIIpOTTIB.TIHThCH rocy,11;apcT,BeHHOH BJiaeru, ecJIB Ta IIOCHrHeT Ha CBOÔO.U:.I,l Ilapnma. <<MyHJIIJ;IIIla:IhHaH $II3Hb ropop;a a6coJIIOTHO' caMOCTOH­ T€JibHa... ro-cyp:apCTBO, n.1n mrn;IIH.- 3TO TOJihJW OO'be,J;HHe'HHe KOMMYH», rJiaCRJIO B033Ban:ue 79. 3HatJ:JITeJihHO ,n;aJihme B nonrurnnun RoMMYHhI mJin 6JiaHKBCTIJ, Ko'i'ophle Bilp;eJIH B Hen oprUH 6opb6hI npOTIIB npaBnTe.'IbCTBa. «RoMMyna,- fOBOpHJI 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 176 <<Le Rappel». 26 septembre, 1,5,9 octobre 1870. <<Le Réveil>>, 2.3, 2ï. 28, 29 �eptembre, 7 octobre 1870. <<Le Combat>>, 23, 25 septembre 1870. Ibid., 24 octobre 18ï0. Ibid., 14 octobre 1870. Ibid., 8, 21 octobre 18ï0. <<La Patrie en danger>>, 9 octobre 1870.
6.•rnHRHCT Bpeiie,- aTo Ilapu.m, 3am;mIJ;a10m;1I:ü caM ce6H li 11arOHHIOIQ1I:Ü HeM­ .u,en II3 CTpaHLl, 3TO - peBo,mo:a;HH, KOTopaH HarOHH0T ,n;pmKh na p;eCIIOTOB H onpOKH,ll;:bIBaeT TpOHiil, 8TO - cnaceHIIe <l>paHD;IIH li pecny6JIIIKH, 8TO - IIpOJie­ TapHaT, ocuo6o�eHHMH OT KaunTaJia. Ilapnmc1mn RoMMyna - BTO ymac p;m1 TpycoB, 1I8MeH.HHK0B II peaRn;Honepoa! » 80• TaRoe 011pe,n;eJieHHe RoMMYHhI no­ Ka81>1BaeT, KaK nepeIIJieTaJiaCL B C03HaHHH 6JiaHRHCT0B sap;aqa COII,HaJibHOfO OCB060»t,ll0HHH TPYJJ;HlqHXCH C o6ecne4eHH0M Han;n:oHaJibHOii: HC3aBHCIIMOCTH H y11po11eH1IeM pec11y6JI1IKaHCKOfO CTpOH BO <l>paHIJ,lIH. lJacTh TPYAH�xc11 11pe,n;cTaBJIHJia ce6e noMMYHY HMeHHO KaK npoJieTap­ CKHii opraH BJiaCTH. Ha 3TO yxaaLIBaeT, B 4aCTHOCTH, aHOHHMHOe npep;nomeHII0 O,llHOro ua 'IJJieHOB UR 20 OKpyroB. oTHocHm;eecH R OKTH6pro 1870 r. <<lia Koro ,llOJI.m.Ha coCTOHTL llapHmc1mH HoMMyHa? - rnacnno aTo npe,n;Jio»rnHne.- lia a,n;BoRaToB? - HeT. Ha 6ypmya? - HeT. IlapHmcRaH RoMMyHa p;oJJmHa B oc­ HOBHOM COCTOJITL TOJihRO H3 paanoro ipo,n;a npymeHHROB , npH3HaH'HhIX peBO­ JIIOQIIOHepaMII H co�aJUICTaMH» 81• HJIJI10aopuocn, 11a,n;em,n;1>1 003]:l;aTh RoMMYHY c noMo�i.ro npaBRTeJii.cTBa cTa­ HOB1IJiac1, BCe 6onee 0110BII,ll;HO:Ü:. BnaHKHCTlil IIPII3hIBaJIII HaIJ;IIOHaJILHyIO rBap­ JJ;HIO o6paaoBaTL RoMMYHY peBonro:a;noHHhlM nyTeM: <<IIycTb RM«;a;hlii 6a­ Tan1.on,- llHCaJI TpHJJ;OH,- RamJJ;aH pecny6JIHKaHCKaH poTa... pemHT0JibHO MapmHpyeT K ypHaM». RoMMYHa B03hMeT pyRoBOJJ;CTBO p;eJiaMH B CBOH PYRH, li TOrp;a, «eCJIH MHT0>HHHKII 113 paTyIDII OCMeJIHTCH yrpomaTh, peBOJIIOD;HH caMa pemHT, KaK ei IIOCTYIIHTL C HHMH>> 82. TaKHM o6pa30M, tJ:aCTb napHîKCKIIX peBOJIIOIJ;IIOHe­ poB yme B nepBhl0 He,n;eJIII ocap;hl lIOHHJia, 11TO RoM­ MYHY CJiep;yeT coap;aTb peBOJIIOD;HOHHhlM nyTeM. 9To­ My MemaJio, OJJ;Ba:Ko, OTCYTCTBHe 'I0TKOro IlJiaHa II ewiuoro pyRoBo,n;cTBa. 5 OKTH6pn COCTOHJIOCb BhICTYilJI0Hlle llHTll 6eJib­ BIIJibCKIIX ôaTaJILOHOB H8rµIOH8JibHOii rBap.]];Hll BO nrnBe C HX KOMaH,ll;HpOM <l>ny­ paHCOM. 8TO BhlCTynJieHHe ne 6bIJIO aa,u;yMaHO RaK aHTHrrpaBHT0JILCTB8HHOe. <l>Jiypauc naKalJIYHe 11pocnn 8TLeHa Aparo <<npe.n,ylllpe.n;nr.b Hamnx ,n;pyaeiî na npaBIIT0JlbCTBat O TOM, 11TO OH, <l>nypauc, npn:6y.n;eT CO CBOHM 6aTaJU,OHOM B pa-rymy 83. Ha cJJe,u;yrom;Hii ,ri;eHL, 5 OKTH6pH, 10 ThlC. BOopymeHHhlX 6eJIL­ BIIJILI\eB npHIDJIII CTpOeBhlM nopH.IJ;KOM Ha IlJIOm;a,n;h nepe,r,; paTymeii. <l>JiypaHC H p;pyrue µ;eneraTLI ÔhlJIH 11pHHHThl npaBRT0JibCTBOM. ÜHH Il0Tpe6oBaJIH aKTH­ BH3al{UH B00HHhIX ,u;eii:CTBHH H H8M8JJ;JieHHhIX Bbl6opoB B RoMMyHy. qJieHLI rrpaBHTeJILCTBa OTKJIOHHJIH 3TH Tpe6oB8HHH, II <l>JiypaHC B 3HaK npoTeCTa TYT me IlO)l;aJI B OTCT8BKY C IlOCTa KOMaH,D;Hpa H8IJ;IIOHaJibHOH rBa PAHH ( Il03.]);Hee OH B3.f1JI CBOIO OTCTaBKY o6paTHO) 84• �:hu co6LITHH BLI8Ba.rnr 6on1,moe Boa6ymp;eHne B Ilapnme. B TOT me Beqep COCTORJIOCL co6paHBe OKpyatHhIX MapoB n HX aa:MeCTHTe.TJeii. IlocJie ropHlJIIX cnopoB OHII pemHJIB no,u;,u;epmaTb Tpe6oBaHHe HeM0,IJ;JI8HHbIX Bhl6opoB B HoM­ MYHY 85• HHHIµIaTBBY <l>Jiypanca nom:i;epmaJIII H He:Koropble yMepeHHLie 6yp­ myaaHLie raaeThI 86• 3aTo p;pyrne aa6HJIH TpeBory no noBo,ri;y <<Koaaeii JieBhlXt 87. «La Patrie en danger» 10 octobre 1870. 1. Dau t r y et L. Sc h e 1e r. Le Comité Central Républicain des vingt arron­ dissements de Paris. Paris, 1960, p. 62. 82 ccLa Patrie en danger», 10 octobre 1870. 83 Murailles, t. I, p. 222; «L'illustration>> 29 octobre 1870; <<La Guerre, illustrée», , i874, p. 195. 84 G. FI o u r e n s. Op. cit., p. 109. 85 « Le Rappel», 9 octobre 1870. 86 « La Guerre illustrée», p. 177-178. 87 <<L'illustration», 8 octobre 1870, p. 278. 80 81 12 IIapnmcHafl HOMMYHa, T. I 177
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IIpam,JTeJILCTBO IIOCJie 8 OKTH6pH HBHO IIOBepHyJIO BnpaBO. ,[(ame Pormpop, ROToporo MHOrue JieB:Lie BCe er:qe CllHTaJIJI CBOIIM, ny6JIJI1IHO aaHBIIJI O CBOeÜ co­ JIH,n;a pHOCTH C OCTaJILHhlMII 1IJieHaM1I npaB.HT0JII,CTBa. Ilo yKa3Ke npaBJITeJILCTBa ycHJIIIJICH IIOXOJJ; peaK�II IIpOTIIB JieBLIX KOMaH,n;HpOB HaIJ;IIOHaJII,HOH rBap;ri;IIH. 10 OKTH6p.H IIpaBHT0JibCTBO IIpHHHJIO pemeHJie 06 apecTe BJiaHKH R <l>Jiy­ paHca 97• Ho apeCTOBaTb RX IIOJIIID;HH He CMOrJia. BJiaHKII II <l>JiypaHC npop;oJI­ maJIH CBOIO ,n;eHT0JII,HOCTI, no,n; oxpaHOH BOopymeHHOH HaD;IIOHaJibHOH rBap,n;HH rrpe,n;MecTHH, Ky]{a aTeJITbl IIOJIHD;H'll He OCMeJIIIBaJIJICI, IIOH83hIBa TbCH. <<Ilo6e,n;a,, o,n;epmaHHaH npaBHTeJibCTBOM 8 0Kn16pH, 6I>ma np1I8pa11Hoiî. Ero 6eCCIIJIII0 no,n;aBHTI, peBOJIIOD;HOHHOe ,D;BliiReHHe BbI3B8JIO pa8011apoBaH:i;Ie KpaiHe npaBLIX KpyrOB. Ero BOeHHa.H li rrpo,n;oBOJihCTBeHHa.H IIOJIHTIIKa BCe 60Jiee BOCCTaHaBJllIBaJIII npOTIIB nero He TOJihKO TPYAHIQHXC.H, HO II M0JIKYIO, a qa­ CTII1IHO H cpeAHIOIO 6ypmya3HIO. B peBOJIIOD;HOHHOM Jiarepe B nepBbie ,D;HH IIOCJie 8 OKT.H6pH 11YBCTBOBaJiaCh pacTepHHHOCTb. $. Ilua, OTMemen1,rna11cL OT ,n;eMoHcTpaaToB, 1111caa Tenepb B <<Le Combat>>, 't!TO OH ooer,n;a 6LIJI nponrn Boopymen1n,1x �hicTyrrJieHH:ti H qTo KoMMYHY Ha,n;o «Tpe6oBaTL neTHII;HHMII» 98• QK 20 oKpyroB Ha ,n;oJiroe BpeMH yMOJIK. Ma o,n;Hoii pe11H BaJIJieca BB,n;HO, 1ITO IJ;K 20 OKpyroB o6cym,n;aJI Bonpoc 06 o6HOBJieHHH CBOero COCTaBa, HO O KOBKpeTHbIX marax B 3TOM HarrpaBJieHHH ,n;aHHhlX HeT. BnaHKIICTLI He OTKa8LIBaJIHCh OT OTBeTCTB0HHOCTH 38 ,n;eMOHCTpan;:ero 8 OK­ TH6pH. Ho IIX OTHOmeHHe K npaBU:T0JlbCTBY 6bIJIO ,D;BOHCTB0HHhlM II He IIOCJ10J:(O­ BaTeJILHbIM. ÛHH paao6Jia11aJI:n: KOHTppeBOJIIOD;"'IOHBYIO IIOJIHTHKY npaBHT8Jlb­ CTBa. :Ux raaeTa no,rriepKHBaJia, 1ITO <<Tpomro HBJIHeTcH npeeMHIIKOM IlaJIH­ Kao», 't!TO npOTHB Hapo,n;a CTOHT «npyceaKJI BHyTpeHHHe H rrpyccaKH BHemHHe>>, noaToMy napoµ; ,n;oJimen «paccTp01IT1> K03HII paTymH», Ha6paTh KoMMYHY :u: npOTHBOIIOCTaBJITI, «CBOHX aaKOHHhIX rrpe,n;cTaBHTeJieii: yaypnaTopaM» 99 . Ho 6JiaHKIICTI,I BMeCTe C TeM 6oHJIIICb pa3BH3aTb rpam,n;aHCKYIO BOHHY nepe,n; JIII­ IJ;OM BHemaero Bpara. Ha1IJIHaH IIOHHMaTb Heooxop;HMOCTh nop;,n;epiRKII CO CTO­ poHbl aapo;QIIdX Macc i'.V(H ycneIIIHOM peBO.:IIOII;IIOHHOH 6opb6hl, Oirn He 61>IJ1ll -yBepeHbl B TOM, 1ITO Ma<X'.hI rr,o:ii;:i:yT ceH'1!aC- aa HJDIB. «IToii::weT JTII Ha:po;:::i;, l!TO OH O't>l't:aHYT 'JI 1ITO H:\1 ynpaBJIHIOT r-iero,rr;Hhle JIIO,J;ll? IlpncoeWIHH'l'C-H JIH OH K MOHTaHbHpaM 1U1!H K iRHfPOH}J;l1CTa�1, KOTOIPhie aaxop;.HTCH y BJiacrn?>> - cnpa­ IIFHBaJI 6Jia'HKIICT ra:iiHp. <<CJioBo sa Hap,op;oM>>,- oTBetia.1: oH na eOIOcTBeHHhlii BOnpoc 100• BJiaHKHCThl er:qe He OTKa3a.TJHCb OKOH1IaTe::rhHO H OT Hap;em,n;hl Ha TO, 11TO HM y,n;acTCH IIOB.JIIIHTb Ha npaBHT8JlhCTBO H IIpHHY,ll;HTh ero opraHH80BaTI, o6opoHy. IIoeToMy B Tex me cTaThHX «La Patrie en danger», KOTOpLie 3BaJI:e: napo,n; BLICTYIIHTI, npOTHB npaBHT8JlhCTBa, nopoi BhlpamaJiaCb Ha,n;em,n;a Ha npHME1l)eHHe C IIJPaBHTeJihCTBOM. Tpn,n;oH, HaTipHMep, )];OIŒ8bIBaJI rrpaBH­ TeJII,CTBY, 1ITO eMy Hellero 60.HTbCH BOopymeHHOro Hapop;a, H6o <<opymHe Ha­ po,n;a HanpaBJI0HO TOJILKO npOTHB npyccaKOB, He1Iero 60.HThCH KoMMYHhl, n6o ,n;JIH Hero na:ii,n;eTCH MecTo H np1:1 RoMMyHe>> 101• IIocTeneHHO, O.r(HaKo, peBOJIIOD;IIOHHhle rpynnhl onpaBHJIHCb OT pacTep.HH­ HOCTH. «Pecny6JIHKaHCKaH napTHH, Ha MHr ome:roMJI8HHa.H ROHTppeBOJIIOD;IIOH­ BhlM B3phlBOM 8 ORTH6pH .•• cy,n;HT Teneph O IIOJ.I0iR0HHll 6oJiee CIIOKOHHO,- IIH­ caJI TpH,n;oH B cepe,n;nHe OKTH6p.a.- IIapTHH, no cyIIJ;eCTBY, He 110Tep11J1a HH o,n;­ Horo 110JIOBeKa, He c,n;aJia HH O,ll;HOÜ 1108HD;HH » 102. IlocJie 8 OKT.H6pH füJJIII rrpep;npHHHTbl IIOilhITRII npeo.n;oJieTh paCIILIJieH­ HOCTI, CHJI peBOJIIOD;IIOHHOro JiarepH. «La Patrie en danger», Q1 octobre 1870. «Le Combab, 20 octobre 1870. 99 «La Patrie en danger», 11, 12 octobre 1870. 100 «La Patrie en danger», 12, 16 octobre 1871. 101 Ibid., 12, 16 octobre 1871. 102 Ibid., 11, 12, 13, 14 octobre 1870. 97 98 12* 179
9 OKTHÔ,pH MHOrOJIIO}];HOe HapOllHOe co6paHHe li Be�l:hBH.Tl,e H3·6paJIO IWMIIC­ CHIO. KOToipaH ]J;OJIIBHa ·6bIJia CfüI3aThCH c )JspyrHMll HapO}\HhIMH co6paHHHMH n KJiy6aMH )];JIH o6pa3oBaHHH o6m;ero u;eHTpaJihaoro KOMHTeTa. IIepBoe aaceJJ;a­ HIIe :noro KOMHTeTa )];OJIIBHO 6J.iJIO COCTOHThCH 15 OKTH6p.s:, HO, BH,ll;HMO, rrpa.K­ Tll lieCKHX 'IIOCJie)];CTBHH oT'Ü He HMe.rIO, Ta:n Ka.K B KOHI.I,0 OKTHÔp.a IIOH'BHJIOCb HO­ Boe coo6II.I,8'HJie, 1B RoropoM <<pecny6JrHIŒHC.KO-COI.1,HaJI•HCTB'lfeCKHM .KJ1y6aM>> npe,r:i;JiaraJioch nhl.n;em1Th no TPH p;eJieraTa ,n;:ia «o6cym,n;eHHH oorrpoca 06 opra­ HHsar.1,1111 Jl.HTH RJiy6oB JI.Jill I.I,8II'flPaJibHOro KJiy6a» 103• Coa,n;aTb aTy opraHH3a­ D;HIO TaR H He y]J;aJIOCh. BhlJIH rrpe,n;rrpHHHThl H IIOilhITKH peopraHH3aI.I,HH napHiRCKHX ce.KI.I,H:Ü Mu­ TepHaI.I,HOHaJia. Cem:.1,na IlaHTeoHa 13 oKTH6pa coo6m;m1a o cBoeü peopraHH3a­ D;HH H rrpH8BaJia ;u;pyrHe ce.KI.I,HH IlOCJI0]J;OBaTb ee rrpHMepy. Ona BI.I,n;eJIHJia BO­ C0Mh 'I0JIOBeii ]J;JIH ycTaHOBJI8HHH CBH30H C ]];pyrHMH ceKI.I,HHMH. qepea He­ CROJihKO }];Heii: IIOHBHJIOCh o6'bHBJI8HHe, ·np«rJiarnaBmee ,n;eneraTOB <l>e]];epaJib­ Horo COBeTa coopaThCH 18 OHTHÔpH <<)];JIH BOCCTaHOBJI0H'HH ·IléliplUHCK'HX C0KQHH>>. B raaeTe B.'!aHIUI OT 20 OKTHÔpH coo611.1,aJIOCh O rrpe,n;CTOHBlli0M BhIXO}];e B C'B0T raaeTLI lIHTepHal.l,HOHa Jia 104• Û]];HaKo 11orrhITKH npn.n;aTh ceKI.I,HHM lIHTepHaI.I,HOHaJia pyxono;:i;amy10 poJib B UOJIHTJiqecKO:Ü 6oph00 He yBeH'IaJIHCb ycrreXOM H3-38 COIIpo-THBJieHHH IIPYJIO­ HHCTCKOI'O 6oJihllilIHCTBa. Ceppaüe coo6m;HJI BilOCJ10l.l,CTBHH, Ha 38C0]];8HIUI e­ HepaJibHOro COBeTa HHTepHal.l,HOHaJia, qTo rrocne 8 OKT.R6p.R OH III,ITaJICH co8BaTb 3ace;zi;aHH0 <t>ep;epaJibHOI'O COBeTa lIHTepHaI.I,HOHaJia AJ.(JI no;u;roTOBKH C Jie­ ;zi;yrom;e:ü ]];0MOHCTpan;HH, HO B <I>e;zi;epaJihHOM CoBeTe eMy OTBeTHJIH, qTo COBeT He MOiReT BTJlrHB8Tb l1HTepna1.1,1rnHaJI B IIOJIHTHKY 105• IlonbITKH o61>eJVIHHTh jpeBO.TCIOI.I,HOHHhle CBJILI o.KaaaJIHch 'Hey�a'lfHI.IMH. C.Ka­ aaJiocb OTCYTCTBHe rrpoJieTapCKOÜ rrapTHH, KOTOpa.R O]);Ha MOrJia 06»8,ll;HHHTb Ha­ pOP,Hbie MaCChl H HarrpaBIITh HX yC'lIJIHH n 0011.1,ee ,pyCJIO. IloaroMy, KOr;u;a B liOJII�e OKTH6pH IIO;:J:H.H.1aCh HOBaH BO.JIHa 6opw1i1 napo;:�HhlX Maoc :aa RoMMYJIY, peBOJIIOl.l,HOHHhle opraHH381.1,HII IlapHma OIŒ3aJIHCb H0,IJ;OCT8T01IHO II01J;I'OTOB­ JI,eH'HblMH K 0TOMY. r 4. BOCCTAHHE 31 OKTJl6PJI Kallfll BOCCTaHBH C :nam,D;oii: Hep;e�'Ieii oca]J;hl rrpo,u;onoJILCTBeHHOe noJio­ ifi.eHne BCe yxyp;manocb. Ilo,n; npOJIHBHLIM, XOJIO,IJ;­ HhIM �omp;e.M, rne;zi;rnn)I B Tiapnme n KOHl.l,e ORT.aopa noqrn eme,IQieRHo, meH­ IIJ;HHbl ]];HHMH H HoqaMH rrpocTanBaJrn: B oqepe,a;.Rx 8a rrpo,u;yKTaMH, qacTO HH­ qero He IIOJiyqaH 106• roJIO).I, aacTaBJIHJI COTHH iRHTeJieii npe;u;MeCTHB OTrrpaB­ JIHTbCH emep;HeBHO, C orracHOCTbIO ;u;.'IJI iRH3HB, K JIHHJIH <f>poHTa, qTo6hl HCKaTb TaM OCTaBmHeCH B ae�IJie OBOil.l,ll. Mx OCTaHaBJIHBaJIH Ha o6paTHOM rryTH H OT6npaJIJI co6paHHhIR HMH KapToq>eJib HJIH .KanycTy 107• Tpy]];Jlll.l,H0CH IIapHma BCe HaCToÜqJinee Tpe6oBaJIH HOpMHpOBaHHH Il 6ec­ IlJl8 THOI'O pacrrpe,n;eJieHHH rrpo,D;yKTOB. YqacTHJIHCb TaKme Tpe6oBaHHJI rrepe­ ,a;aq11 pa6oqHM BOeHHhlX rrpe,n;npHHTH:Ü. TameJioe nrre'IaTJieHHe rrpoH3BeJio B Ilap«me H3BecT«e o na}];eHHH illaTO­ ;zi;eHa. epoH8M mHTeJieü :noro HeyKpenJieHHoro ropo;zi;a, CTOHBmnx HacMepTb npoTHB rrpeBOCXO,D;Hil.l,HX CH;J HeMeI.I,KO:Ü apMHll, 6poCHJI Mpa'lfH:hIB CBeT Ha 6ea­ l.l,0HT8JlbHOCTb rrpaBHT0JlhCTBa. HacTpoeHHe na1.1,HOHaJibHOB rnap]];HH CTaHOBH­ JIOCh yrpo:maIOil.l,lIM. IIpeq>eKT napHiRCKOÜ IIOJIHI.I,HH A}];aH 23 OKTH6p.R npe.n;y- r 103 «La Patrie en danger», 16 octobre 1870. Ibid., 20 octobre 1870. 1o5 3ace�anne feHepaJILHoro coBeTa JinTepHa�HonaJia oT 28 <l>eBpaJIH 1871 r. «Ilep­ BLI:Ü: MHTepnan:uonan B MH l1apnmc1<0:ü KoMMym.:n. M., 1941, CTp. 5. 106 J. La m b e r. Le siège de Paris. Journal d'une Parisienne. Paris, 187,3, p. 166. 1o7 F. W e y. Chronique du siège de Paris 1870-1871. Paris, 1871, p. 95. 104 180
npep;HJI Tpom10, qTo B pH,n;ax aau,noHaJIJ:.HOH rBap,n;HH pacTeT He)];OBOJibCTBO Il 'lJTO BOCCTaHH.H MOHOIO O»GI)J;aTb B JII06oe BpeMH 108• lIHCbMa COJI)];aT, ony6JI.H­ lWBaHHI.Ie rorµ;a B JI0BOH neqaTn, IIOKa3hIBaIOT' qro 6poi1ŒHHe YCHJIHJIOCh Ta:Rme B peryJiapHLIX BOHHCKHX qacTHX 109• B Ta:Koii o6cTaHOBKe 27 OKTH6pH B «Le Comhab noHBHJIOCb aaKJIIOqeHHoe B qepHyIO paMKY coo6m;eane o 1rnpe­ r0Bopax MaprnaJia Baaeaa C HeMn;aMH OTHOCHT0Jll>HO CJJ.Rqll Men;a. 8To coo6m;eane RLJ8BaJio B Ilapnme 6ypIO HerOJJ.OBaHHH. IIpaBHTeJihCTBO, npeKpacHO aaaH o neperoBopax BaaeHa, 28 oKrH6pa ny6JI11qao onpoBeprJio coo6m;ea:e:e «Le Combab, Koropoe 6hIJio oxapaKrepHaonaao HM KaK <<raycHoe» n «Bl,lMhllll­ JI0H'Hoe». Il·pan-«TeJibCTBO B3I.IBaJIO R <<ŒieroJJ.oBaHnro BCex qecrnhlx JIIOJJ.eii>> npOTBB «MHHMhIX naTpHOTOB, KOTOpl,le ceIOT pa3JJ.Ophl nepeJJ. JIHD;OM Bpara H IIOJU)LlBaIOT aBTOpHTeT Tex, KTO 6operCH npOTIIB Bpara». illnpOKHe CJIOH Hace­ JI0HHft noBepHJIH npaenTeJILCTBY. B TOT me p;ea1, noMem;eane «Le Combat» 6hIJio pa3rpoMJieHo. B HO'lh Ha 28 ORTH6pH napBïRCKHe BOHCRa BHe3aIIHOH aTaRoii OCB060JJ.HJIH or HeMu;eB µ;epeBHIO B yipme. 3TO 61,m nepBhIH B00'HHhIH ycnex, lJ.OCTB:rHyThlH 3a1u:11:THnKaMH Ilap:e:ma c HaqaJia oca;a.:1,1. reHeipaJI Be.::ih•Map, pyKOBOWfBm:at'r B3HTH0M Bypme, npoBeJI aTy onepan;HIO Ha CBOH crpax H pHCK, 6e3 B0,JJ;Ol\Œ rJiaBHOKOM8H,IzyIOm;ero. TpomIO 61,IJI oqeab H0,il;OBOJieH CaMOCTOHT0JlbHOCThlO CBOero IIOµ;,IHHeHHOro. «BeJibMap - onaCHhIH -qeJIOBeK, OH CJIHillKOM ropJiq))' 3RHBHJI OH, Y3HaB O B8HTHH Bypme llO_ Ü<rno6o)l(Aeaue Bypme Bl,l8BaJio ::mryanaaM napnarnn. Mx pa;a;ocr:o em;e 60JIOO Bo3pocJia, :KOr)J;a 28-29 ORTH6ipH II'OBTOpHhle aTaR'H npycCKHX BOHCK na ::JTO'r ropo)J;OK OhIJIH oro11Thl. Ho BetiepoM 30 oNT®pa IIapHm c B03Mym;eHHeM n rope%IO yaaaJI, qro Bypme, aam;HTHHROB Koroporo TipomIO ocraBRJI 600 npo­ ,noB0JILCTB'HJI 11 c:HapH;II;OB, BHOBb B pYJ{ax BI.Para, a rapHH30H ero qacTbIO 'lI•CTpe6Jl0H H�MJqaMB, qaCThIO B8JIT B nJieH. Û;vIOBpeM0H'HO HaqaJIH ,pacnpocTJ)aHH'TbCH CJIY.DI o na)J;eHH'II Men.a. IlpaBBTeJII,CTBO fOTOBHJIO KaIIHTYJIHJ::i;nro IIapnma. 30 OKTH6pH BeqepoM na airerpeHHOM ero aace;a;aHHH, e yqacTHeM TOJihRO 'ITO BQt3BpaTHBmei,ocH H3' noea,n;KH. no EBpone T1,e.pa, 61:.rJio IllPHHHro pemenne HeMep;JieH'Ho B0300HOBHTb neperoBopw c BucMapKoM o nepeMnpnn. T:oep p;oJimea 6hIJI nhlexaTI, Jf.JIH aToro 31 oKtH6pH B 3 qaca ,IJ;HH B BepcaJI1:.. BhIJIO TaKme pemeao ony6JIHK0BaT1, coo6m;eHne o R8Ill1TyJuIn.n11 Men;a, yTpaTe Bypme n neperonopax o nepeMHpHH. 3ro coo6m;eHHe, IIOHBHBmeeCH yrpOM 31 0RTH6pa, )];OJiiKHO 6hlJIO IlO)J;TOTOBIITh o6m;eCTBeHHOe MHeHHe K KaIIHTYJIHD;HH. C n;eJibIO IIO,IJ;aBJieHHH B03M0il(Hl,IX Ha­ pO,WILIX BOJIHeHHÎÎ npaBBT0JlbCTBO aa6JiaroBpeMeHHO IIpllHHJIO COOTBeTCTByIO­ m;11e MepLI 111• A Mem,1zy TeM B ocamJJ.eHHOM ropo,n;e IIOAffHMaJiac1, BOJIHa aapo;a;uoro raeBa. Yme 30-ro BeqepoM Map Ilapnma HaqaJI noJiy-qaT1, OT cBonx noMOID;HHKOB co­ o6m;eana o rJiy60KOM 6pomeanu, oxBaTHBmeM paooqHe npep;MeCThH. Roe-r;a;e yme aaqa.nnc1, aHTBIIp8BHT0JlhCTBeHHl,l0 ,n;eMOHCTpan;nn. IIoJIHII.HH IIl,lTaJiaCL npoH8B0CTB apeeTLI. MHJILep, apecToBaHHhIÜ 3a HanpaBJieHHYIO npoTHB npa­ BHTeJILCTBa peq1,, 61,1JI CIIJIOH OCBo6om,n;eH OTpHP,:OM aan.noHaJibHOii: rBap�HH. PeBOJIIOII.HOHHl,10 Rpynr qyBCTBOBaJIH npn6JIIIïReHHe HOBoro Hapo,r:i;Horo Bhl­ CTYIIJI0HBJI, HO HBKaRBX opraH1I8aD;HOHHl,lX npHfOTOBJieHHÜ R aeMy He c,n;eJiaJIH. 30 ORTJI6pH, Ha COBem;aHBB, B KOTOpOM, K8R pacCR83hIBaer 6JraHKHCT Meii:, yqa­ CTBOBaJIH Bll,JJ;Heiimue peBOJIIOII.IIOHHhle ;a;eaTeJIH, 6hIJIO pemeHo ... «co6paThCH: cuoBa» 112. Ho co6hITBH ae m)J;aJIH. BoccraHne BCIIl,IXHYJIO crnxHiHo. tos J. L amb e r. Op. cit., p. 163. to9 «La Patrie en danger», 23 octobre 1870. 110 J. L amb e r. Op. cit.. p. 192. 11 t G én. Du c r o t. La défense de Paris, t. 2. Paris, 1876, p. 26 . 112 E. Ma y. La journée de 31 octobre 1870. «L'Humanité», 31 octobre 1913. 181
Co6bITHH 31 OKTH6pH npoTeKaJIH KpanHe xaOTHqHo. B HHX 61>rno MHoro cnyqanHoro. Ho B aTHX co6hlTHHX OTpa3HJiaCh CJIOJI-rnaa 1-mpTHHa paccTaHOBKH CHJI B IIapnme IlOCJie nepBhlX me­ CTll Hep;eJih ocap;hr, HaMeTHJIHCh KOHTYPhl ,n;aJihHe:ë:men RJiaccoBo:è: 6op1>6hl. Boc­ CTaH1rn 31 OKTH6pH CTaJIO nepeJIOMHhlM IlYHKTOM B pa3BHTIIH KJiaCCOBOH 6opb6hr n ocam,n;eHHOH He:\rn;aMH CTOJIH�e <l>paH�HII. XoTH OT}J;eJihHhie peBOJIIO�HOHHbie BhICTynJieHHH npOH30illJIH B pa3JIHqHhlX rryHKTax ropo,n;a, pemaronvrn co6hITHH paahlrpaJIHCh B paTyme .e BoKpyr nee. 3Ha:l\rnHMTa.a paTyma 1Iap1n-Ra npe,n;cTaBJIHJia co6oü o6mnpnoe qeTLipexaTam­ Hoe 3,Il;8HHe, IlOCTpüeHHOe Ha 6epery CeHhI; OHO HMeJio 130 M B ,D;JIHHY H 80 M B m:o.p:nHy. <l>aca,IJ. ap;aHnH BhIXOAHJI Ha naom;ap;:o PaTym11. III11poKaH necTRu�a rJiaBHoro BXO,IJ;a BeJia OT 6oJihillOro BeCTH6IOJIH B 3aJI pecny6JIHKH - caMoe 06mIIpHoe IlOMeIQeHHe 3}J;aHHH. C O.