Автор: Бонди Е.А.  

Теги: английский язык   языки мира  

ISBN: 5-17-006254-0

Год: 2001

Текст
                    Е.А. Бонди
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ язык
для СТУДЕНТОВ-ИСТОРИКОВ
Москва
Астрель, ACT
2001


Рецензент: канд. филол. наук С.А. Фридрих (кафедра английского языка Военной академии Генерального штаба) Бонди Е.А. Б81 Английский язык для студентов-историков: Учебник. - 2-е изд., испр. и доп. - М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель»: ООО «Издатель¬ ство АСТ», 2001. - 400 с. ISBN 5-17-006254-0 (ООО «Издательство АСТ») ISBN 5-271-01859-8 (ООО «Издательство Астрель») Учебник рассчитан на лиц, продолжающих изучение английского языка на базе знаний, полученных в средней школе. Цель учебника - выработать у студентов навык понимания оригиналь¬ ной исторической литературы, развить умение излагать прочитанный материал в кратком и обобщенном виде, а также научить их вести беседу на темы специальности. Учебник состоит из 15 уроков, грамматического справочника, допол¬ нительных текстов для чтения и перевода. Предназначен для студентов I и II года обучения исторических факуль¬ тетов университетов и педагогических институтов. УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.2 Англ. ISBN 5-17-006254-0 (ООО «Издательство АСТ») ISBN 5-271-01859-8 (ООО «Издательство Астрель») © Е.А. Бонди, 2001 © Издательство «Астрель», 2001
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Настоящий учебник предназначается для студентов первого и второго года обучения исторических факультетов университетов и педагогических институтов. Учебник рассчитан на лиц, продолжающих изучение английского языка на базе знаний, приобретенных в средней школе. Он составлен в соответствии с требованиями программы для студентов неязыко¬ вых вузов и имеет ярко выраженную профессиональную направлен¬ ность, которая проявляется в тематике текстов, характере методиче¬ ских заданий, в упражнениях и специально отобранном словаре исто¬ рической терминологии. Тематика учебных и хрестоматийных текстов соответствует наиболее общим темам исторических курсов, читаемых на русском языке для студентов первых двух лег обучения и относит¬ ся к истории древнего мира, средних веков, новой и новейшей истории, в том числе к различным периодам отечественной истории. Кроме исторической тематики, в учебнике изучаются темы, относящиеся к географическому обзору страны, Великой Отечественной войне, био¬ графиям выдающихся личностей, описанию городов, учебе и быту студентов, которые представлены в Intermediate Lessons. Учебник состоит из фонетического раздела, 15 уроков, грам¬ матического справочника, инструкций по грамматическому анализу, переводу и реферированию, терминологического словаря, дополни¬ тельных текстов для домашнего чтения и приложения. Типовой урок учебника содержит текст (как правило, оригинальный), примечания к тексту, в которых дается объяснение реалий, толкование лексических и грамматических трудностей, список обязательных слов и выраже¬ ний (активный словарь урока), фонетические упражнения к тексту, упражнения на правила чтения и словообразования, грамматические и лексические упражнения, а также упражнения и дополнительный материал для формирования навыков устной речи. Урок содержит лабораторную работу, которая проводится в лаборатории устной речи и представляет собой задание для самостоятельной подготовки сту¬ дентов. Для этой цели преподавателю рекомендуется начитать и записать на магнитофонную ленту языковой материал упражнения, непосред¬ 3
ственно предшествующего лабораторному заданию, а именно: спи¬ сок новых слов с переводом, текст (два раза - сначала в замедленном, а затем в нормальном темпе) и вопросы с интервалами для ответов. Фонетический раздел включает в себя обзор звуков, коррективные упражнения, основные правила чтения и интонации и соответствую¬ щие тренировочные упражнения. Работа над фонетическим материа¬ лом рассчитана на 4-5 специальных занятий и в основном носит кор¬ рективный характер. Работа по развитию и закреплению произноси¬ тельных навыков студентов не заканчивается в рамках фонетическо¬ го раздела, а ведется систематически при прохождении каждого уро¬ ка в соответствии с предлагаемыми фонетическими упражнениями. Грамматический справочник содержит подробный комментарий по основным разделам морфологии и синтаксиса английского языка, а также указания в отношении перевода грамматических конструк¬ ций, обычно представляющих для студентов известную трудность. Терминологический словарь отобран на основе длительной экс¬ периментальной работы с разнообразными историческими текстами и составляет около 700 учебно-словарных единиц. Предлагаемый терминологический словарь носит общеисториче¬ ский характер и не включает слова, относящиеся к узким исторические специальностям (например, археологии, этнографии, истории искус¬ ства), поскольку, как полагает автор, по каждой из указанных специ¬ альностей может быть составлен самостоятельный словарь терминов Кроме терминологического, в учебнике имеется общеупотребитель¬ ный словарь, состоящий из 1 300 единиц. Дополнительные тексты для чтения предназначены для самостоя тельной работы со словарем и содержат отрывки из оригинальны? произведений английских и американских ученых-историков и поли тических деятелей, относящихся к различным периодам истории Анг¬ лии, США и России. Эти тексты могут быть также использованы для реферирования. Цель учебника - па основе знания нормативного курса грам¬ матики и активного владения профессиональным словарем вырабо¬ тать у студентов навык понимания оригинальной исторической ли¬ тературы, развить у них умение в кратком и обобщенном виде изла¬ гать информационный материал, а также научить их вести элемен¬ тарную беседу на темы по специальности. Указанная цель определила комбинированный характер уп¬ ражнений, которые в зависимости от сетки часов, принятой в данном учебном заведении и конечной целевой установки, могут быть исполь¬ 4
зованы не только для активизации лексико-г рамматического материа¬ ла, но и для развития навыка устной речи. При ограничении во време¬ ни (например, четыре часа в неделю) выполняются лишь упражнения переводного характера. Устно-речевые задания в упражнениях типа: Comment on the following, using your knowledge of history; Respond to the following by expressing your opinion (agreement, disagreement); Ex¬ pand on the following by adding something of your own; Retell the story (passage); Give a short summary of the text и др. либо снимаются вооб¬ ще, либо заменяются заданием, предусматривающим чтение, перевод и ответы на вопросы. Все упражнения подразделяются на пять основных групп: 1. Фонетические упражнения и упражнения на правила чтения (Practise the following for pronunciation; Reading Rules Recapitulation Exercises) предназначаются для систематической работы над наибо¬ лее трудными звуками и звукосочетаниями, встречающимися в тек¬ сте, а также для повторения правил чтения, которые не вошли в фоне¬ тический раздел учебника. 2. Упражнения на словообразование (Word-building Exercises) име¬ ют целью развитие аналитических навыков обучаемого и расширение его пассивного словаря на основе знания аффиксов. 3. Грамматические упражнения (Grammar Exercises) направлены на отработку форм и правил употребления основных грамматических явлений, входящих в нормативный курс вузовской программы. Эти упражнения в основном носят коммуникативный характер и пред¬ полагают создание у обучаемого динамического стереотипа в ис¬ пользовании наиболее употребительных грамматических конструк¬ ций на основе широкого применения языкового моделирования. 4. Лексические упражнения (Vocabulary Exercises) направлены на закрепление слов и словосочетаний, входящих в активный словарь урока. Они, как правило, строятся на связном текстовом материале (кроме отдельных упражнений устно-речевого назначения), разнооб¬ разны и также носят коммуникативный характер. 5. Речевые упражнения (Oral Language Practice) имеют целью раз¬ витие у обучаемого навыков устной речи (в монологической и диало¬ гической формах) и предполагают выработку умения связно выска¬ зываться в ситуациях, основанных па активном лексико-грамматиче¬ ском материале урока. Для расширения исторического словаря сту¬ дентов рекомендуется использовать дополнительную лексику, встре¬ чающуюся в упражнениях, в которых дается задание выписать и вы¬ учить выделенные в тексте слова. 5
При работе над уроком рекомендуется придерживаться опре¬ деленной последовательности, а именно: после введения и первичной отработки грамматической темы следует переходить к фонетическим упражнениям и чтению текста, а от него - к закреплению активного словаря. Поскольку лексические упражнения строятся на основе ма¬ териала текста, приступать к их выполнению рекомендуется лишь после того, как текст прочитан и переведен полностью. Работа над активным словарем завершается контрольным переводом (Test Trans¬ lation), который может выполняться как в устной, так и письменной форме (в последнем случае - в качестве домашнего задания). То же самое относится к упражнению для самостоятельного перевода со сло¬ варем (Text for Translation). Цикл занятий по уроку заканчивается выполнением упражнений для формирования навыка устной речи (Oral Language Practice). Материал урока рассчитан на 5-6 аудиторных занятий. Количе¬ ство часов, отводимых на каждый урок, определяется преподавателем в зависимости от полноты прохождения материала и составляет 10-12 часов. На прохождение уроков 2, 6, 9, 11, 13, не содержащих грамма¬ тического материала, отводится в среднем по 6 часов, и их изучение является факультативным.
PRONUNCIATION BRUSH-UP
ОБЗОР И ПОВТОРЕНИЕ ЗВУКОВ Гласные: [i:, 1, е, эг, а:, о, о:, и, и:, д, э:, э, ei, ai, au, oi, ou, is, еэ, из] Согласные: [1, m, n, r, j, w, n, h, p, b, t ,d, f, v, tj, d3, k, g, s, z J, 3,0, 6] 1. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРОИЗНЕСЕНИЯ ГЛАСНЫХ 1. При произнесении английских гласных необходимо строго соблюдать краткость и долготу. Несоблюдение этого правила может привести к нарушению смысла слова. Сравните: sheep [i:] овца - ship [1] корабль, dark [а:] темный - duck [л] утка, port [э:] порт - pot [о] горшок. 2. Гласные [1, е, ае, з, и, л, э] произносятся кратко. Звук [i] более открытый и широкий, чем [и]. Несколько напоми¬ нает безударный гласный [и] в словах кино, весна. Звук [е] произносится при очень узком расстоянии между челю¬ стями и напоминает русский [э] в слове цепь. Звук [зе] произносится при сильно опущенной нижней челюсти и напоминает русский [э] в слове эта, если произнести его, одновремен¬ но опуская нижнюю челюсть. Звук [о] произносится при широком, круглом растворе рта и плос¬ ком укладе губ. Напоминает русский [о], произнесенный кратко, без выдвижения губ и при широком растворе рта. Звук [и] произносится без выдвижения губ. Очень отдаленно на¬ поминает русский [у], произнесенный кратко, без выдвижения губ и в том месте, где артикулируется русский [ы]. Звук [д] напоминает безударный русский [а] в словах комод, ка¬ кой, оса. Звук [э]1 произносится с оттенком [а] в конце слова, особенно по¬ сле взрывных согласных. Произнесите: [pik, рек, раек, рок, рдк, Ьик]. 3. Гласные [i:, а:, о:, и:, э:] произносятся продленно и с напряжением. Звук [i:] произносится очень энергично, со скольжением от более широкого к узкому звуку, практически совпадающему с русским удар¬ ным [и] в конце звучания. Звук [а:] несколько напоминает русский [а] в слове бал, произне¬ сенный глубоко, протяжно и с напряжением. 1 В изолированном виде не произносится. 8
Звук [о:] произносится при округленных, но не выдвинутых губах и довольно узким ротовом отверстии. Напоминает русский [о], про- нанесенный глубоко, протяжно и без выдвижения губ. Звук [и:] произносится при сильно округленных, но не выдвинутых губах и очень узком ротовом отверстии. Звук [э:] произносится при узком расстоянии между зубами, плос¬ ком положении слегка растянутых губ и ровном, как при молчании, положении языка. Произнесите: [pi:k, pa:k, po:k, pu:l, рэ:1]. 4. Дифтонги [ei, ai, oi, au, ou, is, еэ, из] обладают той особенностью, что их первый элемент (ядро) произносится с большей силой, более четко и ясно, чем второй элемент (скольжение); в дифтонгах [is, сэ, иэ] конечный звук [э] имеет оттенок [л]. Произнесите; [bei, bai, boi, bau, bou, bis, bes, bus]. 5. В звукосочетаниях [ais, aus] серединный звук не следует доводить до гласного полного образования. Упражнения на повторение гласных Прочтите в транскрипции следующие слова, обращая внимание на особенности артикуляции данных звуков: Краткие гласные 1. [i] - [bin, fit, did, fil, it, iz, 'finij, 'siti, 'sUdi, 'mem, 'bizi, 'piti] 2. [e] - [ben, set, ded, end, send, men, fel, smel, tel, ten, bes, tes, sed] 3. [as] - [maen, baen, kaen, bad, sad, dsem, bask, blaek, kaeps, kaet, 'lsets, maep] 4. [o] - [top, stop, lot, wotj, klok, pot, Jot, gon, on, plot, d3ob] 5. [u] - [buk, juk, tuk, luk, kuk, ful, pul] 6. [л] - [dAii, длп, тлпв, fn\nt, 'strxgl, 'pxblik, 'лрэ, dis'kxs, dis'kAVS, лр] 7. [s] - [s'maen, s'said, s'tend, s'hed, s'wei, s'raiz, э'тлг), s'gou, sjo:, 'membs, 'li:ds, 'peips, 'bets, 'dokts, 'тлбэ, Ta:3s, 'lektfs, Ti:tJ's, 'тезэ] Долгие гласные 8. [i:] - [si:n, li:d, li:v, ri:tj, i:tf, 'i:zi, bi'si:d3, п'зпт, ri'tri:t] 9. [a:] - [ga:d, ha:d, rfgcrd, Ja:p, a:t[, ,a:mi, ta:sk, la:st, 'pa:ti] 10. [o:] - [ko:s, s'ko:dir), lo:d, n'ko:dz, To:ms, ss'po:t, im'po:tsnt, lo:] 11. [u:] - [du:, hu:z, lu:z, blu:, tru:, mu:n, su:n, 'wu:ndid, 'muivmsnt, in'klu:d, mt'pru:v, ju:z, s'kju:z, dju:k, hju:d3, ju:s, ks'mju:n, vju:] 9
12. [э:] - [кэ:Ь, fam, va:b, 1э:п, ta:n, 'all, sa:v, 'papas, ri'sa:tj, ri'fa:, Лзэ:тэп, i'ma:d3ans,, ju:ni'va:siti] [wa:] - [wa:k, 'wa:ka, 'wa:kirj, wa:s, wa:9, wa:d, wa:ld] 13. [ai] - [mai, hai, fain, 'ailand, 'laibrari, 'fo:tifai, 'rialaiz, pra'vaid] 14. [ei] - [eim, deit, treis, 'leiba, 'meinli, 'keipabl, 'deind3aras, di'kei] 15. [oi] - [boi, koin, d3oi, sail, vois, tfais, 'eksplait, a'point, im'plai, dis'troi] 16. [au] - [haus, graund, daut, aut, 'Gauzand, 'mauntin, a'nauns, sa'raund] 17. [ou] - ['oupn, bou, stoun, vout, ou, 'soujal, flou, pra'pouz, a'proutj, sou] 18. [ia - £3 - ua] - [pia - p£a - pua, Jia - Jea - Jua, dia - dea - 'djuarirj, tia - tea - tua] 19. [aua] - [aua, 'paua, 'taua, Jaua, 'saua] 20. [aia] - ['haiad, 'taia, 'faia, 'waia, 'traial, 'saians, 'traiamf, in'taia, sa'saiati, a'laians, 'daiabg, 'daiagraem, 'taiad] Контрастные упражнения Прочтите следующие пары слов, обращая внимание на разницу звуков: 1. [i: - i] - [fd - fil, di:d - did, Ji:p - Jip, ri:tj- ritf, si:t - sit, si:n - sin] 2. [e - ae] - [men - maen, ben - baen, sed - saed, set - sset, beg - baeg, pen -paen] 3. [а:-л] - [da:k-dAk, ma:tf - niAtf, а:ш-клт, la:d3-d3Ad3, ma:st - rnASt] 4. [o: - o] - [|o:t - Jot, ko:t - kot, spo:t - spat, la:d - lot, wo: - wot, ho:d - hot] 5. [o-ou] - [not-nout, hop-houp, kop-koup, got-gou, gon-gout] 6. [u - u:] - [ful - fid, luk - ru:l, tuk - tu:l, put - pu:l] 7. [а: - o:] - [fa: - fo:, ka:t - ko:t, ha:d - hod, pa:t - pod, fa: - fo:t] 2. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРОИЗНЕСЕНИЯ СОГЛАСНЫХ 1. Английские звонкие согласные на конце слова, а также перед глухими согласными никогда не оглушаются; глухие согласные перед звонкими не озвончаются. 2. В английском языке нет попарного распределения согласных на твердые и мягкие; согласные перед гласными произносятся твердо. 10
3. Согласные [t, d, n, 1] - альвеолярные звуки, при их произнесении копчик языка ставится на альвеолы. При этом звук [t] произносится с придыханием; звук [1] перед гласным произносится мягче, чем на кон¬ це слова или перед согласным; звук [п] в конце слова после краткого гласного произносится несколько продленно. Звуки [р, к] произносятся с придыханием. Звуки [0,5] - межзубные согласные. При их произнесении передний край языка (кончик) находится между зубами, слегка соприкасаясь с ними, в результате чего образуется щель, через которую проходит воздух, при включенном голосе (для [5]) и без участия голоса (для [0]). Звук [w] - двугубиый согласный. При его произнесении сохраняет¬ ся очень узкое отверстие, образованное сильно округленными губами. Звук [р] - носовой согласный. При его произнесении задняя спин¬ ка языка смыкается с мягким нёбом и воздух проходит через нос. Звук [г] напоминает очень слабый русский [ж], произнесенный при значительно оттянутом от альвеол кончике языка; звук [г] не такой раскатистый и дрожащий, как русский [р]. Звук [h] - еле слышимый выдох, шепотное начало следующего гласного, абсолютно бесшумный звук. Звук [|], в отличие от твердого русского [ш], произносится несколь¬ ко смягченно. Звук [з], в отличие от русского [ж], произносится значительно мягче. Звук [tj], в отличие от мягкого русского [ч], произносится всегда твердо. Звук [ёз] произносится слитно, одним усилием и напоминает оз¬ вонченный русский [ч]. Упражнения на повторение согласных Прочтите в транскрипции следующие слова, обращая внимание на особенности артикуляции данных звуков: 11. [t] - [ten, Un, taim, taun, ti:m, bi:t, fit, met, fait, salt, nait] 2. [d] - [dei, dai, dju:k, 'dju:ti, 'dinosti, ded, said, so:d, b:d, 'reko:d] 3. [1] - [fi:l - li:f, til - lit, fel - let, sell - leit, mail - laim, fed - lci:ns] 4. [n] - [nain, nau, neim, nou, not, 'nolid3, koin, sum, sxn, плп, fond] 5- [p, t] - [pi:t, pit, pep, pop, poup, paip, 'peipo, рю, реэ, риэ, рп'реэ] 6. [k] - [ki:p, 'kaepitol, ko:t, kxt, teik, laik, buk, luk, meik, bsek, spouk] 7. [0] - [0in, 0ik, 0ipk, 0o:t, 0roun, 0ri:, fei0, mi0, de0, 'kseBolik, smi0] 8. [3] - [3ei, 5en, 3is, 5aet, 5i:z, 3ouz, 3sen, бет, beid, lei5, sai3, ju:5z] 11
9. [w]-[wi:k, win, wen, wei, wai, WAn, wot, wo:, wea, wo:k, wi:k, witf, wil] 10. [r] - [raiz, rait, roud, ru:l, ri.d, 'гл/п, red, reid, no, rag, o'raiz] 11. [r)] - [lorj, sag, taegk, 0ждк, 0igk, 'kagka, 'i:vnig, 'mo:nig, ’mi:tir), 'intristir)] 12. [tj] - [ti:tf, tjes, maetf, kaetf, ma:tf, wotf, t|a:tf, 'kaeptfa, ’sentjori] 13. [d3] - [eid3, peid^, 'iid^ipt, si:d3, d3Ad3, la:d3, 'd3u:pito, n'lid3on] 14. [0 - [fi:ld, ftp, Jfain Ja:t, 'bijop, woj, wij, 'finif.pa'trijan] 15. [3] - ['гпезэ, 'р1езо, Чтзп, di'vi3n, di'si3n, 'ju:3uol, 'buo3wa:, т'уегзп] 16. [h] - ['histori, hi:l, 'helmit, haev, ha:f, 'hostl, ho:d, hould, hu:, hio] Контрастные упражнения Прочтите следующие пары слов, обращая внимание на разницу звуков: 1. [s - 0] - [si:m - 0i:m, sik - 0ik, so:t - 0o:t, mis - mi0, pa:s - pa:0, wo:s - wo:0] 2. [z - d] - [zi:l - Si:, zed - Sen, klouz - klouSz, saiz - saiS, leiz - leiS] 3. [v - w] - [vi:l - wi:l, vent - went, vo:s - wo:s, vo:b - wo:d, vaio - waia, weiv] 4. [t[-d3] - [eitj-eid3, kaetf- keid3, tfop-d3ob, tfein -d3ein, tjeind3] 5. [n — g] — [km - kir), win-wig, 0in-0ig, klaen-klaeg, глп-глд, on-ror), sin-sir)k, 0in-0ir)k, 0in-0ir), win-wir)k, win-wig] 6. Конечные глухие и звонкие: [set - sed, let - led, salt - said, had - ha:d, ais - aiz, prais - praiz, feis - feiz, li:f - li:v, seif - seiv, faif - farv, li:k - li:g, bask - bag, dik - dig, as - aez, a'laif- a'laiv, ni:t - ni:d] ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРОИЗНЕСЕНИЯ ЗВУКОВ НА СТЫКАХ СЛОВ И НЕКОТОРЫХ ЗВУКОСОЧЕТАНИЙ Упражнение Прочтите следующие сочетания слов, помня о том, что: 1. Альвеолярные звуки перед межзубными произносятся на зубах: [t + S] - ayhe 'table, at the 'meeting, аЦТе 'court, at the 'moment, at the 'same 'time, a,t,the 'beginning, 'meetj:he 'guests, 'put_the 'question, 'ea{J:he 'apple, 'cut them, ac'ceptthe ,invi'tation; [d + S] - 'nee4Jthis, 'saitjjthat, 'reacjjthis 'story, 'reatLthe 'text, 'sentLthe 'wire, 'spencL'the 'time; [n + S] - iiTthis, iii_'that, iii_the 'morning, itjjhe 'evening, in_the 'after¬ noon, iijjhe 'park, iij_the 'street, oijjhe 'wall, oijjthe 'shelf, oij_the a'genda, oq_the '1st of Sep'tember, be'hin<Ethe 'house, be'tweeijjTe 'windows; 12
[I + 5] - 'all the 'students, 'alLthe 'teachers, 'tell the 'news, 'seethe 'car. 'spell the 'name, 'smetHhe 'flowers; [s, z + d, 0] - igjthis, wagjthat, doejTthis, hagjthat, igjthere, wa^'there, 'need§_'these, 'know^'those, 'closgjhe 'door, 'usgjthis, 'usejthat, ijCthin, igjthick, 'takegjthis, 'make§Jthat, 'thigjtheme, 'thi§_'thought. 2. Конечные r, re перед словом, начинающимся с гласного звука, читают¬ ся (г) (так называемый связующий звук |ф. my 'fathers, his 'mothejds, ту 'brothers, hep,'aunt, therejaren’t, theijjaim, 'faraway. The 'teachers at the 'blackboard. The 'students arejit the 'lecture. The 'children aryn the 'garden. The 'newspapers werepn the 'shelf. 'Wherejare they? 'Where,is 'Room '5? The 'pictureps 'beautiful. They are,on 'holidays. We wergjit 'home yesterday. 'Summepjs 'coming. 'Peter and 'Bess were^in 'London 'last 'year. 'Werqjall the 'students e'xamined in the 'morning? 'Does he 'know 'German o^'English? 'Is she a 'student oj^a 'teacher? 'Is there_a 'telephone in your 'flat? 'Is there^any 'ink in the 'pen? 'AreJ;here any 'letters for me? 'Was thereja 'concert after the 'meeting? 'Were therein у 'lectures 'last 'week? 3. Звуки ]t, d] в сочетаниях [tl, dl, tn, dn] произносятся слитно с последую¬ щим звуком, причем кончик языка от альвеол не отрывается. middle, fiddle, idle, little, title, settle, cattle, battle; garden, pardon, sudden, written, beaten, cotton. 4. В сочетании двух взрывных согласных (на стыке слов или внутри сло¬ ва) первый из них произносится без «взрыва». a 'goo4Jtime, a 'blacl$Jdog, a 'badJbusiness, a 'thicl^Jpipe, 'meetJTom, 'keptjclosed, pact, fact, act. ОБЗОР И ПОВТОРЕНИЕ ОСНОВНЫХ ПРАВИЛ ЧТЕНИЯ 1. ЧТЕНИЕ ГЛАСНЫХ И СОЧЕТАНИЙ С НИМИ В УДАРНОМ СЛОГЕ Имеющиеся в английском алфавите 26 букв обозначают на пись¬ ме 44 звука. Поэтому одна и та же буква имеет несколько звуковых значений. Чтение гласной зависит от типа слога и положения ударе¬ ния в слове. Различают четыре типа ударного слога: открытый1, за- 1 Кроме открытого, имеется также «условно-открытый» слог, оканчи¬ вающийся на «немую» е. 13
крытый, слог, прикрытый буквой Г, и слог, в котором за буквой г, прикрывающей ударную гласную, следует «немая» е или другая чи¬ таемая гласная. ~ Буквы 1. Открытый слог 2. Закрытый слог 3. Закрытый буквой г 4. Открытый с буквой Г a [ei] name [ae] man [а:] саг [еэ] саге, daring [г] e [i:] Pete [e] pen [э:] perch [ю] here, hero [г] i [ai] line [i] fit [э:] fir [аю] fire, firing [г] 0 [ou] note [э] not [о:] morning [о:] more, snoring [г] u [ju:] use [л] us [э:] curve [jua] cure, during [г] У [ai] kyte [i] myth [э:] Byrd [аю] tyre, tyrant [г] Упражнения на правила чтения гласных Руководствуясь правилами чтения, прочтите следующие слова: а 1. age, stage, date, face, trace, labour, navy, cradle, change, same 2. bag, bad, man, back, black, act, action, latter, capital, match 3. arch, march, sharp, 'army, part, car, charge, yard, large, art 4. square, spare, 'parents, fare, com'pare, ware, pre'pare, care, Mary e 1. be, he, she, eve, even, scene, 'secret, com’plete, these, ’legal, mete 2. men, yes, set, ac’cept, rent, 'enter, well, bed, 'petty, bed, Ted, Ben 3. 'person, pre'fer, term, serve, 'German, herd, e'merge, 'mercy, con'fer 4. here, 'era, 'period, 'series, mere, in'herent, 'hero, sphere [f], interfere, im'perialist, im'perialism 'iy 1. my, bike, try, fine, nice, Mike, 'library, pro'vide, des'eribe, type 2. fit, city, finish, symbol, thick, thin, dig, bill, myth, 'sympathy 3. first, sir, girl, third, thirty, circle, dirty, firmly, birthday, myrtle 4. fire, wire, en'tire, de'sire, tired, hire, dire, shire, tyre о 1. so, no, note, open, stone, vote, social, pro'pose, those, yoke, hope 2. stop, shot, lot, gone, job, doctor, long, strong, box, dog, fog, top 3. 'fortress, north, 'former, sport, 'order, short, ac'cording, horse, or 4. more, shore, 'story, be'fore, 'glory, store, ore, bore, tore, fore 14
и 1. use, 'student, duke, 'unit, 'duty, 'music, ac'cuse, tune, 'super, 'pupil 2. 'uncle, just, 'judges, Dutch, 'public, 'upper, dis'cuss, 'struggle, gun, cut 3. oc'cur, hurt, 'further, 'urgent, 'purpose, turn, burst, church, herd, burn 4. cure, 'curing, pure, lure, 'during, 'fury, dure, 'plural, en'dure, 'jury Упражнения на правила чтения гласных диграфов и сочетаний 1. ai, ay = [ei] wait, rain, mail, bail, main, ray, pay, may, bay, lay air = [еэ] hair, air, airplane, chair, pair, fair, lair a) + l(k) = [o:] fall, call, wall, small, ball, tall, talk, chalk, walk, balk au, aw = [o:] 'autumn, Paul, pause, 'auto, auk, law, saw, dawn, maw, pawn a + ss = [a:] class, glass, brass, pass a + st = [a:] cast, fast, master, vast, past, last a + sk = [a:] cask, basketball, task, bask, mask, ask a + sp, a + ft = [a:] after, craft, grasp, draft a + th = [a:] father, rather, lather, path, bath 2. ea = [i:] cheap, peak, sea, leaf, dean, mean, meat, team, bean ее = [i:] feed, fee, speech, seek, need, feel, deep, meet, bee, keen ea + d = [e] ready, bread, head, dead, 'meadow, 'dreadful eigh= [ei] eight, weigh, neigh, freight, weight, 'eigh'teen, eighty ew = [ju:] few, pew, dew, mew; 1, r, j + ew = [u:] flew, blew, grew, drew, jew ey = [ei] they, grey, o'bey, 'diso'bey, con'vey eer = [is] .pio'neer, .engi'neer, veer, leer, deer, peer, beer 3. ia, io = [am] via, trial, dial, lion, liar, diary i + Id, nd = [ai] child, wild, mild, find, mind, bind, kind i + gh = [ai] high, higher, sight, sigh, right, might, light, night 4. oa = [ou] boat, coat, soap, load, toast, toad, coal oi, oy = [oi] ap'point, coy, an'noy, toy, boy, oil, boil, toil, spoil oo + к = [u] took, crook, shook, look, rook, nook, book, ’looking-glass oo + 1, m, n = [u:] spoon, soon, moon, loom, doom, fool, pool, tool, tooth [0] о + Id = [ou] hold, sold, old, told, fold, bold, folk, toll ou = [au] loud, found, sound, round, pound, a'bout, out, lous ovv + n = [au] town, down, brown, 'powder, cows, vow, bow, how, now. al'low 15
come, son, some, front, month, mother, brother, other, = [л] an'other, love, above, a'mong, 'company, done, govern, dove our, ower = [аиэ] sour, our, hour, tower, shower, power, flowers 5. и + H, sh = [u] pull, bull, full, push, bush, bullet 6. у + гласи. = [j] yes, yet, yard, yoke, yell, yeast, year, beyond 2. ЧТЕНИЕ ГЛАСНЫХ И СОЧЕТАНИЙ С НИМИ В НЕУДАРНОМ СЛОГЕ а = [э]: abide [o'baid], data ['delta] 0 =[э]: complete [kam'pliit], kingdom ['kipdam] 0 + конечн. n = [-]: cotton [‘kotn], lesson ['lesn] u =[э]: support [sa'po:t], circus ['saikas] e = [i]: employ [im'ploi], picket [’pikit] en + согласи. = [э]: student ['stjutdant], present ['prezant] e + конечн. 1, n = [—]: vessel ['vesl], even ['i:vn] 1 = [i]: invite [m'vait], finish ['fmif] 1 + конечн. 1 = [-]: pupil [’pjutpl], pencil ['pensl] Упражнения на правила чтения гласных в неударном слоге Руководствуясь правилами чтения, прочтите следующие слова: a 'sofa, 'cinema, 'central, 'formal, 'data, 'comma, ad'mit, a'bide, a'sleep, a'cross, a'like, ad'dress, a'side, a'fraid, a'shore 0 com'plete, construct, con'tain, pro'vide, 'seldom, pro'pose, offence, ob'tain u 'August, 'autumn, 'faculty, 'difficult, sub'due, sup'pose, sup'port, su'spend, suc'ceed, sup'posing e en'able, en'dure, em'ploy, des'troy, de'vote, de'pend, be'fore, be'gin, belong, pre'pare, pre'tend, pre'fer, re'main, re'member, re'fuse, 'pocket, 'ticket, 'darkness, 'homeless, 'absent, 'settlement, 'payment, 'vessel, 'taken, ’written 1 in'side, in'vite, im'prove, im'pose, dis'pose, dis'band, dis'solve [z], mis'take, 'visit, 'civil, in'deed у 'quickly, 'badly, 'dirty, 'many, 'study, 'monthly, ’city, ’pity, 'very, 'slowly 16
Упражнения на правила чтения согласных диграфов и буквосочетаний 1. с = [s] city, face, peace, cell, cite, cyst, scene, science, scent, scythe [5], certain, cycle, sauce, pence; c = [k] cake, cut, club, picnic, coal, clean, screw, coil, cure, decree, crowd, couch, cup, cotton 2. ch (tch) = [tj] chess, catch, fetch, such, dis'patch, de'tachment, speech, chap, each, bench, match, choice 3. ck = [k] back, lack, puck, neck, kick, cock, stick, lock, stock, Nick 4. g -- №] page, large, gin, gentleman, gypsy, gym, bridge, charge, gem; g = [g] 'gather, grow, gave, game, gold, green, gain, egg, log, gun 5. s = [s, z] noise, nose, see, seaman, sitting, please, these, Chi'nese, tens, beds, papers, bays, ties, cast, sense [s], sights, ,Japa'nese 6. sh = [f] shoot, show, shake, sharp, sheep, ship, clash, wash, 'usher, fish, shout, fresh 7. ng = [p] long, song, young, king, bring, wing, thing, being, doing, going, having, getting; ng + 1, r, w = [pg] English, England, angry, hungry, single 1 8. nk - [pk] thank, think, conquer, 'conqueror, uncle, links, tank, frankly 9. th = [S] other, mother, father, brother, an'other, rather, this, that, these, those, bathe, lathe, with, further, whether, clothes, gather, thus, then, than, they, them, breathe, weather, youths, paths 10. wh = [w] which, when, what, where, why, whip, white, while, wheat [h] who, whose, whom, whole 11. wr = [r] write, wrap, wreck, wrench, wreak, wrist, wretch 12. w + or = [wo:] work, worker, working, word, worse, worst, world, worth [0] 13. w(h) + a = [o] was, what, want, watch, swamp, swan, wander, wash 14. ture = [tj] lecture, picture, pasture, feature, future 15. don, ssion = [fn] nation, station, national, mention, fiction, solu¬ tion, session, oppression, com'mission, dis'cussion, suppression, translation, expression, action, tension, expansion, ag'gression 16. гласи. + sion = [зп] in'vasion, oc'casion, explosion, con'clusion, in'clusion, pro'vision, con'fusion, collision, illusion, division, de'cision 17. гласи. + sure = [3] measure, pleasure, treasure, composure, en'closure 17
3. ЧТЕНИЕ МНОГОСЛОЖНЫХ слов В трехсложных и четырехсложных словах ударение падает па тре¬ тий от конца слог и гласная в нем читается кратко. Слова, состоящие из пяти слогов и более, имеют два ударения: второстепенное и глав¬ ное. Главное ударение падает па третий слог от конца, а второстепен¬ ное - па пятый слог. И в том и другом слоге гласная читается по пра¬ вилу закрытого слога (кратко). Например: faculty [Ttekalti] - трехсложное слово vicinity [vi'siniti] - четырехсложное слово possibility [jposi'biliti] - пятисложное слово divisibility [di,vizi'biliti] - шестисложное слово indivisibility [jndi.vizi'bihti] - семисложпое слово Упражнение на чтение многосложных слов navigate, liberate, penetrate, celebrate, educate, operate, indicated, economy, democracy, geography, political, monopoly, biography, ability, history, family, enemy, animal, capital, radical, factory, general, origin, in¬ dustry, regiment, monument, regular, popular, faculty, company [a] Определив слоги с главным и второстепенным ударениями, про¬ чтите следующие слова: celebration, demonstration, consolidation, administration, navigation liberation, pronunciation, obligation, revolution, resolution, constitution, opposition, expedition, competition, delegation. Сводное упражнение на правила чтения ударных гласных 1. ape, cat, ladle, marry, saddle, sorrow, mare, sharing, affair, slay, gait jaw, lark, hawks, automobile, recall, balk, caught, pause, glasses, mask, mast draft, path; 2. news, drew, queen, deer, rear, heard, pearl, clear, terror, easing, uni¬ versity, settle, cede, sherry, recent, test, merely, Siberia, fees, readiness, neigh mew, blew; 3. mice, sky, strive, fiddle, cyclist, lyre, liar, dialogue [log], pioneer, idle quite, quiet, admire, system, thirteen, thirty, circles, blind, knight, triumph; 4. crown, mountain, prove, cooking, enjoy, hold, coin, wool, growth scold, oak, coat of arms, bottle, sorry, forces, storing, along, wrong, yoke, no ble, telephone, quotation, enroll; 5. urge, Thursday, turning, occur, lump, jumper, hurry, justice, runner under, true, cruel, fury, purity, duty, useful, tube. 18
ОБЗОР И ПОВТОРЕНИЕ ПРАВИЛ ИНТОНАЦИИ 1. ИНТОНАЦИОННАЯ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА СИНТАГМЫ В процессе речи длинные предложения обычно делят па неболь¬ шие отрезки, более или менее законченные в смысловом отношении (синтагмы или смысловые группы). В мелодической структуре син¬ тагмы выделяют шкалу и завершение Одна синтагма от другой от¬ деляется паузой и изменением мелодии, которое выражается в повы¬ шении или падении тона голоса. Основными топами в английском языке считаются нисходящий (a falling tone) и восходящий (a rising tone). Например: 'When I am,free, 11 'usually 'watch,TV | or 'listen to the .radio. (3 синтагмы: начальная и серединная синтагмы имеют восхо¬ дящее завершение, конечная - падающее.) Основными компонентами интонации синтагмы (предложения) являются фразовое ударение и мелодика. Фразовое ударение выделяет в предложении знаменательные сло¬ ва: существительные, прилагательные, смысловые глаголы, наречия, числительные, некоторые местоимения. В обычной речи артикли, вспо¬ могательные и модальные глаголы (в утвердительной форме, а также в несокращенных формах), предлоги, союзы, частицы, личные и при¬ тяжательные местоимения в предложении безударны. Например: She is at 'home in the 'evening. He is a 'specialist. He can 'help you. Разновидностью фразового ударения является логическое ударе¬ ние. Оно может падать па любое слово в предложении и всегда пред¬ полагает противопоставление и контраст. Например: 'She is at.home. «Она дома, а не он»; She.is ill. «Она действительно больна». Ритмическая группа. При помощи фразового ударения в синтаг¬ ме выделяются целые группы слов - ритмические группы. Ритмиче¬ ская группа состоит из одного ударного слога и примыкающего к нему одного или нескольких неударных слогов. Ударные слоги произно¬ сятся слитно с безударными через одинаковые промежутки времени, что создает ритмичность английской речи. Например: My^opjs .young. Hejs .ten. Thejboy 'goes_to.school. ( p и w ,17 и ч e с к и e г p у n n ы ) 11 Шкала это движение голосового тона от первого ударного слога до начала последнего, в спокойной речи она носит характер постепенного (сту¬ пенчатого) понижения; 'laiiepuieuue - это мелодия конца синтагмы. 19
2. ОСНОВНЫЕ СЛУЧАИ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ ВОСХОДЯЩЕГО ТОНА Восходящий тон выражает незаконченность, неопределенность, неуверенность. С этим топом произносятся: 1. Вопросы, начинающиеся со вспомогательных глаголов (или модальных) и требующие ответа да или пет (общие вопросы). 'Are you a,student? 'Have you got a,car? 'Do they 'live in „London? 2. Первая часть вопроса, выражающего выбор (альтернативный вопрос). 'Did you 'learn ,English or 4French? 'Shall we 'take .meat or ,fish? 3. Вторая часть разделительного вопроса. 'Pete 'goes to , school, . doesn’t he? You can ,sing, .can’t you? 4. Предложения, выражающие вежливые просьбы, благодарность, а также слова приветствия, извинения или прощания. 'Will you ,help me? 'Close the .door, please. .Thank you. Good-bye. 5. Часть предложения (синтагма), не законченная в смысловом отношении: распространенная группа подлежащего (подлежащее, вы¬ раженное однородными членами или имеющее определение), сказуемое вместе с дополнением, определяемое слово вместе с определением, об¬ стоятельство, стоящее в начале предложения перед подлежащим. In the. evening the 'whole , family 'usually 'watches ,tele'vision in the , drawing-room. 6. Придаточные предложения, стоящие перед главным. 'When I'come .home, I’ll 'do my Jessons. 'If I am Tree, I’ll ,go there. Упражнения в интонации Произнесите следующие предложения (синтагмы) с восходящим завершением в соответствии с интонационной разметкой: 1. Общие вопросы (см. § 3, п. 1, с. 324) (About One’s Family) 1. 'Have you got a , family? 2. 'Is your 'family .large? 3. 'Have you got a 'father and a .mother? 4. 'Is your'father a .worker? 20
5. 'Is your 'mother an .office worker? 6. 'Have you got any 'brothers and .sisters? 7. 'Does your 'younger 'brother (’sister) go to .school? 8. 'Did you go to 'school 'last .year? 9. 'Were you a . schoolboy (schoolgirl) last year? 10. 'Do you go to .college now? 11. 'Are you a 'student of .history? 12. 'Was 'history your 'favourite 'subject at .school? 13. 'Were you'fond of'English, .too? 14. 'Can you 'speak 'English . easily? 15. 'Must you 'work 'hard at your 'English ,now? 16. 'Did you have 'many .friends at school? 17. 'Have you got 'many 'friends among the Uni'versity (’college) students? 18. 'Does 'your 'best 'friend 'study 'history .too? 19. 'Was he ad'mitted to the 'History 'Faculty last .year? 20. 'Is he/she .married? 21. 'Has he/she got a 'family of his .own? 22. 'Is his/her 'family .small? 23. 'Do you 'go to 'see your 'friend 'very .often? 24. 'Will you 'call on him/her 'next .Sunday? 2. Первая часть альтернативного вопроса (см. § 3, п. 3, с. 325) 1 111. 'Is your 'family .large or .small? 2. 'Is your 'father a .factory or an .office worker? 3. 'Do .you or does your .brother (sister) go to school? 4. 'Were you a.schoolboy (schoolgirl) or a .student last year? 5. 'Are you a .student or a .teacher now? 6. 'Are you 'studying .history or .literature? 7. 'Was .history or .geography your favourite subject at school? 8. 'Are you 'learning .English or .French? 9. 'Do you 'spend .much or .little time learning English? 10. 'Have you got .many or .few friends among the students? 11. 'Is your 'best 'friend a . boy or a . girl? 12. 'Does your 'friend 'study .history or mathe.matics? 13. 'Was it .easy or .difficult for him to enter the faculty? 14. 'Is your 'friend .married or .single? 15. 'Are there .many or .few people in his/her family? 16. 'Has he/she got a .son or a .daughter? 21
3. Вторая часть разделительного вопроса (см. § 3, п. 4, с. 325) (About One’s Apartment) 1. You 'live in a 'big 'new „house, , don’t you? 2. Your 'house is of 'modern construction, „isn’t it? 3. There are 'many „flats in the house, „aren’t there? 4. You have got a 'three-room „flat, „haven’t you? 5. You have got a „dining-room, a „bedroom and a „living-room, „haven’t you? 6. You have got 'no „study, „have you? 7. Your 'room is not „large, „is it? 8. The 'walls of your 'room are „blue, „aren’t they? 9. The'floor is „brown, „isn’t it? 10. There is 'not 'much „furniture in the room, „is there? 11. You 'live on the 'second „floor, „don’t you? 12. There is a „telephone in your flat, „isn’t there? 13. You 'called me „up yesterday, „didn’t you? 14. You were at „home all the time, „weren’t you? 4. Вежливые просьбы, выражения благодарности, приветствия, прощания 1. 'Will you 'tell me the „time? 2. 'Will you 'come „in, please? 3. 'Will you 'pass me my „exercise-book? 4. 'Will you'say it a „gain? 5. 'Will you 'open the „window? 6. 'Won’t you'sit „down? 7. 'Would you'like a'cup of „tea? 8. 'Would you 'mind 'closing the „door? 9. 'Can you 'spare me a 'few „minutes? 10. 'Could I have a „word with you? 11. 'Couldn’t you 'come and „see me? 12. 'May I'come „in? 13. 'May I 'ask you a „question? 14. 'May I have your „telephone number? 15. 'Have a ciga„rette. 16. Ex'cuse me one „moment. 17. (1 am)„sorry. 18. (I) 'beg your „pardon. 19. 'Hadn’t you 'better 'stay at „home? 20. ’Thank „you. 22
21. I am 'very 'much obliged to you. 22. Hal.lo! 23. It’s 'nice to ,see you! 24. Ex.cuseme. 25. Good-,bye! 26. So Jong! 27. See you,soon! 28. Good ,night! 5. Части предложения (синтагмы), не закопченные по смыслу: а) распространенная группа подлежащего, в том числе подлежащее, опреде¬ ляемое причастным оборотом или придаточным предложением: Му friend and ,1 ... Peter and ,Ann ... All the students of the , group ... Neither he nor his ,wife ... Both the teachers and the .students ... Mrs. and Mr. ,Brown ... More than twenty-five .people ... The article written by our .teacher ... The boy who is playing with a .ball... The letter that we received .yesterday ... The question being discussed now at the .meeting ... The person bringing letters, telegrams and .newspapers... Surrounded by a .garden ... с) обстоятельственное придаточное предложение перед главным: If you 'come at .five, you 'won’t find me at ,home. As it was .raining, we had to 'stay Jn. 'When it 'got .dark, the 'people went Jrome. b) обстоятельство, стоящее в начале предложения: Last .summer ... Not long a,go ... On coming .home ... Before going to .bed... On the 1st of .May ... After finishing .school... In the .morning Speaking about my .family ... The professor being .ill ... In front of the .house ... Here and .there ... Between the .windows ... At .dinner ... In the middle of the .room ... In the centre of the .city ... At the head of the , table ... Having finished his .work ... Asked why he was so .sad ...
As 'soon as 1 'get .free, I’ll 'ring you „up. 'While you are 'reading the .paper, I’ll be 'doing my .homework. 'After I have 'finished 'reading the .book, I’ll .give it to you. 'Had I 'seen her .yesterday, I should have .asked her about it. 'Though he was .busy, he 'came to .see me. 'Since you in.sist on it, he will 'do the 'work .now. d) группа вводных слов, стоящая в начале предложения: As you .know ... As 'far as 1 .know ... As is .known... As a 'matter of .fact... As 'far as I can .see ... As for .me ... 'Frankly .speaking ... To 'tell the .truth ... In .other words... To my sur,prise ... To my re.gret... Un,fortunately ... .Luckily (.Fortunately)... To 'make a 'long 'story .short... It is 'known 'far and .wide ... To 'put it .briefly ... To my .mind ... In my o,pinion ... In my .view ... Как вам известно Насколько мне известно Как известно По сути дела Насколько я понимаю Что касается меня Откровенно говоря По правде говоря Другими словами К моему удивлению К моему сожалению К несчастью (К сожалению) К счастью Короче говоря Широко известно Короче По-моему По-моему С моей точки зрения 3. ОСНОВНЫЕ СЛУЧАИ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ НИСХОДЯЩЕГО ТОНА Нисходящий тон выражает законченность, определенность, ка¬ тегоричность. С этим тоном произносятся: 1. Повествовательные предложения, выражающие категориче¬ ские утверждения и сообщения. .No. ,Yes. I 'don’t .know. He 'studies .history. It’s .late. 2. Повелительные предложения, выражающие команду, приказ, запрещение. 'Stand .up! 'Be .ready! 'Go to your .seat! 'Don’t'do .that! 'Come at .5! 3. Восклицательные предложения. 24
'What a'fine „day!'What'fine .weather we are having today!'How .awful! 4. Вопросы, начинающиеся с вопросительных слов (специальные вопросы). 'What is .this? 'How. old are you? 'Where do you .live? 'When were you .born? 5. Вторая часть вопроса, выражающего выбор (альтернативный вопрос) после союза or («или»). 'Do you 'like .tea or .coffee? 6. Вторая часть разделительного вопроса (возможен и восходя¬ щий тон). 'Не is .busy now, .isn’t he? 'You 'speak .English, .don’t you? 7. Придаточные предложения, стоящие впереди главного, если последнее произносится с восходящим тоном. 'When you 'go to .London, 'will you 'let me .know? 8. Приветствия, произносимые при встрече, и обращения в на¬ чале предложения. 'How do you .do! Good .evening! .Bess, 'come .up to me, .will you? Упражнения в интонации Произнесите следующие предложения с нисходящим тоном: 1. Специальные вопросы (About You) 1. What is your name? 2. How old are you? 3. Where were you born? 4. In what family were you born? 5. Where do you come from? 6. When were you born? 7. Where did you spend your childhood? 8. At what age did you go to school? 9. When did you leave school? 10. What was your favourite subject at school? 11. What foreign language did you learn at school? 12. What did you do after finishing school? 13. How long have you been in the military service? 14. How old were you when you entered the University? 15. What faculty are you in? 16. What is your favourite subject? 17. What do you want to become in future? 25
(About One’s Working Day) 1. When does your working day begin? 2. What time do you usually get up? 3. Where do you do your physical exercises? 4. How long does it take you to wash and get dressed? 5. When do you usually have breakfast [e]? 6. Who prepares breakfast for you? 7. Where do you go after breakfast? 8. How do you get to the university (college)? 9. How many lectures (tutorials) do you have every day? 10. When are your classes over? 11. What do you do after classes? 12. Where do you generally have lunch (dinner)? 13. Why don’t you go home right after classes? 14. Till what time do you stay at the library? 15. In what way do you usually spend your leisure time? 16. Who do you go for a walk with? 17. What time do you go to bed? 18. What day is it today? 19. What’s the date today? 2. Вторая часть альтернативного вопроса 1. Does your working day begin early or late? 2. Do you get up at 7 or at 8? 3. Do you do physical exercises in the room or in the open air? 4. Do you wash with warm or cold water? 5. Do you have breakfast at home or in the canteen? 6. Do you take tea or coffee? 7. Are you free or busy after breakfast? 8. Are your classes over in the afternoon or in the evening? 9. Do you go home or to the library after classes? 10. Do you like to watch TV or to listen to the radio? 11. Do you go to bed at midnight or a bit earlier? 3. Вторая часть разделительного вопроса 1. May, June, July are summer months, aren’t they? 2. Of all the seasons you like summer, don’t you? 3. It’s autumn now, isn’t it? 4. It is not August now, is it? 5. It was cold yesterday, wasn’t it? 6. It’s warm today, isn’t it? 26
7. In the morning the sky was covered with clouds, wasn’t it? 8. It’s raining now, isn’t it? 9. It has been raining since the morning, hasn’t it? 10. You couldn’t go out for a walk, could you? 11. You had to stay at home, didn’t you? 12. It did not snow yesterday, did it? 13. It snows here in winter, doesn’t it? 14. You have your winter holidays in January, haven’t you? 4. Побудительные предложения Sit down! Stand up! Go to your place! Come up to the blackboard! Step aside! Close your books! Open your notebooks! Find text 5! Go on reading! Don’t go so fast! Say it again! Stop writing! Stop talking! Keep silent! No helping! Clean the blackboard! Rub it off! Put down the following sentence! Put it away! 4. РЕДУКЦИЯ И НЕУДАРНЫЕ ЭЛЕМЕНТЫ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ Служебные слова (предлоги, артикли, союзы, частицы, вспомога¬ тельные глаголы), модальные глаголы (в утвердительной форме), лич¬ ные и притяжательные местоимения в предложении обычно безударны, а потому имеют ослабленную (редуцированную) форму произнесения. Последняя выражается в сокращении долготы гласного звука, в перехо¬ де гласного в нейтральный звук или даже в его полном выпадении. Упражнения в произношении неударных элементов Прочтите следующие слова и предложения, обращая внимание на безударные элементы: Предлоги и артикли, личные и притяжательные местоимения 1. a 'cup of 'tea, the 'name of the 'street, in the 'corner, to the 'park, from the uni'versity, at the 'lecture, for the 'doctor, 'under the 'tree, be'hind the 'garden, 'into the 'box, 'out of the 'room, according to the 'article, from be'hind the 'mountain, a'mongthe 'students, with'in an 'inch, in'side an 'apple, in the 'end, to 'come to an 'end 27
2. I’m [aim]: I am a student, he’s [hi-, hi]: He is a doctor, she’s [fi-./i]; She is an actress. me [mi]: Will you help me? us [os]: Let’s go for a walk, your [jo]: How is your sister? you’re [jua]: You are a teacher, we’re [wio]: We are students, they’re [Geio]: They are brothers. them [9om]: We see them very often, her [ho]: I know her friend. Модальные и вспомогательные глаголы can [коп, кп]: I can play tennis. She can ski and skate. could [kod, kd]: He could help you. They could give you a call. must [most, mos, ms]: You must do it. We must study hard. should [Jbd, Jd]: He should stay at home. You should wait a little. would [wod, d]: I would go there now. It would be a great mistake. am [om, m]: I am quite well. I am not in the know. are [a-(r), o(r)]: You are wrong. You are at home, aren’t you? was [woz]: He was away from Moscow. I was very busy then. were [wo]: They were to come at five. They were absent. shall [Jbl,Jl]: I shall go there now. We shall see them tomorrow. have [hov, ov]: I have done my homework. We have never been there. has [hoz, z]: Ann has been reading since the morning. He has come. had [hod, d]: I had finished my work by 5. He had been examined by 3. do [do]: I do not find it difficult. You do not know the rule. does [doz]: It does not rain here in winter. She docs not speak French. Сокращенные формы вспомогательных и модальных глаголов You’re [juo]: You’re right. He’s [hiz]: He’s well. She’s [Jiz]: She’s young. You (we, they) aren’t [cent]. I (he, she, it) wasn’t [woznt]. I’ll [ail]: I’ll do it. You’ll [jul]: You’ll be late. He’ll [hil]: He’ll come back. It’s [its]: It’s time. We’re [wio]: We’re ready. They’re [бет]: They’re present. He (she, it) isn’t [iznt]. You (we, they) weren’t [want]. She’ll [fil]: She’ll go there. We’ll [wil]: We’ll stay here till seven. They’ll [6eil]: They’ll come to see you. haven’t [haevnt], hasn’t [hteznt], hadn’t [hrednt], don’t [dount], doesn’t [cUznt], didn’t [didnt], shan’t [fa:nt], shouldn’t [fudnt], won’t [wount], wouldn’t [wudnt], can’t [ka:nt], couldn’t [kudnt], mustn’t [niAsnt], oughtn’t [o:tnt] 28
Произношение глаголов с окончанием -ed -cd = [t] worked, asked, looked, liked, walked, stopped, washed, fin¬ ished, dressed, smoked, brushed, danced, missed, kissed, helped, discussed, talked, placed, developed, replaced, introduced, noticed, earthed -ed = [d] answered, covered, entered, prepared, suffered, surrendered, plundered, considered, cared, shared -ed = [id] wanted, needed, lasted, decided, visited, attended, graduated, translated, skated, celebrated, accepted, expected Произношение числительных a) one - the first, two - the second, three - the third, four - the fourth, five - the fifth, six - the sixth, seven - the seventh, eight - the eighth, nine - the ninth, ten - the tenth, eleven - the eleventh, twelve - the twelfth (с двумя ударениями) 'thir'teen - the 'thirteenth, 'fourteen - the 'four- 'teenth, 'fifteen - the 'fifteenth, 'six'teen - the 'sixteenth, 'seven'teen - the 'seventeenth, 'eighteen - the 'eighteenth, 'nineteen - the 'nineteenth (с одним ударением па 1-м слоге) 'twenty - the 'twentieth, thirty, 'forty, 'fifty, 'sixty, 'seventy, 'eighty, 'ninety, 'hundred, 'thousand, 'million b) in the 'first 'half, in the 'second 'part, in the 'third 'place, in the 'fourth 'century [’sen-], the '40-s (forties), the '50-s, in the '60-s, in the '70-s, in the '80-s of the '18th century, in the '19th century, in '19'30-s, in the 'year '2,000, '3,000 'years a'go, in '4,'500 B.C. [bi'si], in '106'6 A.D. [’ei'di:], in the '3rd mil'lennium. ТЕКСТ ДЛЯ ФОНЕТИЧЕСКОЙ ПОДЕОТОВКИ ЧТЕНИЯ Произведите фонетическую разметку второй части диалога и от¬ работайте его чтение: PROFESSOR: 'What is , history? STUDENT: It’s a, science 'dealing with the development of'human . society. PROFESSOR: 'When did his'torical 'thought appear? STUDENT: I , think it 'goes as 'far ,back as the '4th-'3rd mil'lennium 'B..C. PROFESSOR: You are 'quite. right. 'Could you 'give me the 'names of the 'most 'famous 'ancient ['einjont] historians? STUDENT: . Certainly. They.are: He, rodotus [he'rodatas], who was the “'fa¬ ther of. History”,,Xenophon ['zenofon] andPo,lybius [po'hbios]. They 'all 'come from 'Ancient, Greece. 'As to the historians of 'Ancient, Rome,,Titus [’taitos],,Tacitus ['tpesitas] and ,Plutarch ['phrtcrkj are 'most well-, known. 29
PROFESSOR: STUDENT: PROFESSOR: STUDENT: PROFESSOR: That’s right. What can be said about the first historical writings? What were they like? As far as I know they were stone inscriptions, reviews [n‘vju:z] and chronicles [k] showing various events in Egypt ['i:d3ipt], Babylon ['beebilon], Assyria [a'sreria] and Persia ['рэ:|э] Exactly so. Do you know any Russian historians of the 18th or 19th centuries? If I’m not mistaken, Russian historiography is represented by Karamzin, Granovsky, Solovyev, Kluchevsky and others. So much for today. See you tomorrow. Words and Phrases science [saions] - наука to deal with - рассматривать, иметь дело с human society ['hjuimon so'saiali] - человеческое общество to appear [э'рю] - появляться to go as far back as - восходить к millennium [mi'leniam] - тысячелетие B.C. (Before Christ [ai]) - до н.э. Herodotus - Геродот Xenophon - Ксенофонт Polybius - Полибий Titus - Тит Tacitus - Тацит Plutarch - Плутарх What were they like? - Что они из себя представляли? stone inscriptions - надписи на камне reviews [n'vjuiz] - обзоры chronicles ['kroniklz] - летописи event [fvent] - событие Exactly so. - Совершенно верно. century ['sentjori] - столетие If Pm not mistaken - Если я не ошибаюсь to represent - представлять So much for today. - На сегодня достаточно.
ANCIENT HISTORY
LESSON ONE Text: The Way I Study History Grammar: The Indefinite Tense Forms, Active Voice to be, to have there is/are Noun Substitutes one, that Types of questions THE WAY I STUDY HISTORY 1. Let me introduce myself ': I am Victor Belov, a student at Moscow University. Now I am a freshman2, as they put it in America, and 1 am doing history3.1 take a full course of world and Russian history, let alone some other things4. 1 must say I take a special liking to5 the subjects in which I am going to major (to specialize)6. And that is modern history of Russia which was my favourite subject at school. It was shortly before leaving school that I made up my mind7 to enter this faculty and take up history seriously as my future speciality. Whether I will make a very good teacher or a research worker remains to be seen8, but I am sure that eventually I will become quite knowledgeable in the field of9 history and perhaps social sciences. There are many historical subjects in our programme. When we are through with10 ancient history, we will pass over to the study of the Middle Ages ". As to Russian history, I think, we will start learning the contempo¬ rary period next year12, but not until we are through13 with the feudal period. When I am in my third year, I wish to devote myself to the special study of modern and contemporary history by which I am greatly attracted l4. 2. If you ask me why of all humanities I have chosen history, my answer will be: it interests me as a science because it helps one to understand15 and explain the processes going on in various aspects of human history. It also helps one to foresee the course of events in the future. But no one can really study any particular period of history unless he knows a lot about what preceded it16 and what came after it. If one casts a retrospective look at the historical past, one can see17 that the entire history of human society is that of wars and struggle for power. Wars were always waged for the purpose of conquering18 other lands and peoples. No matter whether Roman dictators14, German or French 32
emperors, British kings or queens or Russian tsars - all the monarchs in their fight for absolute power or colonial possessions brutally oppressed their own people, enslaved and plundered the conquered nations. But in course of time empires and monarchies gradually came to a downfall. As a result of bourgeois democratic revolutions some monarchs were overthrown or deposed and republics were proclaimed. I suppose we will soon discuss all these points at our seminars20. Notes 1 Let me introduce myself - Разрешите представиться 2 a freshman = a first-year student (ам.) - первокурсник Запомните также: What year are you in? - На каком курсе вы учитесь? Ответ: I am а first-year student или It’s my first year. What faculty are you in? - На каком факультете вы занимаетесь? Ответ: I am in the History Faculty. What department are you in? - На какой кафедре вы специализируе¬ тесь? Ответ: I am in the Department of Ancient History. 3I am doing history - я изучаю историю В разговорной речи глагол to do часто употребляется в значении «изучать какой-либо предмет», а также «учиться, заниматься в учеб¬ ном заведении». Например: Are you doing French? - Вы изучаете французский? We did Latin last year. - В прошлом году мы изучали латынь. А также: She is doing well at the college. - Она хорошо занимается в инсти¬ туте. How is he doing at the University? - Как он занимается в универси¬ тете? 4 let alone some other things - не говоря уже о других предметах 51 take a special liking to - мне особенно нравятся 6 to major (in) - специализироваться (по) По какому предмету вы специализируетесь? - What are you major¬ ing in? Ответ: I am majoring in ancient history. 7 It was shortly before leaving school that I made up my mind ... - Неза¬ долго до окончания школы я решил ... It was ... that... - эмфатическая конструкция (см. § 6, с. 327). Запомните: окончить школу - to leave school, окончить вуз (инсти¬ тут, университет, академию) - to graduate from college (the university, (he Academy).
8 Whether I will make ... remains to be seen. - Получится ли из меня ..., покажет будущее. 9 eventually I will become quite knowledgeable in the field of ... - в ко¬ нечном счете я стану вполне подготовленным в области... 10 When we are through with ... - Когда мы закончим (изучение) ... " the Middle Ages - Средние Века Запомните также: the Stone Age - каменный век, the Iron Age - железный век, the Bronze Age - бронзовый век. 1 ’ next year - в будущем году Существительные, обозначающие отрезки времени и имеющие оп¬ ределения next, last, this, употребляются без артикля и предлога: this week - на этой неделе, last month - в прошлом месяце, last term - в прошлом семестре. п but not until we are through ... - но лишь тогда, когда мы закон¬ чим ... 14 by which I am greatly attracted - (зд.) которая меня очень заинте¬ ресовала 15 it helps one to understand (to foresee) - она помогает понять (пред¬ видеть) one - структурное дополнение, на русский язык не переводится. '''any particular period ... unless he knows a lot about what preceded it- какой-нибудь конкретный период без глубокого знания того, что ему предшествовало 17 If one casts а ... look, one can see ... - Если бросить ... взгляд, мож¬ но заметить ... one - подлежащее в неопределенно-личном предложении, на рус¬ ский язык не переводится. 18 for the purpose of conquering - с целью завоевания 14 No matter whether Roman dictators... - Неважно, римские ли дик¬ таторы ... 201 suppose we will soon discuss all these points at our seminars. - Я предполагаю, что скоро мы будем обсуждать все эти вопросы на наших семинарах. Запомните: предлог at («на»): at the seminar, at the lecture, at the examination, at the English class - па занятии по английскому языку. Practise the following for pronunciation: [i:] leave, teacher, field, precede, peoples, queen [a:] ask, answer, cast, pass, start [э:] course, shortly, all, wars, always 34
[э:] search, purpose [as], German, learn, world, work, working [ia] seriously, realize, period, era [' iara] [aia] entire, society [o] Moscow, modern, knowledgeable [' nolidjabl], conquer, monarch [k] [5] other, whether, with [9] third, think, through [rj] things, liking, king, learning Ударение на первом слоге: specialize [|], favourite, gradually, various, emperor, bourgeois ['bu93wo:], absolute, process, ancient; Ударение на втором слоге: alone, colonial, remain, event, eventually, perhaps, humanity, foresee, particular [pa'tikjub], precede, except, possession [po'zejan], oppress, enslave, deposed, proclaim, creation [ei], suppose, discuss, transition [trten'si3n], myself, contemporary, attract; as^they 'put it, as_'that, is^'that ofjwars, in^the 'field of, at_the his'torical 'past, en'slaved^the 'conquered 'nations, were_Jalways 'waged, hutjthose were, op'pressedwtheirw'own 'people, 'course ofjworld 'history. Words and Word Combinations age n. 1) век; 2) возраст the Middle Ages Средние Века choose v. выбирать conquer v. завоевывать, покорять course и 1) курс; 2) ход, течение create v. создавать, творить creation п. создание depose v. свергнуть с престола emperor п. император empire п. империя enslave v. порабощать entire (the whole) а. целый, весь event n. событие except pr. за исключением Fight (for, against) n. борьба (за, historical а. исторический history n. история Ancient History история древнего тоды) justu. справедливый king n. король major (in) v специализироваться (no) monarch n. монарх monarchy n. монархия World History всеобщая история humanities n. гуманитарные пауки humanity (mankind) n. человечество introduce v. 1) знакомить, представ- мира Contemporary History новейшая история Modern History новая история лягь; 2) вводить (реформы, ме- протнв) foresee v. предвидеть gradually adv. постепенно historic а. исторический (важный) oppress v. угнетать 35
overthrow v. свергать; и. свержение plunder v. грабить possession и. владение power/7. власть proclaim v. провозглашать queen /?. королева research worker научный работник science ;;. наука scientific а. научный scientist ;;. ученый social а. общественный socialist а. социалистический society/;, общество struggle /;. борьба; v. бороться system 77. строй; система; the feudal (slave, capitalist) system; the primi¬ tive community system первобыт¬ но-общинный строй wage v. вести (войну, борьбу) war;;, война * * * to be a first-year student - учиться на первом курсе to take a course in ... - слушать курс по ... to be going to - собираться (намереваться) делать что-л. to leave school - окончить школу to make up one’s mind - решить сделать что-то to enter college (university) - поступить в институт (университет) to take up history - заняться изучением истории to be sure that... - быть уверенным, что ...; to be sure of- быть уверенным в чем-л. (ком-л.) in the field of - в области to take an interest in - интересоваться ,to be through with - закончить что-л. to start doing something - начать делать что-л. at the age of - в возрасте ... лет as to (= as regards) - в.отношении, что касается to devote oneself to - посвятить себя чему-л. a course of events - ход событий a lot (= very much) - очень много (наречие) for the purpose of - с целью in the course of - в ходе, в течение to come to a downfall - пасть, рухнуть as a result of - в результате чего-то Reading Rules Recapitulation 1. В многосложных словах без префикса ударение падает на третий от конца слог и гласная в этом слоге, кроме буквы и, читается кратко. 36
Например: history ['histari], economy [I'konomi], necessity [ni'sesiti], no unity ['ju:niti], 2. Многосложные слова с суффиксом -lion имеют второстепенное п основное ударения. Основное ударение падает на предсуффиксную опасную, которая (кроме буквы /) имеет алфавитное чтение. Второ¬ степенное ударение падает па один слог влево от основного, и гласная м атом слоге читается кратко. Например: delegation [.deli'geifn], intimidation [in.timi'deifn], но preposition [.prepa'zijn]. Exercise Read the following words according to the reading rules: origin, capital, memory, animal, industry, faculty, general, regiment; monument [jn:], popular, document, regular; demonstrate', operate, celebrate, liberate, penetrate, illustrate, indicate, dedicate, delegate, brutality, speciality, humanity, legality, ability, majority, monopoly, philosophy [f], bi'ography [ai], technology [k]; demonstration, operation, celebration, liberation, penetration, dele¬ gation, consolidation, administration, obligation, resolution, constitution, revolution, composition, opposition, investigation. GRAMMAR EXERCISES (see § 1, p. 322) 1. a) Express doubt about the following. Mind the rising tone. e. g. Are these pens? b) Disagree with the following statements. e. g. These are not pens. 1. These are newspapers. These newspapers are old. 2. These letters are from Mr. Fox. 3. Ann’s son is married. 4. This is a magazine. 5. The Browns are in London now. 6. We are ready for the lesson. 11 При отсчете слогов для определения ударной гласной конечная «немая» г не учитывается. 37
7. They are late. 8. I am very busy now. 9. Tom is on duty today. 10. Father will be at home at 6 o’clock. 11. You will be free tomorrow morning. 2. Use the correct form of the verb to be. 1. Now I ... free, but last week I ... very busy. 2. Today some pupils ... absent, but yesterday they ... all present at the lesson. 3. Where ... you last night? I called you up several times, but there ... no answer. 4. Ann ... a student now, but three months ago she ... a schoolgirl. 5. How old ... Bob when he went to school? 6. Last year we ... given a lot of written homework in English, but this year we ... given few exercises to be done in writing. 7. There .. a very interesting film on at our club last night. 8. This book ... translated into Russian before the war. 9. ... you from Moscow? - No, I ... born in Tomsk. 3. Construct sentences, using the table. Mind the stress and the falling to go with the subject (see § 7, p. 327). There is/was a lamp in the glass a map on the plate a circus in our country a newspaper tomorrow a meeting on the shelf some ink on the wall a lot of snow on the ground a lot of coal in the desk little cheese in our town a little water in the pen There are/were some students in the corridor many children in our library a lot of people in this street lots of books in the park few houses at the lecture a few chairs round the table twelve months in a year 38
4. Express doubt about the following statements. Follow the models. Model 1. there a hook on the table? any milk in the jug? 1. There is a map on the wall. 2. There is some clean paper in the pad (блокнот). 3. There was a history class yesterday. 4. There is some chalk at the blackboard. 5. There is a letter in the box. 6. There was some bread [e] and butter on the plate. 7. There was some ink in the bottle. Model 2. Are ^ there (any) new words in the text? Were ' 1. There are some difficult texts in the book. 2. There are some shops in the street. 3. There were English classes last week. 4. There were some old houses in this place. 5. There are many parks and gardens in the town. 6. There were few apples on this tree last year. Model 3. Will there be a lecture tomorrow? 1. There will be a students’ meeting in this room. 2. There will be a seminar ['semina:] next week. 3. There will be a dance after the concert. 4. Thdre will be many guests [gests] at the party. 5. There will be few exams this spring. 5. Disagree with the following statements. Follow the models. Model 1. sis/are There <—was/were. —>uo book(s) on the shelf, will be '' Model 2. I have no camera. 1. There is a cinema house in our street. 2. There are some interesting articles in this newspaper. 3. There were some pencils in the box. 4. There are some flowers in our classroom. 5. There is an international students’ club in the faculty. 39
6. They have got a house. 7. John has got a car. 8. I have got a TV set. 6. Respond to the following, using there is/was, there are/were, have/had. 1. Are there many or few students in your group? 2. How many students are there in it? 3. Are there any boys in the group? 4. Were there any girls in your group last year? 5. Were there many students at the History Faculty when you entered it? 6. Are you a student now? 7. Is there much work for you to do every day? 8. Have you got much free time? 9. Are there many classes today? 10. Will there be a lecture in history tomorrow? 11. Will there be many students at the lecture? 12. Did you have many friends at school? 7. Ask questions about the words in bold type. 1. There are ten lessons in this book. 2. There were many rainy days in August. 3. There is a lot of cheese in the fridge [frtd3], 4. There is a picture on the wall. 5. Nick’s parents are usually in the country in summer. 6. There will be many people in the shops. 7. When we lived in Irkutsk, I had a lot of good friends there. 8. Express the following in English: 1. В нашем городе много исторических мест. 2. На этой улице мало магазинов. 3. В Томске нет метро. 4. В столовой (canteen) в это время очень много народу. 5. На полке нет газет. 6. В прошлом году здесь был каток (skating-rink). 7. На собрании будет много студентов. 8. Сегодня не будет лекции (lecture). 9. Раньше здесь не было стадиона (stadium). 10. На прошлой неделе не было занятий по английскому языку (English classes). 11. В этом году здесь будет много яблок. 40
12. У вас в группе есть бывшие военнослужащие (ex-servicemen)? 13. Сколько мостов (bridges) в Лондоне? i 14. В вашем городе есть фабрики и заводы? - Да. 15. Был ли концерт (concert) после собрания? - Нет. Был фильм. 16. Через (in) два года на этом месте будут новые дома. 17. Сколько будет квартир в этом доме? 18. Сколько дней в педеле (месяцев в году)? 19. В этом месяце 30 дней или 31 день? 20. В ручке много чернил? - Нет. В ней мало чернил. 21. В прошлом году в вашем саду было много цветов? - Да. 22. Что там на полке? - Там газеты. 23. Кто находится в соседней (next) комнате? 24. Сколько человек в вашей семье? - Четыре человека. 25. Завтра не будет занятий. 26. У вас есть братья и сестры? - Да. 27. У меня было много друзей в школе. 28. Сколько уроков было у них вчера? 29. В понедельник у нас будет собрание. INDEFINITE TENSES, ACTIVE VOICE (see § 1, p. 320) 9. Form the Present Indefinite Tense, 3rd person singular, and use the verb in the sentence. Mind the pronunciation of -(e)s. e.g. He works hard. to get, to wash, to need, to answer, to study, to ski, to play, to miss, to box, to fish, to plape, to teach, to close, to do, to have, to go, to ask, to work 10. Form the Past Indefinite Tense of the following verbs: a) irregular; b) regular. In the latter case mind the pronunciation of the ending -ed (see § 1, p. 320). Use any ten verbs in sentences. e.g. I got a letter yesterday. a) to get, to do, to have, to make, to take, to go, to come, to be, to read, to write, to speak, to tell, to say, to begin, to give, to leave, to know, to meet, to put, to run, to see, to send, to stand, to understand, to think, to choose, to lead, to fall, to hear; b) to ask, to watch, to dress, to work, to look, to kiss, to wish, to pass, to discuss, to listen, to open, to call, to remember, to stay, to enter, to conquer, to study, to translate, to dictate, to create [ei], to correct, to need, to devote, to realize. 41
11. The following will take place in the future. Express it grammatically, using the words given in brackets (see § 1, p. 321). e. g. I get up at seven. - / will (shall) get up at seven tomorrow. (tomorrow, tomorrow evening, the day after tomorrow, in a few days, next Sunday, next week (year), in a month’s time, in 15 minutes, in half an hour, very soon, before going to bed, one of these days, next summer). 1. 1 get up very early. 2. They are at home till 10 o’clock. 3. There is a beautiful park here. 4. I am ready to answer. 5. His family go to the country. 6. We have an English class at that time. 7. I am free after 5. 8. Vadim’s wife teaches history at school. 9. The students return the books to the library. 10. We listen to the latest news. 11. Her husband has got a new car. 12. It is Monday. 13. It is winter. 12. The following occurred in the past. Express it grammatically, using the words given in brackets. e.g. I have an English class. - I had an English class yesterday. (yesterday, yesterday morning, the day before yesterday, the other day, a few days ago, 10 minutes ago, 2 years ago, last Monday, last winter, last week (month, year), in 1960) 1 111. We have a terminal test. 2. It takes me an hour to do my homework. 3. I am ill and I do not go out. 4. We are late for the meeting. 5. Our students visit different museums. 6. There is a small river there. 7. There are many old houses in this street. 8. 1 work at the library till late in the evening. 9. Nick has got a good bike. 10. They watch foreign films on TV. 11. It is Tuesday. 12. It is the 6th of November. 42
13. Ask questions to which the following might be answers. Use the table for reference. Work in pairs (see § 3, p. 324). a) Do ч ■1 do. b) Did -Атон live here? Yes C I did. c) Will / ’ ' / will (shall) What \ When do ч Where ' did -to you do (it)? How (long) Why, etc. will / ’ a) 1. Yes, I do. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. 2. No, I don’t. 1 don’t take a bath every morning. 3. Yes, I do. I wash with cold water. 4. No, I don’t. 1 don’t do morning exercises every day. 5. Yes, I do. I have breakfast at home. 6. No, I do not make breakfast myself. 7. After breakfast I go to the University (college). 8. I often get to the University by bus. 9. Classes begin at 9 o’clock. 10. Yes, we do. We have an English class almost every day. 11. We do a lot of things in class. We read and translate English texts, do various exercises, write dictations and tests and speak English. 12. Yes, she does. The teacher asks us questions and we answer them. 13. No, we do not study grammar rules in class. We do it at home. b) 1. No, she didn’t. The teacher did not explain any new grammar material to us yesterday. 2. Yes, we had a test yesterday. 3. No, I didn’t. I made only two mistakes in my test. 4. I got a good mark for it. 5. After the English class some of us went to the laboratory and others to the canteen. 6. No, I didn’t. I did not go to the gym yesterday afternoon. I went to the library. 7. I stayed there till 9 p.m.' 8. Because I had a lot of work to do. 9. I read books, made notes and looked through various newspapers and magazines. 11 p.m. = post meridiem - после полудня 43
10. I read books on history. 11. I came home and went to bed very late. c) 1. Yes, I will. I will go to the reading-room m tne aiternoon. 2. I am going to do my homework there. 3. Yes, there will. There will be a seminar tomorrow. 4. No, I won’t. I will not prepare for the English class. 5. Because we will have no English class tomorrow. 6. Tomorrow evening I am going to take a rest. 7. I’ll watch TV, listen to the wireless and do some reading. 8. Yes, I will. I’ll go to the theatre or to the cinema. 9. I think they will. I think some of my friends will come to see me. 10. Yes, we’ll go out somewhere, probably for a dance. 11. I’ll go to bed at 12 o’clock as usual. 14. Inquire about a) your friend’s life story; b) your friend’s working day. Mind the tense form of the verb. a) 1. What is your name? 2. How old are you? 3. Are you a student? 4. What college are you in? 5. Where are you from? 6. Are your parents there? 7. Are you fond of your home town? 8. It’s a beautiful town, isn’t it? 9. Is your home town far from here? 10. Have you got many friends? 11. Who is your best friend? 12. Is he/she a student or a worker? 13. How old is he/she? 14. Is he/she married or single? 15. Is his/her family large or small? 16. How many children has he/she got? 17. What does his wife/her husband do? 18. Are you busy or free now? 19. When are you usually free? 20. How are you? b) 1. When does your working day usually begin? 2. (At) what time do you get up as a rule? 3. Tomorrow is Sunday, Will you get up very early too? 4. Do you do physical exercises every morning? 44
5. How long does it take you to wash and get dressed? 6. What time do you generally have breakfast? 7. Do you have breakfast at home or at the University canteen (столовая)? 8. Where do you go after breakfast? 9. Do you live far from the university? 10. How do you get to the university? (What means of transport do you use?) 11. When do your classes begin? When do they finish? 12. Do you attend (посещать) classes regularly? 13. When do you have lunch? Do you have it at home? 14. What do you normally do after classes? 15. What time do you usually get home? 16. You have a short rest and then do your homework, don’t you? 17. What do you do in the evening? 18. Do you often go to the cinema and to the theatre? 19. When at home, do you listen in (слушать радио) in the evening? 20. You always watch TV in the evening, don’t you? 21. What time do you go to bed? 22. How long does your working day last? 15. Put the questions (Ex. 14, part b) first in the Past and then in the Future Indefinite Tense, omitting the adverbs of indefinite time. Add yesterday or tomorrow if necessary. 16. Make up questions about the words in bold type. A. My sister is a teacher (3). She leaches history at school (3). She is very busy in the morning (1). At 9 o’clock she usually has her lessons. As she lives far from the school, she gets there by bus (2). B. They were in London last year (2). I wrote 2 letters to my friends yesterday (6). There was a little milk in the jug (2). They had a very interesting lecture this morning (2). C. Mary and her husband will go to Brighton next year (3). They will stay there for a week (1). We will invite the Browns through the post (3). 17. Make up situations, using the following verbs a) in the Present; b) in the Past; c) in the Future Indefinite Tense (Topics: “My Working Day”; “What I did Yesterday”, “Next Sunday”). a) to get up, to get dressed, to do morning exercises, to make breakfast, to leave home, to take a bus (the underground), to get to the University, to 45
have many things to do at the English class, to read and translate historical texts, to write tests and dictations, to ask smb. questions, to answer the teacher’s questions. b) to attend the lecture, to listen to the lecturer attentively, to take notes (конспектировать), to go to the library, to prepare for the seminar, to do one’s homework, to look through newspapers and magazines, to stay in the reading-room long, to come to the hostel, to do some reading, to listen to the radio, to watch TV, to go for a walk, to go to bed at midnight. c) to have no classes, to take a rest, to go to see one’s friends, to visit the museum, to go to the theatre (cinema), to see a new play (film), to go to the country if the weather is good, to go skating (skiing, swimming, boating), to go for a picnic if it does not rain, to go to the stadium to see a football (hockey) match, to stay at home the whole evening, to play chess. 18. Complete the following sentences a) by translating the Russian part; b) by adding something of your own (sec § 2, p. 323): a) 1. I won’t leave ... (до тех пор, пока он не придет). 2. Не will speak to you ... (как только он освободится). 3. You will feel better ... (если вы хорошо отдохнете - to take а good rest). 4. Remember to send the telegram ... (когда пойдешь в библиотеку). 5. Helen will leave London ... (до того, как закончится фестиваль). 6. They won’t be late for the meeting ... (если поедут на автобусе). 7. Give me a call ... (перед тем, как вы пойдете туда). 8. We won’t go away ... (пока вы не расскажете нам об этом). 9. I’ll let you know ... (как только получу от него письмо). 10. The children will go for a walk ... (если не будет холодно). 11. She will do it ... (если она не будет занята). b) 1. I’ll go to my home town as soon as... 2. The Dean (декан) will receive you when ... 3. We will go to the park if... 4. I'll do some reading before I... 5. They will go to the stadium if... 6. You won’t get to the University on time unless you ... 7. I will not post the letter until 1 ... 8. We will not begin the meeting until everybody ... 9. I’ll listen to the latest news before 1 ... 10. We won’t have dinner until Mother... 11. He will help you unless he ... 46
19. Express the following in English: A 1. В какое время вы обычно встаете? - Около семи. 2. Анна не делает утреннюю зарядку. Это плохо. 3. Что вы делаете после завтрака? - Иду в университет. 4. Когда начинаются ваши занятия? 5. Вы обычно идете в библиотеку или в столовую после занятий? 6. Как долго он обычно работает в библиотеке? 7. Где живет ваш друг? - В общежитии. 8. Сколько вам нужно времени (How long does it take you ...), чтобы приготовить домашнее задание по английскому языку? - Час. Иногда два. 9. Вы помогаете своей сестре по английскому языку, нетак ли? - Да. 10. Что ей нравится брать на ужин (for supper)? - Она, как правило, не ужинает. В 1. Вы ездили в Крым (the Crimea) прошлым летом? - Нет. Мы отдыхали в Сочи. 2. Куда они ходили вчера вечером (last night)? - Не знаю. Я не видел их вчера. 3. Когда студенты возвратились в Москву? - На прошлой не¬ деле. 4. Почему вы не сказали мне об этом раньше (before)? 5. Я не работал тогда на этом заводе. Мы были далеко от Москвы. 6. Вы ходили позавчера в кино? Как вам понравился фильм? - Очень скучный (dull). 7. Вы были дома в 5 часов? - Нет. Я был в университете. У нас было собрание. 8. Какой язык он изучал в школе? 9. Что вы брали на завтрак сегодня утром? 10. На полке была газета. Где она? С 1. Вы будете свободны сегодня вечером (tonight)? - Нет. Я буду занят. Я пойду на лекцию. 2. У вас есть занятия завтра?-Her. Мы идем на экскурсию в музей. 3. Вы поедете за город в следующее воскресенье, если погода будет хорошая? - Да. 47
4. Где они будут отдыхать в будущем году? 5. Когда вы позвоните мне (to call me up)? - Я позвоню, как только освобожусь. 6. Кто будет экзаменовать (to examine) нашу группу? 7. Что вы будете делать, если провалитесь (to fail) на экзамене? - Пойду работать. 8. Какую пьесу мы будем смотреть сегодня в театре? 9. Почему вы не пойдете с нами в парк? VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. Form adjectives with the help of the suffix -ic. Translate the new words into Russian. Note that the stress falls on the short vowel immediately preceding the suffix. e. g. patriot - patriotic [o] drama, democrat, economy, hero, Asia, history, system + (at), atom 2. Build adjectives by adding the suffix -al. Translate the new words into Russian. music, economic, historic 3. Construct nouns ending in -(i)ty from the following adjectives and translate them into Russian. Mind the stress shift towards the suffix. e. g. human - humanity [ge] special, brutal, popular, active, major (большой), minor (меньший), cordial (сердечный) 4. Give verbs corresponding to the following nouns. Guess the meaning of the nouns. introduction, specialization, entrance, knowledge, conquest, Fighter, oppression, (school-)leaver, creator, possession, choice 5. Make nouns with the help of the suffixes a) -ist; b) -ism from the following adjectives and translate the nouns into Russian. special, social, ideal, capital socialist, capitalist, imperialist, opportunist [.opo'tjumist] 6. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs: to interest, to struggle, to fight, to fall down, to overthrow, to study 48
7. Give Russian equivalents of the following: let me introduce myself; I am doing history; as they put it in America; I take a full course of history; let alone other things; 1 take a special liking to this subject; I am going to major in history; I made up my mind to enter this faculty; to take up French; it was shortly before leaving school that... I; he will make a research worker; I will become quite knowledgeable in the field of history; to account for the processes going on in various aspects of human history; it enables to foresee the course of events; to cast a retrospective look at the historical past; wars waged for the purpose of conquering other lands; fight for power or colonial possessions; in the course of time; monarchies gradually came to a downfall; it ushered in a new era in the history of humanity; when we are through with ancient history; when I am in my third year; l wish to devote myself to the special study of; no matter whether Roman dictators or Russian tzars; humanities and sciences 8. Suggest the English for: слушать новый спецкурс; изучать в школе всеобщую историю; ис¬ тория средних веков; специализироваться по новой и новейшей исто¬ рии Англии; историческое (важное) событие; поступать па историчес¬ кий факультет; учиться на 1 -м курсе; в качестве будущей специальнос¬ ти; иметь хорошие знания в этой области науки; пока не (до тех пор пока); ученый (в области гуманитарных наук); проявлять интерес к историческим предметам; если не; вести войну с кем-нибудь; кроме (за исключением); борьба за власть; бороться против завоевателей; поко¬ рение Сибири (Siberia [sai'biano]); завоевывать государства; угнетать покоренные народы; в результате; свергнуть монарха; короли и коро¬ левы, императоры и цари; падение Российской империи; создавать; каменный (железный, бронзовый) век; в возрасте 17 лет; окончить шко¬ лу; студент вуза; что касается истории древнего мира; очень много времени; быть уверенным в...; окончить университет; колониальные владения; я полагаю, мы будем обсуждать все эти вопросы; переход; понимать; процесс 9. a) Guess the meaning of the terms in bold type: 1. The history of the proletariat in England, as Engels put it, begins with the industrial revolution. 2. This event had a great effect (влияние) on the struggle of the oppressed peoples of the world, especially in the colouial countries. 49
3. The First International played its historical role: it helped to create the conditions (условия) for the formation of mass socialist labour parties. 4. In the course of the struggle of the Social Democrats it became clear that among the German workers there were opportunists. 5. The conquest of Africa was an important link (звено) in the plans of the British imperialists. 6. Thanks to colonial expansion Britain enlarged her territorial pos¬ sessions. b) React to the following statements by adding something of your own. Add one of the phrases below: e.g. To the best of my knowledge (as far as 1 know) it refers to the time when... If my memory doesn’t fail me, this happened in the period of... If I am not mistaken, it took place during the rule (in the reign) of... According to the sources (re¬ cords, legend) this historical event occurred in... It should be noted it was of great historical importance. 1Насколько мне известно, это событие относится к тому вре¬ мени, когда... Если мне не изменяет память, это случилось в период... Если я не ошибаюсь, это произо¬ шло во время правления (царст¬ вования)... В соответствии с источниками (записями, легендой) это истори¬ ческое событие произошло в... Необходимо заметить, что это событие имело большое истори¬ ческое значение. 1. As a result of the French Revolution of September 4,1870, which was a bourgeois-democratic one, the Emperor was overthrown and a re¬ public proclaimed. 2. The Prussian monarchy was prepared to wage war with France before it declared war on Prussia. 3. The Anglo-Boer [Ьиэ] war (1899-1902) was waged in the interests of British capitalism. 4. The conquerors always brutally oppressed the conquered peoples. 5. The first step in creation of the colonial empire was the seizure (['si:39] захват) by the USA of the Hawaiian Islands [hai'waisn ’ailsndz] in 1898. 50
6. The fall of the Western Roman Empire is regarded (считать) by historians as the end of the ancient history. 7. The formation of the First International was of great political importance. c) Express agreement or disagreement. Use the phrases below: e. g. I think it’s true (good, very important). 1 am afraid 1 can’t agree to that. Думаю, что это соответствует дей¬ ствительности (хорошо, очень важно). Боюсь, что я не могу согласиться с этим. Historically speaking, С точки зрения истории, думаю, 1 think it’s wrong. что это не так. 1. It’s difficult to foresee the course of events in the future if you have no knowledge of the past and the present time history. 2. 1 am sure many students will take this special course. 1 wonder [л] when it will be introduced. 1 3. My friend decided to enter the History Faculty because he wants to specialize in Ancient History under Professor A., a well-known scholar [sk] and a historian. 4. There are many trends (направления) and schools in the historical science of the contemporary world. 5. History shows that the masses of landless peasants (['pezonts] крестьяне) always fought for land, but very often with no effect. 10. Make a conversation with your classmate, using the following questions. Work in pairs. Change your roles. 1. Will you introduce me to your friend? 2. What do you usually say when somebody introduces you to somebody? 3. What periods of world and Russian history do you study at the faculty? 4. Do you take a course of America’s modern and contemporary history? 5. Will you take a course of British economic and political history? 6. Which do you like more: ancient or medieval history? 7. Do you know the difference between historic and historicaP. 8. You’ve made up your mind to devote yourself to the study of the historical science, haven’t you? 51
9. What do you call a scholar (a specialist) in the field of history? Do you want to become one? 10. In what year of study do your students begin their specialization? 11. Do you have a good knowledge of the history of science? What great Russian scientists in the field of physics [‘fiziks] do you know? 12. What interests you most in the history of our country? 13. Do wars occupy [’okjupai] a considerable (значительный) place in human history? 14. When did the First World War begin? 15. How long was the Wars of Roses waged? 16. How long did the struggle of the Russian people against the Tatar- Mongolian yoke (иго) last? 17. Is Britain a republic or a monarchy? 18. Did Britain oppress the peoples of her colonies? 19. When did Britain begin her colonial expansion? How did she enlarge her possessions? 20. Did the French colonial system gradually come to a downfall? When? 21. What is characteristic [ .kaerakta'ristrk] of a bourgeois-democratic revolution as regards (в отношении) its outcome (исход) and results? 22. Will you take up the history of Great Britain or the USA in your third year? 11. Find another way of expressing the parts in italics. Consult the text. 1. Let me tell you how I study history at college. 2. I am a student of the Moscow University. Now I am in my first year. 3. Besides other subjects I take a course of general history. 4. I like my special subject very much. 5. After finishing school I decided to become a college student. 6. If you ask me why I have taken up history for a special study, my answer will be: I am very much interested [intristid] in it. 7. English was the subject he liked best at school. 8. I am sure my sister will finally become a good teacher. 9. You cannot explain historical processes if you have no knowledge of history. 10. Wars were waged with the aim of conquering other lands. 11. Little by little some empires came to a decline ([di'klain] упадок). 12. After 1 have finished learning German I’ll take up French. 52
12. Match antonyms from (a) and (b): a b begin, short, good, new, never, interesting, black, old, always, just, unjust, undemocratic, white, democratic, finish, long, bad, warm, uninteresting, unreal, cold real 13. Arrange the following in pairs of synonyms: to study, to start, medieval history, to overthrow, gradually, the whole, a lot, to major, a freshman, very much, to learn, to begin, the Middle Ages history, to depose, little by little, the entire, to specialize, a first-year student. 14. Choose the right word: Kv besides, except 1. Do you take interest in any other subjects ... history? 2. ... English my sister knows French a little. 3. All were present at the lecture ... those who were ill. 4. Who else (еще) was absent... Student Bobrov? 5. I eat everything ... fish. 6. She likes all the subjects she studies ... military ones. 7. ... “War and Peace” I read many other works by L. Tolstoi at school. historic, historical 1. She’s fond of reading ... novels. 2. The 9th of May 1945 is a ... date. 3. Students of history must have a good memory (память) for ... facts. 4. Alexander of Macedon ['msestdan] is A ... personality. 5. If you want to see... places in Moscow, begin your tour [tuo] with the Kremlin. 6. The launching [o:] of the first Soviet sputnik was a ... event. study, learn, teach 1. 1 want to ... to play tennis. 2. Who ... you English last year? 3. What subjects do you ... in your 1st year? 4. “Your homework for tomorrow is: to ... the grammar material and to ... the new words,” said the teacher. 5. He ... this historical document very well. 53
6. In learning a foreign language it is necessary to ... systematically. 7. We often ... the texts by heart. 8. 1 usually ... in the morning. 9. Did you ... French or German at school? 10. Which is more difficult: to ... or to ...? graduate, finish (leave) school 1. At what age did you ... school? 2. When did your friend ... from the University? 3. Every year many young people ... from our college. 4. What did you do after you ... the medical school? 15. Pick out from the text all the words and phrases relating to school and studies. 16. Make up as many sentences as you can, using the nouns and verbs listed below. e. g. France declared war on England. war - to wage, to start, to make, to declare on smb. monarch (emperor) - to proclaim oneself, to overthrow, to depose colonies (colonial peoples) - to fight for, to enslave, to plunder, to oppress subject - to take up, to study, to specialize, to major, to choose, to take (no) interest (in) university - to enter, to leave, to finish, to graduate from, to go to, to take a course of 17. Match the adjectives from (b) and the nouns from (a). Use the A+N1 combination in sentences of your own. e. g. Russian history - 1 take interest in Russian history; a knowledgeable man - He is a knowledgeable man. a) history, event, world, times, system, subject, scientist (scholar), process, empire, revolution, queen, war, man, period, possessions b) Russian, historical, capitalist, feudal, political, modern, contempo¬ rary, social, ancient, historic, democratic, bourgeois, colonial, special, serious, knowledgeable, English 1 Сочетание прилагательного с существительным 54
18. Suggest nouns to go with the following word combinations and use them in sentences of your own: as a result of, in the field of, in the course of, a great deal (a lot) of, to take up, to take a course of, to take a great interest in, to have a special liking for 19. Make up as many questions as you can according to the model. Use the words given below. Model: What are you going to do now? (is) (he) Who - to do this work, to enter this college, to go to the library What - to do today, to translate, to tell them What period of history (subject, book, documents, course, film) - to study, to read, to use, to see, to take Where - to study history, to specialize, to work, to live When - to be through with your report, to help us, to ask her about it How - to do it, to help them, to get there How long - to stay here, to study this subject, to work at the library 20. Complete the following sentences by translating the Russian part into English: 1. Let me (представиться, помочь вам, сделать эту работу, спро¬ сить его об этом, рассказать вам все, выступить на семинаре). 2. Are you through with (своя работа, этот спецкурс, изучение этого предмета, история древнего мира, экзамены)? 3. I am not sure whether (он выберет историю в качестве своей будущей специальности, будет специализироваться по гуманитарным наукам, у нее хорошие знания древних языков, Виктор окончит школу в этом году, из нее получится научный работник, это заинтересует вас). 4. I am going to (специализироваться по новейшей истории Франции, стать историком-медиевистом, поступить на один из естест¬ венных факультетов, изучать бронзовый век). 5. I suppose (that) (из него получится хороший специалист, ваши студенты знают историю страны, ваш друг поступил на исторический факультет, вы закончили этот курс, она решила заняться естествен¬ ными науками, он знающий человек). 6. I made up my mind (поступить в университет в будущем году, создать свою (my own) систему, хорошо изучить английский язык, представиться этому ученому). 55
7. He takes a special interest in (новой историей США, современ¬ ной наукой, общественно-политическим строем Англии, великими уче¬ ными в этой области, историческими процессами древних времен, периодом феодализма в России, колониальной экспансией Британской империи, жизнью английских королей, военной наукой). 21. Insert prepositions or adverbs where required. 1. .. the party he introduced me ... his friends. 2. ... the course... the seminar we cleared up many difficult questions ... the history ... the British colonial system. 3. Next year I will take a special course ... modern British history though, frankly speaking, I do not take a great interest... the subject. 4. Professor Wilson is a specialist... the field.... antiquity [cen'tikwiti]. He has a great knowledge ... Ancient Rome and Greece. It is not surprising [so'praizin], therefore, that the students listen ... his lectures ... great interest. 5. the 14th century [sentjhri] England waged a cruel war ... France [a:]... one hundred years. It was a fight... its former lands... France and ... Flanders. 6. ... what period ... Russian history do you want to specialize... the 3rd year of study? -1 have not made ... my mind yet. 7. King Philip conquered all Greek city-states ... Laconia [ou]. 8. If you cast a look .,. the history ... the past, you will see that the oppressed peoples... colonial countries always fought... their oppressors. 9. ... what age did your friend graduate ... the university? 10. We live ... the atomic age and the age ... space conquest. 11. ... the seminar the instructor (преподаватель, ведущий практи¬ ческие занятия в вузе) told us to make a good study ... the historical docu¬ ments relating (относящийся к) to this theme. 12. The overthrow ... the monarch led to the end ... the Empire. 22. Use a special construction and make the words in bold type emphatic (see § 6, p. 327). Model: I met him in Moscow in 1990. 1. It was in 1990 that I met him. 2. It was in Moscow that I met him. 3. It was he whom I met in Moscow in 1990. 1. Last year his friend took up history as his future speciality (3). 2. My teacher advised me to enter the History Faculty when I was leaving school (2). 56
3. The country was proclaimed a republic as a resut of the revolution (1). 4. I have a special liking for ethnography [ев'пэдгэй] (1). 5. We passed over to the study of ancient Greece after we were through with the study of ancient Rome (1). 6. She did not attend classes because she was taken ill (1). 7. In two years I am going to major in ancient languages (2). 23. Replace the repeated noun by one (the one) or ones in the following sentences (see § 5, p. 326): 1. This picture is more beautiful than that picture. 2. As to the students’ reports made at the conference I liked the report on the economic struggle in capitalist countries. 3. These are yesterday’s papers. Take fresh papers. 4. This article is not so difficult to translate as the article you gave us last week. 5. Put all the books except that book on the shelf. 6. You have got several maps of the Roman Empire. Will you give me a map for a short time? 24. Replace the repeated noun by that (of), those (of) (see § 4, p. 326). 1. The economic history of Britain is richer than the economic history of India. 2. The Moscow underground is better than the underground of any other Russian city. 3. The rivers in the north of our country are longer than the rivers in the south. 4. The period of capitalism in Russia was shorter than the period of feudalism. 5. The historical records (письменные документы) translated into a foreign language should not differ in content (по содержанию) from the records written in Russian. 25. Give English equivalents of the following by choosing the appropriate derivative: history: -ic(al), -ian, -ically историческая паука, исторические дни, исторические факты (facts), исторический год, историческая личность (personality), великие историки, историческая гема, с исторической точки зрения, историческая дата, исторически 57
social: -ism. -ist социалистический строй, социализм, социалисты, социалистичес¬ кая революция, социальная история, общественный строй special: -itу, -ize, -ist, -ation в качестве специальности, специализироваться по истории средних веков, стать специалистом, специализация в этой области oppress, -er, -ion, -eel угнетенные пароды, жестокое угнетение, бороться против угне¬ тателей monarch: -у, -ist, -ical монархисты, английский монарх, Прусская монархия, монархи¬ ческий строй colony: -ist, -ize, -izer, -al, -alisrn колонисты, колониальная империя, колонизировать африканские страны, английские колонизаторы, колониальная экспансия, неоко¬ лониализм (пео) 26. Test translation: А 1. В возрасте 17 лет моя сестра окончила школу и поступила в университет, где она приступила к изучению (занялась изучением) ис¬ тории в качестве своей будущей специальности. 2. В ходе учебы (his studies), я уверен, он хорошо изучит все ис¬ торические дисциплины и станет специалистом в области исторической науки. 3. Почему вы решили поступить па исторический факультет? - Из всех гуманитарных предметов мне особенно нравится история. В школе это был мой любимый предмет. 4. На какой кафедре вы собираетесь (to plan) специализировать¬ ся после 2-го курса? - На кафедре новой и новейшей истории, но я не уверен. Может быть (Maybe), я пойду на кафедру всеобщей или оте¬ чественной (русской)истории. 5. На каком вы курсе? Я студент 1 -го курса. 6. Многие студенты пашей группы проявляют большой интерес к истории древности (antiquity). Руководитель (the leader) семинара надеется, что в конечном счете студенты достигнут больших успехов. 5Х
7. Вы закончили изучение исторической литературы и источ¬ ников?- Нет еще. 8. Познакомьтесь (Разрешите представить): профессор Браун - молодой ученый-историк. 9. Когда ваш друг заканчивает институт (college)? - Через два года. Я уверен, у него будут глубокие (deep) знания в области социаль¬ но-экономических наук. 10. Мы ие будем слушать этот курс в следующем семестре (term).У пас будет другой спецкурс. В 1. История Древнего Рима (Rome) - это главным образом (in the main) история войн за власть и территориальную экспансию (terri¬ torial expansion). 2. Войны всегда велись за захват (завоевание) других стран и народов. 3. Монархи в борьбе за власть жестоко угнетали свои народы, грабили и порабощали покоренные народы. 4. С течением времени империи пали, монархи были свергнуты. 5. Народ объявил Францию республикой. 6. В феврале 1917 г. в результате буржуазно-демократической революции царское самодержавие (tsarist autocracy [oi'tokrosi]) было свергнуто. Это было падение Российской империи. 7. XX век полой (to be full of) исторических событий. 8. В каком возрасте он стал ученым? 9. Кто является создателем (creator) социальной истории? 10. Англия расширила (to enlarge) свои территориальные владе¬ ния путем (by) колониальной экспансии. 27. Тext for translation: a) Translate the text with the help of a dictionary; b) Study the terms in italics as your obligatory vocabulary. The history of mankind begins with the primitive community. The ap¬ pearance of new tools and new methods of labour led to the replacement of the human herd by the clan. Several clans, that is communities, of related individuals formed a tribe. Both the tribe andithe clan were governed by elders who were chosen for their life experience/and knowledge. The human herd and the clan were two consecutive stages in the development of primitive society. The related members of the clan jointly owned their hunting grounds and the lands which they tilled. They lived and worked together, and con¬ 59
sumed in common the products of their labour. Since they lived together in groups, they could provide themselves with food and keep fires burning. The primitive human herd possessed the simplest tools: a hand-axe, a digging stock and a wooden dub. Thousands of years passed before stone tools were replaced by those made of meted (bronze, iron). When people invented the harpoon, they took up fishing. The invention of bows and arrows helped to start cattle-breeding, and axes made it possible to go over to farming. ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Supply answers to the following questions: 1. What is your name? 2. Are you a first-year or a second-year student? 3. What faculty are you in? 4. You take a full course of history at the University, don’t you? 5. What courses of history do you take? 6. Do you study other subjects? 7. Was history your favourite subject at school? 8. Why did you make up your mind to enter this faculty? 9. Which do you want to become: a teacher of history or a research worker after graduating from college (university)? 10. Are you sure you will make a good specialist? 11. Why have you chosen history as your future speciality? 12. Is it possible to (Can you) make a good study of a period of history without knowing what preceded it? 13. What is characteristic of the entire human history? 14. For what purpose (С какой целью) were the wars usually waged? 15. What did the monarchs usually fight for? 16. How did the monarchs treat (обращались c) their own people? 17. What became of (Что стало c) some monarchs and monarchies? 18. What republics were usually proclaimed after the overthrow of the monarchs? 19. What will you study after you are through with ancient history? 20. Will you take up modern and contemporary history of some country? 2. Sum up the contents of the text in Ex. 27 by answering the following questions: 60
1. What does the history of mankind begin with? 2. What led to the replacement of the human herd by the clan? 3. Who governed the clan? 4. What tools did the people have? ■ 5. What was their main occupation (занятие)? 3. Say something about yourself and the way you arc going to study history. The words you may need: Let me introduce myself, name, a freshman, to become a student, to enter this faculty, to take up (a subject) seriously, as one’s future speciality, to make up one’s mind, when at school, to make a good teacher, to become a research worker, in the field of history, to wish, to devote oneself to the special study of, to specialize in, the Teachers’ Training College (педагогический институт). 4. Say something about your entrance examinations. The words you may need: to take four examinations, Russian, literature, history, English, to do well in, to pass the exams successfully (успешно), to fall, many applicants (абитуриенты), a few days ago, to be admitted to (быть принятым в). 5. Say what branch of history you have a special liking for.
LESSON TWO Topic: At the College L. a) Read the text “At the College” and translate it into Russian; b) Review or learn the topical vocabulary listed below; c) Answer the questions on the text. 1 began this academic session as a student of the Teachers’ Training College. 1 am in the History Faculty in my first year. It was only a week ago that 1 took my last examination. It was an English one in which 1 did very well. So 1 passed all the exams successfully and was admitted to the college. Many applicants failed and some were admitted to the evening department. When at school, 1 thought to enter the sciences, but then 1 changed my mind (изменить решение) and decided to take up history. 1 must say the first day at the college was unforgettable. We gathered in the Assembly Hall where the Rector congratulated us on the beginning of the session and wished us success (пожелать успеха) in our academic life. Then the Dean of the Faculty, Doctor of History took the floor (взять слово). He spoke about the subjects we were to study and various departments of the faculty. He expressed hope that we should attend all the lectures, tutorials and semi¬ nars. Each year we must present a course paper to our scientific adviser (guide [gaid]) and make reports in class on historical themes. At the end of each term we will take several examinations and credit-tests. In June, for instance, I will read for my exams in archaeology, ancient history, Latin, Russian history (the period of feudalism) and English. As regards (что касается) English they will teach us not only to read and translate historical documents and literature but to speak English as well. Our English teacher says we must work at the language very hard. After the inside tour of the college (осмотрев помещения колледжа) which we made, following the meeting, my friends and 1 went to the hostel j'hostl]. 1 am sure I’ll enjoy my studies (получу удовольствие, занимаясь) at the college. AT THE COLLEGE Topical Vocabulary an academic session (year) - учеб¬ ный год a college - вуз, институт studies - учеба 62
studies - учеба Dean - декан the Dean’s office - деканат a lecture (on) ~ лекция (no) to lecture (in) - читать лекцию (по) a lecturer - лектор a lecture room - поточная аудито¬ рия a term (semester) - семестр a term (coursc)-paper - курсовая работа a credit-test - зачет a theme - тема archaeology - археология sources and literature - источники и литература a department - кафедра a foreign language - иностранный язык a gym(nasium) - спортзал a hostel - общежитие, (тж.) dor¬ mitory (ам.) a canteen - столовая to take (pass) an examination (in) - держать (сдать) экзамен (по) to be admitted to - быть принятым куда-то (например, в учебное заведение) to fail (in) the examination - прова¬ литься на экзамене to attend classes (lectures, seminars, tutorials [tju'to:ri3lz]) - посе¬ щать занятия(лекции,семи¬ нары, практические занятия) to miss classes - пропускать заня¬ тия to have a history class (a Latin class) - иметь занятие по истории (латыни) to present a course (term)-paper - представить курсовую работу to make a report (on) - сделать до¬ клад (о) to read (prepare) for an exam - го¬ товиться к экзамену to get an excellent ['eksabnt] (good, satisfactory Lssetis'faektan], bad) mark in (for) - получить отличную (хорошую, удов¬ летворительную, плохую) оценку по (за) after (before) classes - после (до) занятий classes finish (arc over) - занятия закапчиваются to work at (one’s English, history, a problem) - работать над чем-л. to make notes (of) - конспектиро¬ вать (что-л.) to do one’s homework (lessons) - гото¬ вить домашнее задание (уроки) in class - па занятии 2. a) Read the dialogues. Mind the intonation; b) Study the unfamiliar words and phrases and use them in sentences of your own; c) Dramatize the dialogues in class. Dialogue 1 Between a student and his senior colleague (старшим по курсу това¬ рищем). - Hallo, Bob! Glad to meet you. 63
- Hallo, Pete. It’s nice to see you. How are you? - Thank you. Fine. Hope you are well too. By the way, I saw victor, your roommate, this morning. He looks very happy. 1 wonder why. - No wonder. He did well in his exams. - Good for him! And what about you? Did you get through? - No, I was most unfortunate. I failed in history. - Failed? You don’t say so. What’s the reason? - To be frank with you, I missed (cut) lectures rather often and some¬ times didn’t attend seminars. In general I didn’t work hard enough. - For shame! It serves you right. It’ll be a good lesson for you. Words and Hallo! [ho'lou] - Привет! It’s nice to see you. - Рад тебя (вас) видеть. (I am) glad to meet you. - Рад тебя (вас) видеть. How arc you? - Как поживаете? (Как себя чувствуете?) to be well - быть здоровым, хоро¬ шо себя чувствовать, by the way - между прочим I wonder [л] why. - Интересно (знать), почему. a roommate - товарищ по комнате a classmate - товарищ по группе Expressions No wonder [л]. - Неудивительно. Good for him! - Молодец! to get through one’s exam - выдер¬ жать экзамен I was most unfortunate [an'fo:tJbnit]. - Мне очень не повезло. You don’t say so! - He может быть! (Что вы говорите!) reason - причина to be frank with you - откровенно говоря In general. - Вообще. For shame! - He стыдно? It serves you right. - Так тебе и надо! Dialogue 2 - Where do you usually go for lunch? - Normally I have it here in the cafeteria. - What does your lunch generally consist of? - As a rule I take a hot dish and some juice or coffee, sometimes a cup of tea and sandwiches. But why are you asking me these eating questions? Are you hungry already? - To be frank with you, I am. - Well, let’s go and have a bite then. Words and Expressions normally (generally) - обычно a hot dish - горячее блюдо cafeteria [ ,ksefi 1иэпз] - кафетерий juice - сок 64
a cup of tea - чашка чаю to drink - пито a sandwich ['s<enwid3] - бутерброд to have a bite - перекусить с чем-л. to have breakfast, lunch (dinner, to be hungry (thirsty) - хотеть есть supper) - завтракать (обе- (пить), испытывать голод дать, ужинать) (жажду) со take smth. for (breakfast) - to eat - есть (кушать) брать что-л. на (завтрак) 3. Make up sentences according to the patterns, using the words listed below: 1. Do you have breakfast at home or in the cafeteria? 2. Where do you usually have breakfast? 3. At what time (when) do you generally have breakfast? 4. What do you usually take for breakfast? 5. For breakfast I take a cup of tea. lunch, dinner, supper, tea, your meals, coffee, milk, juice, bread and butter, fish, meat, fruit 4. Have a talk based on the text with your classmate. Make use of ques¬ tions: 1. Are you an applicant or an undergraduate? 2. Are you a student of history? 3. Where do you study history? 4. What year are you in? 5. Did you take entry examinations to the college (university)? 6. Did you pass them successfully? 7. Were you admitted to the day department or to the evening de¬ partment? 8. People say that many applicants failed at the examinations. Is that true? 9. Did you want to enter the sciences or humanities when at school? 10. When did you decide to take up history? 11. Do you remember the first day at the college (university)? 12. Where did you gather? 13. Who spoke before you? 14. Must our students attend all the lectures, seminars and tutorials? 15. Each year you must present a course paper and make reports on historical themes. Is it really so? 16. When (at what time of the year) do you take examinations and credit-tests? 65
17. What exams will you read for in winter (summer)? 18. How many exams will you have at the end of this term? 19. What does your English instructor say about the way you must work at the language? 20. What do we call a room where lectures are delivered [di'hvod]? 21. Where do you usually do your homework, at home or in the read¬ ing-room? 22. Do you go to the library very often? 23. You spend much time there, don’t you? 24. Do you live at home or at the hostel? 5. Say what you usually do... At the Lecture to listen to the lecturer, to take notes, to ask questions, to write, to put down At the Seminar to speak on the subject, to make a report, to take part in the discus¬ sion, to ask questions, to add to what was said by the previous speaker, to ask the teacher to explain, to clear up At the Library to read books recommended by the teachers of History, to look through newspapers and magazines, to make notes, to prepare for In the Laboratory to listen to the tape, to work with a tape-recorder, to repeat after the speaker, to imitate, to do aural exercises In the Morning to get up, to get dressed, to wash, to do physical exercises, to have breakfast, to take books and notebooks, to leave the house, to leave for the university (college), it takes me ... minutes to ... In the Evening to go for a walk, to go to the theatre (cinema, concert, club), to look in (to watch TV), to listen in (to listen to the wireless), to listen to the latest news, to call on one’s friends, to go to bed, to do one’s homework In the Cafeteria (Canteen) to have one’s meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper), to eat, to drink, to have a bite, to take coffee (tea, milk, juice, sandwiches, bread and butter, fish, meat, vegetables [vedjotoblz], fruit) 66
6. Express the following in English. Supply answers. Work in pairs. 1. Вы студент? 2. Где вы учитесь? На каком факультете? 3. На каком вы курсе? 4. По какому предмету вы будете специализироваться? 5. Когда вы поступили в институт (университет)? 6. Вы держали вступительные экзамены по всем предметам? 7. Как вы сдали эти экзамены? I 8. На какое отделение вас зачислили (вы были приняты)? 9. Почему вы решили поступить на этот факультет? 10. Вы решили заняться историей в качестве вашей будущей спе¬ циальности, не так ли? 11. Вы помните ваш первый день в институте (университете)? 12. Вы регулярно посещаете занятия: лекции, семинары, практи¬ ческие занятия? 13. Кому вы представляете свою курсовую работу? 14. Вы делаете в классе какие-либо (any) доклады на историчес¬ кую тематику? 15. Много ли экзаменов и зачетов вы сдаете (имеете) в сессию (during one examination period)? 16. Какие экзамены вы будете сдавать в этом семестре? 17. Где вы будете готовиться к ним? 18. Вы будете сдавать экзамен или зачет по английскому языку? 19. Вы много работаете над языком? 20. Где вы обычно готовите домашние задания? 21. Вы часто работаете в лингафонном кабинете (linguaphone la¬ boratory), библиотеке? 22. Говорят (they say), что студентам-историкам приходится (have to) много работать в библиотеке с историческими источниками и ли¬ тературой. Это так? 23. Вы проводите большую часть времени в читальном зале, не правда ли? 24. Вы живете в общежитии? 7. Describe your first day at the university (college). The words you may need: exciting, to gather, Assembly Hall, the Rector, the Dean, to address the freshmen, to congratulate us on the beginning of the academic year, to wish success, to make an inside tour, to have a look, at, in the evening, a grand party. 67
8. Say what exams and credit-tests you are going to take this term (year). The words you may need: at the end of each term, to take credit-tests and examinations, archaeology, ancient history, history of Russia, Latin, to read (sit) for the exams, to pass, successfully, to get good and excellent marks. 9. Say when, where and how you do your English lessons. The words you may need: as regards English, to work at the language very hard, to want to know the language, the reading-room, to do English lessons, to read and translate the text, to learn the new words, to study grammar, to learn dialogues by heart, to do various exercises, every evening.
LESSON THREE Text: The Republic Defends Itself Grammar: The Indefinite Tense Forms, Passive Voice, Impersonal Sentences THE REPUBLIC DEFENDS ITSELF It was night, but Rome was not asleep. Torches (факелы) flitted about the streets, lamps burned in the houses, figures hurried up and down the temple steps, the air was filled with the sound of weeping (плач). The Porta Capena1 was crowded; a stream of carriages, horses, slaves carrying pack¬ ages, and senators in military clothes constantly passed out, heading for the south. Caesar was near, and drawing nearer2, marching directly on Rome, it was rumoured that night. It was the people of quality3, the ruling classes who were leaving the city at that crucial moment; the rest stood by and watched them in surprise; to leave Rome like this4 did not seem right to them; why, in Rome’s worst days when it was taken by the Gauls5 or threatened by Hannibal, it had never been thus deserted. But this time, oddly enough, there was nothing with which to defend it, with all those legions in the Republic’s pay6, but there it was. When Caesar’s tour of duty7 in Gaul ended, the Senate ordered him to disband his army and return to Rome alone. Shortly afterwards Caesar sent back the reply: “If Pompey disbands his army, I shall do the same.” But Pompey would not disband8 his army, and a fierce struggle between the two great men began. It was a struggle for absolute individual power. In 49 B.C.9 Caesar led his army on Rome and reached the Rubicon River. If he led his army across the river, he would break the Roman law, but if he went to Rome alone, they would kill him. For a moment Caesar was undecided l0. Then saying, “The die is cast11 ”, he led his troops into the water. The Senate was caught unawaresl2. As soon as the news came that Caesar had crossed the Rubicon, a meeting of the Senate was hastily called to discuss the situation and take the necessary measures. As a result, Pompey was offered the supreme command of the Republic’s army. Somehow it had never occurred to him13 that he would have to fight14 Caesar with two legions which were at his disposal, the rest being scattered in different prov¬ inces 15. Pompey felt that, speaking from the military point of view, Rome 69
could not be defended though he was told by the Senate that he must not expose the city to the risk16 of siege, capture and plunder, that it was his duty to preserve Rome. It was decided that all the forces of the Republic should be concentrated in the South, and Pompey set out promptly southwards. Some time passed and one afternoon young Julius Caesar suddenly turned up in Rome. Pompey realized that it was too late for him, with his hastily-collected de¬ tachments, to enter the city captured by his opponent. So he had to retreat14. Finally he was completely defeated, and Caesar became master of Rome and the rest of Italyl7. After the conquest of Gaul it was Caesar’s second great victory. Practise the following for pronunciation. Proper names: Capena [кэ'ркпэ], Gauls [go:lz], Hannibal ['haenibal], Caesar ['si:za], Pompey [pompi], Italy, Rubicon [u:l [i] it'self, flitted, figure, filled, military [e] de'fend, steps, senator, heading, threaten [ге] carriages [-], package, capture, scatter [o] cross, 'sorrowful [ou], concentrate, promptly [л] enough, nothing, hurry up, plunder, republic [au] vows, crowded, south Ударение на первом слоге: rumour ['ги:тэ], quality[o], crucial [j], legion [1Ызэп], hastily [ei], measure, seige, province, finally [ai], conquest; Ударение на втором слоге: desert, reply, supreme [sju'prim], occur [э:], disposal, perceive [i:], preserve, completely [i:]; af_that moment; and watched_them; reached_the Rubicon; ip_the south; across_the river; discuss_the situation; asjhe news came; exposejthe city; there was nothing with which; bufjhere^jt was; tour_pf duty; masterjof Rome. Notes 1 the Porta Capena - название места в Риме 2 drawing nearer - (зд.) подходя все ближе и ближе 3 the people of quality - знать, аристократы 4 to leave Rome like this - покидать Рим подобным образом; like (наречие) - подобно 5 the Gauls - галлы (кельты) 70
С существительными во множественном числе, обозначающими всех представителей национальности, употребляют определенный ар¬ тикль. Например: The Russians, the Romans. 6 in the Republic’s pay - получающие от Республики жалованье, на¬ ходящиеся на жалованьи 7 tour of duty - (зА) срок полномочий 8 would not disband - не желал распускать would (not) - модальный глагол, обозначающий нежелание в про¬ шлом выполнять действие 9 in 49 В.С. - в 49 г. до н. э.; В.С. = Before Christ [kraist] Запомните также: A.D. (Anno domini ['senou 'dominai]) - нашей эры. 10 was undecided - был в нерешительности 11 The die is cast - Жребий брошен {выражение взято из игры в кос¬ тяшки)', a die - костяшка, to cast - бросать l2The Senate was caught unawares. - Сенат был застигнут врасплох. 13 it had never occurred to him - ему никогда не приходило в голову 14 he would have to fight - ему придется воевать; he had to retreat - ему пришлось отступить Глагол have (had) употреблен здесь в модальном значении и обо¬ значает вынужденную необходимость. 15 the rest being scattered in different provinces - так как остальные (легионы) были разбросаны по разным провинциям 16 expose the city to the risk - подвергать город риску 17 the rest of Italy - остальная часть Италии Words and Word Combinations republic n. республика defend v. защищать, оборонять figure n. 1) фигура; 2) цифра temple n. храм slave n. раб slave-owner n. рабовладелец slave-owning а. рабовладельче¬ ский senate и. сенат military а. военный constantly adv. постоянно march v. шагать, идти вперед; n. продвижение troops и. войска break v.l) ломать(ся), разби¬ ваться); 2) нарушать news п. новость, известия measure п. мера siege п. осада besiege v. осаждать leadership п. руководство forces п. силы southward adv. в южном направ¬ лении finally adv. в конечном счете, на¬ конец 71
completely adv. полностью, окон¬ чательно defeat v. наносить поражение, по¬ беждать; п. поражение capture у. захватить; п. захват rule у. править; п. власть, правле¬ ние ruling а. правящий ruler п. правитель crucial а. критический occur v. 1) случаться, происхо¬ дить; 2)приходить на ум threaten v. угрожать order v. приказывать; п. приказ legion п. легион disband v. распускать, расформи¬ ровывать decide v. решать (принимать ре¬ шение) reply V. отвечать; п. ответ lead V. 1) вести; 2) возглавлять, руководить leader п. руководитель, вождь retreat v. отступать; п. отступление tribune п. трибун noble п. дворянин; а. благородный nobility /?. нобилитет plebeian п. плебей patrician/?, патриций threat п. угроза it is rumoured - ходят слухи it seems to me - мне кажется oddly enough - как ни странно to break the law - нарушить закон it never occurred to me (him) - мне (ему) никогда не приходило в голову to take measures - принять меры at one’s disposal - в чьем-л. распоряжении from the point of view of - с точки зрения to call a meeting - созвать собрание to set out (start off) - отправиться куда-л. shortly afterwards - вскоре после этого the same - тот же самый the rest of (the towns) - остальные (города) under the leadership - под руководством What’s the news? =- Какие новости? Что нового? It’s good news. - Это хорошие новости. Reading Rules Recapitulation 1. Диграфы ie, ei читаются [i:]. Например: piece, ceiling. 2. Буква s между гласной и суффиксами -ion, -we читается [3]. Например: vision, pleasure. 72
3. Суффикс прилагательных -ous читается [as]. Например: famous, religious. Exercise Read the following words according to the reading rules: famous, field, measure, nervous, priest, pompous, pleasure, chief, siege, precious [|], serious, grief, treasure, closure, continuous, receive, achieve, plosion, dangerous, deceive, believe, various, shield, humorous, fusion, per¬ ceive, invasion, explosion, conclusion, occasion, division, decision, television GRAMMAR EXERCISES (see § 1, p. 329) 1. Give the passive (non-perfect) form of the following infinitives, e. g. to write - to be written, to translate - to be translated. Consult the table of irregular verbs (see p. 392), to read, to do, to bring, to take, to return, to translate, to find, to see, to make, to study, to build, to give, to collect, to finish, to send, to spend, to ask, to visit, to organize, to forget, to discuss, to show, to invite, to found, to teach. 2. Translate the following sentences paying special attention to the rendering of the passive construction: A. 1. Budapest is divided into two parts by the Danube ['daenjub] River. 2. Our school is often visited by foreign ['form] delegations. 3. Those houses were built many years ago. 4.1 am often asked at the seminar. 5. Moscow University was founded in 1755 by Lomonosov. 6.1 hope we will be invited to the conference. 7. The lecturer was not asked any questions. 8. His letter was not answered. 9.1 am sure you will be helped. 10. Who(m) was this opera written by? 11. Will this text be translated into Russian? 12. When were you given this work? B. 1. The work must be finished on time. 2. Many high buildings can be seen from here. 3. The students may be given individual tasks (задания). 73
4. This event (событие) cannot be forgotten. 5. Such documents must not be sent by post. 6. Can this be done in a different way? 7. May the children be allowed to go for a walk by themselves? 8. The problem had to be discussed in detail. 9. Rome could not be well defended. 10. Must this journal be returned tomorrow? 11. Nothing can be done about it. 3. a) Express doubt. Mind the rising tone, e. g. Are they at home? b) Express disagreement, e. g. They are not at home. 1. Such questions are decided at the meeting. 2. Foreign films were shown in our club very often. 3. The speech was translated for those present. 4. Latin is taught at our school. 5. The materials will be collected for you next week. 4. Put the verbs in the following sentences first in the Past and then in the Future Indefinite, Passive Voice. In the case of the Future Tense omit the adverbs. 1. The mail is usually brought in the morning. 2. Our teacher is sent abroad (за границу) very often. 3. The report is made in English by student Belov. 4. Their group is seldom examined by Professor Brown. 5. The necessary documents are presented beforehand (заранее). 6. Concerts like this are usually enjoyed by everybody. 5. Change the following sentences, using the verb in the Passive Voice, e. g. He wrote the letter long ago. — The letter was written long ago. 1. The secretary typed [taipt] your letter an hour ago. 2. The teacher corrected our exercises. 3. The Dean (декан) greeted all the freshmen (первокурсники) at the lecture. 4. She did not post the letter yesterday. 5. I do not forget such things. 74
6. They will leave a message (записка) for you. 7. They will not tell Ann about it. 8. Who discovered America? 9. Who gave that concert? 10. When (in what year) did Lomonosov found Moscow University? 11. What questions will they discuss at tomorrow’s meeting? 12. You can finish the work in three days. 13. Students must return these books to the library. 6. Change the following sentences, using the verb in the Active Voice, e. g. The letter was written long ago. - They wrote the letter long ago. 1. He was seen there by many people. 2. The little boy was taken home by one of my friends. , 3. Some new historical maps will be brought here by the lab assis¬ tant (лаборант). 4. This article must be read by everyone. 5. These books can be found in many bookshops. 6. Such subjects are not taught at our faculty. 7. The meeting must be called (созвать) tomorrow. 8. The window was broken by somebody. 9. The delegation will be met by some of us. 10. You will be told what to do and helped if necessary. 7. Express the following in Russian, paying special attention to the words in italics: 1. The lecturer was listened to with great interest. 2. Arbuzov’s new play is much talked about. 3. This picture is seldom looked at. 4. The journal must be looked through and the new information made use [ju:s] of. 5. The boy was looked for everywhere but could be found nowhere. 6. Why wasn’t he sent for immediately? [i:] 7. I am sure this film will soon be spoken about. 8. She looks very funny. No wonder (неудивительно) she is often, laughed at. 9. The sick man was looked after all the time. 10. Children must always be taken care of. 11. You will be waited for in the hall. 12. This textbook is asked for every day. 75
8. Express the following in English: 1. Докладчика (the speaker) слушали с большим интересом. 2. Карту искали везде. 3. Об этой книге много говорят. 4. За секретарем послали десять минут тому назад (ago). 5. Почему над ней всегда смеются? 6. Не беспокойтесь (to worry [д]). За вашими детьми присмотрят (to look after). 7. Вас подождут внизу (downstairs). 8. Эти письма нужно просмотреть сегодня. 9. Think of as many sentences as possible according to the patterns. 1. 1 was told to... to wait (Мне сказали, велели) to see the doctor 2. He was advised to... to take private [ai] lessons (Ему посоветовали) 3. You were not asked to... to stay in bed (Вас не просили) to change the time-table 4. I was given to understand to be wrong that I was... to be late (Мне дали понять, что ...) 5. We are often asked to... to take part in (Нас часто просят ...) to do the work in time 6. They will be made to... (Ихзаставят ...) to come here again 10. Express the following in English. Supply replies. 1. Вас часто спрашивают на занятиях по английскому языку (dur¬ ing your English class)? 2. Вам давали много домашних заданий (much homework) в про¬ шлом году? 3. Ваш доклад будет обсуждаться после занятий? 4. Когда ваших студентов отправили в Лондон? 5. Где был издан (to publish) этот учебник? 6. Какие иностранные языки изучаются на вашем факультете? 7. Кем была написана «История Государства Российского»? 8. Вы были на выставке (exhibition) вчера, да? Что вам там пока¬ зали? 9. Сколько докладов будет сделано на конференции? 10. Почему о фильме «Андрей Рублев» так много говорили? 76
11. Express the following in English, paying special attention to the Pas¬ sive construction: A. 1. эта книга была прочитана всеми студентами. 2. В тайге (the taiga) построили новый город. 3. Каждый год наших специалистов (specialists) посылают на Дальний Восток. 4. Не беспокойтесь. Вас встретят на станции. 5. Письмо для вас будет оставлено на столе. 6. Ему посоветовали (to advise) поступить на исторический фа¬ культет. 7. Мне велели (сказали) прийти сюда в 2 часа. 8. Утром там никого не видели. 9. Эту песню можно услышать (to hear) везде. 10. Вас не просили делать это. 11. Нам сказали подождать его здесь. B. 1. Работа должна быть закончена сегодня. 2. Этот день невозможно забыть. 3. Маленьких детей нельзя (не должны) оставлять одних (alone). 4. Письма нужно отослать немедленно. 5. В нашем городе можно видеть большое количество высотных зданий. 6. Книгу необходимо возвратить лектору. 7. Этим студентам нужно помочь по латыни (in Latin). 8. Это предложение может быть переведено по-другому (in a dif¬ ferent way). 9. Ничего нельзя было сделать в отношении этого (about, it). 10. Их можно попросить остаться. 12. Analyse the following sentences. Make up questions on the words in bold type. 1. Every year many blocks of flats are built in our town (1). 2. Five pupils from our school will be sent to Suzdal on an excursion [iks'kaijhn] (3). 3. The foreign guests [gests] were met at 12 o’clock at the airport (4). 4. Homework must be done regularly (2). 77
VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. Add the suffix -er to the verbs. Translate the nouns into Russian. defend, march, rule, leave, own, lead, break, command, work, read, learn, dance, listen, write, lecture, speak, swim, skate, run, play. 2. Make adverbs by adding the suffix -ly and translate them into Russian. Mind the necessary change in spelling. constant, right, final, complete, necessary, odd, short, political, his¬ torical, military, economical, oral, usual, clear, haste, different, prompt, sudden, individual. 3. Form verbs with the help of the suffix -ел. Translate them into Russian. threat, weak, strength, wide, black, dark, white, sharp, deep, hard. 4. Form verbs with the help of the prefix ел- and translate them into Russian. slave (раб), camp (лагерь), rich (богатый), large (большой), circle (круг), able (могущий, способный), throne (трон, престол). 5. a) Suggest the Russian for: people hurried up and down; the sound of weeping; slaves carrying packages; in military attire; he was drawing nearer; it was rumoured; the people of quality; watching them; oddly enough; legions in the Republic’s pay; tour of duty; to disband the army; shortly afterwards; in 49 B. C.; he was undecided; the die is cast; the Senate was caught unawares; it never occurred to him; at his disposal; from the military point of view, to expose the city to the risk of siege; he suddenly turned up in Rome; to take the necessary measures. b) Suggest the English for: защищать республику; оборона города; политический и общест¬ венный деятель; старинный храм; тысячи рабов; рабовладельческий строй; поступить на исторический факультет; созвать собрание; воен¬ ные планы Сената; правящие классы; правитель Рима; распустить ар¬ мию; остальные легионы; Римские провинции; вести борьбу за лич¬ ную власть; прийти к власти; быть у власти; захватить власть; нару¬ шить закон; ввести войска; обсудить положение; принять необходи¬ мые меры; в результате; захватить город; длительная осада; воору¬ женные (военные) силы; потерпеть поражение; грабить; ворваться в город; отступление; стать хозяином Рима; император. 78
6. a) Guess the meaning of the following statements: 1. Rome developed into a slave-owning and aristocratic republic. 2. Antony and Octavian joined their forces to fight the Republicans. 3. Tiberius tried to defend his bill, but he could not fight alone against the Senate. 4. Whenever the enemy attacked our country, the Russian people rose in defence of their Mortherland. 5. Kutuzov took a defensive position when Napoleon’s army entered Moscow. 6. The slaves' revolt in 73-71 В. C. nearly led to the crush of the slave-owners ’ rule in Rome. 7. The Senate set one conquered nationality against another, fol¬ lowing the “divide and rule”principle. 8. The Council of Ministers is the highest organ of state power in our country. 9. Caesar came to power after defeating all his opponents. 10. The fortress of Ismail was besieged and then taken by storm. 11. In410A.D. the Goths captured Rome and plundered its popula¬ tion. 12. In the 1st century В. C. the armies of Rome were controlled by military commanders rather than by consuls and the Senate. 13. After Caesar’s death his legionaries found new leaders one of whom was his former (бывший) assistant and an excellent warior. 14. The Senate took the decision to send the troops under Crassus south¬ ward. 15. Once victorious, Napoleon’s army found its grave in Russia in 1812 when it was completely defeated. 16. Only patricians and plebeians who owned land and had slaves were made consuls and other leading officials. 17. Tiberius, who belonged to a noble plebeian family, was elected a tribune. 18. The Roman nobility came into being together with the appear¬ ance of classes. 19. By crossing the Rubicon Caesar broke the Roman law, that same day his legions broke into the city. 20. The Roman wars for the conquest of Italy lasted for more than 200 years. 79
b) Comment on the following, using your knowledge of history. Make use of the words in italics. e. g. - How did it come that..? - There is nothing strange (un¬ usual, special) about it. - It was the logical outcome (se¬ quence, course) of events. - Как могло случиться, что..? - В этом нет ничего странного (необычного, особенного). - Это был логический исход (раз¬ витие, ход) событий. 1. In 509 В.С. the Romans abolished (упразднять) royal power. 2. In the 3rd century B.C. the number of slaves began to increase [s] (увеличиваться) rapidly. 3. Though the slave force under Spartacus was impressive (круп¬ ные) his army was finally defeated. 4. King Philip conquered state after state until only Laconia remained unconquered. 5. The Romans were defeated in the battle of Adrianople (374). 6. King Charles ruled England for eleven years without a parliament ['pcdomont]. e. g. - Do you know ...? - Вы знаете, что ...? - If I am not mistaken... - Если я не ошибаюсь... Do you know, what led to the outbreak of the first Punic [ju:] (Пуниче¬ ская) War, who conquered the North Pole, who was the first to start conquering space (космос), what a colon was, how strong the army under Spartacus was, how long the siege of Carthage lasted, what political party is in power now in Great Britain. c) Supply answers. Add something of your own, using the words in italics and your knowledge of history. 11. What do we call a monarch who rules over an empire? 2. What prominent rulers of Rome do you know? 3. Does the English queen rule or does she reign (царствовать)? 4. When was slavery abolished in America? 5. What led to the downfall of the Roman republic? 6. Who took power after Pompey was defeated? 7. Under whose leadership were the troops sent against Spartacus ? 8. Where did the slave owning system reach its peak? 80
7. Paraphrase the following word combinations, using words and ex¬ pressions from the text. 1. It was night, but the people of Rome и о, г full awake. 2. Senators in military clothes were leaving for the south. 3. It seemed strange, but there was nothing with which to protect Rome at that critical time. 4. When his term of office was up the Senate ordered him to come back. 5. Soon Caesar sent an answer in which he agreed to dismiss his army on condition that Pompey did the same. 6. For a moment the great soldier was at a loss whether to cross the Rubicon and thus to violate the Roman law or not. 7. A meeting was hurriedly held to debate the situation. 8. It never came to my mind that I should have to perform my duties in such conditions. 9. Pompey suppressed (подавил) the uprising, as a result of which 60,000 slaves were taken prisoner and put to death [de6]. 10. From the military standpoint the town could not be well defended and was exposed to robbery on the part of the enemy. 11. One day young Caesar unexpectedly appeared in Rome, making his opponents give in. 12. At last our school won a victory over that school at the football match. 13. The square was filled with crowds ofpeople. 14. In the Senate Pompey felt that he would be made commander of the troops of the Republic. 8. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: a) military, right, to raise an army, powerful (мощный), necessary, complete, to suffer defeat, a plebeian, to leave a city, sorrowful, short, to observe the law, official news; b) rumours, to break the law, long, joyful, to enter a city, a patrician, to win a victory, incomplete, unnecessary, powerless, to disband an army, wrong, civilian. 9. Choose the word corresponding to the definition from those listed below: a member of the lower classes in ancient Rome; a person of noble birth, aristocrat; a person engaged (занятый) in political activity (деятельность); 81
a building used for the worship (поклонение) of a God; the surrounding of a place (a fortress, a town) by an army; a body (in ancient Rome) having an important part in the government of the state, the highest state organ; a division in the ancient Roman army consisting of several thousand foot-soldiers and several hundred horsemen; a person who is owned by another; groups of people exercising (осуществляющие) state power; a state governed by people elected for a definite period (a temple, a slave, a political figure, siege, a plebeian, the Senate, a patrician, ruling classes, a legion, a republic) 10. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from those given in brackets. 1. Not many people wanted ... a Republic which ... by a few aristocratic families (to defend, to be ruled). 2. In Macedonia [msesi'dounto] (Македония) Caesar’s ... managed to collect... and were preparing against Italy (to march, legionaries, a military force). 3. The ... of the emperors was supported by ... in Rome and in the ... (power, slave-owners, provinces). 4. Many ... were willing to have over Rome (a military commander, slave-owners, to rule). 5. After Augustus’ [oigxstas] death Rome was governed by emperors, and ... was either inherited [in'heritid] (унаследовать) or ... with the help of ... (military force, power, to be captured). 6. Being afraid that the Romans would not welcome the proclama¬ tion (приветствовать провозглашение) of ..., Octavian tried ... all the customs and offices of... (the Republic, to preserve, royal power). 7. A great battle ..., and the army of the Republicans... (completely, to be defeated, to be fought). 8. The ... who did not pay their debts [dets] (долги) were made into ... by the ... (patricians, slaves, plebeians). 9. When the ... of Carthage [’ka:9id3] (Карфаген) became weak as a result of the ... the Romans... into the city (defenders, to break, siege). 10. Now Italians use the Pantheon, an ancient... to bury [Ъеп] (хо¬ ронить) their most famous countrymen: great political and social..., writers, artists, etc. (figures, temple). 11. ... of the Senate Caesar was ... his army, but he refused to do so. Instead [in'sted] (вместо этого) he ... his troops to Rome, ... it and took power (to enter, to lead, by order, to disband). 82
12. At the ... moment Spartacus, the :.. of the slave uprising, ... his men not... {to retreat, crucial, to call upon, leader). 13. The Romans... Gaul’s relics ['reliks] (мощи, реликвии) where all the gold for the gods was kept {to plunder). 14. The slaves continued ... against their masters whom they always hated {to struggle, to come out). 11. Choose the noun that can go with the following adjectives: constant, right, final, complete, necessary, long, hasty, different, po¬ litical, crucial, military, individual, religious, sudden, fierce, ruling, Gaul (wars, classes, struggle, retreat, be'liefs (убеждения), power, comman¬ der, situation, figure, news, decision, siege, measures, defeat, reply, time, attacks) 12. Suggest the English for the words in brackets. Read the whole sen¬ tence and translate it into Russian. 1. In the middle of the 5th century A. D. Rome was (постоянно) attacked by the Germans who after (захват) the city (грабили) and de¬ stroyed it. 2. By machinations [,maeki'neijnz] Catiline wanted to bcoomc (кон¬ сул) but once in the Senate he (потерпел полное поражение) and gave up his plan. 3. The situation in the country was (критическое); it was necessary (принять военные меры),ЬШ the Senate took no (решение). 4. “If I (завоевать) your country, I’ll level (сравнять с землей) your city to the ground,” said King Philip to the bacons [ei]. In (ответ) they said only one word “If'. 5. (Ходили слухи) in the city that Caesar, the (правитель) of Rome, wanted to proclaim himself a king. Then a group of senators headed by Cassius and Brutus (решила)_to do away with him. 6. During Nero’s (правления) the political crisis [s] in the (Римском рабовладельческом государстве) reached its peak. 7. Once (победоносная), the French army (под руководством) Napoleon was crushed in Russia. 8. (Завоевание, покорение) by Rome of (восточного) Mediterra¬ nean did not last for many years. 9. (Рабство) was typical for (южные) states of the USA before the Civil War of 1861. 83
13. Make up sentences according to the patterns, using the words given in Part B. f orm as many sentences as possible. Patterns A В 1. It was too late (to do it). (Было слишком поздно ...) to take any measures to retreat to hurry to the station to send this package to decide anything to call him up 2. It’s time for you (me, him, us ...) (to do it). (Вампора ...) to learn to swim to leave to take a decision to go to the University to study this problem 3. It’s your (my, his ...) duty (to do it). (Ваш долг ...) to defend your friend to preserve these historical documents to work hard at (your) English to help your parents 4. It was decided that he should (do it). (Было решено, что он должен ...) to defend his diploma paper in May to make a report on the subject to speak to the Dean about it to send the reply at once - 5. It was decided that this should (be a meeting - to be called done). this question - to be discussed (Было решено, что это должно the army - to be disbanded быть сделано.) 6. It never occurred to me (that he could do it). (Мне никогда не приходило в го¬ лову ...) to ride on horseback to desert his family to conquer the girl’s heart so easily to be a good leader 84
7. To act like this does not seem right to me. (Действовать подобным образом кажется мне неправильным.) to speak to the teacher to use power to do it to behave [bi'heiv] 14. Insert articles wherever required and retell the text. During Caesar’s campaign [kasm'pein] against Rome he had to cross ... small river, ... Rubicon. ... river flowed on ... border between Gaul and ... Roman Republic. To cross ... Republican border with ... military force was equal to ... open declaration of... war. Having ordered (приказав) his chariot to stop, Caesar sat thinking for ... long time hesitating what deci¬ sion to take. Then, ready to face his future bravely, he said: “... die is cast,” and ordered his troops into ... water. — After ... quick and easy victory over one of his opponents in Asia Minoi, Caesar sent ... message which contained only three Latin words; ... corresponding English words were: “I came, I saw, I conquered.” 15. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary. Consult the text. 1. The air was filled ... smoke; the people hurried ... and ... the steps ... the burning temple. 2. ... that crucial moment the rest ... the legions were far ... Rome. 3. Senators ... military attire passed ... heading ... the south. 4. Caesar decided to go ... the river and led his army ... the water. 5. It never occurred ... me that you are working ... the same prob¬ lem. 6. ... my point... view he is right. 7. Pompey was told ... the Senate that the city must not be exposed ... the risk ... siege. 8. All the forces ... the Republic were concentrated ... the south. 9. ... 211 В. C. Rome was threatened ... Hannibal. 16. Insert the missing subject (подлежащее) and make up as many ques¬ tions as possible. Have your fellow-student answer the questions. 1. When was/were ... defeated (won, besieged, conquered, left)? 2. How was/were ... defended (reached, ruled, caught)? 3. How long was/were ... ruled (besieged, looted, led, fought)? 4. Who(m) was/were ... threatened by (captured, plundered, ruled)? 5. Why was/were ... disbanded (defeated, left, caught unawares)? 6. What... was/were ... broken (decided, entered, taken)? 85
17. Translate the following text with the help of a dictionary. Part A is to be translated in writing. A. When Sulla left Rome for the war against Pontus, he found that, after the massacre of the Romans in Asia, the success of the King of Pontus had caused Athens and other Greek states to join him against Rome. After landing with his army at Epirus Sulla at once marched to Athens. Shortly afterwards he captured the city, and the inhabitants were very cruelly treated by his soldiers, who ran wild, plundering and killing everywhere, so that many Athenians killed themselves rather than wanted to fall into the hands of their conquerors. In 84 В. C. the king was forced to make terms with the Romans. B. Sulla’s return to Rome in 83 В. C. caused a renewal of the struggle between the people and the nobles, for since Marius had marched against Rome the popular party had been in power, and Sulla, as is known, be¬ longed to the party of the nobles. So Romans fought with Romans once again. Fighting on Sulla’s side was Pompey. But now a new danger threatened the city. The Samnites were marching against Rome, and so in the common danger private quarrels were forgot¬ ten. In the battle of Colline Gate the Samnites were completely crushed (defeated). The way in which the great general treated his foes was terrible: he ordered them to attack their own comrades as the price of their lives. A large number were killed in this unnatural struggle, and those who survived were taken to Rome and put to death. It seems a very terrible thing indeed that a civil war was brought about mainly by the jealousy of two great men. Proper names Pontus [’pontas] - Понт Marius ['mearias] - Марий Athens ['seGinz] - Афины Samnites ['ssemnaits] - самниты Athenians [a'Grmanz] - афиняне Colline [ka'lain] Gate - Коллинские Epirus [fpaiaras] - Эпир ворота 18. Test translation. 1. Когда образовалась (родилась) Римская Республика? 2. Антоний (Anthony) боролся с республиканцами. 3. Защита Родины - священный долг (sacred duty) каждого гра¬ жданина Российской Федерации. 4. Имена тех, кто защищал этот город, вошли в историю (to go down in history). 5. Римляне превращали (to turn into) покоренные народы в рабов. Между рабами и рабовладельцами шла (была) острая (sharp) борьба. 86
6. Рабовладельческий строй сменился (to be replaced by) феодаль¬ ным. 7. Кто упразднил (to abolish) рабство в Америке? 8. Когда правил Ю. Цезарь? 9. После войны с Антонием и Клеопатрой (Cleopatra) Октавиан (Octavian) стал единовластным (dictatorial) правителем Рима. 10. Рабовладельцы относились (to belong to) к правящим классам. 11. В каком году Цезарь пришел к власти! 12. Что является высшим органом (the highest organ) государст¬ венной власти в Российской Федерации? 13. Какая партия находится сейчас у власти в Англии? 14. В 410 г. н. э. готы (the Goths) осадили Рим. 15. Осада Карфагена (Carthage) продолжалась много лет. 16. В 455 г. вандалы (the Vandals) овладели Римом и разграбили его. 17. Войска Октавиана захватили Египет (Egypt). 18. Когда Цезарь подходил к Риму, у Помпея (Ротреу) было толь¬ ко два легиона. 19. Под руководством Кутузова русские войска одержали блестя¬ щую победу в битве под Бородино. 20. Кто был руководителем вашей экспедиции? 21. Развитие рабовладельческого строя привело к его падению. 22. Бородинская битва была решающей. 23. Сенат представлял (to present) съоярешения народному собра¬ нию (popular assembly). 24. В военных сражениях римляне обычно одерэ/сивали победу. 25. В битве при Заме (Zama) Ганнибал потерпел поражение. 26. Противник (the enemy) неожиданно начал отступать. 27. Борьба плебеев с патрициями длилась около 200 лет. 28. Трибун выбирался (to be elected) народным собранием. 29. Консулы в Римском Сенате появились в середине V в. 30. Нобилитет всегда владел землей. 31. Орды гуннов (Hordes of Huns) во главе с Атиллой (Atilla) во¬ рвались в Галлию в 451 г. 32. Клеопатра много раз нарушала свое слово (promise). 33. Спартак (Spartacus) прорвался через укрепления (fortifications) Красса. 34. Что привело к возникновению войны Алой и Белой Розы? 35. Когда были завоеваны Римом восточные провинции (provinces)? 36. Завоевание Цезарем Галлии началось в 58 г. до н. э. 37. Покоренные народы всегда угнетались завоевателями. 87
ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Read the text of the lesson and find sentences which might serve as replies to the following questions. Make a conversation based on the text, using the questions. 1. What was rumoured that night in Rome? 2. Who was leaving the city at that crucial moment? 3. To leave Rome like this did not seem right to the common people, did it? 4. Had Rome been deserted like this in its worst days? 5. What does the author mean by Rome’s worst days? 6. Could Rome be well defended at that time? 7. What did the Senate order Caesar to do after his tour of duty in Gaul ended? 8. What reply did Caesar send? 9. What did Caesar’s refusal (отказ) lead to? 10. Did he cross the Rubicon and thus break the Roman law or not? 11. What happened when the news about Caesar reached the Senate? 12. Was the Senate caught unawares? 13. Who was made commander of the Republic’s troops? 14. What did Pompey think about the defense of Rome? 15. Where did the Senate decide all the military forces of the Republic should be concentrated? 16. Who suddenly turned up in Rome after Pompey set out south¬ wards? 17. Why did Pompey have to retreat? 18. Later he was completely defeated, wasn’t he? 19. What finally became of Caesar? 20. Was it a great victory in his fight for power? 2. Correct the wrong statements. Begin with: It's not true to fact. It’s wrong. It’s not. so. 1. It was day and the people of Rome were slowly walking in the streets. 2. Some Senators in civilian clothes were carrying packages, head¬ ing for the northern part of the city. 3. On that day it was rumoured that Caesar was far away fighting in Gaul. 4. It was the plebs who were leaving Rome at that crucial moment. 88
5. The ruling classes were staying in the city because it did not seem right to them to desert the city. 6. When Caesar’s tour of duty in Gaul ended he led his army to Spain to help Pompey. 7. The Senate ordered Caesar to raise (collect) an army and bring it to Rome. 8. Pompey disbanded his army and reached the Rubicon. 9. After a long discussion of the situation in the Senate it was de¬ cided that Crassus should be made commander of the Republic’s army. 10. The Senate told Pompey that it was his duty to reconstruct Rome. 11. When Caesar turned up in Rome, Pompey realized that it was the right time to enter the city. 12. Finally Pompey won the victory over Caesar and became Emperoi. 13. As to Caesar it was his second defeat. 3. a) Read the text and ask questions about it, making use of the words in italics; b) Retell the story according to the plan. 1. Caesar marches on Rome. 2. Pompey is defeated. 3. Caesar calls himself Emperor. 4. Some senators organize a plot. 5. Caesar is killed in the Senate. After the conquest of Gaul Caesar had a strong army at his disposal and the reputation of a talented military commander. But he wanted more power and decided to march on Rome and defeat Pompey, his opponent [s'pounsnt], Pompey had a greater number of legions under him than Caesar, but they were scattered in different provinces. He hastily left for Brundisium and then the Balkan Peninsula to collect forces but on his return Pompey was completely crushed (разбит) by Caesar. Having defeated all his opponents Caesar came to Rome and called himself emperor. By the way, in Latin the word emperor means “ruler” and at that time was only used for military commanders. Caesar was like a king. He sat on a chair made of ivory [ai] (слоновая кость) and gold. His statues ['stsetju:z] were set side by side with those of gods and goddesses. Some of the senators, however, disliked the way he ruled. Besides, they were afraid of the autocratic ([plg'knetik] самодержавный) ruler. They organized a plot (заговор) against him with Brutus and Cassius at the head. On 15th of March, 44 В. C. during one of the Senate sessions the plotters drew out their swords [so:dz] (кинжал, меч) which they had hidden under their togas, and killed him. All those present at the session ran away in a panic. 89
4. a) Read the story and supply replies to the questions given below; b) Make an outline of the story, showing: Pompey as a good soldier, gladia¬ tors as a great force, Pompey’s victories, the First Triumvirate. Pompey Pompey was one of the greatest Roman soldiers, a talented statesman and a diplomat. In the 60-s of the 1st century В. C. he played a leading role in the political life of Rome. While the Romans were suffering under the rule of Sulla, he was away in Africa, defeating the enemies of Rome. Six years later Pompey suppressed [sa'prest] an uprising of gladiators. Gladiators were people who were given arms and made to fight against each other in the arena for the amusement of the spectators. In later years they were forced to fight for their lives against wild animals. Many of the gladiators were Gauls and barbarians. There were schools in Rome where they were trained. One day a number of men ran from one of the schools and encamped on Mount Vesuvius. Here they were joined by other gladiators and slaves and became a great force. They easily defeated the Roman army which was sent by the Senate to fight against them. It was Pompey who finally put down the revolt: by his order tens of thousands of slaves were captured and put to death. After his victorious campaigns in the East, which led to Rome’s com¬ plete domination over Asia Minor, he returned to Rome and formed the first triumvirate [trai4mvireit] together with Caesar and Crassus. But he had never expected that Caesar would soon become his enemy and defeat him. a great soldier ['sou №33] - полководец a statesman - государственный деятель to suffer from - страдать от to suppress (= to subdue) an uprising; to put down the revolt - подавить восстание (мятеж) arena [э'п:пэ] - арена, манеж for the amusement [a'mju:zmant] of the spectators - для развлечения зрителей to encamp - располагаться лагерем to join - присоединяться to put smb. to death [e] - казнить a campaign [kaem'pein] - (зд.) поход Roman domination - господство Рима Asia Minor ['eija 'mama] - Малая Азия 90
Questions 1. What was Porapey? 2. What kind of role did he play in the political life of Rome? 3. What was he doing in Africa while the Romans were suffering under Sulla’s rule? 4. What is a gladiator? 5. What were they by nationality? 6. Where were they trained? 7. What happened one day in one of the schools? 8. Were they defeated by the Roman army which was sent by the Senate? 9. Who put down the revolt? 10. How was the revolt suppressed? 11. Were Pompey’s campaigns in the East victorious? 12. What did they lead to? 13. What coalition [koua'hjn] did he enter? 14. He had never thought that Caesar would defeat him, had he? 5. Speak on the topics. 1. The situation in Rome on the eve (накануне) of Caesar’s arrival. 2. The measures the Senate took to defend the Republic. 3. The reason why Pompey left Rome so hastily. 4. The outcome (исход) of the fight between Pompey and Caesar. 5. Give the origin and the meaning of the proverb to cross the Rubicon and of the word emperor. 66. Describe Caesar and Pompey, using the material given in Ex. 4, 5. What other historical events (apart from those described in the text) are connected with the name of Caesar? Use your reading experience.
LESSON FOUR Text: The Olympic Flame Grammar: The Present and the Past Participle THE OLYMPIC FLAME Northwest of Sparta in the city of Olympia rose a beautiful temple1 for the worship of Jupiter2, the principal god of the Greeks. This temple was built by Hercules, the great hero. According to the legend Hercules, the son of Jupiter had ordered that a great festival should be held here3 every four years in honour of his divine father. For the purpose of attracting4 all the neighbouring people to the temple of Olympia, Hercules founded many athletic games such as wrestling, stone and spear throwing, foot, horse and chariot races, boxing, swimming and the like. Hercules himself was present at the first of those festivals and acted as an umpire, rewarding the victors by giving them the highest prize5 - crowns of olive leaves. The festival lasted five days and included sacrifices, sports and feasts. A few weeks before the festival three messengers of Jupiter went to all Greek states bidding the people to the contest. The competitors, having registered by a certain date6, were asked to appear before the statue of Jupiter who was represented with a thunderbolt in his right hand as a warning to evildo¬ ers7. Upon sacrificing a pig8 they swore to use no unfair means to secure victory and that they had trained for ten months. As the Spartans were great athletes, they soon took important parts in the Olympic Games, won most of the prizes and claimed the honour of defending9 the temple at Olympia in all times of danger. All the people coming to Olympia to watch the Games laid some precious offerings before shrines, so that the temple could come to be noted for10 its beauty and wealth. As the Games were held every four years, the people eagerly looked forward to their coming" and soon began to reckon time by them. Even historians used this way of dating12 important events. It was therefore usual to say that such a thing happened in the first, second or third year of the fifth, tenth or seventeenth Olympiad. It must be noted that the decree of that time was that there should be no wars13 during an Olympiad. Although the Olympic Games were prob¬ ably held before any good record was kept ‘4, we can trace them back to 776 92
В. С. These athletic meetings took place regularly until 393 В. C. when the Christian Emperor Theodosius I abolished them on the grounds that15 a festival having a pagan origin was not in keeping with Christian beliefs16. It was only in 1896 that they were revived, and a great festival was held in Athens. The victors received medals and wreaths, but the people did not wear crowns as formerly, nor did they make any sacrifices to the old gods17 Since then the Games have been held regularly in different countries and have become a wonderful sport tradition which helped to bring peoples closer togetherl8. No Olympic Games can start without the Olympic Flame, the sacred fire brought from the temple in Olympia, which is the symbol of the spirit of friendly competition. Let this flame burn ever higher throughout the world. Practise the following for pronunciation: Proper names: Olympia [a'limpis], Jupiter [d3u:pita], Hercules fhaikjuliiz], Christian [kristjbn], Theodosius [Gio'dousios], Athens ['asGinz]; northwest, south, northern [9], southern [лб], father, athletic [aeG'letik], ath¬ lete ['seGliit], throwing, with a 'thunderbolt [ou], months, wealth [e], third, fifth, although [o:l'9ou], wreaths [ri:9z], together, without, throughout the world; Ударение на первом слоге: worship, purpose [pas], first, certain, burn; legend [e], honour [’эпэ], neighbour ['neiba], wrestling [-], olive [i], sacri¬ fices, contest, evildoers [i:vl], danger [ei], precious [|], forward [э], pagan [ei], origin [o], wonderful [л], sacred [ei]; Ударение на втором слоге: rewarding, include [u:], competitors, upon, important, abolish, revive [ai], receive; Два ударения: represented, competition. Notes 1.. . rose a beautiful temple - возвышайся красивый храм Это случай полной инверсии. Глагол to rise (подниматься, возвышаться) не следует смешивать с глаголом to raise (поднимать что-л.), например: to raise one’s hand, a question. 2 for the worship of Jupiter - для прославления Юпитера 3.. . had ordered that a great festival should be held - распорядился, чтобы проводилось большое празднество Запомните конструкции с глаголом to order. The commander ordered his men (them) to attack the village. 93
The commander ordered that the village should be attacked. - Коман¬ дир приказал наступать па село. 4 for the purpose of attracting - для привлечения внимания 5 acted as an umpire, rewarding ... the highest prize - выступал в каче¬ стве судьи, присуждая ... высшую награду 6 having registered by a certain date - после определения дня выступ¬ ления 7 as a warning to evildoers - как предупреждение грешникам 8 Upon sacrificing a pig - После принесения в жертву поросенка 9 claimed the honour of defending - заявляли о том, что им принадле¬ жит честь охранять 10 so that the temple could come to be noted for - чтобы храм просла¬ вился 11 eagerly looked forward to their coming - с большим нетерпением ожидали их наступления Глагол to look forward относится к группе так называемых состав¬ ных глаголов: глагол + послелог; наличие послелога изменяет значе¬ ние глагола. Например: to look «смотреть», to look for «искать», to look after «заботиться», to look through «просматривать», to look out «быть осторожным, беречься, быть настороже», to look forward (to) «ожидать, предвкушать», to look smth. up «искать что-л. в справочнике». 12 this way of dating - этот способ датирования 13 the decree ... was that there should be no wars - существовало реше¬ ние (постановление) о том, чтобы не вести никаких военных действий 14 before any good record was kept - до появления какой-либо точ¬ ной регистрации исторических событий 15 on the ground that - на том основании, что 16 not in keeping with Christian beliefs - не по канонам христианской веры 17 nor did they make any sacrifices - они также не делали никаких жертвоприношений Отрицательный союз nor, начинающий предложение, требует час¬ тичной инверсии. Синонимичное предложение - They did not make any sacrifices either. 18 helped (to) bring people closer together - способствуя сближению народов Существительное people в значении «люди» не употребляется во множественном числе, хотя и согласуется с глаголом во множествен¬ ном числе. Например: There are many people in the canteen now. - В столовой сейчас мно¬ го народу. 94
Few people usually attend his lecture. -- На его лекции обычно при¬ сутствует мало людей. Однако в значении «народы», «нации» оно принимает оконча¬ ние -S. Words and Word Combinations rise v. подниматься, возвышать¬ ся; n. подъем,восход worship v. поклоняться, почитать; п. поклонение god п. бог goddess п. богиня legend п. легенда device а. божественный neighbour п. сосед neighbouring а. соседний found V. основывать, закладывать founder п. основатель spear /2. копье, дротик wrong а. неправильный, невер¬ ный left а. левый train v. тренировать(ся) athlete/г. спортсмен hold v. 1) проводить, устраивать; 2) держать shrine/?, гробница wealth /?. богатство wealthy а. (= rich) богатый look V. смотреть; п. взгляд therefore adv. поэтому even adv. даже happen v. случаться, происходить probably adv. вероятно decree п. декрет, указ trace V. проследить; п. след include V. включать (в себя) danger /?. опасность flame /?. пламя sword п. меч, шпага, рапира throw V. бросать (в кого-л.) (at), кидать foot (feet) п. 1) нога, ступня; 2) фут chariot /?. колесница, chariot races ристание на колесницах sacrifice v. приносить в жертву; /г. жертвоприношение feast /г. пир, пиршество messenger /?. гонец, посыльный date V. датировать; восходить к; п. дата аррёаг v. появляться, показывать appearance п. появление right а. правильный, верный; правый abolish V. отменять, упразднять abolition п. отмена, упразднение pagan а. языческий; п. язычник revive v. возрождать Christian а. христианский; /г. христианин Christianity п. христианство watch V. наблюдать; п. часы receive v. 1) получать; 2) прини¬ мать (людей) wear V. носить, быть одетым в crown п. корона, престол; коро¬ левская власть, государство formerly adv. раньше, прежде throughout рг. повсюду, по всему ..., во всем .., через весь ... wonderful а. удивительный wonder /г. чудо 95
origin n. происхождение, источник myth(ology) n. миф(ология) contest n. соревнование (спортив- means л. средство, способ ное) * * * according to - в соответствии с to hold a festival (games, a meeting, a conference) - проводить празд¬ ник (игры, собрание, конференцию) it dates back to - это восходит к to the right (left) - направо (налево) in hbnour of - в честь кого-л. to be present (at) = to attend присутствовать (па) by means of = with the help of - посредством, с помощью (чего-л.) to take part (in) - участвовать (в) to win. a victory (over) - одержать победу (над); выиграть to be eager to do smth. - очень хотеть, гореть желанием сделать что-л. to take place - состояться, иметь место What’s the origin of... ? - Каково происхождение...? to make (offer) a sacrifice - делать жертвоприношение, приносить в жертву on foot - пешком it must be noted that - необходимо заметить, что to go in for (wrestling, swimming, skating) - заниматься, увлекаться (борьбой, плаванием, катанием на коньках) What kind of sport do you play? - Каким видом спорта вы занимае¬ тесь? Reading Rules Recapitulation 1. В словах греческого происхождения диграф ph читается [f], ди¬ граф ch читается [к]. Например: alphabet faslfobit], Christian ['knst/эп]. 2. Буква с в сочетаниях cial, dent, cious читается [)]. Например: special, ancient, precious. 3. В буквосочетаниях stle, sten буква t не читается. Например: wrestle ['resl], fasten [Ta:sn], Exercise Read the following words according to the reading rule: photo, biography [ai'o], chemist, social, whistle, philosopher, techni¬ cal, official, phonetician, phone, character, precious, physics, chemistry, malicious, phalanx, mechanics, suspicious, phenomenon, archaeology [:'o], 96
provincial, pharaoh [Теэгои], scheme, musician, Phoenicians [i], anchor, ef¬ ficient, phantom, chaos ['ею], physical, technology, sufficient, geography, chemical. GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1. Form the Present Participle of the following verbs (see § 1, p. 337): e. g. to ask - asking (спрашивающий, спрашивая) to read, to translate, to speak, to answer, to stand, to go, to watch, to study, to leave, to do, to specialize, to make, to take, to lead, to retreat. 2. State the syntactical function of the Present Participle in the follow¬ ing sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Do you know the man standing over there? 2. While speaking to the Assistant Dean yesterday I forgot to ask him the name of our new lecturer. 3. While spending our summer holiday in the students’ camp, we played football very often. 4. I took the train leaving for St. Petersburg. 5. Leaving Moscow she sent me a message. 6. The students specializing in Ancient History will take a course of Latin. 7. When staying in Kiev, I went to see some of my friends living there. 8. I hope you didn’t break your leg when falling. 3. Recast the following phrases, using constructions with participles: Model A. The boy who is playing in the garden is my son. The boy playing in the garden is my son. Model B. Look out when you are crossing a street. Look out when (while) crossing a street. A. 1. People who borrow books from the library must return them on time. 2. There are many students in our group who take part in all kinds of social work. 3. The man who is speaking at the meeting is our new trainer. 4. The students who are learning English will see an English film after classes. 5. The TV-set that stands in the corner of the laboratory was received only yesterday. 97
В. 1. When you speak English, pay attention to your pronunciation. 2. When you leave the room, don’t forget to turn off the light. 3. When Roman emperors conquered other lands, they enslaved millions of people. 4. You must have a lot of practice when you learn to speak a foreign language. 5. When he was fighting in Gaul, Caesar destroyed many towns and villages. 4. Suggest English equivalents of the following. Use them in sentences of your own. a. спортсмены, участвующие в соревновании; войска, отступаю¬ щие к югу; преподаватель, ведущий (hold) семинарские занятия; ар¬ мия, защищающая интересы народа; студенты, пропускающие заня¬ тия; лица, работающие над этой темой; школьники (students), посе¬ щающие эти лекции; студенты, слушающие курс историографии (his¬ toriography); все (those) поступающие на исторический факультет; на¬ род, борющийся за свою свободу (freedom); лица, изучающие иностран¬ ный язык самостоятельно (by themselves); события, происходящие сей¬ час в Югославии; b. переходя (пересекая) улицу; обсуждая этот вопрос; захватывая города и села; отступая; выполняя домашнее задание; читая книгу; просматривая газеты; сдавая экзамены; сохраняя мир (peace); нанося поражение противнику (the enemy); представляя курсовую работу; уез¬ жая из Москвы, работая в библиотеке. 5. Compose sentences of your own according to the models. Model 1. The students specializing in ancient history must take up Latin and Greek. Model 2. While going home I met a friend of mine. 6. Give the Past Participle of the following verbs (see § 2, p. 334): e. g. to discuss - discussed (обсуждаемый, обсужденный); to leave - left (оставленный, покинутый). to bring, to build, to give, to send, to show, to found, to capture, to besiege, to defeat, to conquer, to oppress, to leave, to win, to make, to present, to study, to write. 98
7. Find the Past Participle in the following sentences. Translate the sen¬ tences into Russian. 1. The Olympic Flame usually brought by a celebrated athlete from Olympia, Greece, is the sacred fire symbolizing the spirit of friendly competition. 2. We are proud of the sport victories won by our athletes at the Olympic Games held in Munich [к]. 3. Some of the questions put to the lecturer were very interesting. 4. A month spent at the seaside will help you a lot. 5. Where is the bag left by somebody here yesterday? 8. Recast the following phrases, using constructions with participles. Model. The story, which was told by the teacher, was long. The story told by the teacher was long. 1. The expression which was used by the student was not correct. 2. Letters which are sent today from here to Saint Petersburg arrive there tomorrow morning. 3. The books which are borrowed from the library may be kept for ten days. 4. The slaves of Sparta who were brutally oppressed by the slave¬ owners rose up in arms (с оружием в руках) to free themselves. 5. The city of Rome which was captured by the barbarians was plun¬ dered and vandalized. 6. The person who is called an umpire acts as a judge (судья) in a game. 7. What is the number of houses which were built here last year? 9. Suggest English equivalents for: 1. показывающий - показанный; делающий - сделанный; полу¬ чающий - получаемый, полученный; изучающий - изучаемый; откры¬ вающий - открытый; читающий - прочитанный, читаемый; посылаю¬ щий - посылаемый, посланный; дающий - данный 2. город, осажденный римлянами; города-государства, захвачен¬ ные Александром Великим; фашистские войска, разгромленные под (at) Сталинградом; меры, принятые Сенатом; войска противника, со¬ средоточенные к югу от К.; страны (земли), покоренные Помпеем; пра¬ вительство (government), свергнутое народом; матч, выигранный на¬ шей командой (team); доклады, сделанные на конференции; иностран¬ ные языки, изучаемые на этом факультете; курсовые работы, пред¬ ставленные студентами 99
10. Compose sentences of your own, using the participial constructions of Ex. 9, point 2. 11. Translate the following word combinations paying special attention to the way the Russian participle should be rendered: e.g. дети, заканчивающие школу the children leaving school студенты, сдающие этот экзамен женщина, покупающая журнал учитель, спрашивающий ученика лица, изучающие этот предмет абитуриенты, поступающие на этот факультет молодой человек, читающий газету 12. Pick out from the text sentei functions in which the participles are дети, закончившие школу the children who left school студенты, сдавшие этот экзамен женщина, купившая журнал учитель, спросивший ученика лица, изучившие этот предмет лица, поступившие на этот факультет молодой человек, прочитавший газету :es containing participles. Explain the 13. Analyse the following sentences: 1. Historically, football can be traced back to a Roman game prob¬ ably introduced into Britain at the beginning of the Christian era. 2. Surrounded by his nobles, Xerxes stood on the Attic coast watching his ships. 14. Test translation. Express the following in Russian: 1. Being busy I had to refuse their invitation (приглашение). 2. Not knowing her address we couldn’t send her a greetings tele¬ gram. 3. Having been discussed and corrected the bill (законопроект) was given the second reading. 4. Entering the assembly hall the delegates took their seats. 5. When looking through the theses of my report I found several misprints (опечатки). 6. Seeing that some students were absent the teacher put off (отло¬ жить) the seminar. 7. When asked whether she would take part in the experiment, she answered in the affirmative (утвердительно). 100
8. I saw the floor washed. 9. We want the job done by to inuuuw. 10. Given to understand that he was wrong, he got offended (обидеться). 11. The discovery made by the group of our scientists is of great importance. 12. The bridge being built across this river will be very long. 13. The man delivering the lecture is Prof. White. 14. We would like the translation to be done in two languages. 15. I saw the fence (забор) being painted. 16. Arriving at the station we found that the train had left. VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. Give adjectives ending in -ful corresponding to the following nouns. Translate them into Russian. beauty, wonder, peace (мир), use [s] (польза), help, law, event, success [sak'ses] (успех), truth (правда), thank 2. Form adjectives ending in -ern from the following nouns Translate them into Russian. east, west, north, south 3. Form nouns ending in -ing from the following verbs. Translate them into Russian. to wrestle, to throw, to race, to swim, to date, to meet, to hold, to warn, to train, to sacrifice, to offer, to build 4. a) Use the suffix each of these words contains to form derivatives from the words given in brackets. Translate the derivatives. badly (quick, slow, simple, final, historical); dictation (translate, create, construct, instruct, act); dictator (act, translate, instruct, create, sail) b) Analyse the structure of the following words: evildoer, enlarging, democratically, wealthy 5. Suggest the English for: на юге; к западу от Афин; к северо-востоку от Спарты; в со¬ ответствии с легендой; проводить празднество (пиршество); в честь 101
Юпитера; присутствовать на XX Олимпийских Играх; участвовать в спортивном состязании (соревновании); одержать победу над; выиграть сражение (матч); очень хотеть; состояться; иметь место; каково проис¬ хождение слова христианство?; жертвоприношение; приносить в жерт¬ ву; жертвовать; пешком; подъем, рост; причитание; поклонение богам; основать города-государства; копье, щит и меч; боевая колесница; по¬ сланец, гонец; богатые гробницы; поэтому; указ; декрет; постановле¬ ние; следы древней культуры (culture); отменить (упразднить) рабство; возродить старые традиции (traditions); христианский, христианство; корона; ранее, прежде; мифы - важный исторический источник (source); во всем районе; необходимо заметить; посредством 6. a) Guess the meaning of the words in italics. 1. The demos won the right to take part in state administration. 2. According to the legend the songs were collected by Homer [Ъоитэ], a famous poet. 3. Traces of ancient civilization were found in Peru [рэ'ги:]. 4. Land cultivation became easier after the appearance of iron f'aian] tools. 5. By the end of the Homeric Age the nobility had concentrated great wealth in their hands. 6. Those who believed in myths about Christ [ai] called themselves Christians [k], 7. Many students do not know Greek mythology. 8. When the emperor allowed a nobleman to kiss his foot it was regarded (считалось) a great honour. 9. Suddenly my neighbour rose to his feet and left the room. 10. The rise and the fall of Alexander the Great’s Empire took place within a short period of time. 11. After the rainfall the river rose two feet. 12. Our grandmother is an early riser. 13. The war rose from a quarrel between the two crowns. 14. Elizabeth II succeeded [sak'si:did] (унаследовала) to the crown in 1953. She was crowned in Westminster Abbey (Вестминстерское аб¬ батство). 15. Once India was the biggest jewel ['d3u:al] (жемчужина) in the British Crown. 16. The ancient Greeks compared the life of the Olympian Gods with that of the nobles. They imagined [i'maed3ind] (представляли) them wearing beautiful clothes and holding numerous feasts. 102
17. Why don’t you wear these shoes? - Don’t you see? They are worn out. 18. The Greek soldier wore a sword. 19. His daughter received a good education. 20. I often receive letters and telegrams from my friends. 21. Bess wanted to see the doctor, but unfortunately he does not receive today. 22. A grand reception was given in honour of the foreign delega¬ tions. 23. The history of Rome can be traced back to 6th с. В. C. 24. The police traced the thief. 25. Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the Historical Museum? - Go straight ahead, then turn to the right, and you will see a high red building on your left. It’s the museum. 26. The people of Plataea as well as those of the neighbouring vil¬ lages took part in the battle. 27. He is right in saying that to study the history of Ancient Greece is interesting and useful. 28. “Were some emperors declared divine after their death?” asked the pupil. - “Yes, you are quite right,” was the teacher’s answer. 29. The legend about the Colossus of Rhodes originated in the Middle Ages. b) React to the following statements by adding something of your own. Begin with: Yes. I’ll go even further and ... In addition, I should like to say that... Besides, mention should be made that... No. Frankly speaking it’s new to me. Sorry, I wouldn’t know (I don’t know). I must confess, I don’t remember it. помню. Да. Более того, я скажу ... Кроме того, мне хотелось бы сказать, что... Кроме того, необходимо упомя¬ нуть, что... Нет. Откровенно говоря, мне это неизвестно. Извините, я этого не знаю. Должен признаться, я этого не Do you know that... 1. The north of the Balkan Peninsula was inhabited by Greek tribes called Dorians. 103
2. Myths provide one of the sources for the study of the history of Ancient Greece. 3. The ordinary Greek soldiers armed with nothing but spears and stones fought on foot. As to the leaders they rode in chariots and were protected with armour ['а:тэ]. 4. Zeus was worshipped as the god of thunder (гром) and lightning (молния). 5. During the Greco-Trojan [troudjon] war Athena [э'бгпэ], a god¬ dess, who patronized the Greeks, disguised herself as Hector’s brother. 6. In ancient times the Greeks believed that Nature was ruled by gods, therefore they worshipped various gods. 7. With the development of farming the Egyptians [idjipjanz] began to worship the God of the Sun. 8. In olden times the people could not explain the origin of sunrise and sunset. 9. The Greeks held feasts in honour of Dionysius fdaia'nisiasl, the God of Wine. 10. Athenian pottery was famous throughout Greece. 11. What is the origin of the word aristocracyl 12. Achilles [o'kili:z] threw his spear at Hector. When he killed him, he tied Hector’s feet to his chariot. 13. The favourite entertainment (развлечение, забава) of the Romans was chariot racing for which purpose special circus-hippodromes were built. 14. In Athens Aristotle founded the best high school in Greece and he lectured there himself. 15. A Spartan boy wore practically nothing except one cloak a year which he received at the age of 12. 16. The east coast of Greece is washed by the Aegean [i'd3i:an] Sea. According to its natural conditions Greece can be divided into three parts: Southern (the Peloponnese), Central and Northern. c) Could you comment ['komant] on the following? e. g. In other words... It’s known far and wide... It’s not surprising (be¬ cause)... It’s clear enough. There is nothing (little) to add. Другими словами... Широко известно... Неудивительно, (потому что)... Ясно. Нечего (мало что можно) доба¬ вить. 104
1. According to the Greeks, daylight came because the God of the Sun appeared in the heavens [e] in a chariot driven by four snow-white horses. 2. According to the myth, Prometheus [pra'mi:9ju:s] saved people from danger: he stole fire from Hephaestus [hi'frstas] and gave it to people. 3. People worshipped Prometheus as a fighter for people’s happi¬ ness against evil [i:] gods. 4. The origin of many poems was connected with the bards of Ancient Greece who composed songs about the wonderful deeds (поступки, дела) of different heroes and recited them at feasts. 5. During Salon’s reforms slavery for debt was abolished and the popular assembly was revived. 6. It so happened that Greece, a small country broken inro city-states, won a victory over the Persian Empire. 7. Religion [n'lid33n] in Ancient Greece strengthened the power of the oppressors over the oppressed. 8. In Ancient Greece sport competitions or games were usually held on holidays. 9. According to the Iliad gods participated (участвовать) in the battles too. 10. Athenian [э'бщэп] citizens received a lot from the growing number of slaves in Attica. 11. Agora [э'дотэ] was a curious place in the Greek city. 7. Give the meaning of the words in italics: 1. Look at one of the Seven Wonders of the world - the Light house of Alexandria towering 600 feet above the sea. 2. In the reading-room I usually look through newspapers and maga¬ zines. 3. If I come across an unfamiliar (unknown) word, I always look it up in the dictionary. 4. Who will look after the dog in your absence? 5. Whenever I see her, she is always looking for something. 6. Look out when crossing the street. 7. We look forward to seeing you soon in Moscow. 8. “Don’t look into the book when you answer,” said the teacher to the pupil. 105
8. Have a talk based on the text with your classmate. Make use of the following questions: 1. Is the city of Olympia to the north or to the south of Sparta? 2. Does the sun rise in the west or in the east? 3. What century does the rise of Christianity refer to (относится)? 4. What principal god did the ancient Greeks worship? 5. They worshipped the elements (стихия; стихийные силы приро¬ ды) as well, didn’t they? 6. Did the ancient Romans worship the same gods and goddesses as the Greeks? 7. Do you know any legends and myths about the Greek campaign against Troy? 8. Did Hercules order that a festival be held every four years in honour of his divine father? 9. What neighbouring countries of Greece do you know? 10. When were athletic games founded in Ancient Greece? How far back can we trace them to? 11. Was an ordinary Greek soldier armed with a spear and stones which he threw at his foe (enemy)? 12. Did he usually fight on foot? 13. How many feet are there in a yard1 ? 14. Was chariot racing very popular in Ancient Rome? 15. Did primitive ['primitiv] (первобытные) people make sacrifices to the gods? 16. Did the Greeks hold feasts in honour of the God of Wine? 17. What do you call a person who delivers messages? 18. When did Christianity appear? 19. Did the Christians refuse to worship emperors as gods? 20. Are the Olympic Games held every four years? 21. In ancient times people laid precious offerings before shrines, didn’t they? 22. In what century В. C. was Athens the wealthiest city in Greece? 23. Are Herodotus writings valuable (ценны) as a source of histori¬ cal information? 24. When were the Olympic Games revived? 1 ярд = 90 см, английская мера длины 106
9. Suggest English equivalents of the Russian words given in brackets. 1. Paris (славиться) its museums and historical places. 2. What (прославило) the Temple of Zeus in Olympia? 3. (Необходимо заметить) that he became a good swimmer (пу¬ тем, посредством) hard training. 4. (В соответствии с мифом) Hercules vanquished ['vaeqkwift] (по¬ бедил, преодолел в единоборстве) Antaeus [asn'tias], the son of (богини) of the earth. 5. (Мне очень хочется) to make a good study of Greek mythology. 6. It so (случилось) that he was suddenly taken ill and could not (участвовать) in the final hockey match. 7. The Olympic Games (были отменены, упразднены) on the ground that they had a pagan (происхождение). 8. Unlike (в отличие от) the ancient times the Olympic Games par¬ ticipants (участники) now do not (носят венки) of olive leaves or (делают жертвоприношения). 9. Hercules (основал) many athletic games for the purpose of at¬ tracting the people of (соседних) towns and villages to (храму) in which they (поклонялись) Jupiter. 10. The main temple of the Acropolis [a'kropalis] - the Parthenon ['ра:9эпэп] - was built (в честь) Athena. 11. At the age of 19 Lomonosov left his home and went to Moscow (пешком). 12. Alexander the Great ordered (даже) his nobles to bow [au] low before him like а (божественному) creature (существо). 13. With (появлением) of imported slaves the power of Attica’s slave¬ owners increased. 14. The name of Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, is known (во всем мире). 10. Paraphrase the following sentences, using words and expressions from the text: 1. The major god of the Greeks was Zeus and that of the Romans was Jupiter. 2. Hercules, as the legend goes, gave orders that a festival should be held every four years. 3. Hercules himself attended the first festivals. 4. There were sacrifices, sports and feasts on the program of the fes¬ tival. 107
5. Three runners of Jupiter went to all Greek states inviting the people to take part in the sport competition. 6. All the spectators put some dear things before shrines, and soon the Temple of Zeus became known for its beauty and riches. 7. It’s necessary to note that there was a decision not to wage wars dur¬ ing an Olympiad. 8. It was customary to say that such and such an event occurred in the first year of the second Olympiad. 9. We can find, by means of tracks and signs, the origin of the Games as far back as lib В. C. 10. Theodosius I put an end to the Games because of their pagan origin which ran counter to Christian beliefs. 11. It was only in 1896 that the Games were renewed. 12. The winners received medals and wreaths, but the people did not wear crowns as before. 13. They did not sacrifice anything to the old gods either. 14. As the people of Sparta were masters in athletics, they usually received the first prizes. 11. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: a fall (падение), to disappear, to be wrong, unimportant, poor, to lose a battle, ugly, to found, a rise, to appear, to be right, important, wealthy, to win a battle, beautiful, to abolish 12. Choose the appropriate word from those listed below according to the definition. a city-state in the southern part of Greece; the head-dress worn by a king (queen) or an emperor (emperess); an old story or a legend of a religious character; a car with two wheels (колеса) pulled by horses used in ancient times for fighting and races; one who carries a message; a case (ящик) or a box richly and beautifully ornamented in which sacred things (мощи) are kept; a system of government in Ancient Greece, “the power of the best”; a weapon (оружие) with a long shaft and a pointed metal head; a social group of free population originally deprived of (первоначально лишенная) the right to take part in the Government of Athens; government by the demos; a contest in athletics. Olympic Games, democracy, Sparta, demos [di:mos], crown, spear, myth, aristocracy, shrine, chariot, messenger 108
13. Choose the right word: during, for 1. Alexander the Great’s eastern campaign (поход) lasted. .> about ten years. 2. \. the preparations for the campaign Phillip II was killed. 3. Herodotus estimated that the construction of the Cheops [ki:ops] Pyramid lasted ... 20 years. wear, dress, put on 1. How long does it take you to get up, to wash and to ...? 2. ... the children and let them go for a walk. 3. Why don’t you ... this tie? -1 don’t like the colour. 4. Now many young people ... their hair long. 5. It’s getting cold. ... something warm. 6. He ... his coat and cap and left the room. athlete, sportsman, rise, raise 1. Spartans were great... 2. One who constantly takes part in hunting, fishing, shooting or horse-racing is called a ... 3. A large group of.., represented Russia at the Olympic Games. 4. The sun ... in the east. 5. Don’t... this question now. different, various 1. Plutarch described ... historial events in his books. 2. We stand for peaceful co-existence of states with ... political and social systems. 3. ... ancient and modern languages are taught at our faculty. 4. What he says and what he does are ... things. 14. Make up questions and answers according to the patterns. Use the words given in brackets. Work in pairs. 1. What is the date today? (was) (yesterday) (will be) (tomorrow) (1.9.2001; 2.10; 3.1; 7.8; 13.7; 9.6; 2. What day is it today? (was) (yesterday) (will be) (tomorrow) - It is the 5th of May. (was) (will be) 10.5; 15.4; 20.3; 23.2; 30.1) - It’s Monday. (Sunday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday) 109
3. What’s the time (by your watch)? (10.30; 11.45; 12.00; 13.15; 14.25; 23.40; 24.00) - It’s five sharp. (half past nine, ten to six, a quarter past seven, twen¬ ty (minutes) to ten) 4. Where is Olympia (situated)? - It’s to the northwest of Sparta. (to the east of, to the south of, in the west, in the north) 5. In what year did the battlee>f Water- (490 В. C.;480B. C.; 338 В. C.) loo take place? (Marathon, Salamis, Chaeroneia, Thermopylae) 6. When and where were the last - They were held in Australia Olympic Games held? in 2000. (the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th) (1952,1956,1960, 1964,1968) 15. Respond to the following statements according to the pattern. Work in pairs. e. g. - Probably he didn’t want to attend the contest (to be taken ill). - Oh, no. He was taken ill, therefore he didn’t attend the contest. 1. Probably she did not want to call me up (to be very busy). 2. Perhaps they didn’t wish to come to see us (to be away from Moscow). 3. Probably your friend was not willing to take part in the competition (not to have enough training) 4. Probably you didn’t want to speak at the seminar (to be unprepared). 16. Join two sentences given below by using the conjunction nor. Make the necessary changes. Model A. They did not wear crowns. They did not make any sacri¬ fices to the gods either. Model B. They did not wear crowns, nor did they make any sacrifices to the gods. 1. Tom did not come to see me. He did not call me up either. 2. Peter did not win the first game. He did not win the second game either. 3. I did not read the newspaper yesterday. I did not listen to the radio either. 110
4. The Olympic Games were not held in 393 В. C. They did not take place in many years to come either. 17. a) Give the corresponding noun denoting the doer of the action. Trans¬ late the nouns into Russian. wrestling, spear throwing, running, jumping, boxing, swimming, ski¬ ing, skating b) Construct sentences of the type: He is a good swimmer. - Он хоро¬ шо плавает. 18. Compose sentences according to the patterns. Use the words given in brackets. 1. No man can live without water {air, food, vitamins). 2. I am very eager to do it {to be present at the match, to take part in the contest, to listen to the myth about Prometheus, to have a look at the Temple of Diana). 3. My friend works as a librarian {teacher, secretary, guide, transla¬ tor). 4. He ordered that the article should be corrected {to be translated, to be looked through, to be published, to be discussed). 5. When {at what time, where, how, why) did it happen? 19. Insert the missing prepositions and adverbs. Read the extract aloud and ask seven questions, using the words in italics. Once every four years Olympic Games were held... Olympia, a city ... the Peloponnese [pi'bponi:z]. ... all sport competitions they were the most popular ... running, jumping, wrestling and discus throwing there were chariot races which were usually held ... a hippodrome ['hipodroumj. The chariots were drawn ... four horses. Though the Games were open ... all free Greeks, only wealthy slave-owners could afford to enter (позволить себе участвовать). Peasants and artisans (ремесленники) could not af¬ ford to spend so much time ... sports. Thousands ... Greeks and visitors ... the colonies came to watch the Games. It became a custom (стало обычаем) even to stop wars ... the Olympic Games... the last day... the Games the victors (победители) were awarded garlands... olive branches.... their return home the whole popula¬ tion ... their native towns would come ... to greet them. Often statues ... them were placed... the city squares to show that... their victories they had brought glory (слава)... their home city. Apart from (помимо того, что) 111
being very popular the Olympic Games helped to strengthen the links (ук¬ реплять связи)... the regions and cities... Greece. The Greeks considered them so important that they decided to intro¬ duce a new system ... chronology [kra'nobdji] beginning ... the First Games which ... the records were held ... 776 В. C. 20. Supply articles wherever required and retell the text. ... La cons [ei] (жители Лаконии) lived in ... part of Southern Greece called Laconia. They were .,. very brave people and led ... very simple life. One of... rules they were guided by (руководствовались) was to speak briefly (кратко), using no more words than were needed at ... moment. This was carried so far1 that to this day ... very short answer is often called laconic, that is, such ... answer as ... Lacon might have given (мог бы дать). In... Northern Greece there was... land called Macedonia, which was once ruled by ... king named Philip. Philip was eager to become ... master of all Greece. Therefore he collected ... great army and soon conquered all Greece until only Laconia remained unconquered. Then he sent... message to ... brave Lacons saying: “If I invade (вторгаться) your country, I will destroy (разрушать) your great city.” In ... few days ... answer was brought back to ... king. He found only one word in ... letter. That word was “IP’. 21. Test translation: 1. Когда Персия (Persia) напала (to attack) на Грецию, все гречес¬ кие города поднялись на защиту. 2. К северо-западу от Спарты находится город Олимпия. 3. Олимпийские игры, которые устраивались в дни празднеств в честь бога Юпитера раз в четыре года, существовали до 394 г. н.э. 4. В дни праздника запрещалось (it was forbidden) вести войны на территории Греции. 5. Олимпийские игры начинались с жертвоприношений, после чего происходили спортивные состязания (contests), а затем устраива¬ лись пиршества. 6. Древние греки поклонялись многочисленным богам и богиням. 7. В честь бога вина и земледелия (fanning) греки устраивали пиры. 8. В соответствии с легендой греками был построен огромный деревянный (wooden) конь, внутри которого находились лучшие воины. 9. В древние времена люди не знали, почему солнце (the sun) восходит на востоке и заходит на западе. 11 (зд.) Они настолько преуспели в этом 112
10. Спартанец был вооружен (to be armed with) копьем и мечом. На нем был шлем (helmet), в руках у него был щит (shield). 11. Любимым развлечением (entertainment) древних римлян было ристание па колесницах. 12. Люди, которые приходили, чтобы посмотреть Олимпийские игры, клали дорогие приношения к гробницам, находившимся в храме. 13. Вскоре в храме Зевса (Zeus) сосредоточились (to be concen¬ trated) огромные богатства. 14. Из всех полисов Афинское государство было самым богатым в центральной Греции. 15. В Пелопоннесе археологи обнаружили (нашли) следы микен¬ ской культуры (Mycenean culture). 16. Гонцы Ксеркса (Xerxes) доставили грекам приказ - сложить оружие (to lay down the arms). 17. Какой период в истории Греции называется эпохой (age) Го- мера? Каково происхождение этого термина? 18. Если вы посмотрите на статую Зевса в Олимпии, вы увидите, что бог богов держит в правой руке статуэтку (statuette) богини побе¬ ды, а в левой - жезл (baton). 19. В 8-6 вв. до н. э. в Греции появилось много городов-государств, т. е. городов с прилегающими к ним (соседними) селениями (village). 20. Появление рабовладельческой демократии (democracy) в Афинах относится к (to refer to) 5 в. до н.э. 21. Римский император Феодосий I считал (to consider), что Олим¬ пийские игры имеют языческое происхозюдение. Поэтому он отменил их. 22. В 5 в. до н.э. все гражданское население (граждане) Афин при¬ нимало участие в народных собраниях (popular assembly). 23. В борьбе между демосом и представителями родовой знати (nobility) часто побеокдал демос (the demos). 24. Олимпийские игры были возобновлены только в 1896 г. 25. В битве при Саламине (Salamis) греки одержали большую победу над персами. 26. Император Деций (Decius) приказал, чтобы все римляне при¬ носили жертву и преклонялись перед его статуями. 27. Хотя христиан все время преследовали (to persecute), к концу III в. н. э. христианство в Римской империи широко распространи¬ лось (to become widespread). 28. Всем очень хотелось присутствовать на этом матче. 29. Мы должны найти средства помочь им. 113
30. Он стал хорошим спортсменом в результате упорной трени¬ ровки (training). 31. Чем славится ваш родной город? - Он известен своими па¬ мятниками и музеями. 22. Translate the following text with the help of a dictionary. The last paragraph is to be translated in writing. In the mythology of the ancient Greeks there was a celebrated hero, Antaeus, who, so the legend goes, was the son of Poseidon, god of the seas, and, Gea, goddess of the earth. Antaeus was very much attached to the mother, who had given birth to him, suckled him, and reared him. Practically there was not a hero whom this Antaeus did not vanquish. As a matter of fact, he was regarded as an invincible hero. Wherein did his strength lie? It lay in the fact that every time he was hard pressed in a fight with a foe, he would touch the earth, and that gave him new strength. Yet, he had a vulnerable spot, the danger of being detached from the earth in some way or other. His enemies were aware of this weakness and watched for him. One day an enemy appeared who took advantage of the vulnerable spot and vanquished Antaeus. This was Hercules. He lifted Antaeus from the earth, kept him suspended in the air, prevented him frdm touching the earth and throttled him. Antaeus [een'tios] - Антей Gea [d3ea] - Гея Poseidon [po'saidon] - Посейдон Hercules ['ha:kjuli:z] - Геркулес as a matter of fact - по сути дела Words he was hard pressed - (когда) ему было трудно the danger of being detached - опасность быть оторванйым who took advantage [od'vaintidj] of- который воспользовался 23. Read the text of the lesson and single out the sentence(s) containing the main idea. ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Answer the following questions. Work in pairs. 1. Where was the city of Olympia situated? 2. In whose honour was the beautiful temple built? Whom was it built by? 114
3. Who was the principal god of the Greeks? Whose son was Hercules'? 4. Who had ordered that a festival should be held every four years? 5. Why did Hercules found many athletic games? What were they? 6. Was Hercules present at the first festivals? 7. How long did the first festivals last? What was there on the pro¬ gram of the festivals? 8. Where did Jupiter send his messengers to? 9. What were the competitors asked to do? What did they do before the statue of Jupiter? 10. Who won most of the prizes? Why did they win most of the prizes? 11. What honour did the Spartans claim? 12. What did the people lay before shrines? 13. Did the temple become famous for its beauty and wealth? 14. What way of dating important events did historians use in connection with the Olympic Games? 15. There were no wars during an Olympiad, were there? 16. How far back can we trace the Olympic Games? 17. Who abolished them? Why were they abolished? 18. When were they revived? 19. Was the procedure [prg'sfdja] of holding the Games the same as in the olden times? 20. The Olympic Games have become a sport tradition in the world, haven’t they? 21. What kind of tradition is it? 22. Can the Olympic Games start without the Olympic Flame? 23. Where is it usually brought from? 24. What does the Flame symbolize? 2. Say something about: a) the origin of the Olympic Games; b) the pro¬ cedure of holding the first Games; c) the program of the Games; d) the way the latest Games were held; e) the significance [sig'nifiksns] (значение) of the Games as a historical tradition. 3. Retell the text in/fhe person of a competitor [e] (Hercules). Give a short summary of the text. 4. Ask questions about the latest Olympic Games: a) the time and the place they were held; b) the countries that were represented; c) the program of the Games; d) the leading Russian athletes and their victories. 115
5. Compose a story, using the following words and word combinations. it so happened that, to be invited to (быть приглашенным), a reception, in honour of, to be held, to be present, a messenger, to bring, an invitation card, many foreign guests [gests] (гости), to wear evening dresses, formerly, the program, to include, a kind of feasting, some sports, it must be noted, to watch, a wonderful picture 6. Give the name of the god (goddess) according to the following descrip¬ tions. Mind the pronunciation of the name. 1) the god of fine arts (изящные искусства), a handsome young man; 2) the goddesses of dancing, music, poetry, and history; 3) the god who protected smiths (кузнецы); 4) the god of wine And farming; 5) the sea god; 6) the god of thunder and lightning (гром и молния); 7) the god of all gods, the principal god of the Greeks; 8) the goddess of victory; 9) the goddess who protected the city of Athens; 10) the god of the sun. (Nike ['naiki:], Apollo [o'polou], Dionysius [.daio'nisios], Poseidon [po'saidon], Zeus [zju:s], muses ['mju:ziz], Hephaestus [hi'fkstos], Jupiter ['d3u:pit9], Athena [a'Grna], Helios ['hi:lros]) 7. a) Read and translate the four items given below; b) Supply answers; c) Retell the stories. 1 Pan, the Greek god of shepherds ['Jepodz] (пастухи), was once walking in the valleys, amusing himself with hunting (развлекался охотой) and playing music. Pan was absolutely harmless (безвредный) but was extremely ugly (исключительно безобразный). When he appeared before a group of travellers, he frightened them to such an extent (до такой степени) that they ran away in terrible fear. Later any sudden fear was considered to be due to Pan (приписывали Пану) and it was called a ‘Panic’ fear. 116 1) Who was the Greek god of shepherds? 2) Was he very handsome or very ugly? 3) What happened when he appeared before travellers?
2 When Tantalus, the son of Zeus, was given the right to take part in the feasts together with the gods and even to share their secrets (был посвящен в их тайны), he became extremely proud (гордый). Once he betrayed one of their secrets (выдал одну из их тайн). As a punishment (В качестве наказания) he was tortured (его мучили). Just before his face hung a bunch of fruit (ветка с плодами) which always retreated as he tried to catch it. He stood in water up to his chin (подбородок), but whenever he wanted to drink, the water went away. In this way originated the phrase tortures of Tantalus. 1) Why did Tantalus become extremely proud? 2) What was he punished for? 3) In what way was he tortured? 3 Odysseus, who was very cunning, advised the Greeks to build a huge wooden horse. The best Greek warriors were hidden (спрятались) in the horse. When the Trojans saw the horse, they dragged it inside (втянули, втащили внутрь) the city walls. At night the Greeks came out of the horse and attacked the city. They killed the Trojans, plundered and burnt the city and came home with rich spoils (добыча). 1) Who advised the Greeks to build a wooden horse? 2) Where were the best Greek warriors hidden? 3) What happened in the city at night? 4 When in 490 В. C. the Persian army attacked Greece, the Athenians under the talented general Miltiades gave a decisive battle at Marathon. The Greeks won a great victory over the Persians in that battle. On the day of the victory a Greek soldier came running to Athens to announce (чтобы объя¬ вить) the news. He had covered (покрыл) the distance of 42 km. In his honour a special contest in running was held at the Olympic Games in 1896. 1) In what battle were the Persians defeated? 2) Why did the Greek soldier come running to Athens? 8. Memorize and recite the following dialogue. - Victor, you look like a real athlete. You must be doing sports, eh? - Right you are. I’m very fond of sport. 117
- What kinds of sport do you go in for? - In summer I do a lot of swimming, in winter I usually go in for skat¬ ing and skiing. What about you? - I for one prefer indoor games. I play chess and table tennis. - That’s fine. Let’s have a game of chess now. - With pleasure. a real athlete - настоящий спортсмен to do a lot of swimming - много плавать f for one - что касается меня indoor - комнатный 9. Make up questions and answers according to the models. Use the words given in brackets. 1. What sport does your friend do? He does swimming (to skate, to ski, to boat, to wrestle, to box, to jump, to shoot). 2. What games can you play? I can play chess (football, basketball, volleyball, hockey, handball). 1010. Say something about: a) the sport you do;,b) the most popular sport in our country; c) your favourite football (hockey) |team.
LESSON FIVE Text: Persia vs Greece Grammar: The Continuous Tense Forms, Active Voice. The Noun. The Article. PERSIA VS GREECE 1. In the year 490 В. C. King Darius, having put down the revolt2 in Asia Minor, sent an expedition across the Aegean to punish Eretria and Athens.(When they heard that it was coming some of the Greeks expressed their willingness3 to submit. But when messengers from the “Great King” came asking for earth and water4, symbols of submission, the Athenians and Spartans threw the Persian envoys into wells. The Greek cities realized that they must unite to defend themselves5 or they would be conquered one by one as the cities in Asia Minor had been. Only Sparta, they thought, cojild provide leadership. As the Athenians knew they would be attacked first, they asked the Spartans to help them. They had much discussion about what they ought to do 6. Some of the old aristocrats believed that it would be wise 7 to take back the former ty¬ rant Hippias, who was living in exile at the Persian court. Patriotic citizens, however, showed interest in Miltiades who had just returned from the north Aegean where the Persians were subduing Greek colonies. The Athenians made him one of the ten generals who commanded their small army. The Persians started the campaign by landing troops8 on the island of Euboae. On learning that the enemy had come, the Athenians sent a runner to tell the Spartans. But the Spartans, who were celebrating a religious fes¬ tival at that moment, refused to start saying that they could not march until the moon was full9. On the next morning,Miltiades led the Greeks, armed with spears and shields, into combat. Though the Persian archers outnumbered the Greeks, the latter 10 won the battle of Marathon. The battle was nearing its end 11 when about two thousand Spartan soldiers arrived. They were surprised to learn 12 that the Athenians had already defeated the enemy. So they congratulated the victors and returned home. 2. In the year 480 В. C. another Persian army invaded Greecel3. It was led by Xerxes, the new king of Persia who had ascended the throne after the death of his father Darius I. Having reached 14 the Balkan Peninsula the 119
Persians occupied Northern Greece without any fighting. The Persian fleet was sailing not far from the shore. On hearing about15 the Persian invasion the Greek cities sent smal detachments to fight against the enemy. Sparta sent three hundred warrior: under King Leonidas 16. There was only one way by which the Persians could enter Central Greece and that was by the Thermopylae Pass, a narrow strip of land be¬ tween the mountains and the sea. The pass was defended mainly by the Spartans. No sooner had the Greeks taken up positions in the pass than Xerxes17 sent messengers to Leonidas telling him to lay down the arms and surren¬ der. “No” was Leonidas’ reply. The Persian attacks on the small detach¬ ment lasted for two days. The Spartans knew no such thing as fear. Repulsing the enemy attacks they bravely held out the Persians18 who met only death from the arrows, spears and swords of the Spartans. At night a traitor led the Persians through the mountains to the rear of the Greeks, who were immediately encircled. Although they were sur¬ rounded, the Spartans were fighting to the last. All day long they were beat¬ ing back the enemy whqin vain tried to break through the pass. One by one the Spartans fell in the unequal battle, and when the sun set, there was not a single Spartan leftl9, all of them were killed. Later a monument was erected on the battlefield in honour of King Leonidas and his fearless men. Practise the following for pronunciation: Proper names: Darius [da'raias], Aegean [i'd3i:an], Eretria [fretrig], Per¬ sia ['рэ:/э], Athenian [э'вщэп], Hippias ['hipises], Miltiades [milti'eidi.z], Euboae [jui'bia], Marathon ['тэггэвэп], Xerxes ['za:ksi:z], Balkan [Ъо:1кэп], Leonidas [li'onidaes], Thermopylae [0a:'mopili], Spartans f'spa:tanz]; [0, 6] threw, they thought [o:], though [ou], although, throne, northern, without, thing, death [e], through [u:]; [a:] pass, asking, asked, commanded, army, started, march, armed, arches, arms, lasted; occupy, colonies, combat, warrior; [o:] ought, court, morning, shore, small, swords [s], all; [э:] earth, Per¬ sian, first, returned, encircle, learning; across_the Aegean, expressed_their willingness, at_the cities, as_the Athenians, what_they ought to do, afjihe Persian court, sendjhree hundred soldiers ['souldjaz], between the mountains and the sea, through the pass; opjthe island ['ailand], ascendedjhe throne; Ударение на первом слоге: realize, aristocrat, exile [ks]; Ударение на втором слоге: religious, attack, repulse, immediately [i'mi:di3th], surrender, surround, revolt. 120
Notes 1 vs (сокр. от versus) - (лат.) против 2 having put down the revolt - подавив восстание 3 expressed their willingness - изъявили желание “asking for earth and water - просили земли и воды (об артикле см. § 3, с. 339). В значении «просить у кого-л., что-л. (предмет)» глагол ask упот¬ ребляется с предлогом for, е. g. Не asked me for а реп. «Он попросил у меня ручку». Realized that they must unite to defend themselves - поняли (осозна¬ ли), что им необходимо объединиться, чтобы защитить себя Обстоятельственный оборот цели (обычно с союзом чтобы) в анг¬ лийском языке может передаваться с помощью одного инфинитива или в сочетании последнего с союзом in order (для того чтобы). 6 about what they ought to do - о том, что они должны делать 7 believed that it would be wise - полагали, что было бы разумно 8by landing troops - высадив войска 9 until the moon was full - до наступления полнолуния 10 the latter - последний из двух упомянутых The latter относится ко второму из двух упомянутых, the former - к первому. Оба слова могут употребляться вместо существительного как в единственном, так и во множебтвенном числе. 11 was nearing its end - подходила к концу 12they were surprised to learn- они удивились, когда узнали Русский глагол узнать может передаваться такими глаголами, как: to learn (узнать случайно, услышать), to find out (узнать в значении «навести справки, специально выяснить»), to recognize (узнать, т. е. опознать) и некоторыми другими, е. g. I learnt that they were going abroad. Please find out when the lecture begins. She had changed so greatly that I could not recognize her. 13 another army invaded Greece - другая армия вторглась в Грецию В указанном значении после глагола invade следует прямое до¬ полнение; существительное invasion (вторэ/сение в страну) употреб¬ ляется с предлогом of, e.g. invasion of Greece. 14 having reached - достигнув 15 on hearing (about) - узнав о, услышав (о) Глагол hear (слышать) не смешивайте с глаголом listen (to) (слу¬ шать кого-л., что-л.). 16 under King Leonidas - под командованием царя Леонидия 121
17No sooner had the Greeks taken up positions ... than Xerxes ... - He успели греки занять свои позиции, как Ксеркс ... Обратите внимание на инверсию в предложении с по sooner... than и обязательную форму глагола - Past Perfect. Синонимическая конст¬ рукция: Hardly had the Greeks taken up ... when Xerxes ... {Едва греки заняли..., как...). 18 they held out the Persians - они сдерживали натиск персов 19 there was not a single Spartan left - в живых не осталось ни одного спартанца Words and Word Combinations submit v. подчиняться, покорять(ся) submission n. подчинение envoy n. посланец unite v. объединять(ся) attack v. нападать; n. атака believe v. 1) верить; 2) полагать belief n. вера religious а. религиозный religion n. религия court n. 1) двор (короля); 2) суд citizen n. гражданин subdue v. подчинять start v. начинать campaign n. военный поход, кампания land v. высадить(ся); n. земля; страна enemy п. противник shield п. щит archer п. стрелок из лука outnumber v. превосходить численно battle п. сражение, битва soldier п. солдат tyrant п. тиран strip п. полоса narrow а. узкий death п. смерть congratulate v. поздравлять fighting п. бой, боевые действия fear п. страх invade v. вторгаться, захватывать территорию invasion п. вторжение, набег invader п. оккупант occupy v. 1) занимать; 2) оккупи¬ ровать fleet п. флот warrior п. воин surrender v. сдавать(ся) кому-л. (to, former а. бывший arrow п. стрела surround у. окружать last V. длиться, продолжаться brave а. храбрый, смелый (un)equal а. (не)равный traitor п. предатель discuss V. обсуждать discussion п. обсуждение, прения detachment и. отряд aristofcracy п. аристократия however adv. однако punish v. наказывать (за что-л.) (for) punishment п. наказание kill V. убивать 122
* * * in exile - в ссылке at the court - при дворе on (at) hearing that - услышав, узнав о том, что to be armed (with) - быть вооруженным (чем-л.) in combat - в бою to be surprised (at) - удивляться (чему-л., кому-л.) to ascend the throne - взойти на престол mainly = in the main - главным образом to take up a position - занять позицию to repulse the enemy attacks = to beat back the enemy - отражать (от¬ бивать) атаки противника to lay down the arms - сложить оружие on the battlefield - на поле сражения to celebrate a festival (one’s birthday) - отмечать праздник (день ро¬ ждения); праздновать the latter»-- последний (из двух упомянутых) the former - первый (из двух упомянутых) all day long (= the whole day) - весь (целый) день in vain - тщетно, напрасно to put down a revolt - подавить восстание Reading Rules Recapitulation 1. В конце слова под ударением буквосочетание ear читается [ю]. Например: fear. 2. Если за сочетанием ear следует согласная, оно читается [э:]. Например: early. 3. Буквосочетания ough (augh) перед t читаются [о:]. Например: ought, caught. Exercise Read the following words according to the reading rules: gear [g], thought, heard, ear, fought, earn, tear, brought, pearl, rear, sought, earth, shear, taught, earl, hear, naught, year, dear, haughty, near, yearn, clear, aught. GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1. Form Continuous Infinitives from the following verbs (see § 1, p. 354): e. g. to read - to be reading 123
to go, to play, to speak, to do, to finish, to study, to march, to capture, to discuss, to watch, to hold, to train, to throw, to ski, to skate 2. Change the pronoun and the form of to be in the following sentences: I am going to the library. Are you doing the translation? I am not reading now. 3. Open the brackets using the verbs a) in the Present Continuous or Present Indefinite; b) in the Past Continuous or Past Indefinite. Describe the scenes depicted in the text. a) Here (to be) a picture of an English class. The students of group 8 (to have) an English class. They usually (to have) English classes in the morning. The instructor (to stand) at the blackboard. He (to write) some words on it. The students (to sit) at their desks. They (to look) at the blackboard. They (to listen) to the instructor and (to repeat) the words after him. They always (to listen) to him attentively [a'tentivh] (внимательно)., One of the students (to write) Something in his notebook. Another student (to look up) the words in the dictionary. Peter who (to sit) next to me (to read) silently a text. My classmate') to like) to read and (to do) a lot of reading. The instructor has just finished writing the words on the blackboard. Facing the class he (to ask) us questions. It must be noted he never (to ask) us questions in Russian. Suddenly the instructor (to notice) one of the students writing something. “What you (to do) there?” he (to say). “I (to do) an exercise,” was the answer. “Stop doing it and listen to me.” b) Last night a friend of mine (to celebrate) his birthday. When I (to arrive), I (to see) that his flat (to be) full of guests (полна гостей) I (to enter) the sitting-room (гостиная). Some people (to danceSeveral guests (to sing) a merry song and the host [ou] (хозяин дома) (to play) me piano. A group of girls (to listen) to music and other people (to watch) television. My friend (to introducd) me to his guests,when the hostess (хозяйка дома) (to invite) everybody to the table. There (to be) many delicious [dflijbs] (вкусные) things to eat and good wines to drink. The guests (to enjoy) the feast (пировали) when I left. I had to leave because I not (to feel) well. 4. Put the verbs in the following sentences a) in the Past Continuous Tense, adding: at that time, at that moment, when I came, from 10 till 12, when I met you, etc.; b) in the Future Continuous Tense. 124
a) е. g. Не is having an English class. He was having an English class when I came 1. The students are preparing for a seminar. 2. The children are watching television. 3. Ann is doing her homework. 4. What article are you translating? 5. Is she working at her course paper? 6. Who is speaking over there? 7. Mother is cooking dinner in the kitchen. 8. They are having a history class. 9. He is saying something. 10. Some people are skating and others are skiing in the park. 11. What are you doing? 12. Where are you going to? 13. What are they speaking about? 14. Who(m) are they talking to? 15. Who(m) is she waiting for? 16. Who is making the report? b) e. g. He is having an English class. He will be having an English class at this time tomorrow (when you come). 1. I am waiting for my guests. 2. Ann is working at her English. 3. The students are training in the gym. 4. We are taking our examination in history. 5. They are having a seminar in political economy. 6. We are not discussing this question. 7. Are you writing your course-paper? 8. What are you doing? 5. a) Express doubt. Mind the rising tone, e. g. Are they writing a test? b) Disagree with the following, e. g. He is not coming today. 1. He is learning the new words. 2. The children are playing in the garden. 3. Nick is leaving tomorrow morning. 125
4. The students are hurrying [Ългпр] to the canteen for lunch. 5. The delegation is coming to Moscow tonight. 6. He was playing chess when she entered the room. 7. You were working at your report at this moment. 8. The teacher was checking our papers when you came up to her. 9. She will be waiting for me downstairs ['daun'steaz] (внизу). 10. Mr. Grey will be staying in London all the time. 6. Supply answers. Work in pairs. a) 1. You are having an English class, aren’t you? 2. What are you doing in class? 3. What is the teacher doing? 4. Who is asking you questions? 5. Are you answering your teacher’s questions in English? 6. Are you sitting or standing? 7. Where are you sitting? 8. Is the teacher speaking Russian or English? 9. The teacher is writing on the blackboard, isn’t he (she)? 10. Are you looking at the blackboard? 11. What are you looking at? 12. Is the teacher explaining new rules? 13. Are you listening to the teacher attentively? 14. Who(m) are you listening to? 15. Is the student sitting next to you following the teacher’s explana¬ tion or is he (she) talking to the neighbour on your right? 16. Who(m) is he talking to? b) 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 2. Were you watching television or were you doing your homework when I gave you a telephone call? 3. You were having a lecture at 12 o’clock yesterday, weren’t you? 4. Was the lecturer speaking very fast or very slowly? 5. Where were you going to when I met you? 6. Who(m) were you talking to when I came up to you? 7. What were you talking about? 8. Your friend was speaking English at that moment, wasn’t he? 9. What language was he speaking? 10. Who was speaking when the Dean entered the classroom? 7. Compose sentences of your own, following the pattern. Use the words given below: 126
e. g. While I was skating, she was skiing. to read - to do one’s homework; to watch the television - to make dinner; to prepare for tomorrow’s class - to translate an article; to smoke - to talk to somebody; to work - to take a rest 8. Give different answers to the following question. Use the words given below, e. g. What will you be doing at this time tomorrow? - Probably I’ll be getting ready for the test, but lam not sure. to study these materials; to visit one’s friends; to read for one’s exam; to work in the library; to take part in the contest; to skate or to ski 9. Find in the text the sentences in which the Continuous Tense Form is used. Explain the cases. 10. Make up questions to which the words in italics are the answers. 1. The students are speaking with Professor Klay about their examina¬ tion (3). 2. Our team is losing the game (2). 3. The visitors are looking at our new pictures (2). 4. Four boys were playing with a ball in the garden (2). 5. Bob was going to the museum when I met him (2). 6. The pupil was answering the teacher's question when the bell rang (2). 7. Tomorrow I shall be working at my diploma-paper [di'plouma] all day long in the library (5). 11. Express the following in English: 1. Борис дома? - Нет. Сегодня он работает в библиотеке. Он готовится к докладу. Он работает там каждый понедельник. 2. Что ты здесь делаешь? - Сижу и жду своего товарища. Он собирался (to be going to) зайти (to call for me). 3. Вы переводите статью? - Нет, мы читаем текст. 4. Куда все спешат (to hurry)? - Я думаю, на стадион. Сегодня там интересный матч. Играют знаменитые команды (teams). 5. Где все студенты? - Они завтракают в столовой. В это время они всегда завтракают. 6. Кому ты пишешь письмо по-английски? - Своей сестре. Она знает английский? - Да. Она неплохо читает и даже говорит по-анг¬ лийски. 127
7. Кто говорит? Виктор? Говори громче (louder). Я не слышу тебя 8. Перед тем как я ложусь спать, я слушаю последние известия (the latest news). 9. Не шумите (to make a noise), я слушаю музыку. 10. Что вы делали, когда я позвонил вам? - Смотрел телевизор, может быть, читал. Я не помню. 11 Я хочу встретиться с вами. - Хорошо. - Приходите завтра в 5 Я буду вас ждать. 12. Я вижу, что вы не знаете этот материал (material). 13.0 чем вы думаете? 14. С кем вы разговаривали, когда мы подошли (to come up to) к вам? 15. Вчера в это время мы сдавали экзамен по истории. 16. Где Энн? - Она делает уроки в соседней комнате. 17. Когда Энн делает домашнее задание по английскому языку, она всегда начинает с устного задания (oral work). 18. Вчера с 9 до 11 он читал лекцию (to lecture in) по истории для студентов 1 -го курса. VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. Add the prefix un- to the following words and translate them into Russian. e. g. equal - unequal [4n'i:kw3l]1 (неравный) important, interesting, punished, expressed, willingness, satisfactory, conquered, fit (годный), armed, heard, lawful (законный), returned, fa¬ miliar [fh'miljo] (знакомый), finished, wise, fair 2. Form adjectives (negative in meaning) with the help of the prefix in- (imil-). Translate them into Russian. (in-) - correct, complete, direct, definite, active, visible (im-) - material, moral, probable, mortal (смертный) (il-) - logical, legal [i:], literate [it] (грамотный) 3. Make adjectives ending in -less, using the following words. Translate the adjectives into Russian. 1 Слова с префиксом un- имеют два главных ударения, одно из которых падает на префикс. 128
e. g. fear - fearless ['fiolis] (бесстрашный) home, life, name, hope, help, class, friend, father, child, job (работа), hat, end, defence, colour, spear 4. Make nouns ending in -sion (-tion), submit, invade, occupy, discuss, celebrate 5. Discuss the morphology of the following words: unconquered, motherless, immaterial, inequality, submission 6. Suggest the Russian for the following word combinations: to punish the Athenians; they were unwilling to submit; symbols of submission; the envoys were thrown into wells; it was Sparta that could provide leadership in the struggle; they realized that they must unite; they had much discussion; some of them believed that it would be wise to take the enemy by surprise; in exile; at the Persian court; to subdue Greek colonies; to start the campaign by landing troops; to celebrate a religious festival; the Spartans refused to march there immediately; the warriors armed with spears, swords and shields; the Persian archers outnumbered the Greeks; the battle was nearing its end; everybody was surprised to learn that; hav¬ ing put down the revolt another army invaded Egypt; he ascended the throne after his father’s death; the enemy occupied a number of cities; the Athenian fleet was placed under the command, of Themistocles [Gi'mistoklrz]; on hearing about the Persian invasion; the pass was defended mainly by the Spartan detachment; to take up positions; to lay down the arms; to surrender to the Persians; repulsing the attacks they held out the enemy; brave soldiers; in the rear; surrounded by the Persians; to fall in the unequal battle; there was not a single man left; on the battlefield; all day long; in vain 7. Suggest English equivalents for: подчиняться (покоряться) персам; символ подчинения; объеди¬ няться); единство народа в борьбе против чужеземных (foreign) захват¬ чиков (оккупантов); нападать на страну; отражать атаки противника; полагать, верить; отмечать (религиозные) праздники; при дворе; под¬ чинять (подавлять) колонии; начать восточные походы; войска под командованием Суворова; к гражданам России; высадиться на остро¬ ве; узнать (услышать) о; вторжение французской армии в Россию; пасть 129
в неравном бою; падение Трои; стрелки из лука; лук и стрела; вторгать¬ ся в страну; численно превосходить противника; в битве за Москву; за¬ нять (оккупировать) город без боя; храбрые воины; сдаться врагу; быть вооруженным мечом и щитом; взойти на престол; главным образом; занять позицию; напрасно; на поле сражения; весь день; в тылу против¬ ника; подавить восстание; быть убитым 8. a) Guess the meaning of the terms in italics. 1. In spite (несмотря на) of the rain of enemy arrows the Athenians [i:] fearlessly attacked the Persian infantry. 2. Roman emperors sometimes granted (представлять) Roman citi¬ zenship to the rich people of their provinces. 3. The Greek force commanded by King Leonidas was fighting against an army which outnumbered the Greeks. 4. Imitating the Persian kings Alexander the Great surrounded himself with fantastic luxury [kj] (роскошь). 5. The discussion of the campaign lasted for a long time in the Senate. 6. Egyptian [i'd3ipjan]/armer.y who were usually turned into soldiers fell in the unequal battles fought against the enemy. 7. Greek aristocracy wanted Hippias to provide leadership. 8. The people of Ancient Greece celebrated many religious festivals. 9. Miltiades was one of the ten generals who commanded the Athe¬ nian army. 10. The Persians brought Greek colonies to submission. 11. The Greeks did not submit to the Persian despotic rule. 12. Short swords were a good weapon ['wepan] (оружие) in hand-to- hand fighting. 13. The greater part of Attica’s population was occupied with farming. 14. The Athenians combined all their warships into one fleet. b) Comment on the following, using your knowledge of history. Begin with: e. g. What is probably meant here is ... Вероятно, здесь имеется в виду... The action took place in ... Действие имело место в ... The thing (matter, point) is that... Дело в том, что ... I can hardly add anything. Вряд ли я смогу что-либо доба¬ вить. 130
For detailed information I would refer you to the work (book, mo¬ nograph, essay [esei], document) by... Для получения подробной ин¬ формации я отослал бы вас к работе (книге, монографии, эс¬ се, документу ...), написанной... 1. On hearing that Eretria [fretria] (Эритрея) had helped the Greek rebels in Asia Minor (Малая Азия) Darius decided to punish her. 2. According to the Swiss (швейцарская) legend William Tell refused to bow [bau] (кланяться, склонять голову) before the tyrant’s cap and was severely [si'viah] (сурово) punished. 3. Invading Greek city-states the Persian kings usually asked the local population for earth and water. 4. The origin of the slogan “Workers of all lands, unite!” is connected (связано) with the First International (1864) and the name of Karl Marx. 5. No sooner had Alexander died than his generals started fighting for power. 6. When Anthony [гепвэш] learned that Cleopatra [klia'pcrtro] had committed suicide (покончила с собой), he decided to kill himself. 7. When Mesopotamia [ei] was invaded by the people from the mountains, Babylon [ae] fell. 8. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 ended in defeat. 9. Troy stood on a high hill and was surrounded by a stone wall. 10. 300 Spartans repulsed the attacks of the Persians and fought to the last. They decided that it was better to die than to surrender. 11. Alexander of Macedonia [maesi'dounio] tried to conquer the whole world, but in vain. 12. The Roman Empire occupied a vast territory. 9. Make a conversation based on the text, using these questions: 1. Why did King Darius send an expedition to Eretria and Athens? 2. Did some of the Greeks want to submit to the Persians? 3. What did the Greek cities realize? 4. Who could provide leadership? 5. Did the Athenians know they would be attacked first? 6. They had a lot of discussion about what they ought to do, didn’t they? 7. Where was Hippias at the time of invasion? 8. What did the patriotic citizens of Greece propose? 9. Who commanded the Athenian army? 10. How did the Persians start the campaign? 131
11. What were the Spartans doing when the runner from Athens came asking for help? 12. Did they agree (согласиться) or did they refuse to start immedi¬ ately? 13. What were the Greeks armed with? 14. The Persian archers outnumbered the Greeks, didn’t they? 15. Why were the Spartans surprised when they arrived at Marathon? 16. When (how many times) did Persia invade Greece? 17. Who ascended the throne after the death of Darius I? 18. Did the Persians occupy North Greece with heavy fighting? 19. Where was the Persian fleet at the moment? 20. What did the Greek cities do on hearing about the Persian invasions? 21. Where did the Spartans take up their positions? 22. What did Xerxes tell Leonidas to do? 23. How long did the Persian attacks on the Greek detachment last? 24. Did the Spartans repulse all the attacks of the Persians? 25. How did it come that the Greeks were surrounded? 26. What kind of battle for the Spartans was that of Thermopylae? 27. How were the Spartans fighting the battle? 28. Where was the monument to King Leonidas and his men set? 29. There were a number of revolts staged by the Greeks in Asia Minor, weren’t there? 30. Did Darius put down all the revolts? 31. Were many people killed during the suppression of the revolts? ■ 10. Give English equivalents of the Russian words in italics and retell the story in brief. In the north Aegean the Persians (покоряли, завоевывали) Greek colonies when Miltiades returned to Athens where he was made (командующим) of the Athenian army. He (не удивился) to learn that in a few days he would have to lead his army into (бой). The Persian commanders (высадили) part of their troops on the plain (равнина) of Marathon. The Athenians (про¬ шли походным порядком) across Attica and (заняли позиции) in a valley (долина) which led into the plain. There were about 10,000 (солдат) in the Greek army, and 15,000 (воинов) in the Persian army, so the latter (числен¬ но превосходила) the Greeks. The Persians captured Eretria. When the Athenian generals (узнали, услышали) about it, they decided (дать сражение) the Persians on the plain before the rest of (остальная часть) the army and the fleet could (напасть на) Athens. In 490 В. C. Miltiades led the Athenians (вооруженных копъ- 132
ями и щитами) down the valley. The Greeks first began their advance [od- 'va:ns] (продвижение) slowly, but when they came within bowshot (на рас¬ стояние выстрела из лука) of the Persian (стрелки из лука), they started marching very quickly. Soon the Greek wings (фланги) closed in on the Persians, (последние) fearing that they might (быть окруженными) rushed to the shore to board their ships (сесть на корабли). They did not want (iсдаваться противнику). Some historians (полагают) that the Greeks lost only 200 men while the Persians lost some 6,400 (в битве при) Marathon. All in all about 7,000 men (были убиты). 11. Paraphrase the following sentences, using the words and word combinations from the text. A. 1. When it became known to the Greeks that Darius was going to attack, some of them agreed to come under the ride of the Persians. 2. The Greek cities understood that they must join together to defend themselves. 3. They thought that only Sparta could lead the Greeks in the war. 4. Hippias was once expelledfrom A thens and now was living among the courtiers ['kodjoz] of the Persian King. 5. In the north Aegean the Persians were subjugating ['sAbdpgeitiq] the Greek colonies. 6. Miltiades was in command of the army. 7. When they heard that the enemy had come, they sent a runner to Sparta. 8. The Spartans said they would begin their march at midnight. 9. There were more Persians than the Greeks in the battle of Marathon. 10. The battle was coming to a close when the Spartans arrived'. 11. Daring suppressed the rebellion [rfbeljon] in Asia Minor. B. 1. In the year of 480 В. C. the Persians penetrated into the territory of Greece and captured it. 2. Xerxes came to the throne after his father'died. 3. The pass was chiefly protected by the Spartans 4. The Greek cities sent small military units to fight against the joe. 5. Hardly had the Greeks taken up positions in the pass, when Xerxes sent messenger to Leonidas telling him to give in. 6. The Spartans were fearless. 7. They were repelling the enemy attacks the whole day. 8. The Greeks were encircled at once. 9. Later on the battlefield a monument wa&set to King Leonidas ana his bold men. 133
12. Make a list of synonyms occurring in Ex. 11, e. g. revolt = rebellion; fearless - bold. Use them in sentences of your own. 13. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: willingness, little, wise, patriotic, big, finish, refuse, to win a battle, birth, descend, near, wide, front, the last, equal, the first, rear, narrow, un¬ equal, far, unwillingness, ascend, unwise, death, unpatriotic, much, to lose a battle, agree (соглашаться), start, small 14. Complete the following sentences: 1. The “Great” King sent an expedition to... 2. When the messengers from Darius came asking for earth and water... 3. As the Athenians knew they would be attacked first... 4. We ftad much discussion about... 5. It would be wise if you... 6. Patriotic citizens were interested in Miltiades who... 7. The campaign was started by... 8. The Spartans who were celebrating... 9. The soldiers were armed with... 10. Though the Persians outnumbered... 11. The Spartans were surprised to learn... 12. On hearing about the Persian invasion... 13. In the year 480 В. C. another... 14. While invading the country the enemy occupied... 15. No sooner had the Greeks taken up positions than... 16. Repulsing the enemy attacks our troops... 17. At Stalingrad a group of German armies was... 18. Although the Spartans were surrounded, they... 19. The Persians in vain tried to... 20. One by one the Greeks were killed in... 21. Long after the battle of Thermopylae a monument... 15. a) Translate the following according to the patterns: 1. Having put down the revolt... (закончив работу, наказав Афины, отбив атаки противника, достигнув Балкан, подчинив колонии, оккупировав Северную Грецию, отказавшись от этого похода, заняв свои позиции) 134
2. I am willing to... (хочу послать им приглашение (invitation), начать обсуждение этого вопроса немедленно, отметить свой день рождения дома, по¬ здравить их с победой, поплыть вниз по реке, драться до последнего) 3. Не refused to... (он отказался наказывать кого-либо, обеспечить руководство, командовать этим отрядом, вернуть этот документ, сложить оружие, верить этому, обсуждать этот вопрос) 4. There was not a single newspaper left. (не осталось ни одного билета, учебника, цветка, журнала) 5. They had much discussion about... (они много говорили о своих докладах, предстоящих (forthcom¬ ing) экзаменах, обязательной (obligatory) литературе, курсовых рабо¬ тах, изучении источников) 6. On hearing that he was ill... (узнав о том, что делегация прибыла; противник вторгся в стра¬ ну; Александр взошел на престол; Леонидий пал в бою; персы прорва¬ лись в Северную Грецию; его убили...) 7. She asked me for... (она попросила у меня карту Греции, учебник по (in) истории, ручку, мои конспекты (notes), воды) b) Compose sentences of your own according to the model. Use the words given below: Model. You must unite or you will not win. (to review the material - to cope (справиться) with the test translation, to learn the new words - to retell the text; to look up the words in the dictionary - to understand the article; to start your work now - to finish it on time) 16. Choose the right word. to learn, to find out 1. When I... that my friend was ill, I immediately made a try... what was the matter with him. 2. You will ... many interesting things if you read this book. 3. Where can I... the new time-table? 135
4. We ... about it at yesterday’s meeting. 5. Please ... if this book is available (есть в наличии) in our library. 6. I don’t know Peter’s new address, but if you need it, I can ... it... for you. | 7. ... when they are going to celebrate that festival. to hear, to listen 1. Could you speak a bit louder, I don’t... you well. 2. Before I go to bed I usually ... to the radio. 3. Did you ... anything about that accident (несчастный случай) when you were in Adler? 4. “Now,... to me attentively,” said the teacher, addressing the class. 5. I have never ... Ann sing. (the) latter, last, latest 1. Bess and Tom specialized in the same department. The former is a teacher now,... is a research [ri'sahj] worker (научный работник). 2. Let’s listen to the ... news over the radio. 3. When did you go to the cinema ... time? -1 don’t remember. 4. Leonid yvas the first to answer at the examination and I was the... 5. Have you got today’s newspapers? I want the ... issue ['isju:] (но¬ мер (газеты, журнала)) of the M. K. 17. Choose a suitable noun to go with these verbs and use the combinations in sentences of your own. to celebrate to start to occupy to be armed with an invasion, the discussion, cities, a seat, a revolt, spears, bows and arrows, a territory, a holiday, a campaign, a competition, a fes¬ tival, one’s birthday 18. Insert the missing prepositions or adverbs. 1. The King in vain tried to put... the revolts that broke ... in the rear ... the Empire. 2. At last the Spartans, armed ... spears and shields, appeared ... the battlefield. They were surprised to see that fighting was over. 3. ... the time ... the Persian invasion ... Greece Hippias was ... exile, ... the Persian court. 4. The 300 Spartans, who were surrounded ... the Persians, fell ... combat but did not surrender ... the enemy. 136
5. ... the battle ... Marathon all enemy attacks ... the Greek troops were beaten .... The Greeks fought... the invaders and died heroically. 6. Having crossed the Rubicon Caesar marched ... Rome. 7. Darius wanted to punish the Athenians ... the help they had rendered to the Greeks who lived ... Asia Minor. 8. Patriotic citizens showed a great interest... Miltiades who returned ... the North Aegean. 9. The Greeks discussed the plan ... action ... a long time. 10. The envoys asked the Athenians ... earth and water, symbols ... submission, but were thrown .wells. 19. Supply articles. Read the items and answer the questions. 1 ... Greek historian Plutarch collected ... great number (множество) of stories about Alexander ... Great. Here is one of them. In Gordeum [ia],... city in Asia Minor, ... cart (телега, повозка) was tied up by ... very intri¬ cate [in'tnkit] knot (сложный узел). People said that whoever undid (раз¬ вязать) ... knot would become lord of ... whole of Asia. Many tried their luck (попытать свое счастье) but in vain. Alexander also tried but failed. Then he pulled out his sword and cut it. This is how the expression “to cut ... Gordian knot” came into being (появиться). 1) What was tied up by a very intricate knot? 2) How did Alexander solve the problem? 2 From Egypt Alexander marched towards Mesopotamia to meet Dari¬ us III.... Persians had ... large cavalry, fighting elephants (боевые слоны) and ... hundred chariots. ... Persian troops were unwilling to fight for ... king. ... armies confronted each other on ... large plain near ... town of Gaugamela. Alexander led his cavalry into ... centre of... Persian army. At ... same time ... phalanx launched [lo:ntft] (пойти в наступление) ... at¬ tack. Darius was... first to flee (спасаться бегством). His troops followed him. 1) What armies confronted each other? 2) Who won the battle of Gaugamela? 137
TEXT FOR TRANSLATION 20. Translate the text with the help of a dictionary. Study the new terms. Ancient Egypt lay in the N ile V alley. The land was fertile and the climate warm and suitable for animal life and plant growth. It was as early as 4,000 В. C. that people began to settle along the Nile River. Traces of people in Egypt go as far back as the Stone Age. The people in the Nile Valley lived in family communes and tribes. The family communes were governed by el¬ ders. Very often the tribes quarrelled over the best grounds, and their quarrells led to war. When at war the tribes elected leaders to command the fighting men. Like the people of the primitive communal society, the earliest inhabitants of Egypt searched for food, hunted and fished. Later they took up hoe farming. It should be noted that farming and cattle-breeding be¬ came the main occupations in Egypt in the 4th millennium В. C. The written history of Egypt probably began more than 6,000 years ago. One of the wonderful remnants of early Egyptian civilization are pyra¬ mids, particularly the pyramids of Giza. These tombs of ancient pharaohs are situated on the bank of the Nile near Memphis, the capital of ancient Egypt. The Pyramids of Giza strike one as being great in size. The biggest of them is the Pyramid of Cheops which is more than 500 ft high. Cheops ruled over the country in the 3rd millennium В. C. He ordered this tomb to be built when he ascended the throne. Thousands of people participated in the construction of the pyramid which lasted for decades. The aim of build¬ ing of all these monumental tombs is a subject of special research. 21. Test translation: 1. Дарий узнал (услышал) об афинянах от (from) бывшего тира¬ на Афин Гиппия (Hippias). 2. Когда Дарий решил наказать Афины, Гиппий жил в изгна¬ нии, находясь при его дворе. 3. Дарий не выражал желания (willingness) помочь Гиппию пока он не узнал, что Афины помогли сжечь Сарды (Sardis). 4. Как только персидский царь подавил восстание в Малой Азии, он в (as) наказание послал в Грецию экспедиционные войска. 5. Дарию нужен был флот. Тогда он приказал городам-госу¬ дарствам, подчинившимся его господству (overlordship), поставлять (to furnish) ему корабли. 138
6. Узнав, что персы хотят напасть на Афины в первую очередь, афиняне обратились к Спарте (turned to Sparta for) за помощью. 7. Греки поняли, что им необходимо объединиться, и решили, что только Спарта может обеспечить руководство в этой войне. 8. Персидская армия под командованием Ксеркса, взошедшего на престол после смерти Дария, вторглась в Грецию в 480 г. н. э. 9. Северная Греция была занята (оккупирована) без боя. 10. На борьбу с захватчиками (оккупантами) греческие города- государства послали небольшие отряды. 11. Защищая перешеек (pass), открывающий путь в центральную Грецию, отряд спартанцев отказался сложить оружие (сдаться) и драл¬ ся до последнего. 12. Персидские воины были вооружены луками и стрелами, копь¬ ями и мечами. Они были хорошими стрелками. 13. Русский народ никогда не покорялся чужеземным захватчикам. 14. Видя, что его армия окружена, Леонидий приказал всем, кро¬ ме спартанцев, отступать. 15. Татаро-монгольское (Tatar and Mongolian) нашествие на Древнюю Русь имело место в 12 веке н. э. 16. Хотя противник в Марафонской битве численно превосходил афинян, последние успешно отразили все его атаки и выиграли сражение. 17. После завоевания Греции Филипп II начал готовиться к (to prepare for) походу против Персии. 18. Восточные походы Александра продолжались до 325 г. до н. э. 19. Когда посланец Афин прибыл в Спарту, спартанцы отмеча¬ ли какой-то религиозный праздник. 20. Гонец удивился, когда услышал, что спартанцы отказались выступить (to start) немедленно. 21. Падение Западной Римской империи означало (meant) конец рабовладельческого строя в Западной Европе. 22. Рим был разрушен (to destroy) главным образом в результате нашествия варваров - вандалов (the Vandals) в середине 5 века н. э. 23. Ассирийская (Assyrian) империя пала в конце 7 века до н. э. 22. Read the text of the lesson and find paragraphs relating to King Leonidas and describing the battle of the Spartans. 139
ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Speak uii the following sub-topics: a) the Greeks learn that a Persian expedition is coining; b) the Athenians and Spartans discuss what they ought to do and express different opinions; c) the campaign starts; Athens asks Sparta for help; d) the Greeks win the battle of Marathon. 2. Make an outline of the text 2 1 on p. 119-120. 3. Speak on the second Persian invasion of Greece according to your plan. 4. Describe the battle of Thermopylae. 5. a) Read the text “Spartan Education” and translate it into Russian; b) Learn the words and expressions listed below; c) Make a brief summary of the story by answering the questions that follow. Spartan Education On the day of his birth a Spartan boy was taken to the elders for a careful examination If the boy was weak and deformed, he was left on a mountainside to die because the elders thought that he could never perform his duties as a soldier. If he was found physically fit2, he was allowed to live with his family until the age of seven. Then he lived in public barracks where he began his military training. A Spartan boy was taught to become a strong and fearless soldier, able to endure hardships and suffering. Even in winter he went barefoot and slept outdoors. His chief food was a very bad-tasting broth, but as part of his training he was taught to feed himself by stealing 3 food from farms and gardens. If he was caught, he was whipped - not because he had stolen, but because he was found out4. As a Spartan boy aproached manhood 5 and service in the army, he was'beaten in public. This taught him to endure pain in silence. Spartan youths [ju:6z] were taught to be modest [o] in manner and brief in speech6. 1 How to make an outline: a) Read the text carefully and note the main events in the story; b) Write short sentences that will remind (напомнить) you of the main events in the story. 140
In fact they wcie knuwii for their short speech which is now called la'conic, after Laconia [ou], the state ruled by Sparta. When a soldier was leaving for the battle his mother handed him his shield on which his body would be brought back if he was killed. The shield was so large that flight from the enemy was possible only by leaving it be¬ hind 7. Therefore his mother usually warned: “Come back with your shield or on your shield”. Notes 1 for a careful examination - для тщательного осмотра 2 was found physically fit - с нормальным физическим развитием 3to feed himself by stealing food from - (зд.) добывать себе продукты питания, забираясь в чужие фермы и сады ''was found out - обнаружен 5 approached manhood - достигал совершеннолетия 6 were taught to be modest in manner and brief in speech - учили скром¬ ности в поведении и краткости в речи 7 by leaving it behind - (зд.) если бросить (оставить) его на поле боя Words and Word Combinations elders n. старейшины weak а. слабый military а. военный farm n. ферма (хозяйство) whip n. кнут; v. стегать кнутом allow v. разрешать, позволять serve v. служить service и. служба - public а. общественный; п. публика brief я. краткий flight п. бегство, побег possible а. возможный * * * to perform one’s duties - выполнять свои обязанности to endure hardships (suffering, pain, difficulties) - переносить лише¬ ния (страдания, боль,трудности) to be modest in manner and brief in speech - быть скромным и немно¬ гословным to serve in the army - служить в армии to find out - узнать, обнаружить Questions 1. Who(m) was a Spartan boy taken to on the day of his birth? What for? 2. What did they do with the boy if he was weak and if he was physi¬ cally fit? 141
3. Did the Spartan boy live with his family or in public barracks? 4. How was he taught to become strong and fearless? 5. Why was he beaten in public? 6. What were the Spartan youths known for? 7. What did his mother usually do and say when a soldier left for the battle?
LESSON SIX Topic: The Great Patriotic War 1. a) Read the text “Twenty-eight Heroes” and translate it into Russian; b) Learn the topical vocabulary; c) Answer the questions given below. TWENTY-EIGHT HEROES In the autumn of 1941 fascist Germany concentrated strong forces for an offensive against our capital. The first nazi attack 1 on Moscow failed. On the 16th of November the Germans launched the second offensive2. During the offensive the 316th Rifle Division held the defense not far from the Volokolamsk Highway. Though the forces of the Germans outnum¬ bered those of the defenders, they could not break through our positions. A platoon of 28 Soviet Army men under Sergeant Dobrobabin and V. Klochkov, a Company Political Officer3, held the position at Dubosekovo. Supporting the attack of two infantry regiments the artillery and mortar batteries opened fire on the position. More than twenty tanks took part in the attack. Soon a second attack began, and then a third one, but all of them were repulsed. The greater part of our men were killed and wounded. Yet, the fearless Russian soldiers decided to fight to the last. Towards the evening a new tank attack was launched. Thirty enemy tanks were advancing on our position when V. Klochkov said to his men: “Great is the land of Russia, but there is nowhere to retreat to. Moscow is behind us.” With a grenade in his hand the Political Officer went out of the trenches to meet a heavy tank4. He destroyed it but at the cost of his life5. Under the constant artillery and machine-gun fire one by one the Soviet Army men fell in the unequal battle.'Soon all of them were killed except Private Natarov who, badly wounded as he was, managed to crawl6 away to the forest where he was picked up by our reconnaissance patrol7. Before he died he passed on the last message of his comrades-in-arms8: “We knew what we were dying for and we performed duty9 as soldiers, we checked the advance of the enemy10. Victory or death! Remember that when you go into battle. There is no other way. We died, but we did not surrender.” A monument was set up over the graves of the 28 heroes of General Panfilov’s Division who gave up their lives for the happiness of their Motherland and peace. 143
Notes 1 the first nazi ['na:tsi] attack - (зс).) первое наступление войск наци¬ стской Г ермании 2 launched ... the offensive - предприняли наступление 3 a Company Political Officer - политрук роты 4 to meet (a heavy tank) -- (зд.) навстречу ... 5 at the cost of his life - ценою своей жизни 6 who, badly wounded as he was, managed to crawl - которому удалось уползти, хотя он был тяжело ранен 7 was picked up by our reconnaissace patrol [ri'konsssns ps'troul] - его подобрал наш разведывательный дозор sthe last message [mesidj] of his comrades-in-arms - (зд.) последние слова своих боевых товарищей 9 we performed our duty - мы выполнили свой долг 10 we checked the advance of the enemy - мы задержали продвижение врага Topical Vocabulary attack - наступать (на), нападать attack (= offensive) - наступление to launch an attack (offensive) - предпринять наступление battery - батарея defense - оборона to hold the defense - вести оборону defensive [di'fensiv] - оборонитель¬ ный to fight (a battle) - вести бой arms - оружие (вооружение), рода войск to take up arms - взяться за оружие to go to the front - идти на фронт at the front - на фронте rifle - винтовка (cun. gun) Rifle Division - стрелковая дивизия grenade [gri'neid] - граната machine-gun [ma'Jrn длп] - пулемет tank - танк (armed) forces - (вооруженные) силы infantry ['infontri] - пехота artillery [a:'tibri] - артиллерия armour ['а:шэ] - бронетанковые войска unit - подразделение, часть company ['клтрэш] - рота regiment ['гебзппэЩ] - полк private ['praivit] - рядовой men (= soldiers) - солдаты officer ['ofiso] - офицер reconnaissance [ri'konosons] - раз¬ ведка (войсковая) scout - разведчик colonel ['кэ:п1] - полковник to serve in the Air force - служить в авиации Navy ['neivi] - военно-морской флот to take smb. prisoner -захватить в плен the Great Patriotic War - Великая Отечественная война 144
to suffer heavy losses - понести тя¬ желые потери to offer strong resistance - оказать упорное сопротивление to inflict (strike) a crushing blow (at) - нанести сокрушитель¬ ный удар a partisan detachment - партизан¬ ский отряд sergeant ['sa:d33iU] - сержант platoon [pla'tum] - взвод combat - бой Questions 1. When did fascist Germany concentrate strong forces for an offen¬ sive against Moscow? 2. How many attacks did the Germans launch? 3. Where did the 316th Rifle Division hold the defense? 4. Did the forces of the Germans outnumber those of the defenders? 5. They could not break through our positions, could they? 6. Who (what unit) held the position at Dubosekovo? 7. What units were attacking our position? 8. Were all the enemy attacks repulsed? 9. Did the Germans suffer heavy losses? 10. What did V. Klochkov say addressing his men when a new tank attack began? 11. What was the outcome of that unequal battle? 12. What message did Private Natarov pass on before he died? 13. Was a monument set up to the 28 heroes of the Panfilov Division? 2. a) Read the dialogue and recite it in class; b) Memorize the new words and use them in sentences of your own. - Did your grandfather take part in the Great Patriotic War? - Yes, he did. He is a war veteran. Now he is a retired officera colonel. - I see. When did he go to the front? - He says he went there at the outbreak2 of the war when the fascists attacked our country and our people took up arms. - Was he an infantryman or an artilleryman? - Neither3. He served in the armour troops as a tankman. Later he commanded a tank unit. - Well. What great battles did he fight? - As far as 1 know4 he took part in the Great battle on the Volga and in that of Berlin. - I am sure he has told you many interesting things about those battles. 145
- Of course3, he has. For instance, speaking of the battle on the Volga he says it was the turning point because it determined the outcome of the war6. - And we could pass from defensive to offensive operations, and we finally encirled a large group of German armies. Field Marshal Paulus was taken prisoner7. - That’s right. Our victory on the Volga was of great military and political importance8. The battle went down in history9. - I see that you know very well not only your grandfather’s life story, but also military history. Notes 1 a retired officer - офицер запаса 2 at the outbreak - в начале 3 neither - ни тем, ни другим 4 As far as I know - Насколько мне известно 5 Of course - Конечно 6 to determine [di'taimin] the outcome of - определить исход (чего-л.) 7 to be taken prisoner ['prizsna] - быть захваченным в плен 8 to be of... importance - иметь значение 9 to go down in history - войти в историю
MEDIEVAL HISTORY
LESSON SEVEN Text: William the Conqueror Grammar: Compound and Complex Sentences. Degrees of Comparison. Indefinite Pronouns. Adverbs WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR1 In the second half of the eleventh century England was conquered by a Norman Duke, William by name, one of the most powerful feudal lords of France. Under the pretext of having rightful claims2 to the English throne, William landed on the southern shores of England in September 1066. The well-armed Norman knights met the Anglo-Saxon troops gathered by Harold, their king, at Hastings3 on October 14,1066. The battle raged with varying fortune4 all day, but finally the Anglo-Saxons gave way. King Harold was killed and the Normans won the battle. Some time later, London was forced to open its gates to the conquerors. William became King of England and was called William the Conqueror. He named himself the “lawful heir” of the English king and promised to grant the old rights and customs to the Anglo-Saxon nobility. But this was, in fact, only a pretext to pacify5 the local population which fell under the foreign yoke6. The real intentions of William the Conqueror became clear when he began confiscating the lands of the English barons and replacing the Saxon nobility by Norman nobles and knights who be¬ came the ruling group. The confiscation of lands and their distribution among the Norman nobility completed the establishment of the feudal sys¬ tem in England. Land grants in reward for7 military service was a characteristic feature of feudalism. In France and Germany these land grants led to the weakening of royal authority, since8 the great landowners could use their military forces against the king. In England this danger also existed, but in a smaller degree. William granted large estates to his followers9, but he was careful to scatter them in manors over the country in a way which made it difficult for the great landowners to concentrate their knights for rebellion10 against the king. The Norman kings ruled with the help of a governing body11 called Curia Regis (the King’s Court). It made laws, imposed and levied taxes, and tried disputes12, but the king was always present and his word was decisive. In just the same way13 each baron14 ruled his vassals, each knightly holder of a manor15 - his villeins. 148
Generally speaking, the native population was treated very cruelly by the conquerors. Even the Anglo-Saxon nobles felt oppressed. It is not suprising, therefore, that many, both of the upper and the lower classes of Anglo-Saxon society,, fled'and often hid themselves in the forests or else¬ where 16 to escape the oppression of the Normans. Sometimes they started a fight against the foreign oppressors, but were often caught and put to death (executed). - Practise the following for pronunciation. Proper names: William the Conqueror, Norman, Anglo-Saxon, Harold, Hastings [ei]; Ударение на первом слоге: pretext [i:], execute [eks], confiscate, levy [e], manor [ге], baron [ж], vassals, promise [mis], concentrate, villein [i], pacify [peesifai]; Ударение на втором слоге: estate, impose, establish, domain, rebellion, decisive, dispute, nobility, existed, degree, escape, surprise; Два ударения: distribution, population, confiscation, concentration, characteristic; [9, 6] throne, Southern, authority, gathered; [a:] half, France, armed, grant; [o:] lords, shores, fortune [tjon], forced, called, smaller, lawful, reward, laws; [o] conquer, conqueror, conquered, follower, body, promise, concent¬ rate; [ou] noble, open, local, yoke, holder; on_the southern shores; he wonjdie battle; completed_the establish¬ ment; the weakening of royal authority; use_their forces; againsfjthe king; in jusf_the same way. Notes 1 William the Conqueror - Вильгельм Завоеватель (1027 - 1108), гер¬ цог Нормандии, впоследствии король Англии 2under the pretext of having rightful claims to - под предлогом того, что у него законные права на ’Hastings ['heistiqz] - Гастингс, город-графство на юго-востоке Англии, на берегу Ла-Манша 4 with varying fortune (= with varying degrees of success) - с перемен¬ ным успехом 149
5 to pacify - (3d.) успокоить, утихомирить 6 fell under the foreign yoke - попало под гнет чужеземцев 7 land grants in reward for (= as a reward for) - земельные наделы в награду за 8 since - поскольку, так как Слово since может выступать как предлог времени (с), как наре¬ чие (с тех пор) и как союз временного придаточного предложения (с тех пор, как) и придаточного предложения причины (так как, посколь¬ ку), е. g. I haven’t seen him since 1998. We left school in 1990, and I haven’t seen him since. I haven’t seen him since we left school. Since he was ill I had to do this work. 9his followers - (3d.) своим сторонникам 10 he was careful to scatter them ... in a way which made it difficult for the great landowners to concentrate their knights for rebellion - проследил за тем, чтобы они находились в разных местах, и тем самым ограни¬ чил для крупной земельной знати возможность сосредоточить свою военную силу в лице рыцарей для организации выступлений В данном случае под rebellion подразумеваются волнения, высту¬ пления (против короля) в самом общем смысле. Этим объясняется от¬ сутствие артикля. Запомните некоторые синонимы существительного rebellion (вос¬ стание): insurrection, uprising (подготовленное вооруженное восстание), revolt (бунт), mutiny (мятеж). II a governing body - (3d.) орган управления Запомните еще некоторые слова с этим корнем: to govern ['длуэп] (управлять), governor (правитель, губернатор), government (правитель¬ ство). 12 tried disputes - разбирали в юридическом порядке споры 13 in the same way - таким же образом Запомните еще ряд выражений со словом way: in what way (каким образом.1), in that way (таким путем, способом), by the way (между про¬ чим), to give way (уступить) 14 baron - барон (феодальный титул) Запомните дворянские титулы: duke - герцог, marquis ['ma:kwis] - маркиз, count (earl) - граф (англ.), viscount ['vaikaunt] - виконт, prince - принц, князь. 15 holder of a manor - владелец феодального поместья (менора) 16 or elsewhere - или где-нибудь еще (в другом месте) 150
Обратите внимание на английские эквиваленты слова еще и их употребление: still (в утвердительном и вопросительном предложени¬ ях = все еще), yet (в отрицательном и отрицательно-вопросительном предложениях), else (с вопросительными словами и неопределенными местоимениями), another (в значении «еще один»), other (после what = какой, -не?), more (часто в сочетании с местоимением some, вопроси¬ тельными словами how much (many) или количественным числитель¬ ным). Например: Не is still busy. She has not come yet. What else do you want to say? Did you hear anything else about it? Give me another apple. What other films have you seen? I need some more paper (two more pens). Words and Word Combinations feudal а. феодальный feudalism n. феодализм kingdom n. королевство feudal lords n. феодалы landlord n. помещик landowner n. землевладелец claim v. претендовать; л. претензия knight n. рыцарь serf л. крепостной serfdom л. крепостное право lawful а. законный villein n. виллан heir n. наследник promise v. обещать; л. обещание grant v. предоставлять custom n. привычка, обычай baron n. барон baronage n. сословие баронов duke л. герцог estate л. 1) поместье; 2) сословие domain л. владение, имение demesne [di'mein] л. поместье establish v. устанавливать establishment л. установление rebellion л. восстание rebel л. повстанец govern V. управлять, править clergy л. духовенство manor л. менор (феодальное поме¬ стье) exist V. существовать (быть, жить) existence л. существование tax л. налог reign л. царствование; v. царство¬ вать vassal л. вассал corvee ['ko:vei] л. барщина quit-rent л. оброк dues л. сборы (налоги) duty л. повинность government л. 1) управление; 2) правительство hide (hid, hidden) v. прятать(ся) * * * to put to death - казнить under the pretext of - под каким-л. предлогом in fact - в действительности, на самом деле 151
to fall under the yoke (domination) of - подпасть под иго (господ¬ ство) to impose taxes on - облагать налогами киго-л. to levy taxes - взимать налоги to make laws - издавать законы in this (that) way - таким образом (путем) in what way? - каким образом? to be forced - быть вынужденным to give way - уступить to grant rights (land, freedom) - предоставлять права (землю, свобо¬ ду) What’s the characteristic feature of ...? - Что является характерной чертой ... ? royal authority - королевская власть upper (lower) classes of society - высшие (низшие) классы общества it is not surprising (= no wonder) that - неудивительно, чтс generally speaking - вообще говоря to claim the right to - заявлять о своем праве на a governing body - правительственный орган in the reign of - во время правления, в период царствования Reading Rules Recapitulation 1. Буква х перед гласной, на которую падает ударение, читается [gz], например: exist [ig'zist], В остальных случаях она читается [ks], на¬ пример: exercise ['eksosaiz], 2. Буквосочетание кп читается [п], например: knight [nait] Exercise Read the following words according to the reading rules: Ударение на первом слоге: exile, ex, exit, excavate, extra; Ударение на втором слоге: excursion, exempt, expansion, example [a:], except, exalt, exchange, exhibit [-], excuse, exhausted [-]; stalk, palm, knot, bright, halt, reward, calm, warm, kneel, sigh, salt, warn, psalm [s], knock, flight, toward, false, halves, knife, award. 152
GRAMMAR EXERCISES COMPOUND1 AND COMPLEX1 2 SENTENCES. MAIN TYPES OF CLAUSES3 (see § I, p. 342) 1. Express the following in Russian. Mind the conjunctives and conjunctive words (see § 3, p. 345). 1. Not only the young but also the old went to the front to fight against the enemy. 2. Both the Athenians and the Spartans were armed with spears and swords. 3. Neither the foreign invasion nor the Black Death (чума) changed the existing system in the country. 4. Something was going on in the Assembly Hall, for it was full of people. 5. Either you or your assistant will lead the archaeological expedi¬ tion. 6. You may present your course-paper either in May or in June. 7. “Either you stop throwing stones at the dog, or I’ll punish you,” said Mrs. Sherwood to little David. 8. We must take urgent ['эх1зэп1] measures (срочные меры), for the situation is very serious. 9. During the war with fascist Germany neither hardships nor suf¬ ferings caused by the invaders could break the spirit (дух ) of the Soviet people. 10. Our football team tried to win the match but the Spartack team appeared to be (оказалась) stronger. 11. He did not come to see me, nor did he call me up. 2. Change the following according to the models. Models: I received his letter and his telegram. I received both his letter and his telegram. I received neither his letter nor his telegram. 1. I know Mr. Brown and his friend. 2. They specialize in Greek and Latin. 1 сложносочиненные 2 сложноподчиненные 3 придаточные 153
3. Last term Bess missed some lectures and seminars. 4. He likes military training and military translation. 5. I’ll take part in the concert and in the dance. Model: Both children and grown-ups liked the film. Not only children but also grown-ups liked the film. 1. Both the students and the professors were present at the conference. 2. Both the boys and the girls took part in the military game. 3. Both the young and the old play sports in our country. 4. We specialize both in modern and ancient languages. 5. The crusaders [kru'seidaz] (крестоносцы) both plundered the captured cities and killed their inhabitants [in'heebitonts] (жители). 3. Read and translate the sentences. Single out the conjunctives. 1. He says that he did not hear anything about the incident. 2. I do not know whether she has passed her examination or not. 3. At the seminar the student was asked who had led the peasants’ uprising in 1381 in England. 4. Do you know what contest will be held early next month? 5. I do not think what he says is true. 6. The teacher asked me when and where I had learned English. 7. I wonder [л] (интересно знать) why she is absent today. I wonder how I can find it out. 8. He could not answer which group was having a class in the laboratory. 4. Compose sentences of your own according to the models. Models: 1. I do not know whether he will come. 2. Do you see what is going on there? 3. I wonder where she lives now. 4. I would like to know (мне бы хотелось знать) when this work must be done. 5. Tell me why you did not do it when I asked you to. 5 65. Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctives. Translate the sen¬ tences into Russian. 1. Nobody could answer the question ... he was absent. 2. It was a time ... everybody was wearing long coats. 3. I looked at the house in ... I had spent my childhood. 4. All... glitters (блестеть) is not gold (пословица). 5. The students ... papers were excellent did not take the credit-test. 6. He laughs [la:fs] (смеяться) best ... laughs last (пословица). 154
7. The man ... I am talking about is my best friend. He is a man ... knows all ins and outs (ходы и выходы). 8. She was surprised at the manner in ... he spoke to her. 6. Omit conjunctives wherever possible. Translate the sentences. 1. You are the very (тот самый) person whom 1 wanted to see. 2. She asked me for the book which I had promised her. 3. The young man whom 1 have just interviewed is a famous chess player. 4. The question which the students were going to raise seems very important. 5. The boy whom 1 am talking about is my younger brother. 6. The man who is teaching us English is a native speaker (англича¬ нин по национальности). 7. The girl whose report at the seminar was highly appreciated (вы¬ соко оценен) will be excused (будет освобождена) from taking a credit- test this semester. 8. English is the subject which requires (требует) everyday work. 7. Give English equivalents of: человек, который ежедневно читает газеты; книги, которые ле¬ жат на столе; студенты, которые провалились на экзамене; дом, в ко¬ тором я живу; событие, о котором он говорит; учебник, по которому мы занимаемся; вопрос, по которому я хочу говорить; тема, по кото¬ рой выступили многие ученые 8. Express the following in English: 1. Я прочту этот исторический роман, как только (когда) у ме¬ ня будет время. 2. В то время, как я готовлю домашнее задание, моя жена гото¬ вит ужин. 3. Не уходите, пока не придет лаборантка (labgirl). 4. После того как мы изучим древнюю историю, мы начнем изу¬ чать историю средних веков. 5. Перед тем как вы будете делать этот доклад, покажите его мне (show it to me). 9. Change the following sentences according to the models. Model 1. It is not surprising that she failed her exam, she had not worked hard enough. Since (as) she had not worked hard enough she failed her exam. 155
1. He missed several lectures. He was ill. 2.1 did not attend the meeting. I was on a business trip (в команди¬ ровке). 3. Helen did not speak at the seminar. She was not prepared. 4. The student could not translate the article. He did not know French. Model 2. I’ll call him up if he does not come. I’ll call him up unless he comes. 1. We’ll write to them if they don’t give us a call (позвонить по теле¬ фону). 2. You won’t translate the text if you don’t know the new words. 3. The students won’t know English well if they don’t learn grammar. 4. Ann may feel worse if she doesn’t consult the doctor. 10. Join the two sentences as required. Model: He is very busy, but he will speak to you. Though he is very busy, he will speak to you. 1. Professor Clay is very old, but he looks well for his age. 2. The Persians outnumbered the Greeks on the battlefield, yet they were defeated. 3. Victor made some mistakes in his test, but he got a good mark for it. 4. The question was discussed for a long time, but no decision was taken. 5. The Spartans were surrounded, but they were fighting to the last. 1111. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in italics: 1. As the Spartans were excellent athletes, they took important parts in the Olympic Games. 2. Hercules himself acted as an umpire. 3. This football team is as good as that. 4. This picture is not so beautiful as that one. 5. As soon as I am able to play tennis, I’ll take part in the contest. 6. Asfar as 1 know thpmext Olympic Games will be held in that country. 7. When in Greece, we went to Olympia so as not to miss the chance to see the statue of Zeus (Зевс). 8. She behaved as if we were strangers. 156
DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS (see § 2, p. 344) 12. Form the degrees of comparison of the adjectives and adverbs: a) short, long, wealthy, great, democratic, near, late, early, difficult, strong, young, thick, thin, interesting, happy, pleasant, busy, large, old b) slowly, quickly, easily, well, much, little, badly, loudly, hard' 13. Use the adjectives (adverbs) in the proper degree. Mind the definite article where necessary. 1. The Moscow Underground is (good) in the world, I think 2. Tokio is (big) of all the cities. 3. In January it is (cold) than in October. 4. Of all the months July is the (hot). 5. Ben Nevis is the (high) mountain in Scotland. 6. The Thames [temz] is (deep) than the Severn. 7. This picture seems to be (beautiful) at the exhibition. 8. I am busier than my sister is. I have (little) spare time than she has. 9. The Browns are (rich) than we. They have (much) money. 10. Mike was the (bad) pupil in our class. I was a bit (good). 11. Who is the (old) in your family? - Our grandpa is. 12. Which of you knows history (we//)? 13. Which of these stories do you like (little)! 14. Our grannie gets up (early) of all. 15. A raincoat is (necessary) in autumn than in summer 16. This article is long. Take a (short) one. 14. Fill in the blanks with as ... as, so ... as or than. 1. The climate ['klaimit] of the central part of Russia is not... cold ... that of Siberia. 2. The weather in early autumn is often ... warm ... in summer. 3. In winter days are shorter ... nights. 4. Spring here is more pleasant... autumn. 5. You speak English ... fast... I do. 6. Was it... frosty yesterday ... it is today? 7. This book is not... interesting ... that one. 8. Your room is not... dark ... mine. 157
15. Construct sentences of your own according to the patterns. 1. This book is < thicker I than that one. ( more (less) interesting ) 2. My bag is heavier than yours. 3. These apples are as good as those ones. 4. This story is not so funny as the one you told me yesterday. 5.1 like this film best (least) of all. 16. Suggest the English for: длиннее; короче; шире; красивее; самый красивый; менее ин¬ тересный; более трудный; такой же приятный, как; лучше; хуже; наи¬ лучший; хуже всех; моложе, чем; старше (по возрасту)', сильнейший; меньше времени; больше бумаги; наименее важный; наиболее демо¬ кратический; не такой высокий, как; не так быстро, как; так же мед¬ ленно, как; раньше всех; меньше всего; позже всех; больше (по площа¬ ди)', больше (по значению)', старейший; величайший; дальше; самый дальний; мой старший брат; его младшая сестра INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS (see § 4, p. 345) 17. Express doubt and change the pronouns, e. g. You know something about it. Do you know anything about it? 1. Some of the boys of our group can play tennis. 2. You met somebody in the shop at that moment. 3. The Browns went somewhere to the south for a holiday. 4. They have something interesting to tell us. 5. There is somebody in the next classroom. 6. Fred knows something about this story. 7. We will go out somewhere on Sunday. 8. I can get this guide book somewhere. 18. Express negation and change the indefinite pronouns and adverbs, e. g. I see something there. I see nothing there. 1. There was something new in his reports. 2. I see somebody in the car. 3. Peter and Ann went out somewhere last night. 4. Somebody can help you. 5. Some of the students have failed at the examinations. 158
6. Somebody knows his address or telephone number. 7. Something has happened to her. 8. 1 would like to go somewhere to the north in July. 19. Fill in the blanks with indefinite pronouns: 1. Did you say ...? - No, I said ... 2. It is very dark here. We cannot see ... 3. ... likes this song. You can hear it... 4. She knows all about it, but she does not want to tell me ... 5. There is ... new in this article. 6. ... has left a book on the table. Whose book is it? 7. Can ... in your group play tennis? 8. There was ... in the next room. I heard a strange noise a minute ago. 9. Have you got... interesting to read? 10. You may take ... magazine you like. 11. Did you go ... for a holiday last summer? 12. If the weather is bad, ... will go ... 13. When will you come to see me? - I’ll come ... day. 14. We have ... classes on Friday. 20. Express the following in English: 1. На столе ничего нет. Твоя книга где-нибудь в шкафу. 2. Все сейчас заняты. Никто не может сделать это. 3. Кто-нибудь в вашей группе знает испанский? - Нет, никто. 4. Все готово. Мы можем начинать концерт. 5. Анна чувствует себя плохо. Она никуда не пойдет (to go out) сегодня вечером. 6. Вы нигде не купите эту книгу. 7. В письме нет ничего важного. 8. В клубе было что-нибудь интересное вчера? - Нет. 9. Здесь его никто не знает. 10. Было очень рано, и мы никого не встретили на улице. 11. Вы можете услышать эту песню всюду. VOCABULARY EXERCISES a) Use the suffix each of these words contains to form nouns from the words given in brackets. Translate the nouns into Russian. punishment (govern, establish, treat, move, agree, develop) freedom (king, serf, heir, duke, Christen, earl) 159
leadership (king, owner, dictator, friend, lord) postage [id3] (use, short, stop, baron, villein) population (concentrate, confiscate, distribute, congratulate) constitution (execute) b) Make the morphological analysis of these words: unarmed, heirless, enrichment, wisdom, comradeship, lawfully 1. Suggest the Russian for the following word combinations. under the pretext of; to have the rightful claims to the throne; the troops gathered by the king; with varying fortune; the lawful heir; to grant equal rights to; to renew old customs; to pacify the local population; to fall under the foreign yoke; his real intentions; distribution of lands among the Norman nobility; the establishment of the feudal system; the weakening of royal au¬ thority; the existing danger; to grant estates to the king’s followers; to exist in a smaller degree; which made it difficult for the landowners to use their mili¬ tary forces; generally speaking; in just the same way; they were treated cruelly; it is not surprising; both the upper and the lower classes; to escape the oppres¬ sion of the Norman invaders; they were caught and then executed 2. Give English equivalents of: казнить; феодалы; помещики; сеньор; господин; установление фео¬ дального строя; заявлять о; предъявлять право на; издавать законы; рыцари; законный наследник короля; обещать предоставить свободу; бароны и герцоги; иметь огромные владения; установить новый поря¬ док; восстание; жестоко наказать восставших; управлять страной; цар¬ ствовать; Британское правительство; феодальное поместье; обращать¬ ся с вилланами; угнетать вассалов; скрывать(ся), прятать(ся); избежать наказания; под предлогом; в действительности подвергаться гнету; по¬ пасть под господство; облагать население налогами; собирать налоги; таким путем, каким образом?; уступить; сдаться; быть вынужденным; характерная черта; что является характерной чертой?; усиление (ослабле¬ ние) королевской власти; вообще говоря; с тех пор как; владения; кре¬ постной; крепостное право; барщина; духовенство; оброк; повинность 3. a) Guess the meaning of the terms in italics: 1. Innocent III claimed that he was God’s envoy on earth and that kings and rulers of all nations were his vassals. 160
2. Richard I went through England settling some disputes which had occurred among the Norman baronage. 3. The growing trade led to the establishment of contacts between various countries. 4. Towards the end of the 13th century Moscow became firmly es¬ tablished as the foremost of Russian towns. 5. The feudal oppression, cruel laws and the growth of taxes led to rebellions of the townspeople. 6. Cruel treatment and hard labour made the peasants rebellious. But as a rule the rebellions were suppressed and the rebels put to death. 7. In the first half of the 11th century Germany and England were the best governed states of Europe. 8. Does life exist on other planets? This is a question which has not been answered positively. 9. The existence of Moscow is first mentioned m the cronicles of 1147. 10. In the early feudal age serfs were treated not better than domestic animals. 11. Many prisoners escaped from prison, but they were soon caught and arrested by the International Police. 12. Sometimes David was lucky to escape punishment. 13. No human being can exist without air and water. 14. The enemy was defeated and fled in panic and disorder. b) Comment on the following, using your knowledge of history. Use the following phrases: e.g. If I take it correctly, it’s a ques¬ tion of (it concerns)... As far as I can see it relates to... As is known this historical event (figure) refers to... To put it briefly... ) To make a long story short... / It’s a well-known fact, and there’s little to comment. In this connection I’d like to give some comment (to recall, to draw your attention to) ... II (don’t) think it’s worth discuss¬ ing. Если я правильно понимаю, это вопрос (это касается)... Насколько я понимаю, это отно¬ сится к ... Как известно, это историческое со¬ бытие (личность) относится к... Короче говоря... Это хорошо известный факт, и ком¬ ментировать почти нечего. В этой связи мне хотелось бы дать некоторые коммен¬ тарии (вспомнить, обратить ваше внимание на) ... Я (не) думаю, что это стоит обсу¬ ждать. 161
1. The feudal system was finally established in Byzantium in the 9th - 11th centuries. 2. The rebels under Wat Tylor put forward rightful demands, and the king promised to meet them, but when the uprising was defeated, he broke all his promises and cruelly punished the rebels. Only the fear of another uprising made the government stop executions [,eksi'kju:Jnz]. 3. William the Conqueror promised the Anglo-Saxon nobles to grant the old rights, but it was only a pretext. At the same time he granted large estates to those who supported him. 4. When the revolution won the victory, and the reactionary regime of Batista was overthrown, all the political prisoners were granted freedom. 5. Almost all former British colonies were granted independence. 6. In 1237 Moscow fell under the yoke of the Tatars. 7. In the Middle Ages schools came under domination of the clergy (духовенство). In fact they were in the hands of the church. 8. It was a common practice that the lord’s clerks imposed fines on the townspeople and levied taxes. 9. Under the pretext of having rightful claims to the French Crown Edward I started war with France in 1337. In that way he wanted to regain (вернуть) the former English possessions in France. 10. The characteristic feature of the reign of Henry VII was the strengthening of royal power. 11. In Russia feudal princes gradually formed the upper class of court aristocrats - boyars. c) Respond to the following by expressing agreement or disagreement. In case of agreement repeat the statement. e. g. Yes, historically speaking it’s Да, исторически это верно, true. No, I disagree. I’m afraid it’s Нет, я не согласен. Боюсь, это не not quite so (exact, correct). совсем так (точно, правиль- On the contrary... но). Наоборот... 1. The Church always helped the feudal lords to oppress the peas¬ ants. In medieval Europe the Church itself became the biggest feudal lord and a cruel oppressor of the toiling people. 2. The Government helped the big landlords to turn the peasants into serfs. 3. At the age of twenty a squire was ready to claim his place in soci¬ ety as a knight. 4. Every country has its custom. 162
5. It’s a good custom to be an early riser, 'for, as the proverb goes, early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. 6. In the medieval village the largest house usually belonged to the lord of the manor who sometimes did not use it at all since he had other houses and estates elsewhere. 7. The greater part of the villagers formed a class called villeins (villeinage). 8. The only hope for a villein of becoming free was to escape and remain hidden from his lord for a long time. 9. The Tower built by William I was for many years used as a prison where many great nobles were executed. d) Choose the right word: else, still, yet, more, other, another. 1. Who ... will go to the museum? 2. What... books by M. Twain did you read last month? 3. I would like ... cup of coffee. 4. Please, give me two ... stamps. 5. It was ... raining when we left. 6. Aren’t you ready ...? 7. Where ... can I get this book? 8. I don’t know if anything ... will help him. 9. Nobody ... rang you up yesterday. 10. How much ... time do you need? 11. Have you finished your work ...? 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 114. Have a talk based on the text with your classmate. Make use of the following questions. Work in pairs. 1. In what century was England conquered by the Normans? 2. Who was William the Conqueror? 3. Under what pretext did he land on the southern shores of England in 1066? 4. Were the Norman knights well-armed? 5. Who led the Anglo-Saxon troops? 6. What happened at Hastings on October 14, 1066? 7. Did the Anglo-Saxons give way or did they win the battle? 8. Who won the battle? 1 9. London was forced to open its gates to the victors, wasn’t it? 10. What did William name himself? Was he really the lawful heir of the English throne? 11. What did he promise to the Anglo-Saxon nobility? 163
12. Did he really mean it (на самом деле хотел это сделать) or was it only a pretext to pacify the local population? 13. When did the real intentions of William the Conqueror become clear? 14. Did the confiscation of lands and their distribution among the Norman nobility complete the establishment of feudalism in England? 15. What was the characteristic feature of feudalism? 16. Why did the land grants lead to the weakening of royal authority in France and Germany? 17. Did this danger also exist in England? 18. What did William do in order to exclude [iks'klu:d] the possibility (исключить возможность) of a rebellion against him? 19. In what way did the Norman kings rule? 20. What functions did Curia Regis perform (выполнять)? 21. How did a baron rule his vassals or a manor-holder his villeins? 22. How did the conquerors treat the native population? 23. In what way did many people try to escape the oppression of the Normans? 24. They started a fight against the foreign oppressors, didn’t they? 25. What sometimes was the outcome (исход) of such a fight? 5. Paraphrase the following sentences, using the words and word combinations from the text. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91. Saying that he had the right to the English Crown, William invaded England. 2. The battle went on with varying degrees of success, but at last the Anglo-Saxons surrenderedi 3. London was compelled to open its gates. 4. William the Conqueror told the Anglo-Saxon nobles that he would by all means grant the old rights to them, but it was a kind of camouflage ['kaemufla:^] aimed at pacifying the inhabitants of the captured areas. 5. Soon the true purpose of the new king became clear to everybody. 6. Land grants in return for military service were very typical of feu¬ dalism. 7. In England there was a danger of using the landowners’ military forces against the king. 8. William gave large estates to those who supported him. 9. During the rule of William there were numerous revolts of the Anglo-Saxons. 164
10. The officials of the Curia Regis collected taxes. -11 The country was ruled with the help of a special organ. 12. It comes as no surprise that many people ran away and hid in the forests to escape Norman oppression. 13. Some of them were caught and put to death. 14. How were the Russian people brought under Polish yoke in the 17th century? 15. In France and Germany land grants brought about the weakening of royal power because the great landowners could use their military forces against the king. 6. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: conquered, lawful, upper, powerful, to open, nobility, real, weakening, big, careful (тщательный, осторожный), difficult, easy, careless, small, strengthening, unreal, plebs, to close, powerless, lower, unlawful, uncon¬ quered 7. Complete the following sentences, using the text: 1. In the atmsophere of oppression it is not surprising that many Anglo-Saxons ... 2. Sometimes they started ... 3. The native population was treated ... 4. Barons ruled their ... in the same ... 5. Curia Regis made .. .imposed and levied ... 6. The Norman kings ruled with the help of... 7. The new king granted large ... 8. Land grants in reward for military service was ... 9. The confiscation of lands and their distribution among the Norman nobility completed... 10. The real intentions of the Conqueror became clear when he ... 11. It was only a pretext to pacify the Anglo-Saxons who ... 12. As regards (что касается) the Anglo-Saxon nobility William promised to... 13. He named himself...; London was forced to ... 14. At the end of the battle the English troops ... 15. The well-armed Norman knights met... 16. The Norman duke landed on the British Isles under the pretext of 17. William was one of the most powerful... 165
8. a) Suggest English equivalents for the words given in brackets; b) Ask ten и Л-questions (who, what, when, where, why) on the contents of the story. In the 9th century several (королевства), conquered by the Anglo- Saxons, united and formed England. (Феодальный строй) in the country gradually came into existence (входил в жизнь страны). (Королевская власть) was weak and the big (феодалы) were quite independent (незави¬ симы) in their (владения). The further [То:0э] development of (феодализм) in England is connected with (связано c) the Norman conquest. In the 11th century (герцог) William of Normandy invaded England. Not only the duke’s (вассалы), but also many (рыцари) from other regions of France took part in the invasion. In large boats William’s troops crossed the Channel (Ла-Манш) and landed on (южное побережье). A decisive battle was fought at Hastings in 1066. The English king received no sup¬ port (поддержка) from English (землевладельцы). (Неудивительно) that the poorly-armed Anglo-Saxon forces, which consisted mainly of free peas¬ ants (вынуэ/сдены были сдаться). After William had become King of England (восстание) of the local population against the Normans lasted for several years; all of them, how¬ ever, were (жестоко) suppressed. William took various measures in order (укрепить) his power. (Как...) big feudal lords (так и) their vassals had to swear [sweo] fealty to (присягать в верности вассала феодалу) William. All English feudal lords paid (налоги) to the king and were forced to take part in military campaigns. 9. a) Insert the missing articles; b) Answer the questions given below; c) Retell the story, using the outline. A. ... long and cruel war was waged between England and France in ... 14th century, ... war lasted for more than ... hundred years. It brought new hardships and sufferings to .. .(French people particularly [pa'tikjuloh] (особенно) to ... peasants who rose both against ... foreign invaders and feudal oppression.... wave (волна) of rebellions swept (прокатилась) over ... country when ... French feudal lords started quarrelling among them¬ selves and'... most powerful Duke of Burgundy [Ъэ:дэпб1] took ... side of ... English king. Taking advantage [sd'vaintid^] of (воспользоваться) ... situation... English began offensive operations.... French troops were hid¬ ing in ... fortresses (крепость) along ... river L.... city of Orlean became ... stronghold of (оплот)... French.... fall of... city would open ... way for ... invaders to ... south of ll: country.... fate (судьба) of France was at stake (поставлена на карту). 166
В.... heroic deeds (подвиги) of... simple peasant girl, Joan [d30un] of Arc went down in history as ... example of people’s patriotism and heroism. Joan was nearly 18 when she left her native village and went to ... iortress on the Loire to speak to ... king. She persuaded [pg'sweidid] (убедила) him to take resolute (решительные) actions against... English invaders and promised to liberate Orlean and to drive ... enemy out (выгнать) of ... country. Soon ... body of knights marching towards Orlean was placed under her command. On arriving in... besieged city ... girl took the lead of people’s volunteers [vobn'tiaz] (возглавила народное ополчение) and nine days later ... city was set free. Once Joan with . group of soldiers was fighting against ... Burgundians at ... Compiegne [kam'pjep] fortress. Encircled by ... enemies, she tried to break through to ... gates but... latter were closed and she was captured by ... Burgundians. For many months ... brave girl was kept in prison (тюрьма) and finally put to ... terrible death - she was burnt at the stake (на костре). Questions 1. What kind of war was waged between England and France in the 14th century? 2. How long did the war last? 3. Who rose against feudal oppression and the invaders? 4. Who took the side of the English king? 5. Where were the French troops hiding? 6. What was the city of Orlean? 7. Why was the fate of France at stake? 8. What family did she come from? 9. How old was she when she decided to fight against the foreign invaders? 10. What did she promise to the king? 11. What unit was placed under her command? 12. She was at the head of people’s volunteers when in Orlean, wasn’t she? 13. How did it happen that she was captured and put to death? Outline of the Text I. The Situation in the Country 1. The Hundred Years’ War goes on. 2. The French people rise against feudal oppression and the foreign invaders. 167
3. Many feudal lords, with the Duke of Burgundy at the head, are traitors (предатели). 4. Orlean is the stronghold of the French. II. Joan of Arc 1. A young peasant girl goes to war. 2. Joan liberates Orlean. 3. The girl fights at the Compiegne fortress. 4. Joan is executed. 10. a) Supji V ui cpusitiuns, b) Give a brief .ышппагу of the story. ... the reign ... Richard II feudal oppression, cruel laws and the growth ... taxes, imposed.... the peasants, led to a number ... rebellions. The great¬ est one was that led... Wat Tylor. In 1381 the peasants... sever il villages ... Essex and Kent drove away (прогнали) the tax-collectors (сборщики налогов) and the king’s officials (чиновники). It was a signal... an uprising. Armed ... axes (топоры), forks (вилы) and bows, the rebels attacked landlords’ estates and captured them. The greater part... the peasants was headed by Wat Tylor, a village artisan (ремесленник) who had fought ... the Hundred Years’ War and was a brave leader. Thousands ... peasants marched ... London to present their demands ... the king: the abolition ... the corvee, confiscation ... lands the clergy, and their distribution ... the peasants, equal rights ... all people.... 15th ... June when the rebels went to meet the King a second time, one of the knights ... the pretext ... guarding the King, struck at Wat Tylor and killed him. The rebels left the city, and the King, having broken all his prom¬ ises, gathered the knights ... all over the country, followed the rebels and defeated them. The Government ... Richard cruelly punished the rebels. Gallows ['gaslouz] (виселицы) were erected ... many places, and all those who had taken part the uprising were put ... death. 1111. Match the nouns from (b) with the verbs from (a). Give sentences of your own based on the combinations. e. g. The feudal system was established in the 5 th- 10th centuries. a) b) to establish a feudal system, a monarchy, a custom, to govern (rule) a society, a country, an empire, a to treat kingdom, a city, people, animals, a mat- to escape ter, death, punishment, danger, freedom, 168
to grant to levy (impose, pay) to fall under the rights, a scholarship (стипендия), lands, in¬ dependence (независимость), taxes, lines (штрафы), yoke, domination 12. Choose the word corresponding to the definition from those listed below: a body of persons who rule a country; to put to death according to the law; a feudal serf; a big revolt; one from whom vassals held land and to whom they rendered service; a large area of land with a house; that which is usually done; a person who has the right to receive something of another person when the latter dies; a man wearing armour; a military rank; a nobleman of the highest rank (ранг, звание), a nobleman of the lowest rank; lands or territory under the rule of a king or a government {baron, duke, knight, heir, custom, estate, lord of the manor, rebellion, villein, domain, execute, government) 13. Suggest nouns corresponding to the following verbs. Choose an ad¬ jective from those given in brackets to go with the noun. Use the combinations in sentences of your own. to lord, to claim, to promise, to reign, to punish, to tax, to rebel [ri'bel], to govern, to treat, to execute, to oppress {feudal, unlawful, rightful, good, high, long, short, British, peasant, lawful, cruel, medieval) 14. Change the following sentences according to the model. Model: He and 1 specialize in history. Both he and I specialize in history. 1. “Duke” and “count” are titles (титулы) of noblemen. 2. “Rebellion” and “uprising” mean «восстание». 3. My friend studies ancient history and medieval history. 4. “Marquis” and “viscount” are words of French origin. 5. Many people of the upper and the lower classes tried to escape the cruel oppression of the Normans. 6. Professors and students will take part in the concert. 7. Land and power remained in the hands of the nobles. 15. Make up sentences patterned on the following. Use the words given in brackets. 169
1. He refused to come under the pretext of being ill. (be busy, be sick, have no time, have many things to do, live very far) 2. In what way did you treat this problem? (to escape punishment, to establish these contacts, to receive the grants, to learn the language) 3. What’s the characteristic feature of the feudal system? (capitalism, the relationship between the lord of manor and a villein, slave-owning democracy in ancient Greece, Caesar’s rule) 4. The slaves and colons suffered greatly under the yoke of the Roman slave-owners. (the Russian people - the Tatars, the Greeks - the Persians, the Anglo- Saxons - the Normans, the peasants - the feudal lords) 5. It is not surprising that) . , .. ,. . ,, , > he lailed his exam. No wonder ) (to hide in the forests, to miss (скучать) Ann badly, to name himself the rightful heir, to promise to help you, to take pact in the rebellion, to receive the title of marquis) 6. It is a good custom It is my custom (to go to bed early, to do physical exercises every day, to take a walk before going to bed, to give a helping hand (протянуть руку помощи) 7. Generally speaking the Norman conquest increased [in'kri:st] (уве¬ личивать) feudal oppression of the peasants. (the Church - to be the mainstay (оплот) of the feudal system, heavy artillery - to appear during the Hundred Years’ War, the growth of towns - to begin in the 12th—13th centuries, the crusaders - to undertake (предпри¬ нять) four eastern campaigns, geographical [d3i3'grasfikl] discoveries [dis'kwariz] (открытия) - to help to develop trade) 16. Test translation: 1. В 1066 г. Англия была завоевана герцогом Нормандии Виль¬ гельмом, войско которого состояло (to consist of) из вассалов герцога и рыцарей из других районов Франции. 2. Нормандское завоевание привело к укреплению (the strength¬ ening) королевской власти и к усилению феодального гнета (oppres¬ sion) крестьян. to rise early. 170
3. Англосаксонские восстания против нормандских захватчиков продолжались несколько лет. Вильгельм жестоко расправлялся (to punish) с восставшими: он их казнил и сжигал их деревни. 4. Используя в качестве (as) предлога раздоры (strife) между фран¬ цузскими феодалами, Эдуард I заявил о своем праве на французский престол. 5. Война Роз ослабила (to weaken) власть крупных помещиков в Англии. 6. В Великобритании королева царствует, а не управляет. 7. Англии нужен был длительный мир (a lasting peace), а для это¬ го необходимо было (to be needed) твердое (firm) правительство. 8. Генрих IV (Henry IV), который вступил на престол в 1399 г., не имел на него (to it) права, так как законный наследник был Э. Мор¬ тимер (Е. Mortimer). 9. Именно Москва начала освобождение (liberation) России от татарского (Tatar) ига. 10. В начале 17 века Москва подпала под иностранное господство. 11. Расширяя (to enlarge) свои владения, московские князья (princes), которые вначале были вассалами князя Владимира, стали самыми силь¬ ными и богатыми. 12. Крупные землевладельцы фактически не поддержали (to support) английского короля в его борьбе против норманнов. ТЗ. В начале правления короля Эдуарда I ведущей силой в Англии были бароны. 14. Король обещал предоставить всем равные права. 15. В средневековой Англии в то время, когда для феодального сеньора (господина) не существовало никаких законов (to be lawless), жизнь крепостных крестьян была очень тяжелой (hard). С ними обра¬ щались как с домашними животными (domestic animals). Вилланы не имели права покидать менор и деревню, где они работали и жили. 16. Спасаясь (trying to escape) от притеснения норманнов, многие англосаксы убегали в леса, в которых они скрывались, или в другие места и там начинали борьбу против чужеземных угнетателей. 17. Курия Регис - это правительственный орган. Он издавал зако¬ ны, облагал население налогами и взимал налоги. 18. Войска Вильгельма превосходили англичан, и последние вы- нуждены были сдаться. 19. Что является характерной чертой раннего феодализма? - Пре¬ доставление земли в награду (in reward for) за военную службу. 20. У Вильгельма Завоевателя были огромные (vast) земельные владения в Англии. 21. Крепостное право в России было отменено в 1861 г. 171
17. Text for translation. Translate the text with the help of a dictionary, part C - in writing. A. Speaking of social aspects of the later middle ages in England H. Shearman says that in addition to the performance of services, the villein was under certain obligations fixed by custom. During the 14th—15th cen¬ turies most villeins acquired personal freedom. It was a gradual process, not even complete in the 16th c. No law was ever made emancipating the villeins. It was usual for villeins to make money payments to the lord and work for him on the demesne. B. Henry IV, who ascended the throne in 1399, had no right to it at all, for the rightful heir was Edmund Mortimer, who was descended from the third son of Edward III, while Henry IV was only descended from his fourth son. During the reign of Henry IV the question of his rightful succession was never raised. In the time of Henry VI there was still living a descendant of Edmund Mortimer. He was called Richard, Duke of York, and the Wars of the Roses began because Richard claimed to be the heir to the throne. C. The people were tired of Henry’s weak rule and they were willing to make Richard Protector of the kingdom during the king’s lifetime, and King after Henry’s death because no son was born to Henry. This caused the nobles to split up into rival factions; some sided with the Duke of York and others with the king. At last the two parties rose in arms, one against the other. The Wars of the Roses were called so because the badge of the king and of the House of Lancaster, to which he belonged, was a red rose, while the badge of the Duke of York was a white one. 18. Read the text of the lesson and single out paragraphs which might serve as the quintessence of the story. ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Correct the following statements which are not true to fact. Say: I’m afraid you are wrong. Quite the other way round. 1. In the 11th century England was conquered by J. Caesar. 2. William, who was a Danish baron, landed on the northern shores of England under the pretext of bad weather. 3. The Anglo-Saxons won the greatest victory in the battle at Hastings. 172
4. William did not promise anything to the Anglo-Saxon nobility. 5. Land grants led to the strengthening of royal authority. 6. It was very easy for the great landowners to concentrate their knights for rebellion against the king. 7. The Norman kings ruled with the help of Parliament ['padomant,. 8. The conquerors and the local population lived in a friendly atmo¬ sphere ['astmasfia]. 2. Speak on: a) how the English fell under the yoke of the Normans; b) William’s policy [polisi] in relation to (в отношении) the local population and his followers; c) the Curia Regis and its functions; d) the way the Anglo- Saxons tried to escape Norman oppression; e) their fight against the oppres¬ sors. 3. Give a short summary of the text “William the Conqueror”. 4. Discuss the questions: “The significance of the Norman conquest of England for the development of feudalism in the country”; “Normanization of the English language”. Words you may need: many new words, to appear, to be of French origin, to be connected with, government and law, army and military life, religion, Norman nobility, governing class; examples of French words: prince, royal, noble, court, baron, arms, regiment, siege, victory 5. You probably remember that Russia was the scene of a number of Peasants’ Revolts in the 17th century led by Ivan Bolotnikov (1606-1608), Stepan Razin (1670-1671), Emelian Pugachev (1771-1775). Say what you know about these revolts, making use of the following words: feudal oppression, great discontent (недовольство), to rebel, to rise, against, serfdom yoke, to be at the head, the first peasant war, to spread, all over the Volga area, to collect big detachments, to join the rebels, Cossack(s), to inflict defeat on, the tsarist troops, to besiege Moscow, to crush, to capture, to put to death 6. a) Read the three items given below and supply answers; b) Retell the passages; c) Pick out the unfamiliar terms and study them. 1 In the 11th century, with the growth of towns and trade (торговля), the feudal lords wanted more land and more serfs. As they could not get 173
(obtain) them in Western Europe, they directed their steps (направлялись) towards the East. In 1096 under the pretext of liberating “the Lord’s sepul¬ cher” ['sepolko] (могила Христа) troops of knights led by big feudal lords set out from France, Germany and Italy and went to Jerusalem [d^a'ruisolam]. They were well-armed, and on the way they captured towns,..robbed and killed their inhabitants (жители). On breaking into Jerusalem the crusaders (крестоносцы) staged a massacre [’massoko] (учинили резню). They mur¬ dered (убивали) and plundered the Moslems [z]. In 1204 during the fourth crusade (крестовый поход) they looted and destroyed Constantinople like the barbarians in Rome. 1) What did me feudal lords want? 2) Why did they start for the East? 3) Under what pretext did they go to Jerusalem? 4) What did they do on their way to Jerusalem and in the city? 2 In the year 43 A. D. the Romans came to Britain, landing an army of 40,000 men in Kent. Though the Britons were not so well-trained and well- armed as the Romans, they resisted (сопротивляться) the enemy bravely. Repulsing all the attacks, however, the Romans marched to Llyn-din (now London). This was not the first time the Romans tried to conquer the Brit¬ ish Isles. About a hundred years earlier Julius Caesar had landed in the same place, but the inhabitants, after a good fight, had driven the Romans out (изгнали). 1) In what year did the Romans come to Britain? 2) How did the Britons resist the enemy? 3) Was it the first time the Romans tried to conquer the British Isles1! 4) What had happened a hundred years earlier? 3 The Roman government came to its end in 383-410 A. D. At the be¬ ginning of the 5th century, when Rome was in danger of attack on the part of the Huns (гунны) and Goths, Roman soldiers had to be withdrawn [wi6'dro:n] (удалить) from Britain to defend their capital. Soon after the withdrawal of the Romans the tribes of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes [djuits] 174
began landing in the south of Britain. The Anglo-Saxons established their rule over the country which lasted till the coming of the Danes. Britain became England (Anglo-land). But the Danish [ei] rule was very unstable (непрочный) and after Canut’s [ko'njuit] death the Anglo-Saxon nobility restored [rfstoxl] (восстановить) the old dynasty to the English throne. 1) When did the Roman government in Britain come to an end? 2) Why did the Roman soldiers have to be withdrawn? 3) Who began landing on the British Isles? 4) Until when did the rule of the Anglo-Saxons last? 5) What did the Anglo-Saxon nobility do after the death of Canut?
LESSON EIGHT Text: “The Rescue” (from Tvanhoe’ by W. Scott)' Grammar: The Perfect Tense Forms, Active Voice; Reported Speech Topic: “My Favourite Writer’s Life Story” THE RESCUE Rebecca, one of the pricipal characters2 of the novel, had a good knowl¬ edge 3 of medicine. Once she found a knight who was badly wounded. The young man was bleeding to death4 when the girl decided to take him home and cure him. Soon she fell in love with the man and loved him secretly and hopelessly. Though the knight, whose name was Wilfred Ivanhoe, was in love with a Saxon lady, he was grateful to Rebecca and was always ready to come to the rescue (прийти ей на помощь). When some ignorant and wicked people5 called her medical art magic, the girl was condemned to die as a sorceress6. People said she would be burned alive unless a knight appeared as her champion7 and fought for her in a tournament which was to be held8 in a few days. * * * The day of the tournament came. The field where the knights were to fight8 was made ready. The gates opened, and a knight rode out from the castle, followed by six trumpets and other knights, two and two, the Grand Master9 coming last10 with a mace. Behind him came Brian de Bois-Guilbert, armed in bright armour, but without his lance, axe, shield, and sword, which were carried behind him. He looked very pale. Behind him followed other knights11 and pages dressed in black. Then came guards on foot", also in black, among whom could be seen the snow-white face of Rebecca. This slow procession entered the field, marched around it and stopped. Instantly Rebecca was led to the black chair placed near a high pile of wood on which she was to be burned if her champion did not conquer. When the trumpets announced that the court were seated for judge¬ ment12, one of the knights laid Rebecca’s glove, the pledge of battle13, at the feet of the Grand Master. “Here stands the good knight, Brian de Bois-Guilbert, knight of the Order of the Templel4”, said he, “who is ready to combat this day to prove 176
I hat this maiden, by name Rebecca, has justly deserved to die as a sorcer¬ ess.” The trumpets sounded and a herald 15, stepping forward, proclaimed aloud: “Hear! Hear! Hear! Here stands the good knight, ready to do battle16 with any knight who will support the quarrel of Rebecca.” There was a long dead pause. “No champion appears,” said the Grand Master. It was the general belief17 that no one would appear for the woman accused of sorcery. “We’ve been waiting for quite a time. We will not wait any longer1S,” said the Grand Master when all of a sudden 19 a horseman came in sight20. “A Champion! A Champion!” exclaimed a hundred voices when the stranger rode up to the crowd. To the herald, who demanded his rank, his name and purpose, the horseman answered: “My name is Wilfred Ivanhoe, I’m a good knight and noble. I’ve come here to support the just and lawful quarrel of Rebecca and to defy Sir Brian de Bois-Guilbert21 as a traitor, murderer and liar.” “Dog of a Saxon! I demand that you should take your lance. Prepare for death,” said Brian, flying into a rage22. “Does the Grand Master allow me?” asked Wilfred, addressing the Grand Master. “I may not deny,” said the Grand Master, “provided the maiden accepts you as her champion23.” “Rebecca,” said Wilfred, riding up to her, “do you accept me for your champion? I heard you had agreed to die and I decided to come to the rescue.” “I do, dear,” she said, but then: “Oh, no. Your wounds are not healed. Don’t meet that man. You may be killed.” But Ivanhoe was already at his post24. The herald then pronounced the signal words “Laissez aller!”25, and the combat began. It did not last long. A few minutes later Wilfred’s oppo¬ nent fell to the ground, and the next moment he was no more26. Rebecca was saved. Practise the following for pronunciation. Proper names: Ivanhoe ['aivanhou], Rebecca [п'Ьгекэ], Wilfred ['wilfrid], Brian de Bois-Guilbert [braian de bwa: 'gilbat]. Ударение на первом слоге: rescue, ignorant, judgement [d3Ad3], instantly, tournament ['tuanamant], herald ['herald], hopelessly; Ударение на втором слоге: condemn [m], procession, deserve, agree, announce, proclaim, support, belief, accuse, exclaim, demand, defy [ai], deny [ai], address, provided, pronounce, accept, opponent [ou]; Два ударения: principality [i:] healed, bleeding, secretly, shield, seated [a:] art, castle [-], armour [a], lance, guard, master 177
[o:] sorceress, fought, sword, court, pause, horseman [u:] wounded, wood, prove, accuse [э:] serve, turn, burned, deserve, purpose [as], sir, heard [o] knowledge, followed, stopped, combat, quarrel atjhe feet, meefjthe man, to supporfjhejusfjquarrel, the heraldjthen, provided Jhe maiden, it was_the general belief; axe [seks]. Notes 1 “Ivanhoe” («Айвенго») - исторический роман, написанный Валь¬ тером Скоттом в 1820 г. 2 principal characters - основные персонажи 3 had a good knowledge - хорошо знала; имела хорошие знания Существительное knowledge, являясь неисчисляемым существи¬ тельным, не имеет формы множественного числа и не употребляется с неопределенным артиклем, кроме тех случаев, когда оно имеет при себе определение, например: a poor knowledge «слабые знания». 4 wounded and bleeding to death - смертельно раненный и истекаю¬ щий кровью 5 ignorant and wicked ['wikid] people - невежественные и злые люди 6 was condemned to die as a sorceress - ее приговорили к смертной казни за колдовство 7 her champion - ее защитник 8 was to be held - должен был состояться; the knights were to fight - рыцари должны были драться Глагол to be (was, were) употреблен здесь в качестве модального глагола, выражающего необходимость, заранее предусмотренную договоренностью, планом и т. д. (подробнее см. § 1, с. 363). 9 the Grand Master - гроссмейстер, глава рыцарского ордена 10 coming last - при этом (гроссмейстер) шел последним 11 behind him followed other knights - позади него шли другие рыцари then came guards on foot - далее следовала пешая охрана Обратите внимание на полную инверсию (в утвердительном пред¬ ложении все сказуемое предшествует подлежащему). Это характерно для предложений, начинающихся с обстоятельственных слов, когда подлежащее выражено существительным, а сказуемое - непереходным глаголом, например: On the right is the park. «Направо парк». 12 the court were seated for judgement - судьи заняли свои места и готовы были начать судейство Ряд существительных, обозначающих понятие множественности (например, совокупность лиц), согласуется с глаголом во множествен¬ ном числе, когда эти лица рассматриваются в отдельности, т. е. как 178
отдельные компоненты этой совокупности, например: The family were at table. «Вся семья (члены семьи) сидели за столом (обедали)»; The jury are ready to begin. «Присяжные заседатели готовы начать (слуша¬ ние дела)»; There were no people in the park. «В парке не было людей». 13 the pledge of battle - предмет спора и поединка 14 the Order of the Temple - Орден тамплиеров 15 a herald - герольд, глашатай (он объявлял условия состязания) 16 to do battle - (з<Э.) вступить в поединок 17 It was the general belief - Все полагали (думали) 18 We will not wait any longer - Мы долго ждать не будем Глагол will часто употребляется с местоимениями 1-го лица ед. и мн. числа. Наряду с обозначением будущего времени will привносит оттенок желания. Например, 1 will help him. «Я помогу ему (= желаю помочь)». 19 all of a sudden = suddenly - вдруг 20 a horseman came in sight - показался всадник 21 to defy Sir Brian de Bois-Guilbert - чтобы вызвать на бой сэра Бриана де Буа-Г ильбер 22 flying into a rage - впадая в ярость 23 provided the maiden accepts you as her champion - при условии, что девушка согласится признать вас своим защитником Запомните английские эквиваленты глагола говорить и их упот¬ ребление: to speak (говорить быстро, много, о чем-либо, с кем-либо, на языке, выступать на собрании), to say (говорить, сказать, употребля¬ ется перед прямой речью и прямым дополнением), to tell (сказать, рас¬ сказать кому-либо о чем-либо, употребляется перед косвенной речью при наличии косвенного дополнения, а также в значении велеть), to talk (употребляется в значении разговаривать). Русскому глаголу принимать могут соответствовать английские глаголы: to take (принимать пищу, лекарство, что-либо близко к сердцу, за чистую монету и т. д.; воспринимать), to admit (принять, допустить в учебное заведение, клуб и dp.), to receive (принимать посетителей, гос¬ тей, больных), to accept {принять в значении «согласиться с», например, принять чью-либо точку зрения, мнение; принять в значении «согла¬ ситься взять, воспользоваться», например, принять подарок, помощь, приглашение). 24 was ... at his post - {зд.) занял свое место 25Laissez aller! [lese л1ё] - Начинайте! {букв. Пускайте!) В Англии в XII веке на различных церемониях использовался французский язык, который в то время был языком двора. 26 he was по more - его не стало 179
Words and Word Combinations principal а. главный, основной principality n. княжество novel n. роман wound v. ранить; n. рана ignorant а. невежественный condemn v. осуждать die v. умирать dead а. мертвый alive а. живой judge n. судья; v. судить ride v. 1) ездить верхом; 2) ехать (в автобусе, метро) castle п. замок follow V. следовать, идти за armour п. доспехи, латы, панцирь lance п. пика bright а. светлый, яркий mace п. булава, жезл battle axe боевой топорик carry (out, on) v. нести (выполнять, проводить) page п. паж guard п. охрана; v. охранять slowly adv. медленно quickly adv. быстро announce v. объявлять, заявлять announcement п. объявление prove v. 1) доказать; 2) оказаться proof п. доказательство support V. поддерживать quarrel v. ссориться; п. ссора accuse v. обвинять demand v. требовать; п. требование strange а. 1) чужой, незнакомый; 2) странный stranger и. незнакомец, посторонний murder v. убивать murderer п. убийца address v. 1) обращаться к; 2) адре¬ совать providedрг. при условии, если толь¬ ко accept v. принимать, соглашаться принять save V. 1) спасать; 2) (с)беречь weapon п. оружие heavy а. тяжелый (по весу) light а. 1) легкий {по весу); 2) свет¬ лый suddenly adv. вдруг, внезапно * * * principal (= main) character - главное действующее лицо to be wounded to death (= to be deadly wounded) - быть смертельно раненным to ride on horseback - ездить верхом на лошади to put on armour - надеть доспехи to demand that smth. should be done - потребовать сделать что-л. to carry out (= to perform) one’s duty - выполнять свои обязанности to accuse smb. of smth. (= to charge smb. with smth.) - обвинять кого-л. в чем-л. to fall (be) in love with smb. - влюбиться (быть влюбленным) в кого-л. to be grateful (= thankful) to smb. - быть благодарным кому-л. It is the general belief that... - Все полагают (считают) ... 180
all of a sudden (= suddenly) - вдруг to come in sight - появиться (в поле зрения), показаться to fly into a rage (= to get enraged) - прийти в ярость in one’s turn - в свою очередь Whose turn is it to answer? - Чья очередь отвечать? - It’s mine (hers, Belov’s). - Моя (ее, Белова). Reading Rules Recapitulation 1. Буквосочетание dge читается [с!з]. Например: judge. 2. Буквосочетание gu + гласная читается [д]. Например: guide. 3. Буквосочетание qu читается [kw]. Например: queen. 4. Буквосочетание тп в конце слова читается [ш]. Например: condemn. Exercise Read the following words as required: edge, guard, quart, autumn, pledge, guess, quality, column, bridge, guild, quantity, solemn, lodge, guilty, quaker, condemn, wedge, guile, squire, quiet, guilt, quickly GRAMMAR EXERCISES (see § 1, p. 354) 1. Form Perfect Infinitives (Active Voice) from the following verbs: e. g. write - to have written bring, read, speak, see, hear, do, make, get, give, finish, find, lose, leave, send, come, go, arrive, discuss, break, defeat, return, show 2. Express the following in Russian: 1. Have you ever been to London? - To my regret I have never been there. 2. We haven’t seen the Browns since we left Brighton. 3. The delegation has just arrived and is waiting on the platform. 4. Tom hasn’t passed his exam yet. 5. This year the students of our group have read and discussed sev¬ eral books by English authors ['o:0az]. 6. They have come to see us very seldom of late. 181
7. We haven’t had a single lecture this week. 8. When I have finished this work, I’ll go to the country. 9. Since when have you lived in this house? - Since my childhood. 10. I haven’t heard from you of late (lately). Where have you been all this time? 11. Who has broken the window in my room? 12. What have you brought from Sochi? 3. a) Express disagreement, e. g. I haven't seen this film. b) Express doubt. Mind the rising tone, e. g. Have you read the hook? 1. You have heard this opera. 2. Nick has returned the book. 3. Ann has left for London. 4. They have left a message for you. 5. The teacher has punished the pupil. 6. The Spartack team has won the game. 7. They have travelled a lot. 8. 1 have finished my paper. 9. Our students have established contacts with Polish students. 10. My friend has received many letters from France. 4. Supply replies: 1. Have you ever been to London? 2. Have you seen many places of interest there? 3. What historical places have you seen? 4. You have visited many museums, haven’t you? 5. What museums have you visited? 6. Have you visited the Hermitage ['hs:mitid3]? 7. What have you seen there? 8. Have you read any English books this year? 9. What books have you read? 10. Did you like them? 11. Have your students ever gone on an archaeological expedition? 12. Have they found anything interesting? 13. Have you done your English homework for today? 182
5. Compose sentences according to the models. Use the words given be¬ low: 1. Have you (has your friend) ever been to Paris? (London, New York, Athens, Rome, Berlin) 2. Has she (he, your friend) celebrated his (her) birthday this year? (to make a report in History, to translate many articles, to take one’s exam in English, to congratulate you on your marriage ['masrid3]) 3. What have you done? (to find, to send, to lose, to bring, to write) 4. Who has done it? (to take my book, to leave one’s notes, to occupy that room, to come, to put it here) 5. Why haven’t you brought my book? (to do one’s homework, to learn the new words, to study the gram¬ mar rules, to do this exercise, to translate the text) 6. I haven’t seen him since 1998. (to hear from, to meet, to speak to) 6. Ask five questions about the words in bold type: Many students have passed their English exam successfully. 7. Express the following in English: 1. Вы когда-нибудь были в Лондоне? - Да. - Когда вы там были (ездили туда)? 2. За последнее время я ничего не слышал о Николае. 3. Что вы ищете? - Свои конспекты (notes). Я оставил их здесь. 4. Преподаватель уже пришел. Вы можете идти в класс. 5. Кто взял мой учебник? 6. Вы уже написали свою курсовую работу (course-paper)? - Нет еще. Я пишу ее сейчас. 7. В этом году мы прочитали несколько английских книг. 8. Мы только что видели нашего нового декана. 9. Я нашел интересный материал (material) для своего доклада. 10. Отец уже пришел? - Нет. 11. Виктор пришел вчера домой очень поздно. 12. Она потеряла ключ (the key) и теперь не может попасть в квар¬ тиру (get into). 183
13. Вы отправили мое письмо? - Да. 14. Где вы достали такую ручку? 15. Что они привезли с юга? 16. Кто положил этот документ на мой стол? 17. Почему вы не выполнили домашнее задание? 18. Здравствуй, Борис! Не видел тебя сто лет (for ages)! Где ты был все это время? 19. С какого времени (since when) вы знаете Белова? 20. Я не встречал Олега с тех пор, как мы окончили школу. 8. Pick out from the text sentences containing the verb in the Present Perfect Tense and analyse them. 9. Give the meaning of the following: 1. On my way to the University 1 suddenly found that 1 had left my exercise-book at home. 2. As 1 had not heard from my friend for a long time, 1 decided to find out what the matter was. 3. By the time you came, we had already discussed this question. 4. Ben said that he had never seen the Bolshoi Ballet ['bash], 5. By 5 o’clock all the guests had gathered and the party began. 6. The children went to the skating-rink after they had done their lessons. 7. When 1 returned home, my wife had already prepared supper and was waiting for me. 8. We were surprised to see the man because we had never seen such a tall man before. 9. He asked me where 1 had spent my summer holiday. 10. Change the following sentences as required. Model: 1 have finished my work {by 6 о 'clock yesterday). I had finished my work by 6 o’clock yesterday. 1 2 3 4 51. The children have fallen asleep {by the time you came). 2. Ann has done her English homework {when her friend called her up). 3. We have reached the station {by this time yesterday). 4. He has not translated the article yet {by last week). 5. All the students of our group have studied these materials {before Professor Green asked them to). 184
11. Express doubt. Mind the rising tone. e. g. Had he studied History before he entered this faculty! 1. You had learned English before you entered the faculty. 2. Belov had served in the army before he became a student. 3. You had taken all your entrance examinations by the 1st of Sep¬ tember. 4. You had read a lot of historical literature before you made up your mind to take up History seriously. 5. You had collected all the necessary materials for your report by the end of last term. 6. The first-year students had finished studying Ancient History be¬ fore they passed over to the study of the Middle Ages. 7. Alice had not prepared for the next day’s classes by the time her friend rang her up. 8. The teacher had corrected mistakes in your written papers before you discussed them in class. 9. Your roommates had fallen asleep by the time you returned to the hostel from the theatre. 10. He said he had failed his credit-test in Latin1. 12. Supply the correct tense form of the verbs given in brackets: 1. David came to visit me because he {to promise) to return the book that evening. 2. I could not recognize Eve, my schoolfriend, as she (to change) greatly. 3. The instructor said that the students of group three {to win) the competition. 4. Jane was very sorry because she (to forget) her friend’s telephone number. 5. Everybody was unhappy because the team (to lose) the game. 6. I was sure that Leonid (to graduate) from college long ago. 7. We did not know that the delegation (to arrive) already. 8. In her letter my sister asked me if I (to receive) her previous letter. 9. I was asked what language I (to learn) before. 10. Wilfred heard that Rebecca (to agree) to be executed and decided to save her. 1 В вопросительную форму ставится главное предложение. 185
13. Compose sentences of your own according to the models. Use the words given in brackets. 1. I had done the translation by this time (5 o’clock) yesterday. (to send the telegram, to pass the examination, to do one’s lessons) 2. Had you finished your work when I came? (to start the contest, to take the necessary measures, to speak the matter over with the Dean) 3. She had phoned me several times before she called on me. (to appear at the faculty, to postpone the visit, to promise to come) 4. He said (that) he had not studied this subject. (to celebrate his birthday, to take part in the war, to attend the lecture) 5. I was sure that your son had finished school. (to get a good mark at the examination, to occupy the first place in the competition, to major in Modern History) 14. Express the following in English: 1. По дороге в магазин (shop) я вспомнил, что забыл (оставил) дома деньги (money). 2. Мы услышали (узнали), что соревнования не состоялись. 3. Когда я пришел на станцию, поезд (train) уже ушел. 4. Она знала, что видела этого человека раньше (before). 5. Я думал, что вы уже закончили институт. 6. Анна выглядела усталой (to look tired), так как много рабо¬ тала за последнюю неделю (for the last week). 7. Когда я вошел в класс, я увидел, что моей карты нет. Кто-то взял ее. 8. Мы окончили работу к 5 часам и ждали вас. 9. Какой иностранный язык вы изучали перед тем, как посту¬ пили на факультет? 10. Когда вы позвонили, я еще не закончил перевод статьи. 11. Он сказал, что не пропустил ни одной (single) лекции. 12. Я был уверен, что она получила отличную оценку по (in) анг¬ лийскому языку на экзамене. Она много работала над языком в этом году. 15. Pick out from the text sentences with the verb in the Past Perfect Tense and analyse them. 186
THE PERFECT CONTINUOUS FORMS (see § 2, p. 348) 16. Have a talk with your classmate, using mese questions: 1. Are you a student? You are studying at the college, aren’t you? How long have you been studying? For how many years had you been studying at school before entering the college? 2. Are you learning Spanish? What language are you learning? Since when have you been learning English? How long had you been learning English at school? 3. Have you finished reading the book which your scientific guide recommended? You are still reading it, aren’t you? How long have you been reading it? 4. People say you are a good tennis-player. Is that soy Since when have you been playing tennis? Did you take part in the last contest? How long had you been training before the contest was held? 5. Have you written your course-paper or are you still writing it? Have you been writing it for a long time? Since when have you been working at your course-paper? 6. Is your friend in the army now? Has he been serving since you left school? Have you been a serviceman yourself? How long had you been serv¬ ing in the army when you entered this faculty? 7. Who is your best friend? How long have you known him? He is abroad (за границей) now, isn’t he? Since when has he been living abroad? 8. Are you waiting for the teacher? Have you been waiting for him long? Have you been doing anything during this time? What have you been doing? 9. Who is being examined now? Is he still answering the examiner’s questions? How long has he been answering the questions? Had he been preparing long before he started answering? 10. Are the students of group five training in the gym? Are they train¬ ing for the coming competition? How long have they been training? 17. Ask questions about the words in bold type: 1. My sister has been taking music lessons for two years now (5). 2. He had been waiting for the doctor since the morning when we came (4). 18. Make up questions and answers according to the model. Model: Mr. Price is working at this problem (for two years). How long has Mr. Price been working at this problem? He said he had been working at it for two years. 187
1. Victor is skiing (since the morning). 2. Jane is playing the piano (since childhood). 3. Bill is serving on the ship (for several years). 4. Cadwell is writing a new novel (the whole year). 5. They are travelling in the mountains (for the last two months). 6. Max is corresponding with her (since he left Leeds). 19. Compose short dialogues. Use the models. Model 1: - Is Val still working as a teacher of History? - Yes, she is. - How long has she been teaching History? - For about ten years. Model 2: - You are learning English now, aren’t you? - Yes, I am. I began to learn it at the University. - What language had you been learning before you entered the University? - German. Model 3: - What are the students doing? - They are doing a test translation. - Since when have they been doing it? - They started writing it at 9. 20. Express the following in English: 1. Она давно преподает историю? - Она преподает ее с тех пор, как окончила университет. 2. Какой язык вы изучаете? - Французский. - С какого времени вы его изучаете? - Я изучаю его с 1999 г. 3. Что вы переводите? - Текст. - И давно вы его пеоеводите? - Да, с самого утра. 4. Вот уже час мы ждем управляющего (manager). Когда же он придет? - Не знаю. Его нет второй день. 5. Сколько лет вы жили за границей до того, как вернулись на родину? 6. Петр занимается искусством (art) вот уже 6 лет. Он начал рисо¬ вать до поступления на факультет и рисовал в течение нескольких лет. 7. Вот уже год, как Гарри пишет свой новый роман. 8. Александр сказал, что делает уроки с утра. 9. Последние два дня отец очень занят. Он готовит доклад для конференции. 10. Я вас не видел около месяца. Что вы делали все это время? 188
11. Мы знаем Беловых с 1980 г. 12. С какого времени студент Попов отсутствует па (from) заня¬ тиях? - Его нет на занятиях с прошлого вторника. SEQUENCE OF TENSES. REPORTED SPEECH (see § 3, p. 349) 21. Complete the sentences by translating the Russian part. 1 was sure \ I thought | 1 didn’t know \ that 1 knew i 1 was afraid j вы придете; он - студент; она живет в Москве; дети играют в саду; они уехали из Москвы; ваш друг пишет новую пьесу; никто из вас не уме¬ ет рисовать; им дадут эту работу; ей прихо¬ дится оставаться в институте после занятий; вы переговорили об этом с преподавателем; статья уже переведена; вопрос будет обсуж¬ даться на собрании, они не придут 22. Use reported speech. Mind the rules of the sequence of tenses (see §4, p. 350). She said: “I am tired and I can’t work any more.” “I am writing a letter to my parents.” “I have seen this film twice.” “The students of our group took the examination in History ahead of time.” “My friend was sent abroad a month ago.” “I shall give you a call at once.” “My brother will help Ann with her English.” He asked me: “Do you like detective stories?” “Does your sister know French?” “Did you take part in the conference?” “Will your students work on the collective farm in Sep¬ tember?” “Have you got many books on archaeology?” “Can you play the piano?” “Are the students busy preparing for the seminar?” “Is your teacher young or old?” “Must they attend the lecture?” 189
He asked me: He asked me: He said: “What are your plans for the weekend?” “Where do you live?” “When did you start learning Latin?” “Who must carry out this task?” “Whose books are these?” “What films do you like?” “Why didn’t you tell me before about it?” “How long will it take you to do it?” “Do this work immediately.” “Don’t go there alone.” “Do the translation today.” 23. Complete the sentences by translating the Russian part: I wonder... (где он работает; какой язык она изучает; ко- I’d like to know if (whether) гда состоится лекция; кто будет вести этот се¬ минар; почему так много студентов отсутству¬ ет; сколько времени нам потребуется, чтобы подготовиться к этому экзамену; что с ними случилось) (учится ли он или работает; собирается ли она поступать в университет; сдал ли Ник зачет по истории Древней Греции; есть ли у него кон¬ спекты этих лекций; женат ли ваш друг) I’d like to know if (whether) (знаю ли я немецкий; в какое время заканчива¬ ются наши занятия; как долго я жил за грани¬ цей; кого я приглашу на свой день рождения; чья это книга; смогу ли я достать билеты на этот матч) VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. Form nouns ending in -ness {-ноешь) from the following words and translate them into Russian: bright, strange, hopeless, ready, wicked, slow, sudden, prepared, quick 2. Give verbs corresponding to these nouns: 190
judgement, announcement, pronunciation, condemnation, accusation, exclamation, appearance, acceptance, safety, proof, denial, demand, quar¬ rel, guard, combat, follower, death, wound, service, order, murder, love 3. Form adverbs ending in -ly from the following adjectives: sudden, bright, dead, slow, quick, hopeless, ready, heavy, general, grateful 4. Suggest the Russian for: one of the principal characters; to have a good knowledge of history; to fall in love with; he was grateful to Rebecca; in great need of help; she was condemned to die as a sorceress; a knight rode out from the castle followed by six trumpets;) armed in bright armoury guards on foot dressed in black; she was to be burned unless her champion conquered; the court were seated for judgement/this maiden has justly deserved to die; I am ready to do battle and support the quarrel of Rebecca; it was the general belief; she was accused of sorcery; all of a sudden; a horseman came in sight; the herald demanded the stranger’s rank and his purpose; to defy him as a traitor, murderer and liar;'provided she accepts you as her champion; to come to the rescue; the next moment he was.no more 5. Suggest English equivalents for: главное действующее лицо; исторический роман; быть смертель¬ но раненным; невежественный (несведущий); осуждать; живой и мерт¬ вый; умирать; ездить верхом на лошади; следовать за кем-л.; надеть доспехи; пика, жезл (булава) и топорик; блестящий, яркий; проводить (осуществлять) что-л.; молодой паж; охранять замок; объявить о по¬ единке (бое); в суде; класть, положить; доказать, что вы правы; под¬ держивать борьбу; ссориться (ссора); обвинять кого-л. в чем-л.; ве¬ рить в (in); полагать; орден; спасать; принять чыо-л. помощь; при ус¬ ловии? что; обратиться к судьям; убиват^ требовать землю и свободу; влюбиться; быть благодарным кому-л.;)испытывать большую нужду в чем-л.; в свою очередь; прийти в ярость; сберечь, сэкономить 6. a) Give the meaning of the following, paying attention to the words in italics: 11. “The Live [ai] and the Dead” is a wonderful film about the Great Patriotic War. I like the way the principal character is portrayed in it. 2. The rebels, addressing the King, demanded that no one should be a serf any longer. 191
3. Behind the Grand Master, armed in bright armour, followed the guard dressed in black. 4. The weather was fine, the sun was shining brightly, and it was pleas¬ ant to be having a ride. 5. Bob is a bright boy, he learns so easily. 6. The Grand Master Tal accepted the invitation to take part in our chess tournament. 7. As soon as the judges and contestants had assembled, it was announced that the tournament started. 8. The court was to hear a strange case (дело), a grand quarrel be¬ tween the two family clans. 9. When suddenly a knight, who probably was Rebecca’s champion, came in sight, many spectators (зрители) shouted: “A champion! A champion.” 10. As the knight’s armour was very heavy, he was slow in movement. 11. At hearing Wilfred’s words of defiance Sir Brian flew into a rage and in his turn pronounced some curses (проклятия). 12. Are Jack’s parents alivel - No, they died a few years ago. 13. When I was riding in the bus this morning, I met an old friend of mine. 14. Under the feudal system the law of corvee was replacedby quit-rent. 15. With the development of trade the landlords increased the dues of the peasants. 16. Large and stable states which began to appear in the 15th century and later were absolute monarchies. 17. Under the feudal system manufactories developed and trade grew between the towns and the countryside. 18. In feuded times the Church took a dominating position but the de¬ velopment of learning in the Middle Ages was undermining (подрывать) the authority of the Church. 19. The Church meted out (выносить, определять) terrible punish¬ ment for those who made scientific discoveries (открытие) (Galileo, Bruno). b) Comment on the following, using the words in italics and your knowl¬ edge of history: e. g. Generally speaking it was Вообще говоря, это было типич- typical for... но для... I’m sure it was customary to... Я уверен, было обычным... More than that... Болеетого... 192
1. Lords often sent their sons to a neighbouring castle to be educated. 2. When a young nobleman was seven years old, he became a page. 3. A page was usually taught to ride and to take care of his arms and armour. 4. At the age of fourteen a page became a squire. 5. A page learnt to fight on horseback and to use the heavy weapons of a knight. 6. The heavy weapons used by knights included: a lance, a battle axe, a sword and a mace. 7. It was part of a squire’s duty to rescue his knight if the latter fell in combat. 8. Joan of Arc was accused of sorcery (witchcraft) and i vas condemned to be burned at the stake. 9. It often took a villein his whole life time to save a large sum of money in exchange of (в обмен) which he could be granted freedom. 10. Very often a quarrel between dukes led to war. 11. The feudal lords ignored the poverty ['о] (нищета) of the peasants and demanded more and more payments. 12. Richard II promised to fulfil the peasants’ demands provided they laid down arms and left London. The rebels accepted these terms (условия) and left. In the meantime the King, supported by the rich feudal lords, collected a force and defeated them on the way. 13. William I granted large estates to his followers and took away the lands from his opponents. 14. A tournament in the Middle Ages was a military competition be¬ tween knights to prove their strength. 15. It is the general belief that most of the feudal lords were coarse [o:] (грубый) and ignorant. 16. The well-armed feudal lords forced the defenceless peasants to carry out numerous duties (обязанности). 17. The crusaders were both plunderers and murderers. 18. In 1540 the Order of Jesuits was established to fight the Reforma¬ tion whose supporters demanded church reforms. 19. Anthony fell in love with Cleopatra when he saw her in Tarsus. 20. Early in the 12th century our country was still divided into many feudal principalities which were constantly quarrelling among themselves. c) Respond to the following, expressing your opinion: e. g. I (don’t) think it is/was really so. (He) думаю, что это (было) так. That’s right (Exactly so). Это правильно (Совершенно точ¬ но). 193
It may be so. Возможно, это и так. It looks that way, but 1 am not Похоже, что это так, но я не уве- sure. I doubt. рен. Сомневаюсь. 1. Feudalism was introduced in Europe in the 5th century A. D. and flourished (расцветать) between the 10th and 15th centuries. Then came its disintegration (распад) and decline. 2. At the time of its origin feudalism was a progressive system as compared (по сравнению) with slavery. 3. Under the feudal system power belonged to the feudal lords headed by the monarch, and everyone belonged to some specific social estate (со¬ словие). 4. Wilfred was grateful to Rebecca, but not more. 5. Shopping in a supermarket (в супермаркете) you save time. 6. There are a lot of historical novels telling us how a hero falls in love with a heroine or vice versa (и наоборот). 7. Sometimes it’s much easier to make plans than to carry them out. 8. Once you have started (Если вы начали) the work, you should carry it on until you have come to an end. 9. Today’s issue of the paper carries a very interesting article head¬ lined (статью под заголовком) “Historical Parallels are Dangerous”. d) Use the right verb in the appropriate form: to speak, to say, to tell, to talk. 1. ... him to come here tomorrow. 2. Are you sure of what you are ...? 3. “Those who have ... at today’s seminar showed a good knowl¬ edge of the subject,” ... Professor Nelson. 4. What language are those foreigners ...? -1 really don’t know. 5. The manager was not in his office and we had to ... to his secretary. 6. She ... that she cannot translate the text without a dictionary. 7. Will you ... us your life story? 8. “John ... a lot. but he does very little,” ... Mrs. Price about her son. 9. The Dean ... at the students’ meeting. Among other things he ... about the results of the latest examinations. 10. What were you ... about when I came up to you? 11. Do as you were .... 7. Have a talk based on the text with your classmate. Make use of the following questions: 1. Have you read “Ivanhoe” by W. Scott? 2. Who are the principal characters of the novel? 194
3. In what state was the young knight when Rebecca found him? 4. In what way did she save him? 5. Did she fall in love with Wilfred? 6. Ivanhoewas in love with a Saxon lady, wasn’t he? 7. Was he grateful to Rebecca and ready to serve her? 8. Was Rebecca in great need of his help when she was condemned to die as a sorceress? 9. Was she really a sorceress or was it her medical art that some ignorant and wicked people could not believe? 10. What was to be held there in a few days? 11. Where did the procession start from? 12. What was Sir Brian armed with? 13. Where were his lance, axe, shield and sword? 14. Whom was he followed by? 15. How were the guards dressed? 16. Did Rebecca look very pale? 17. What was there near the black chair on which she sat down? 18. What did the trumpets announce? 19. What did one of the knights do after the announcement? 20. Who was ready to combat in order to prove that Rebecca had justly deserved to die? 21. Was there anyone among those present who was willing to sup¬ port the quarrel of Rebecca? 22. What was the general belief? 23. Who suddenly came in sight? 24. What did the herald demand of the stranger? 25. What was the stranger’s name? 26. What did he say as to the purpose of his coming there? 27. What was Brian’s reaction to the words of defiance? 28. Why did Wilfred address the Grand Master? 29. What did the Grand Master answer? 30. Did Rebecca accept Wilfred as her champion? 31. Why did she first say that Wilfred should not meet Sir Brian in combat? 32. The combat did not last long, did it? . 33. Who conquered (won the victory) in that combat? 34. Was Rebecca saved? 8. Find another way of expressing words and word combinations in italics. 1. Wilfred is the hero of the novel “Ivanhoe” by W. Scott. 2. Rebecca knew the medical science very well. 195
3. During his military service he was often punished for not fulfilling his commander's instructions. 4. The young knight loved a Saxon lady, but he was very thankful to Rebecca and was ready to render his service to her. 5. There soon came a day when the young girl needed his assistance badly. 6. Clyde Griffith was sentenced to death as a killer. 7. Rebecca’s defender fought for her in a contest which took place near the castle. 8. Behind Sir Brian came other knights and pages in black clothes. 9. Immediately [l'mfdmth] the girl was brought to the chair not far from the place of the execution. 10. When the trumpets gave the signal that the judges had taken thcii seats and were ready to umpire, one of the knights put Rebecca’s glove at the feet of the Grand Master. 11. The knight de Bois-Guilbert is ready to fight in order to give proof that this maiden has justly deserved to die. 12. AH those present believed that nobody would help the woman charged with sorcery. 13. Suddenly a rider appeared in the distance. 14. The stranger said: “I have come here to back the just quarrel of Rebecca and to challenge [t|aelind3] Sir Brian.’’ 15. “Does the Grand Master permit me?” asked Wilfred turning to the Grand Master. 16. “I may not deny,” said the Grand Master, “on condition that the maiden agrees to have you as her champion.” 17. The person who made public announcements pronounced the sig¬ nal words for the start, and the fight began. 18. Wilfred’s enemy fell to the ground and the next moment he was dead. 19. The competition came to an end. Rebecca was rescued. 9. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: to die, dead, slowly, accept, love, supporter (сторонник), black, high, here, put on, appear, patriot, forward, long, just, allow, agree, fall, rise, disagree, forbid (запрещать), unjust, short, backward (назад), traitor, there, low. white, disappear, take off (снимать одежду), hatred (ненависть), reject (отвергать), quickly, alive, be born, opponent 10. Choose the right word according to the definition: a group of soldiers whose duty is to watch against danger and protect somebody; 196
a thing used in fighting or for defence; ‘ the territory (country) ruled by a prince; a person who serves upon another person; a person whose duty is to decide a quarrel, dispute, contest, etc.; the home and fortress of a knight; a metal covering [kawarig] (покрытие) used to protect the body (тело) in fighting; a boy in training for knighthood; an office where quarrels or disputes are settled (решать, урегулировать); a person who has done better than all others in games and sports; one who fights in defence of another. (champion, court, guard, page, weapon, armour, judge, principality, castle, servant) 11. Choose the right word: accept, admit, receive 1. Have you seen the doctor? - No, unfortunately, he does not ... today. 2. After I had passed all the entrance examinations, I was ... to the University. 3. We are happy to help you if you ... our help at all. 4. Rebecca ... Wilfred as her champion. 5. Please ... our best wishes for a Happy New Year. 6. Mrs. Trodwood was ... guests when I arrived. 7. I can’t... this point of view, I disagree with the entire concept. 8. You will not be ... to the club unless you pay entrance fee. 9. He does not... presents at all. land, earth, ground 1. William the Conqueror granted ... mainly to his followers. 2. In ancient times people had a strange idea [ai'dm] about the ... which they thought to be flat (плоская). 3. I shook the apple-tree and many apples fell to the .... 4. Soon the messengers came asking for... and water, symbol of sub¬ mission. 5. The rebels demanded the confiscation of... which belonged to the church. 6. “Don’t sit on the ..., it is wet and cold,” said Miss Mary to the children. 197
die, dead, death 1. Walter Scott, the great poet and novelist,... in 1832. 2. Throw those flowers out; they are .... 3. The ground was covered with ... leaves. 4. The young soldier was wounded to ... and was carried away from the battlefield. 5. ... came instantly, and she had been ... for some time but then she was reanimated. 6. Where did Byron ...? carry, carry out, carry on 1. A soldier usually ... small arms about with him. 2. Today’s issue of the Independent... an article about the Yugoslavia. 3. A serf had to ... various duties for his lord. 4. “If you don’t ... my instructions, you’ll be punished,” said Mr. Boss to his secretary. 5. Who is going to ... the experiment when I am away? 6. Let me help you to ... your suitcase (чемодан). 12. Complete the following phrases: 1. I am very grateful to you and in my turn I will... 2. Whose turn is it to ...? 3. It is the general belief that... 4. When she was an undergraduate, she fell in love with ... 5. All of a sudden ... 6. The herald demanded that the stranger should ... 7. It’s a well-known fact that the serf had to carry out... 8. Each squire served a knight, and it was his duty to rescue him if... 9. If you want to serve in the cavalry ['kaevalri], you should learn to ... 10. Asa result of the bombing ['bomir)] about 200 people were reported (как сообщалось) killed and ... 11. The heavy weapon of a knight consisted of... 12. I believe that... 13. It was announced that... 14. Can you prove that...? 15. Without your support I can’t... 16. At the celebration meeting the Rector made a speech. He ad¬ dressed ... 198
13. Match the nouns with the adjectives. Insert your a + n combination in the patterns given below: quick judgement, decision, service, answer, weapon, armour, duty, accusation, quarrel, condemnation, colour, future, man, faces, sunshine, forms of the verb, subject, tasks, works, appearance, name, ques¬ tion, end, death, change, demands, right, claims, pause, silence, flower, leaves, service, novel, address, lance, announcement 1. It is (was) a ... 2. I don’t like such (a)... These are (those were)... I wouldn’t take (give, put) such ... 14. Guess (догадаться) the meaning of the words and word combinations in italics: 1. Judging from what he says he accepts this theory [’Gian], so he needn’t prove that he is right. 2. How do you like these pictures? - Unfortunately I am no judge of painting. 3. Those present at the match demanded objective judgement. 4. The soldier was on guard when the commander of the unit arrived. 5. Why don’t you follow my example? 6. I followed your advice [ad'vais] (совет) and passed my exam suc¬ cessfully. 7. The military parade [pa'reid] was followed by a big demonstration in Red Square. 8. We escaped the storm and hid in the forest where we were in complete safety. 9. The excellent mark, which he got for his course-paper, can serve a convincing [knn'vinsir)] (убедительный) proof of his hard work. 10. Ann failed her examination. - Did she? I was ignorant of the fact. It serves her right. She hadn’t worked hard enough. 15. Translate the following word combinations into English: военная служба; длинный роман; пространное объявление; мерт¬ вый цветок; законные требования; внезапная смерть; чужая сторона (земля); незнакомое имя; странный человек; основные предметы (дис¬ heavy groundless bright principal strange sudden lawful dead long Patterns: 199
циплины); главные задачи (tasks); яркие цвета; блестящая броня (дос¬ пехи); светлое будущее; беспочвенная ссора; тяжелые обязанности; новое оружие; быстрое обслуживание; я не могу поверить этому 16. Make up sentences according to the patterns. Use the phrases in brackets. 1. I believe (that) he carries out his duty honestly ['omstli]. (to serve in the army now, to ride a horse well, to know the principal characters of the novel, not to be wounded, to be alive, to be a good judge, to be a good servant, not to quarrel with his wife) 2. It was announced that the delegation had arrived. (the judges - to assemble, the wounded soldier - to die, the tourna¬ ment - to start, Rebecca - to accept Wilfred as her champion) 3. It is/was his duty to do it. (to support his family, to help the knight to put on his armour, to rescue him in combat, to act as an umpire) 4. I am in great need of it. (your help, this material, money, such books, historical sources and literature) 5. She has a good knowledge of English. (history, medical science, historiography, ancient languages) 6. I demand that you (he) should do it. (to prove it, to carry out one’s duty well, to stop quarrelling, to sup¬ port this project) 7. It is the general belief that he ... . (to carry a weapon, to save the little boy, to announce the news, to accept the present) 8. Whose turn is it to do it? (to answer, to do the room, to read, to translate) 17. a) Suggest English equivalents for the Russian parts; b) Give a short summary of the story by answering the questions that follow the story. The Sheriff was so much afraid of the growing power of Robin Hood that one day he went to London to ask the King for help to settle (уладить) his old (ссора) with Robin Hood, as he put it. He (осудил) the outlaws (объявленные вне закона) saying that they attacked his (замок), killed his (охрана) and robbed him. “(Все полагают, считают),” he said, “that they are (убийцы).” The Sheriff said he (потребовать) that Robin Hood 200
and his men should be arrested and brought to (суд). Prince John (King Richard) who had not yet returned from the crusades listened to the Sheriffs report but did nothing. Having received no (поддержка) the Sheriff came back home and told his daughter about it. The young lady who once (влю¬ билась в Робина) thought of a cruel plan. “Let’s organize a shooting match (соревнование no стрельбе),” she said, “and I (полагаю) it will attract him and his men; they will come and then ...” The Sheriff liked the idea [ai'dio] and he readily (принял) the plan. When the (судьи) had taken their seats, the herald (объявил) (основ¬ ные) rules of the (состязания), and the shooting began. Usually Robin Hood and his men were dressed in green and were noted for this colour, but on the day of the contest they were dressed in different colours. During the contest Robin Hood did not say a word to his men as if (как будто, как если бы) they were (незнакомцы). His men shot very well. Robin Hood won the prize - (стрелу) with the golden head. As he received it, the Sheriff recognized him. He seized him, but (вдруг) received а (тяже¬ лый) blow on the head. “This is from your former (слуга),” said a voice from behind. A general fight (последовать) as a result of which five of the Sheriffs men were killed and many others (ранены). The Sheriff himself remained (в живых). The next moment Robin Hood and his men rode off, safe and sound (целы и невредимы). Questions 1. Why did the Sheriff go to London one day? 2. What did he report on the outlaws to Prince John? 3. Did Prince John support the Sheriff? 4. Who thought of the cruel plan? 5. What plan did the Sheriff accept? 6. Were Robin Hood and his men dressed in green or in red on the day of the contest? 7. Who won the prize? 8. What happened when Robin Hood received the prize? 9. Was there a big fight? 10. What was the outcome of the fight? 18. a) Insert the missing articles; b) Describe the medieval village, mak¬ ing use of the text. Here is... picture of... medieval village. In .. .village of... Middle Ages ... houses grouped [u:] round ... church, which was then ... centre of ... small community (сообщество). ... churchbell (колокол) told ... inhabit¬ 201
ants when to begin work, when to come home from ... fields, and when to go to bed. ... largest house in ... village belonged to ... lord of ... manor. Sometimes it was... castle, which was usually fortified (укреплен) and made of stone. Speaking about life in ... medieval village we should take two principal features into consideration: ... open fields and ... giving of ser¬ vices and dues (подати) in return for holding land. Because of this (По этой причине) very few people had ... right to move to another place or change their jobs. Only ... lord and freemen had this right. ... majority (большинство) of ... villagers formed ... class called “villeins”. ... villein could not leave ... village. He could not marry or let his son or daughter marry without his lord’s permission (разрешение). Naturally... lord pre¬ ferred (предпочитал) to keep as many people “in villeinage” as possible because they worked for him. ... only (единственная) hope for ... villein of becoming free was for him either to escape and remain hidden somewhere in ... forest for ... year or so, or else to persuade (уговорить) ... lord to grant him freedom in exchange for (в обмен на) ... big sum of money and ... yearly due paid afterwards. And it often took ... man his whole lifetime to save enough for such ... “project”. 19. Supply prepositions or adverbs wherever necessary: 1. 1 am very thankful... you ... your help and I am ready to assist you ... my turn. 2. Lucy fell... love ... a married man. 3. What was Rebecca accused ...? 4. “Dog ... a Saxon!” said the knight flying ... a rage. 5. In the Russia a great housing program is carried ... every year. 6. Somebody has to carry ... this work, Mr. Fox. 7. ... the war a big monument was set ... those who fell ...combat, defending the town. 8. As the armour was very heavy (about 50 kg) somebody always helped the knight to put it... 9. Wilfred was wounded ... death ... the fight the foe. 10. ... an early age a page could ride ... horseback. 11. “Stop quarrelling! There is nothing to quarrel...,” said the mother to the kids. 12. The king, supported ... the rich feudal lords, launched an offen¬ sive ... the rebellious peasants. 13. Sergeant [’savant] Grass was ... guard when the news... the ter¬ mination of the war ... Vietnam reached him. 202
14. The knight was usually armed ... a lance, an axe, a sword and a mace. 15. ... Sir Brian followed pages dressed ... black, then came guards ... foot. 16. I have a poor knowledge ... Latin. 17. Rebecca was led ... the chair placed ... a high pile ... wood. 18. When I came ... the bus stop, there was no bus ... sight. 19. Suddenly the knight fell... the ground and his squire came ... the rescue. 20. A bad workman quarrels ... his tools (proverb). 20. Test translation. Express the following in English: 1. Крестьяне требовали отмены крепостного права, пошлин (tolls) и более легкую барщину (corvee). 2. Крестьяне, которые страдали от гнета церкви, активно под- держивали (to be active supporters) Реформацию (Reformation). 3. Основными требованиями, которые выдвинули (put forward) восставшие, были отмена налогов и конфискация церковных земель. 4. Рыцарь был вооружен пикой, алебардой, мечом и булавой. 5. Сквайера (squire) обучали пользоваться тяжелым оружием рыцаря. 6. В возрасте семи лет молодой дворянин становился пажем. 7. Пажа обучали ездить верхом на лошади, ухаживать (take саге of) за своим оружием и доспехами. 8. Замок был для феодала его домом и крепостью (fortress). 9. В Британии, Дании (Denmark) и Швеции (Sweden) Реформа¬ ция осуществлялась королями при поддерэюке дворян. 10. В средние века монашеские (monastic) организации называ¬ лись орденами. 11. В северной Германии именно князья проводили церковные реформы (church reforms). Они возглавляли церковь (to become the head of the church) в своем княжестве. 12. Древняя культура (culture), осужденная католической церко¬ вью (the Catholic Church), начинала возрождаться. 13. Ребекку обвинили в колдовстве и приговорили к смерти, но че¬ ловек, которого она когда-то спасла и в которого влюбилась, пришел к ней на помощь. 14. Уилфред, который был благодарен Ребекке за то, что она вы- нечила его, и который хотел, в свою очередь, тоже сделать что-то для нее (to serve her), доказал на поединке (состязании), что он достоин (за¬ служивает) ее любви. 203
15. Странно, что Бесс не приняла его приглашения (invitation). - Ничего удивительного. Она поссорапась (имела ссору) с ним недавно. 16. Сквайер служил рыцарю. Одной из его обязанностей было спасать рыцаря, если он был ранен в бою. 17. Трудно было поверить, что Роберта (Roberta) была мертва и что убил ее Клайд (Clyde). 18. Когда незнакомец принял вызов (challenge ['tjselind3]) сэра Брайена, все подумали о спасении Ребекки. 19. Жанну д’Арк заживо сожгли на костре (at the stake). 20. В письме, адресованном судье, м-ру Фрею, говорилось (The letter ... ran): «Сэр, пожалуйста, примите мои поздравления (greetings) и наилучшие пожелания (wishes). Мне очень нужна Ваша помощь. Ваш покорный (obedient [o'brdjont]) слуга А. Грин». 21. За рыцарем следовали пажи, одетые в черное. Далее медленно двигалась охрана. 22. Я требую, чтобы вы выполняли мои распоряжения (instruc¬ tions). 23. Кто будет вести (проводить) эту работу, пока (while) вы бу¬ дете отсутствовать? 24. Я полагаю, что суд докажет, кто настоящий (real) убийца. 25. Когда я ехал (to be riding) в метро, я встретил моего старого друга, которого я не видел с тех пор, как мы окончили университет. 21. Read the text of the lesson and pick out sentences showing the author’s attitude towards Rebecca and Wilfred. TEXT FOR TRANSLATION 22. Translate the text “Medieval England” with the help of a dictionary. Part В is to be translated in writing. Medieval England: Life and Customs A. In the early feudal age when lords were lawless men, the life of serfs was particularly hard. Brutal treatment and hard labour during all their working hours naturally made the peasants discontent and sometimes rebellious. However, they could hardly change their miserable lot. If they ran away from the manor they had to live as best they could in the forests. Most of the peasants, however, stayed on the manors, where they had their own huts grouped together in a village. These huts had dirt floors, no 204
windows, no fireplace; the cooking was done outside. There were few uten¬ sils [ju'tenslz], and almost no furniture. The beds were usually piles of straw on which the peasants slept in their clothes. Their food was coarse and not always plentiful. B. As the manors were self-supporting, the serfs had little contact with the outside world. On Sundays and feast days they gathered in the village churchyard, where they danced and engaged in rough [rAf] sports. But hard work and isolation [aiss'leijn] made them ignorant. It was once in a blue moon (очень редко) that a serf was lucky to become a soldier and made a military career [кэ'пэ] or a bright peasant boy obtained his lord’s permis¬ sion to study Latin in the neighbouring monastery and enter the ranks of the clergy. It was the rise of trade and towns that gave villeins and serfs a chance to better their lot. ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Correct the following statements which are not true to fact. Consult the text. 1. Rebecca had a good knowledge of sorcery and she was accused of murder. 2. Wilfred, who was a Norman, was in love with Rebecca. 3. The Grand Master, who was slowly walking at the head of the procession, carried Sir Brian’s heavy weapon. 4. When the trumpets announced the start of the tournament, one of the knights shot an arrow at the Grand Master who fell dead to the ground. 5. It was the general belifcf that Robin Hood would appear as Rebecca’s champion. 6. On his arrival Ivanhoe said he had come to win the first prize at the tournament. 7. The herald pronounced the signal words in German. 8. The combat lasted long and with varying fortune for the con¬ testants. 9. At the end of the contest Wilfred and Brian made good friends. 2. Retell the preface ['prefis] to the text. 3. Describe the scene of the tournament (avoid using the direct speech). Render the conversation between Ivanhoe and Sir Brian, Ivanhoe and Rebecca in reported speech. 205
4. Speak on: a) how Rebecca fell in love with Wilfred; b) why Wilfred was grateful to Rebecca; c) why he decided to rescue Rebecca. 5. Give your impressions of the novel if you happened to read it. 6. a) Read and translate the five items given below; b) Answer the ques¬ tions; c) Learn the words in bold type as your obligatory vocabulary. 1 Lords often sent their sons to a neighbouring castle to be educated. At the age of seven the young nobleman became a page. A page was taught to ride, to take care of (заботиться о) his arms and armour. At the age of fourteen he became a squire. He learned to fight on horseback and to use the heavy weapons of a knight, such as the lance, battle axe, sword and mace. Each squire served a knight, and it was part of his duty to accom¬ pany [л] (сопровождать) his knight to the battlefield and to rescue him if he fell in combat. At twenty or twenty-one a squire was ready to take his place in society as a knight. 1) Where did lords send their sons to? 2) What did the young nobleman become at the age of seven? 3) What was a page taught? 4) At what age did he become a squire? 5) What heavy weapons did a squire learn to use? 6) What duty did he perform to his knight? 7) When was a squire ready to take this place in society? 2 The ceremony of knighthood was a big event. On the evening before this event the squire was given a bath of purification (очищение) (one of the few baths in his life) and dressed in special clothes. The following morning his friend helped him to put on his armour. In the presence of the knights and ladies he knelt down (становиться на колени) before his lord or his father. The lord gave him a hard blow on the shoulder [ou] (ударить no плечу) with the flat of his sword. This part of the ceremony was intended to remind (предназначалась, чтобы напомнить) the young man of the knight’s heavy duties. 1) What kind of event was the ceremony of knighthood? 2) What was the squire given on the eve (накануне) of the ceremony? 3) What did his friend help him to do on the following morning? 4) In whose presence did he kneel down before his lord? 5) What did the lord do to remind the young man of the knight’s heavy duties? 206
3 In the first centuries of the Middle Ages crafts (ремесла) were prac¬ tised ['praektist] alongside agriculture, which brought about the emergence [i'trt3:d33ns] (появление, возникновение) of craftsmen. Moreover, a great number of people took up crafts as their main occupation (занятие). Articles manufactured (произведенные) by skilled artisans were always in great demand (имели большой спрос), and the artisans could very well earn their living by craftsmanship though the greater part of their produce ['pro- dju:s] went to the lord as metayage ['meteia:3] (аренда исполу). The trouble [a] was, however, that in the village there were few people who ordered or bought things. So the artisans had to get away from the estates. They paid their lord a good sum of money as ransom ['rmnsam] (выкуп) or just ran away. 1) What brought about the emergence of craftsmen? 2) Could the artisans earn their living by craftsmanship? 3) Where did the greater part of their produce go to? 4) Why did the artisans have to leave their home villages? 5) In what way did they get away from the estates? 4 In the 10-11th centuries travelling artisans appeared in Western Europe. As a rule their settlements (поселения) sprang up near big monasteries and feudal castles or at crossroads. The people living in the castles and monas¬ teries needed the service of the craftsmen: they ordered various things to be made for them, such as weapons, furniture, clothes, etc. Moreover, merchants (купцы) from other lands often came and sold their goods there. Natu¬ rally, in such places the artisans could sell (продавать) their articles too, and buy (покупать) the materials they needed. To protect themselves from the attacks of knights the artisans surrounded their settlements with walls and built fortifications round them. Gradually such settlements turned into (превращались) towns. 1) When did travelling artisans appear in Western Europe? 2) Where did they usually settle? 3) Why did they choose those places? 4) What did they surround their settlements with? 5) In what century did the first towns appear in Western Europe? 6) Did towns appear and grow as a result of the separation of crafts from agriculture? 207
5 As is known, theie were no plants or factories in the medieval town. Goods, which were to be sold, were manufactured in artisans’ workshops (мастерские) where everything was made by hand (manual labour). The main worker in the workshop was the craftsman who usually made goods to order and for sale (на заказ и для продажи). Besides, there were workmen and apprentices [o'prentisiz] (подмастерья). Artisans who practised the same craft and lived in the same town often united to form guilds. The guild had a charter and was headed by the elders whom the craftsmen elected. Trying to exercise absolute control over the market (рынок), the guild drove out of the town the artisans who were not its members. The guilds did not permit the expansion of workshops or the introduc¬ tion of new tools (инструмент). Sometimes the guild elders went so far as to destroy valuable inventions and punish the inventors. All this couldn’t but hamper (не могло не препятствовать) technical development. 1) Where were goods usually manufactured in the medieval town? 2) How were they made? 3) Who worked in the workshop? 4) What associations of artisans were typical for that time? 5) Who(m) was the guild headed by? 6) What did the guild do to gain absolute control over the market? 7) How did the guild elders hamper technical development? 7. Say something about: a) the medieval village; b) crafts in the medieval town; c) the rise of towns in Western Europe; d) the artisan’s workshop and guilds; e) the way knights were trained. 88. Say what you know about Robin Hood or think of another story to tell. Words you may need: an outlaw, legendary, the hero of many ballads and songs, to hide in the Sherwood Forest, to rob the rich, to help the poor, to fight against the Norman oppressors, to be an excellent archer, to take part in shooting contests, to win the first prize, to come to the rescue, to attack, the clergy, to be loved by the common people
LESSON NINE Topic: Biography of a Famous Writer 1. a) Read the text “Walter Scott” and translate it into Russian; b) Review and learn the topical vocabulary; c) Answer the questions given below. WALTER SCOTT (1771-1832) Walter Scott ranks among1 the greatest English poets and novelists. He was born in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, in the year 1771. The son of a lawyer, Scott saw himself obliged [o'blaidjd] to take up law2 as his fu¬ ture occupation3. At the age of seventeen he entered Edinburgh University, and three years later, upon graduating it, joined the Bar4. But he remained in the law office only a short time. Far from being a success in his legal ['lrgol] affairs3, he tried his fortune in literature6. In his childhood the boy was fond of Scottish folklore ['fouklo:] and showed a great interest in his¬ torical stories. Later, while travelling over Scotland, he collected old legends and ballads ['baebdz] which he made use [ju:s] of7 in his future poems. The writer’s literary activity, to which Scott devoted the whole of his life, started with the publication of “The Ministrelsy ['ministrolsi] of the Scottish Border”8. Scott first became known as a poet, but won the fame9 as a novelist. In his first novels he depicted mainly Scotland and her struggle for independence; later, however, he turned his attention to 10 England and France describing critical periods in their history. Scott is justly spoken of as the creator of the historical novel. Of all his numerous works mention should be made of “Ivanhoe” which is but a masterpiece11 of the historical description. Scott introduced a new element in the historical novel by explaining present history through the history of the past and showing man as a product of history. The publishing firm which Scott was connected with one day went bankrupt12, leaving the writer a debt of £117,000l3. Being compelled to pay the debt Scott set about writing new novels, but the great strain shattered his healthl4. He went abroad for treatment, but seeing there was no hope of recovery,"he returned home to die15 in his castle in Abbotsford. Speaking of Scott Belinski once said: “Walter Scott created the histori¬ cal novel, and the artistic merits of his novels place him on a level with the greatest masters of all ages and all nations.” 209
Notes 1 ranks (among) - (он) находится в раду с 2 saw himself obliged to take up law - считал необходимым заняться правом 2 occupation - профессия 4 joined the Bar - (зд.) вступил в коллегию адвокатов; the Ваг - ад¬ вокатура 5legal affairs - (зд.) юридическая практика, деятельность '’tried his fortune in literature - попытал счастья в литературе 7 to make use [ju:s] of = to use [ju:z] - использовать Обратите внимание на отсутствие артикля при существитель¬ ном use. 8 “The Ministrelsy of the Scottish Border” - «Поэзия пограничной Шотландии» (собрание старинных шотландских баллад и легенд, 1802- 1803 гг.) 9 to win one’s fame - прославиться 10 turned his attention to - переключил свое внимание на 11 which is but a masterpiece -- который является шедевром (but упот¬ реблено здесь в целях эмфазы) 12 went bankrupt - обанкротилась 13 a debt of £117,000 - долг в сумме 117.000 фунтов стерлингов Обратите внимание на знак £, который происходит от латинско¬ го слова libra (фунт). Запомните также знак $ для обозначения долла¬ ра: $5 - пять долларов. 14 the great strain shattered his health - напряженная работа подор¬ вала его здоровье 15 he returned home to die - он вернулся домой и умер Topical Vocabulary to tell one’s life story - рассказать свою биографию to be born - родиться to be brought up - воспитываться in the family of a (doctor) - в семье (врача) to come (be) from - быть родом из in one’s childhood - в детстве to spend one’s childhood - проводить детство at an early age - в раннем возрасте at the age of 7 - в возрасте 7 лет to be fond of - увлекаться to show (take) a great interest in - проявлять большой интерес к 210
to go to/finish, leave school - пойти учиться в/окончить школу to enter a technical school - поступить в техникум to earn one’s living - зарабатывать на жизнь to work at a plant as - работать на заводе в качестве to serve in the army - служить в армии to enter /graduate from/ college - поступить в (окончить) вуз by nationality - по национальности by origin - по происхождению to get married - жениться, выйти замуж to have a family of one’s own - иметь свою собственную семью to take part in - участвовать 1. Supply replies, making use of the text: 1. When was Walter Scott bom? 2. Where did he come from? 3. In what family was he born and brought up? 4. At what age did he enter the University of Edinburgh? 5. What did he do upon graduating from the University? 6. Did he carry out his work as a lawyer successfully? Did he like it? Why did he try his fortune in literature? 7. What was he fond of in his childhood? Did he show a great inter¬ est in history at an early age? 8. What did he collect while travelling over Scotland? 9. When did he start his literary work? 10. Was Scott a poet or a novelist? 11. What did he describe in his first novels? 12. Scott is the creator of the historical novel, isn’t he? 13. What helped to awaken a great interest in history at that time? 14. Why did Scott glorify ['gb:rifai] the past, especially the Middle Ages? 15. What shattered his health? 16. When (in what) year did he die? 17. What did Belinski say about Walter Scott? (Quote his words.) 2. Read the dialogue, learn it by heart and dramatize it in class. Dialogue - Have you finished reading your book? - Not yet, but I am coming to an end. 211
- By the way what book is it? - It’s “Ivanhoe”. - Who(m) is it by? - Haven’t you read it? - No, I haven’t. - It’s Walter Scott. A historical novel. - Where and when is the scene laid (происходит действие)? - In medieval England after the Norman conquest. - 1 see. And what is the main idea? - As I picture it (как мне представляется), the author wants to show the fight of the Anglo-Saxon peasants against the Norman oppres¬ sors. - Who are the principal characters of the novel? - Wilfred Ivanhoe, Rebecca, Rowena and others. - Will you tell me the plot (сюжет) of the book in brief (вкратце)? - With pleasure, but not now. 3. Ask your friend: when he/she was born; he went to school; he left school; he entered college/the University; where he was born; he spent his childhood; he worked before entering the University; he studies now; his parents live now; in what family he was born; he was brought up; at what age he finished school; he graduated from college; joined the army; if (whether) he is married or single; he worked at a plant; he served in the army; he has a family of his own; he has many relatives (an aunt, an uncle, a nephew, a niece, a cousin); what he did before entering college/the University; after graduating college; his father/mother does for a living; what subjects he showed/took a keen interest in when at school; he is going to specialize in, to take his exams in; why he chose to enter this faculty; he decided to take up History as his future speciality; he made up his mind to study English. 4. Express the following in English. Supply replies. 1. Когда вы родились? 2. Откуда вы родом? 3. В какой семье вы родились и воспитывались? 212
4. Где вы провели свое детство? 5. Вы увлекались чем-нибудь в рапнсм возрасте? 6. В каком возрасте вы пошли в школу? 7. Сколько вам было лет, когда вы окончили ее? 8. К чему вы проявляли интерес в школе? 9. После окончания школы вы пошли работать? 10. Вам пришлось зарабатывать на жизнь, не правда ли? 11. После школы вы пытались поступить в вуз, да? 12. Вы служили в армии?
LESSON TEN Text: The Age of Discovery Grammar The Continuous Tense Forms, Passive Voice. The Perfect Tense Forms, Passive Voice. THE AGE OF DISCOVERY When on 12th of October, 1492 Christopher Columbus, the son of a weaver from Genoastepped ashore on the island which he later named San Salvador, it was one of the great moments in world history. But back to the very start2. In 1476 the vessel in which Columbus served was voyaging to England. Off the Cape of St. Vincent3 a fleet of privateers suddenly attacked the ship; it took fire, and Columbus himself seized an oar and swam to land, afterwards making his appearance in Lisbon4. For the next few years he remained in Portugal, making and selling charts and voyaging to Madeira5 and the Guinea5 coast. It was during this period that he entered into a correspondence6 with Paolo Toscanelli, a well- known astronomer and mathematician of Florence. Toscanelli furnished him7 with a map of the world, which had been made shortly before8, and with scientific evidence of the possibility9 to find a way to Cathay (China)10 by sailing west. Columbus applied to the King of Portugal for the necessary ships and equipment. (He could not get any financial backing11 in Italy.) The King openly refused to consider his scheme, but in the meantime12 sent out to the west a caravel which failed to find land in the direction indicated. Columbus left Portugal at the moment when attempts were being made to reach the Orient13 by the African route. Passing over into Spain, he made similar proposals to the Spanish sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella14, and at the same time sent his brother to England to lay his case15 before Hen¬ ry VII. But his idea seemed so strange that he was taken almost for a mad¬ man. Italy, England and Portugal rejected Columbus1б. Some years passed, and at last the Spanish court, being interested in shorter trade routes to India, agreed to render assistance to him. Columbus departed from Palos with three small ships and sailed first to the Canary Islands17. With letters of recommendation from the Spanish Government to the Grand Khan, he left the Canaries17, pushing his way westward18 until he reached the aim19. Five weeks later he landed upon an island of the Bahama group20, and the exotic world of red-skinned natives, strange animals and fantastic nature opened to him and his men. 214
However, his stay in the world of the unknown21 was short. In the spring of 1493, following the largest island of Cuba and Haiti22, he returned with the news that he had found the archipelago long known to exist23 off the south-east coast24 of Asia. For a long time the land discovered by Columbus had no special name. Finally it was decided to name it after Amerigo Vespucci25, an explorer of the land and a navigator. Columbus, of course, was not the first to “dis¬ cover” America. According to an Icelandic Saga26 and the latest investiga¬ tion carried out by Anne Ingstad27, a Norwegian archaeologist, it was the Norsemen, with Leif Ericson at the head28, who had visited Labrador, Newfoundland and New England as early as the 10th-11th centuries. The Norman settlement29 recently unearthed there is sufficient proof of that. Now the 9th of October, Leif Ericson Day30, is celebrated as a national holiday in the U.S.A. alongside Columbus Day which is observed on the 12th of October. Practise the following for pronunciation. Proper names: Christopher Columbus ['kristafo kaVnibas], Genoa [Мзепоиэ], San Salvador ['saen 'saelvado:], St. Vincent [sn'vinsant], Lisbon ['lizbon], Portugal ['poljugsl], Madeira [ms'deirs], Guinea ['gini], Florence ['floirans], Cathey [kse'Gei], China ['tfaina], Italy ['itali], African ['sefrikon], Spain [spein], Ferdinand ['faidinsnd], Isabella [iza'bela], India ['india], Palos ['peibs], Canary [кэ'пеэп], Bahama [ЬэЪаипэ], Cuba ['kju:ba], Haiti ['heiti], Asia ['eijb], Amerigo Vespucci [э'тепдои vis'putfi], Icelandic [ais'lasndik], Anne Ingstad ['aen 'irjgstad], Norwegian [no:'wi:d3i9n], Norsemen [’noisman], Leif Ericson [Teif 'eriksan], Labrador ['lsebrado:], Newfoundland [,nju:faund'lsend], the United States of America [ju'naitid steits av a'merika]; Ударение на первом слоге: evidence [е], caravel ['kasravel], indicated, sovereign ['sovrin], interested, recently [i:]; Ударение на втором слоге: ashore, discover, astronomer, applied, equipment, financial [ai], refuse, consider, assistance, departed, explorer, sufficient, alongside; Два ударения: privateers [ai], correspondence, mathematician [0], possibility, archipelago [aiki'pebgou], unearthed ['AnbiGt], investigation [,ve], archaeologist [,a:ki'ol9d3ist]; onjthe island, afjbe moment, afjhe same time, afjthe head, withjthree small ships, injbe world of The unknown, offjhe south-east coast, as^the 10tl\_century, orpjhe 12th 215
Notes 1 Genoa [Мзепоиэ] - Генуя 2 But back to the very start. - Но вернемся к началу (события). 3 Off the Cape of St. (= Saint) Vincent [san'vinsant] - Неподалеку от мыса Святого Винцентия 4 making his appearance in Lisbon [lizban] (= appeared) - появился в Лиссабоне 5 Madeira [тэ'сЬэгэ] - о-в Мадейра; Guinea ['gini] - Гвинея 6 entered into a correspondence - начал переписываться Заметьте: глагол enter в значении «входить (проникать) в поме¬ щение», а также в значении «поступать в учебное заведение» или дру¬ гую организацию (т. е. стать ее членом) употребляется без предлога. Например: Не entered a medical school. Don’t enter the room. Но: «Он вступил в разговор (начал разговор)». - Не entered into the conversation. ’furnished him - предоставил ему Запомните также синонимы этого глагола: to supply (provide) smb. with 8 shortly before - незадолго до этого 9furnished ... with scientific evidence of the possibility - научно дока¬ зал возможность 10 Cathey [kae'Gei] = China [’tjaina] - Китай 11 financial [fai'naenjol] backing - финансовая помощь 12 to consider his scheme, but in the meantime - рассматривать его план, а тем временем 13 the Orient ['э:пэпТ] - Восток, восточные страны l4Ferdinand [ТэЛшэпй] - Фердинанд II, король Испании, основатель испанской монархии (1452-1516) Isabella [izs'beb] - Изабелла, королева Кастильская (1451-1504), супруга Фердинанда II 15 to lay his case before Henry VII- изложить свой вопрос (существо дела) Генриху VII 16 rejected Columbus - отказали Колумбу; отвергли предложение Колумба Русскому глаголу отказаться, в зависимости от смысла, могут соответствовать английские глаголы: to refuse (отказаться сделать что-л.), to reject (отвергнуть, не принять), to give up (отказаться от мысли, привычки, бросить делать что-л.), to abdicate (отречься от тро¬ на, отказаться от власти, права) и др. Не refused to come. «Он отказался прийти»; 216
She rejected ray proposal. «Она отказалась от моего предложения»; I gave up the idea of going there. «Я отказался от мысли поехать туда»; Charles IV abdicated in favour of his son. «Карл IV отказался от трона в пользу своего сына». 17 the Canary [кэ'пеэп] Islands = the Canaries [ka'neariz] - Канарские острова 18 pushing his way westward - стремительно направляясь на запад; to push - толкать 19 reached the aim - достиг цели В значении «цель», особенно в выражениях «с какой целью?», «с целью что-л. сделать», «с этой целью», обычно употребляется сущест¬ вительное purpose ['pa:pas]: with the purpose of (doing) - с целью, for what purpose? - с какой це¬ лью?, What’s the purpose of your coming? - Какова цель вашего прихода? С какой целью вы пришли? Однако в значении «цель жизни», «цель серьезной акции, ответст¬ венного мероприятия, экономическая, политическая, военная, агрессив¬ ная цель» употребляется существительное aim. То же слово употребляет¬ ся в выражении «преследовать цель»: What’s your aim in life? What’s the aim of this conference? Israel pur¬ sues [pa'sjuiz] aggressive aims in the Middle East. Цель как нечто возвышенное соответствует слову goal. 20 the Bahama group [ЬэЪа:тэ] - группа Багамских островов 21 world of the unknown - мир неизвестного Субстантивированные причастия, как и прилагательные, упот¬ ребляются с определенным артиклем, е. g. the said (сказанное), the un¬ employed (безработные), the sick (больные). 22 Cuba ['kju:ba] and Haiti ['heiti] - Куба и Гаити 23 long known to exist - который, как стало известно, существует уже давно 24 coast(s) - побережье (как береговая линия) Запомните: shore - берег моря (озера), bank - берег реки, е. g. on the seashore, on the bank of the river. 25 after Amerigo Vespucci [a'merigou vis'putji] - в честь Америго Bec- пуччи (1451-1512), испанского мореплавателя, предпринявшего не¬ сколько путешествий в Новый Свет после экспедиции Колумба 26 an Icelandic Saga [ais'laendik 'saiga] - имеется в виду исландская сага «Об Эрике Рыжем», в которой говорится об открытии Америки экспедицией Лейва Эрикссона 217
27 Anne Stine Ingstad ['ten 'stain 'iijgstad] - Анна-Стине Ингстад, нор¬ вежский археолог, которая в 1961 г. вместе со своим супругом, извест¬ ным писателем и путешественником, Хельге Ингстадом, организовала экспедицию по местам, упомянутым в Саге, и провела там археологи¬ ческие раскопки 28 Norsemen with Leif Ericson ['leif ’eriksan] at the head - скандинавы (в данном случае - норвежцы) во главе с Лейвом Эрикссоном 29 Norman settlement - поселение норманнов (последние считаются предками норвежцев), раскопанное экспедицией Ингстад на севере о-ва Ныо-Фаундленд 30 Leif Ericson Day - Признав научную достоверность исследования Ингстад и приоритет норманнов в открытии Америки, конгресс США узаконил 9 октября каждого года в качестве национального праздни¬ ка - День Лейва Эрикссона. День Колумба отмечается теперь как День нового открытия и начала освоения Америки Старым Светом. Words and Word Combinations pass v. проходить мимо (im)possible а. (не)возможный refuse v. отказываться consider v. считать, рассматривать considerable а. значительный fail v. не исполнить, не сделать, по¬ терпеть неудачу find V. находить direction п. направление reach v. достигать, доезжать, дохо¬ дить oriental а. восточный discover v. обнаружить, сделать от¬ крытие discovery п. открытие back а. задний; cidv. назад ship (vessel) п. корабль (судно) voyage V. плавать на корабле off adv. вне, прочь, от, с (о) seize v. схватить, захватить remain v. оставаться remnants п. остатки sell V. продавать buy V. покупать soil п. земля (почва) reject v. отвергать, отклонять route п. маршрут, путь, курс sovereign/i. монарх aim п. цель native п. туземец: а. местный, ту¬ земный stay п. пребывание; v. оставаться invent V. изобретать invention п. изобретение explore V. разведывать, исследо¬ вать explorer п. исследователь settle V. поселиться settlement п. поселение unearth v. откопать, вести раскоп¬ ки recently adv. недавно national а. национальный holiday п. праздник; отпуск agree v. соглашаться с кем-л. (with), с чем-л. (to) 218
agreement п. соглашение navigator n. мореплаватель trade v. торговать; n. торговля exterminate v. уничтожать * * * from the very beginning (start) - с самого начала to make a discovery - сделать открытие to apply to smb. for smth. - обратиться к кому-л. за чем-л. in the meantime (meanwhile) - тем временем to make an attempt - делать попытку to make a proposal (= to propose) - сделать предложение (предложить) in the direction of - по направлению к at the same time - в то же самое время to be interested in - интересоваться чем-л. (кем-л.); быть заинтере¬ сованным to render assistance (help) - оказать помощь of course (certainly) - конечно (разумеется) as early as 1492 - еще в 1492 г. at last (finally) - наконец (в конце концов) 1. Слова, начинающиеся с безударных префиксов a-, be-, de-, еп-, re-1, как правило, имеют одно главное ударение, которое падает на второй слог. Например: asleep [o'slrp], besiege [bi'si:d3], descend [di'send], enslave [in'sleiv]. Слова с другими префиксами, в зависимости от значения, могут иметь два ударения: второстепенное и главное или два главных уда¬ рения, одно из которых (первое) падает на префикс. Например, слова с префиксом ге- со значением повторного действия (русск. пере-) име¬ ют два главных ударения: reread ['ri'ri:d] «перечитать», remake ['ri'meik] «переделать», rewrite ['ri'rait] «переписать». Аналогичную акцентную структуру имеют слова с префиксами ип-, dis-, поп- (в значении «не»), anti- и некоторые другие. Например: unknown [дп'поип] «неизвестный», non-aggression ['попэ'дге/п] «ненападение», antisocial ['tenti'soujol] «ан¬ тиобщественный». 2. Составные прилагательные имеют два главных ударения. На¬ пример: red-skinned ['red'skind]. 1 Префикс re- безударен только в том случае, если он не означает повтор¬ ность действия. Reading Rules Recapitulation 219
Exercise Read the following words paying attention to the stress: anew, aloud, aside, ashore, abroad, alike, abroad, beside, beware, be¬ low, behalf, become, belittle, decode, describe, depose, depict, design, de¬ cline, enact, enable, encircle, enjoy, entrench Одно ударение: request, react, receive, recover, reform, replace, retreat; Два ударения: good-looking, black-haired, hard-working, well-known, round-faced GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1. Express the following in Russian. Mind the tense form of the verb: 1. A tremendous [tri'mendas] (огромная) housing program is being carried out in our country. 2. The conference was being addressed by the Dean when new del¬ egates arrived. 3. Something important is being announced over the radio. Do you hear? 4. The students of Group 6 are being examined in the next room. 5. Was the plan still being discussed when you returned? 6. The college stadium and the swimming pool were still being built when I started my sports life. 7. What film is being demonstrated in that lecture-room? 8. The experiment was being watched by those present. 9. The story will be read at this time tomorrow. 10. When you come, the article will still be translated. 2. The following occurred in the past. Express it grammatically by using the appropriate tense form and the words given in brackets. 1. In Sparta a religious festival is being celebrated (when the messenger came from Athens). 2. The Greeks are being surrounded by the Persians (when Leonidas addressed his soldiers). 3. The Saxon troops are being attacked by the Normans (at the moment King Harold was killed). 4. A shooting contest is being held in Shetwood (when Robin Hood and his men came there). 5. What document is being typed (when Mr. Green gave you a call)! 220
6. These houses are being built (when I moved to this flat). 1. The order is being announced (when you gave a call). 8. The athletes are being trained (at this time yesterday). 3. Change the following according to the model. Model: She is typing your letter now. Your letter is being typed, (by her) now. 1. The teacher is asking one of her pupils. 2. They are building a new club for our plant. 3. They were showing a French film at this time yesterday. 4. They were still translating this article when we came to take it. 5. Professor Davidson is examining our students. 6. They were defending each house in that battle. 7. She is delivering a lecture in the assembly hall. 8. The teacher is correcting the students’ papers now. 4. Supply English equivalents of the words given in brackets. 1. This problem (изучается) now by many scientists. 2. War (все еще велась) in Laos when cease-fire (прекращение огня) was announced in Vietnam. 3. Much work (делается) by the teaching staff (преподаватели) to deepen the students’ knowledge of History. 4. The fortress (осаждалась) when the enemy suddenly changed the direction of his attack. 5. The attack of the Persians (отражалась) when it became known that somebody had betrayed [bi'treid] (предал) the Greeks. 6. Your article (печатается) now. It’ll be ready by 5 o’clock. 7. One peasants’ revolt (подавляли) when another revolt broke out. 8. What question (обсуждался) when you left the meeting? 5. Express the following in English. Mind the tense form of the verb. 1. Этот вопрос сейчас решается (to decide). 2. Кого экзаменовали (to examine), когда вы ушли? 3. Плач работы еще составляют? - Да. 4. Ваше письмо печатают (to type). Подождите немного. 5. Какой вопрос сейчас обсуждают? 6. Матч в данный момент наблюдают тысячи телезрителей (tele¬ viewers). 7. Что объясняли, когда прозвенел звонок? 221
8. Какой фильм показывали вчера в это время? 9. Какие исторические темы сейчас изучаются на первом курсе? 10. В настоящее время нас обучают двум иностранным языкам. 11. Когда вы пришли, объявляли об этих новостях. 12. Завтра в это время этот вопрос будет обсуждаться. 6. Give the passive (perfect) form of the following infinitives (see § 1, p. 352). to do, to give, to make, to break, to bring, to send, to show, to discuss, to occupy, to establish, to accept, to announce, to carry out, to grant, to complete, to found 7. Express the following in Russian: 1. This news has already been announced. 2. The translation had been done by 3 o’clock yesterday. 3. He said that the work had not been completed yet. 4. By tomorrow the article will have been published in the newspaper. 5. Had the mail (почта) been brought by the time you came? 6. I think the new house, in which I hope to get an appartment, will have been built by next January. 7. How much time has been spent on that work? 8. Where has this vase been found? 9. Why hadn’t the document been prepared by the time fixed? 10. Have all those present been informed of the decision taken? 11. The question will have been discussed by this time tomorrow. 8. Change the following according to the models. Model 1. They have just done the translation. The translation Лги just been done. 1. They haven’t yet studied the necessary sources on this subject. 2. Have you posted the letter to Mr. Wilson? 3. They have told me all about it. 4. They have not received our message, I am afraid. 5. They have given us much homework this week. 6. They haven’t settled the dispute. 7. The students have done some special exercises. 8. They have shown us this film several times. 222 Model 2. The translation has (already) been done (by this time). The translation had been done by this time yesterday.
1. All the students have been examined (by 3 о ’clock). 2. The picture has been painted (by last week). 3. The construction of the new theatre has been finished (by the time the festival started). 4. Professor Popov’s report has been published (when this material arrived). 5. The invitation cards (приглашения) for the reception have been sent already (by this time yesterday). 6. The question has been decided (when he came). 7. Have the new grammar rules been explained already? (before the bell rang). 8. No friendship society has been established with that African country (by that time). 9. Has this theme been covered (пройти)? (by the beginning of the second year of study). 10. I have been asked to make a report at the seminar (before the topics were distributed [dis'tribjut] (распределить) among the students). 9. Express the following in English. Mind the tense form of the verb. 1. Книги уже распроданы (to sell out). 2. Письмо г-ну Брауну послано? - Еще нет. Его только что под¬ готовили. 3. Какую оценку получил Виктор на экзамене? - Его еще не эк¬ заменовали. 4. Ваша статья уже опубликована? - Нет. Ее вообще (at all) не собираются публиковать. Мне только что сказали об этом. 5. Когда вы нам позвонили, этот вопрос еще не был обсужден. 6. Противника окружили, когда подошла наша часть (unit). 7. Что сделано, чтобы помочь нуждающимся (needy) семьям? 8. Результаты контрольной работы были обсуждены в нашей группе к прошлому понедельнику. 9. Какие уроки были пройдены (to cover) к началу этого семест¬ ра? 10. В этом году в нашем городе построено много новых домов. 11. К этому времени завтра статья будет переведена. 12. Ничего не объявляли об этом. 13. Эти города полностью восстановили (to restore) после войны. 14. К моменту вступления Наполеона в Москву русская армия и население оставили город (город был оставлен). 223
VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. Give verbs corresponding to the following nouns and translate them into Russian: discovery, voyage, seizure ['si:za], seller, buying, refusal, consideration, failure f'feilja], direction, aim, stay, exploration, settlement, agreement, sailor, recommendation, investigation, navigation, indication 2. Form verbs with the help of the prefix dis- (it corresponds to the Russian не-, без-, рас-, de-, etc.) and translate them into Russian. arm (вооружать), appear, agree, like, close, cover, band (объединять в группу), satisfy (удовлетворять), qualify (квалифицировать) 3. Use the suffix -er (-or) to form nouns corresponding to the following verbs. Translate the nouns into Russian. weave, discover, sell, directexplore, settle, sailobserve (наблюдать), swim, navigate1, indicate1 (указывать) 4. a) Form nouns ending in 1) -ance; 2) -ence from the following words. Translate the nouns into Russian. 1) ignorant, resist, perform, attend 2) absent, present, evident, correspond b) Analyse the structure of these words: application, disorder, insufficiently, unearthed 5. Find the best way of expressing the following in Russian: the sailors stepped ashore; from start to finish; the vessel took fire; he made his first appearance in; they entered into correspondence; the astrono¬ mer furnished him with scientific evidence; by sailing west; he failed to get any financial backing; they refused to consider his scheme; the rescue team failed to discover the airplane in the direction indicated; no attempts were made; to lay the case before the committee [ka'miti]; to take somebody for; to render assistance to them; he left the islands, pushing his way westward; 1 Употребите суффикс -or. 224
off the south-east coast; as early as the 10th century; (a) sufficient proof that; this holiday is not observed here. 6. Give English equivalents of: наконец; еще в XIV в.; конечно; оказать помощь; интересоваться чем-л.; предложить; предпринять попытку; в то же самое время; обра¬ титься к ним за помощью; сделать открытие; согласиться; я согласен; недавно; раскопать поселение; поселиться; исследовать берега Аля¬ ски (Alaska); туземцы; монарх; цель этой экспедиции; восточные язы¬ ки; на востоке; во многих направлениях; отказаться сделать что-л.; получить поддержку от; обеспечить, снабдить кого-л. чем-л.; возмож¬ ность; рассмотреть этот вопрос; продавать и покупать; оставаться (пре¬ бывать, жить) на островах; задний; обратно (назад); отмечать как на¬ циональный праздник США; захватить (ухватиться за) что-л.; 9-го октября; оставаться невежественным 7. a) Guess the meaning of the following sentences; b) Add something of your own, using the words in italics. 1. The discovery of America stimulated human progress ['prougris] (развитие человеческого общества) in many directions. 2. There exist many tales about earlier navigators who also discov¬ ered the western hemisphere ['hemisfia] (полушарие). 3. Among these supposed discoverers was a group of Chinese [tjai'ni:z] priests [priists] (китайские священники) who had landed on California as early as 458. 4. Besides, there were several Portuguese [,po:tu'gi:z] sailors who crossed the Atlantic [at'lasntik] to the American coasts in the 6th-9th centuries. 5. Portugal was the first to find a sea route to the Orient. 6. As early as 1418 a Portuguese captain made an attempt to reach the Madeira Islands. 7. Portugal’s aim was to reach the Far East by the southern route, either around Africa or South America. 8. It was in following this general scheme (plan) that Vasco da Gama reached India in 1497 via [vaia] (через, минуя) the Cape of Good Hope. 9. Columbus’ proposal (offer) was rejected by all (those) whom he applied for help. 10. Spain, however, seized the chance [tja:ns] (ухватилась за возмож¬ ность) of using Columbus in that historical enterprise (предприятие). 11. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 by the Turks (турки) closed up the trade routes to the oriental countries. 225
12. King Jolin II refused to render assistance to Columbus whose scheme he си/шЛ-тея'adventurous [ad'ventjbras] (авантюристический). 13. The story is told that Isabella gave her jewels ['d3u:alz] (драгоцен¬ ности) to equip Columbus. 14. Henry VII of England sent merchants with John Cabot at the head to explore the northern American eoasts. As a result of Cabot’s voy¬ ages England made her claims for sovereignty ['sovrinti] (выдвинули свои претензии на господство) over North Atlantic areas, and finally over the whole of North America. 15. In the northern part of Newfoundland the archaeologists recently unearthed a Norman settlement. 16. Columbus’ father was a weaver and the boy followed the same craft (ремесло) for some time, afterwards going to sea (стать моряком) on various ships. 17. According to the tradition of the British Parliament the So vereign is never allowed in the House of Commons (палата общин). 18. What national holidays are celebrated (observed) in Great Britain? 19. In the colonies trade operations of selling and buying ran high (росли; расширялись), greatly enriching the European [juora'pion] mer¬ chants and making poor the natives. 20. Passing by Cape Vincent Columbus’ vessel failed to escape the danger of the attack by the privateers. 21. It was impossible to withstand (устоять, выдержать) the attack of the whole fleet. 22. While staying in Portugal Christopher made and sold charts. 23. My proposed was rejected but finally we came to agreement. 24. I fully agree with you that F. Cooper gave a wonderful descrip¬ tion of the natives in his novels. 25. Columbus remained moneyless until the Spanish sovereigns agreed to help him. 26. The archipelago was found off the south-east coast of Asia. 27. Take off у out coat. It’s warm here. 28. Sorry, I must be off now, but I’ll soon be back. 8. Have a talk based on the text with your classmate. Make use of the following questions: 1. What historical event occurred on the 12th of October 1492? 2. Where did Columbus come from? 3. In what family was he born? 4. What happened off Cape St. Vincent when Columbus was voyag¬ ing to England? 226
5. In what country did he stay for the next few years? 6. Whom did he enter into a correspondence with? 7. What did Toscanelli furnish him with? 8. Did Columbus believe that it was possible to find a way to the Indies, especially to China and Japan, by the western route? 9. Whom did Columbus apply to for help? 10. Did the King agree to consider his plan? 11. What did the King do in the meantime? 12. What attempts were being made in Portugal when Columbus left that country? 13. Did Columbus make similar proposals to the Spanish and English sovereigns? 14. Why did the Spanish court agree to render him assistance? 15. Where did he sail to first? 16. What island did he land upon five weeks later? 17. What name did he give to the island? 18. His stay in the world of the unknown was short, wasn’t it? 19. When did Columbus discover Cuba and Haiti? 20. Whom was the land discovered by Columbus named afterY 21. Was Columbus the first to “discover” America? 22. Who had visited Labrador, Newfoundland and New England in the 10th century? 23. What was recently unearthed in some of those areas by Anne Ingstad and her expedition? 24. What holiday is observed in the USA on the 9th of October? 9. Paraphrase the words and word combinations in italics. Use synony¬ mous words from the text. 11. In 1476 the ship on which Christopher served was sailing to England. 2. After the incident which occurred near the Cape of St. Vincent Columbus appeared in Lisbon. 3. It was during his stay in Portugal that Columbus began corres¬ ponding with & famous astronomer and mathematician. 4. Toscanelli gave him a map of the world which had been prepared shortly before. 5. According to Toscanelli it was quite possible to find a western route to India and China. 6. Columbus turned to John II for assistance. 7. The King refused to think carefully about and discuss Columbus’ plan. 227
8. The caravel sent out to the west did not discover land in the direc¬ tion given. 9. Columbus left Portugal at the time when they were trying to get to the East by sailing round the Cape of Good Hope. 10. H sput forward almost the same proposals to the Spanish monarchs and sent his brother to England to tell the King about the problem. 11. The Spanish Government said "yes ” to Columbus’ request. 12. He left Palos and sailed westward until he reached the goal. 13. He did not stay on the islands long. 14. For a long time the land discovered by Columbus remained nameless. 15. The settlement, which was dug up not long ago, is sufficient proof of the Norman visits. 16. Columbus Day is celebrated on the 12th of October. 17. He came back with a piece of good news. 10. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: back seat, possible, agree, accept, find, sufficient, start, before, necessary, depart, known, largest, the first, early, front seat, late, the last, smallest, unknown, arrive, unnecessary, after, finish, insufficient, lose, reject, disagree, impossibe 11. Say what is implied by the following definitions. Choose the appro¬ priate word from those given in brackets. an area or a place settled by people; buying and selling; a journey [Узэ:ш] by sea; a large sea-going vessel; a day when one does not work; the way from one place to another; to travel into or through a little-known land or a sea in order to learn more; to get knowledge of something that existed before but which was unknown; a person who was born in a particular place (a native, to discover, settlement, trade, to explore, a voyage, ship, route, holiday) 12. Choose the right word: remain, stay 1. The author of this letter wanted to ... unknown. 2. When Columbus left the island, thirty-nine Spaniards ... there to form a colony. 3. During my week’s ... in London I visited a number of museums. 228
4. “Have you put up at a hotel?” - No, I am ... at my friends’. 5. How long are you going to ... in Moscow? 6. He ... a true friend. 7. For a long time the land discovered by Columbus... nameless. 8. If I take five apples from the basket, how many will...? 9. Both land and power ... in the hands of the nobles. refuse, reject, give up 1. He... to take part in the voyage under the pretext of feeling unwell. 2. The plan of work which I put forwards was finally ... by those present. 3. Why don’t you ... smoking? It’s a very bad habit. 4. Though Jack was jobless, he... to do the work offered him by Mr. Campbell. 5. All the countries... to help Columbus and ... his scheme but Spain. 6. She ... the idea of going abroad. aim, purpose, goal 1. What’s the ... of your expedition? 2. I’ve entered this faculty with the ... of specializing in the field of History. 3. For what... did John II send out a caravel to the west? 4. What’s the ... of your going to Moscow this time? 5. Entering into the Common Market Great Britain pursued both economic and political... 6. Her ... in life was to get a higher education. 7. The ... of his life is to be an actor. 8. When Columbus landed upon the island of the Bahama group, he was sure he had reached the ... 13. Insert the missing words. Choose them from the list below. 1. Copernicus kept his... secret for a long time. 2. Russian hunters (охотники) and Cossacks entered ... areas of North Asia and .,. the shores of the Pacific Ocean [pa'sifik 'oujbn] (Тихий океан). 3. The continent of Australia [oi'streiha]... early in the 17th century. 4. After the... of Columbus seafarers continued ... in various oceans in search of (в поисках) new sea ... 5. The Church ... in preserving and strengthening the feudal system which as they said would ... forever. 229
6. All the monarchs except Isabella and Ferdinand ... to consider Columbus’ scheme and to ... to him. 7. When he ... land in that... he was sure it was the ... of Asia. 8. Many ... were made to find the traces (следы) of Scandinavian visits to North America. 9. Merchants were, so to speak, the prime movers (главные «тол¬ качи») of all the big ... of that time. 10. The aim was reached ... the two contradicting sides (соперни¬ чающие стороны) came to an ... 11. What do they celebrate (observe) in the USA? (nationalholidays, agreement, at last, aim, explorations, attempts, shore, direction, to find, to render assistance, to refuse, to exist, to he interested, routes, to sail, voyages, to be discovered, to reach, unexplored, discoveries) 14. Match the nouns in (a) with the verbs in (b). Use your N + V combinations in sentences of your own. to reach to make to explore to render to discover (find) to buy and to sell an agreement, a discovery, the coasts, the situation, an attempt, the situation, a proposal, the possibility, a map, new lands, assistance, power, control, help, slaves, land, goods, service, a trade route, one’s aim 15. Choose from the text all the terms relating to geography. 16. Pick out sentences from the text in which the following word combinations are used. Think of similar phrases to use these combinations. to celebrate (observe) a national holiday; according to the latest investigation; as early as; the settlement recently unearthed there; in the spring of 1493; to make an attempt; he furnished him with; to lay one’s case before; to make a similar proposal; the possibility to find a way to; to refuse to consider one’s scheme (plan); to fail to find ... in the direction indicated 17. Suggest English equivalents for: достигнуть соглашения; сделать предложение; исследовать недав¬ но открытые земли; оказать помощь; обнаружить поселение; покупать и продавать рабов; достичь цель; предпринять попытку; исследовать 230
Аляску; оказать услугу; найти новый морской путь; достичь берегов Америки; сделать великое открытие; исследовать возможность 18. Change the following according to the models. Model 1. He was unable (unsuccessful) to do it. He failed to do it. 1. The two sides were unable to reach agreement and continued their quarrel. 2. All the attempts to rescue the ship were unsuccessful. 3. Bob was unable to pass the examination in archaeology. 4. The caravel sent out by the King could not find land in the direc¬ tion indicated. 5. They could not discover a new oil deposit (месторождение нефти). 6. All our plans proved (оказались) unsuccessful. 7. Many seafarers did not succeed in reaching their aims. Model 2. The island was given the name of San Salvador. The island was named after San Salvador. 1. The State University of Moscow was given the name of Lomo¬ nosov. 2. The cape (мыс) was given the name of Dezhnev. 3. The continent was given the name of Amerigo Vespucci. Model 3. He tried to explore the area. / He made an attempt to explore the area. 1. The Spaniards tried to exterminate the natives and seize their land. 2. Columbus tried to lay his case before the sovereign. 3. The navigator tried to find a way to China by sailing west. 4. They tried to land on the eastern coasts of the island. 19. Complete the following sentences by translating the Russian part: 1. He refused to ... (вернуться, оставаться там, плыть в этом на¬ правлении, рассмотреть этот вопрос, оказать нам финансовую под¬ держку). 2. They failed to ... (прийти к соглашению, спасти корабль, за¬ хватить власть, обнаружить землю в указанном направлении, изло¬ жить вопрос королю). 3. Are you interested in ... (в этом путешествии, рекомендатель¬ ном письме, соглашении, работе)? 231
4. It was impossible to ... (достать эту карту, вступить в перепис¬ ку с ним, найти дорогу назад, изменить что-либо). 5. Не made а ... (великое открытие, попытку найти новый путь, предложение). 6. Не is considered to be (считается; его считают) а ... (известный астроном, математик, мореплаватель, исследователь, археолог, историк). 7. We sailed in the direction of ... (остров Гаити, юго-восточное побережье Азии, Индия, Исландия). 8. I don’t agree (disagree) with ... (вами, этим планом, с таким предложением). 9. At last he made his appearance (мы достали эту карту, получи¬ ли необходимое оборудование, обосновались (поселились) там, дос¬ тигли своей цели). 20. a) Supply articles; b) Sum up the contents of the story, making use of the phrases in italics. ... discovery of new lands went hand in hand with (идти параллельно c) their colonization. Thousands of people in search of easy profit (в поис¬ ках легкой наживы) came streaming (устремились потоком) to ... lands discovered by ... Spaniards ['spaenjadz] and Portuguese. Generally ... sol¬ dier, ... merchant and ... priest were ... first to step on ... newly found shores and, by sword and fire, to establish ... new order there. Catholic priests and monks, calling for converting ... natives to Christianity (обра¬ тить туземцев в христианскую веру), went to America with ... armed forces. Hardly had ... European newcomers set foot on ... new territory, when they took land away from ... natives and turned them into slaves. If... slaves became rebellious or refused to work for ... enslavers,... latter exter¬ minated them, ... Church in ... person of ... clergy played the first fiddle (первая скрипка). Tortures ['toitjaz] and executions were accompanied [a'kAmpanid] by prayers (сопровождались молитвами) and performed “with God’s blessing.” In Haiti, for instance, ... native population was completely exterminated (полностью уничтожены) by ... group of Europeans who had been brought there by Columbus. ... colonizers grew extremely [iks'trrmh] rich (сильно богатели) by trad¬ ing and by plundering ... subjugated population. Yet, they wanted more slaves whom they began to raid for (устраивали налеты) in ... African continent. Eventully it gave rise to (вызвать к жизни)... Negro slave trade, and numerous slave-markets came into being (появились) in America. 232
21. a) Insert the missing prepositions or adverbs; b) Tell the story about Giordano Bruno. Giordano Bruno ... the struggle... the enemies ... the Church the Pope used the Inquisi¬ tion which could condemn any person on the basis ... a secret report.... the help ... the Inquisition the Church persecuted ['paisikjutid] (преследовала) scientists whose discoveries undermined (подрывали) its authority. The inquisitors tortured (пытали) their victims (жертвы), burned them alive at the stake (па костре). Here is a story ... one ... the victims. Giordano Bruno [d3io'da:nou Ъш:пои], a great Italian thinker and a champion ... science was born ... 1548. His parents put him ... a monastery when he was a boy. ... his youth Bruno was not interested ... theology [0i‘olad3i] (богословие). It was science, not prayers (молитвы)... which he devoted himself. Though Bruno kept his studies secret... the abbot, he was often denounced (на него делали доносы). One day he threw ... the monk’s gown (монашеское одеяние), fled ... the monastery and chose the life ... a wanderer (странник). The clergy did not let the scientist live and work ... peace anywhere. ... the course ... 16 years he had visited many European countries and everywhere he was considered a talented speaker, writer and poet. But homesickness (тоска по родине) made him return... Italy. There he was betrayed and fell ... the hands ... the Inquisition. Bruno was put and kept... prison ... nearly eight years, but neither torture nor death threat [9ret] (угроза смерти) made him renounce his views (отказаться от своих взглядов). A church tribunal [trai'bju:nal] sentencend (приговорил) him to be burnt at the stake. Bruno was executed ... February 17, 1600. Later scientific discoveries proved the correctness ... his concept. 22. a) Test translation: 1. Некоторые ученые полагали, что в Индию можно (it was pos¬ sible) добраться, плывя на запад вокруг земли. Колумб был первым, кто попытался это доказать. 2. Когда он был юношей (in his youth), он несколько раз отправ¬ лялся в плавание (to go on several voyages) и интересовался географи¬ ческими картами и навигационными документами. 3. Когда Колумб поселился в Испании, он обратился за помо¬ щью к королю, которому излоз/сил свой план. Цель его экспедиции за¬ ключалась в том, чтобы открыть новый западный путь в Индию. 233
4. В тот момент предпринимались попытки достигнуть восточ¬ ных стран африканским путем. 5. Испанский двор был заинтересован в новых торговых пути х, поэтому он согласился предоставить Колумбу финансовую помощь (aid). Купцы (merchants) и судовладельцы предоставили Колумбу три корабля и необходимое оборудование. 6. Когда Колумб плыл па юг в поисках золота (in search [sa:t|] of gold), он обнаружил острова Кубу и Гаити. 7. К концу плавания оставался лишь один корабль. 8. Америго Веспуччи, итальянский исследователь и мореплава¬ тель, доказал, что земли, открытые Колумбом, составляли часть но¬ вого континента (continent ['kontinantj). 9. В 1519 г. Испания предприняла попытку достичь Азии запад¬ ным путем и послала экспедицию во главе с Ф. Магелланом (Magellan). 10. Колумб открыл много островов в Карибском море (the Carib¬ bean Sea) и исследовал часть побережья Американского материка (main¬ land). 11. Какие географические (geographic) открытия были сделаны в XV-XVI вв.? 12. Плавая в северных морях в IX в., скандинавы (the Scandina¬ vians) открыли Исландию, где основали (to establish) колонию. 13. Географические открытия привели к росту (growth) торговли. 14. На невольничьих рынках (slave-markets) рабов, которых при¬ возили из Африки, покупали и продавали как скот (cattle). 15. На острове Гаити испанцы (the Spaniards) захватили земли туземцев и начали истребительную войну (for extermination). 16. Английский король отказался рассматривать предлоэюепие Колумба и отверг его план. 17. Поселение, которое было недавно откопано археологами из экспедиции Ингстад, принадлежало норманнам. 18. Проплывая (проходя) мимо мыса Св. Винцентия, они не смог¬ ли обнаружить землю в указанном направлении. 19. Американский материк (mainland) посещали еще в X в. 20. Я предлагаю исследовать возможность организации экспе¬ диции для этой цели. b) Give English equivalents of: колонизация; колонизаторы; в поисках (наживы); испанцы и пор¬ тугальцы; купцы; священники; монахи; католическая церковь; превра¬ 234
тить(ся) в; духовенство; сопровождаться истреблением коренного (ту¬ земного) населения; подчиненный; работорговля; рынки; возникать; инквизиция; преследовать (в судебном порядке); пытать (пытки); па костре; монастырь; заключать в тюрьму TEXT FOR TRANSLATION 23. Translate the text with the help of a dictionary. Part C is to be trans¬ lated in writing. A. There were many forces at work which made inevitable the dis¬ covery of America about the time Columbus accomplished it. In the two or three centuries prior to Columbus’ time the merchants had built a number of great cities and commercial centres all over Europe from England to Russia. They tried to develop trade all over the known world and demanded the establishment of new sea routes, the more so it became particularly difficult to trade with the East when the Turks captured Constantinople. B. The end of the 15th century was also a time of tremendous intel¬ lectual ferment. The long and heavy grip of the Catholic Church upon the mind of man was being shaken by developing capitalism. Science and art were growing in the way unknown since the Golden Age in Greece. It was a period of Leonardo da Vinci and many other prominent artists and scientists. The Renaissance [ri'neisons] was in full bloom. It was a time of technical progress and inventions. C. The Church burned John Huss in Bohemia in 1415, but the eco¬ nomic, political and religious revolt of growing capitalism could not be put down even by such measures. In 1517 Marthin Luther, a learned monk, put his famous theses on the door of his church in Wittenberg - an act signalizing the fact that the Reformation was under way, that capitalism was beginning to overthrow feudalism which, with its system of land ten¬ ure, the peasants’ dues and tolls and the feudal lords’ power, hindered economic development. 24. Read the text of the lesson and entitle each paragraph. 235
ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Correct the following statements which are not true to fact. Consult the text. 1. The first island Columbus stepped on was named San Sebastian. 2. The vessel in which Columbus served was voyaging to Portugal when it was attacked by pirates. 3. Toscanelli, a famous artist, with whom Columbus entered into correspondence, furnished him with money and food. 4. It was the English King who agreed to supply Columbus with ships and equipment. 5. Those whom Columbus applied to for help welcomed his idea and accepted his scheme. 6. Columbus’ scheme was to reach India and China by the African route. 7. On the 12th of October 1592 Columbus landed on an Island of the Bahama group. 8. The islands of Cuba and Haiti were discovered by Vasco de Gama. 9. Christopher Columbus was the first to visit the Continent which later was named America. 10. Columbus Day is observed in the USA on the 4th of July. 2. Describe the first voyage of Columbus as depicted in the text. 3. Speak of other voyages and discoveries made by Columbus that you know. 4. Speak about the viewpoint that Columbus was not the first to “dis¬ cover” America. 5. Say something about Russian discoverers (travellers and navigators) that you know. 6. Make up short stories (situations), using the following words: to sail archaeologist to sail to submit a scheme (plan) in the sea to go on an expedi¬ tion ship to refuse an island to unearth objects take fire to consider nameless as early as to sink to receive no backing 236
to get ashore to discover one boat to apply to to be attacked settlement many to lay one’s case be- natives according to people to be interested to present smb. with investigation to swim to render assistance trinkets (безделушки) recent to rescue to put up the quarrel to fail to reach agreement to find in the direction indi¬ cated fore 7. Discuss the topic “Geographical discoveries and their historical sig¬ nificance”. Words you may need: to bring about the growth of trade, to establish contacts between continents, new (trade) routes, to appear, to lead to the growth of production in Europe. 8. a) Read and translate the six items given below; b) Answer the ques¬ tions; c) Study the words in italics and use them in sentences of your own. For reference see the list of words on p. 240. The discovery of New York was made in 1609 when an English captain, Henry Hudson, in the service of Holland, crossed the Atlantic and sailed up the river which bears his name. The Dutch West India Company estab¬ lished a colony on Manhattan Island, inhabited by the Indians, to develop the fur trade. The Island was bought from the Indians for trinkets worth of 24 dollars. The settlement, which then was named New Amsterdam, grew until it had about ten thousand inhabitants. But in 1664, when England and Holland were at war, English ships took possession of it and changed its name into New York after Duke of York, King Charles’ brother. 1) Whom was New York discovered by? 2) What did the Dutch Company establish on the island? 3) What name did the settlement bear? 4) What happened in the year 1664? 5) Who took possession of the settlement? In the 16th century capitalist industry in Britain began to develop. Rich craftsmen enlarged their workshops and wealthy merchants set up big enter¬ prises. So workshops grew into large enterprises - manufactures where the 1 2 237
factory owners exploited the labour of hired workmen. Unlike serfs, the hired workers had personal freedom but they possessed neither land, nor imple¬ ments. Bringing workers together in a factory made it easier to divide up the work between different groups of workers. This led to the division of labour, and stimulated a rise in labour productivity. New classes were coming into being: the bourgeoisie [Ibua3wa:'zi:] and the wage workers whose labour was more productive than that of the artisans. 1) How did manufactures come into existence? 2) Whose labour did the factory owners exploit? 3) Was the division of labour practised in capitalist enterprises? 4) What new classes were coming into being as a result of capitalist de¬ velopment? 3 In the 16th century in Britain it became more profitable for the landowners to breed sheep than to grow grain. Being in need of large pas¬ tures the landowners seized the common and the waste lands. Moreover, they seized the farmers’ plots of land and forced them to leave the places they lived in. Meanwhile the nobles enclosed the lands they captured with fences and ditches. Thousands of people, evicted from their plots of land, left their home villages and became vagrants and beggars. The expropri¬ ated farmers repeatedly rose up in arms against the enclosures, but the rebels were defeated. The government made cruel laws against vagrants and pau¬ pers. As a result of the enclosures there appeared an army of free people who had neither land nor implements of labour. 1) For what purpose did the landowners seize the farmers’ plots of land": 2) What did they do with the farmers who lived in the places of eviction? 3) What did the people evicted from their plots of land become? 4) Did they start a fight against the enclosures? 5) What did the enclosures result in? 4 The 15th-16th centuries saw a considerable technical progress in Western Europe. It was justly called the era of inventions. A hydraulic engine came to be used in various crafts. Some innovations occurred in metallurgy. There was noticeable progress in shipbuilding. Fire-arms were invented. One of the greatest discoveries, however, was the invention of printing in Europe. The first printed book was produced by Gutenberg, the inventor, in about 1445. Needless to say, the appearance of printed books stimulated a rapid ad¬ vance in education, science and literature. 238
1) What were the 15th-16th centuries marked by? 2) What great inventions of that time do you know? 3) Who invented printing in Europe? 4) What effects did the book printing have on other spheres of human life? 5 Before paper was invented people wrote their thoughts on various other materials. The ancient Babylonians used clay on which they made cuneiform marks. A letter was, therefore, made in the form of a brick. History was engraved on stone monuments and tablets. Later on the Romans and Greeks scratched the words on soft wax [ж] with a metal pen. The Egyptians were the first to make paper from the papyrus plant. Originally, books were made in the form of a roll like a wall-map. They were so valuable that the bibles were fastened up in the churches by chains so that they could not be stolen. Historically, the book is of international character: papyrus paper came from Egypt, the alphabet was offered by the Greeks who had borrowed it from the Phoenicians [fi'mftanz], printing was invented in China. ' 1) What materials did people use before paper was invented? 2) What was history engraved on? 3) What country was the first to make paper from the papyrus plant? 4) What did the first books look like? 5) Why do you think that the first books were valuable? 6) Historically speaking, the book bears an international character. What is implied by this statement? 6 The Church was interested in preserving and strengthening the feudal system. The clergy tried to convince [kon'vins] the peasants and artisans that the feudal system had been established by God and would exist for¬ ever. Generally speaking, the Church was the mainstay of feudalism. The Pope's power was particularly great. Here is what the Pope himself said about it: “The Pope can depose emperors. No man can cancel the Pope’s decrees, but the Pope can repeal everybody’s decree and decisions. No one can pass judgement on the Pope. Anyone who disagrees with the Pope is no Catholic.” The Church persecuted the disobedient ['diso'bbdjont] (the heretics ['heratiks]) mercilessly, tortured them and burnt them at the stake. 1) What role did the Church play in the feudal system? 2) What rights did the Pope claim? 3) In what way did the Church fight against its enemies? 239
WORDS TO STORIES 1-6 1. to inhabit - населять inhabitants - жители to take possession of - захватить 2. industry - промышленность manufacture - мануфактура to hire - нанимать; hired - наемный implements (tools) - инструменты division of labour - разделение труда 3. to breed sheep - разводить овец pastures - пастбища plots of land - участки земли to enclose - огораживать; enclo¬ sure - огораживание pauper [э;] - нищий; pauperization - обнищание 4. technical progress - технический прогресс shipbuilding - кораблестроение printing - книгопечатание lircarms - огнестрельное оружие rapid - быстрый; rapidly - быстро advance - продвижение, прогресс 5. clay tablets - глиняные таблички cuneiform - клинопись valuable - ценный 6. to be interested in - быть заинтере¬ сованным в to preserve - сохранять to torture - пытать at the stake - на костре the Catholic Church - католическая церковь
MODERN HISTORY
LESSON ELEVEN Topic: Geography of Great Britain 1. a) Read the text and translate it into Russian; b) Review or learn the topical vocabulary; c) Answer the questions given below. GEOGRAPHY OF GREAT BRITAIN Here is a short geografical outline of Great Britaina leading capitalist Power2. Great Britain, which comprises England, Wales and Scotland ', is situated on the British Isles. The west coast of the country is washed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea3, the east coast is washed by the North Sea. Great Britain is separated from the continent of Europe by the English Channel4 and the Strait of Dover which is as narrow as 21 miles. England and Wales form the southern part of Great Britain, Scotland occupies its northern part. The country in the main has a sloping surface, but in Scotland and in the west of England there are mountains and hills. The highest mountain - Ben Nevis - is in Scotland. In some parts there are valleys and plains. The islands generally speaking, can be divided into High¬ land and Lowland. Of all the rivers, which are plentiful5 in Britain, the Severn3 is the longest. The Thames on which London, the capital of Brit¬ ain, is situated, flows into the North Sea and is very deep.' The climate in Britain is mild and damp. There are many foggy and rainy days. The flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of north-western Europe. The country is rather rich in natu¬ ral resources. England, once “the workshop of the world”, was the first to become a highly developed industrial country. The following are industrially important areas: the Clydeside (Scotland) which is noted for shipbuilding; Yorkshire with its woollen industry; Lancashire which is famous for its cotton textile and heavy engineering; Midlands which is known for metals manufacturing and coal mining; Wept and South-West England and Greater London - the main centre of light industries. Great Britain is a monarchy. The Queen of Great Britain is not abso¬ lute, but constitutional. Her powers6 are limited by Parliament. The power 11 Also Northern Ireland which is not situated on the British Isles. 242
is hereditary, ana nor elective. The British Parliament consists of the sover¬ eign, the House of Lords and the House^of Commons. The population of the country is over 58 million. Pronounce the following words. Proper names: British Isles ['britij 'ailz], Wales [weilz], Scotland ['skatland], Atlantic Ocean [a'tlaentik'oujbn], Irish ['airij], Ireland [aialand], Europe [juarap], Asia [eija], Channel ['t|?enl], Strait of Dover ['streit av 'douva], Ben Nevis ['ben 'nevis], the Severn ['sevan], the Thames [temz], Yorkshire ['p:kfa], Lancashire ['laerjkaja]; 'situated, 'separated, 'continent, valley ['vaeli], climate ['klaimit], similar [simila], Parliament ['padamant], geographical [d^io'graefikal], hereditary [hi'reditari], elective [i'lektiv]. Notes 1 Great Britain - Великобритания (полное название: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) 2 Power - держава Запомните также: Great Powers - великие державы. 3 The Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea, the Severn, the Baikal. С названия¬ ми океанов, морей, рек, озер, проливов, а также цепей гор и стран света употребляется определенный артикль. Запомните также: the USA, the Crimea [krai'mia] (Крым), the Caucasus ['ka:kasas] (Кавказ), the Hague [heig] (Гаага). 4 the English Channel - пролив Ла-Манш Channel может означать канал (естественный, природный) в от¬ личие от canal [ka'nael] (искусственный канал, прорытый человеком). 5 which arc plentiful - которых много 6 her powers - ее права Topical Vocabulary a geographical outline - географи¬ ческий обзор continents: Europe [juarap], Asia [eija], America, Africa, Australia, the Antartic [aen'ta:ktik] - Ан¬ тарктида in the North (South, West, East) - на севере (юге, западе, востоке) northern [пэ:5эп], southern [влбэп], western ['westan], eastern [’i:stan] to occupy a territory - занимать территорию coast - побережье to be washed - омываться lake - озеро to border (on) - граничить c 243
mountain - гора hill - холм lowland - низменность weather -- погода to rain - идти (о дожде) spring - весна autumn - осень industrial - промышленный highly developed - высокоразви¬ тый monarchy - монархия to be situated - находиться the Congress - конгресс the (official) head - глава the House of Commons - Палата общин the House of Lords - Палата лордов sea - море ocean - океан river - река surface [i] - поверхность mountainous - гористый valley - долина climate - климат to snow - идти (о снеге) mild - мягкий (о климате) summer - лето winter - зима agricultural - сельскохозяйствен¬ ный rich in natural resources - богат полезными ископаемыми capital - столица the Parliament - парламент 1. Read and remember the following according to the model. People who live in England speak English Wales [weilz] Welsh Scotland [skotland] Scotch Ireland [aislsnd] Irish [‘airij] France [frains] French Holland ['holond] Dutch (the Netherlands ['nedotondz]) Denmark ['denmerk] Danish [ei] Spain [spein] Spanish [аг] Sweden [swi:dn] Swedish [i:] Russia ['гл)э] Russian Italy [itoli] Italian [I'tdeljan] Norway ['no:wei] Norwegian [i:] China [’tjaino] Chinese ['i:] Japan [d39'paen] Japanese [i:] America [э'тепкэ] English (the USA [бэ 'ju: 'es 'ei]) Germany1 [Мзэ:тэш] German [Мзэ:тэп] Also in Austria ['ostria] and partly in Switzerland ['switsabnd]. 244
Poland [poubnd] Polish [ou] Slovakia [slou'vaekia] Slovak ['slouvaek] Czechia ['tjekia] Czech [tj'ek] Rumania [гз:и:'тепиэ] Rumanian [ei] Bulgaria [ЬлГдеэпэ] Bulgarian [ЬлГдеэпэп] Hungary [Ълддэп] Hungarian [‘деэпэп] Mongolia [тэд'доикэ] Mongol [nrorj'gol] 2. Have a talk based on the text with your classmate, making use of the following questions: 1. What country is Great Britain? 2. How many parts does it consist of? 3. Where is Great Britain situated? 4. Is it situated to the north-west of Europe? 5. What seas and ocean are the British Isles washed by? 6. By what channel is Great Britain separated from France? 7. The surface of the country is much varied, isn’t it? 8. What parts of the country are mountainous and hilly? 9. Which is the highest mountain? 10. Are there valleys and lowlands? 11. Are there many rivers on the island? 12. Which is the longest river? 13. What sea does it run into? 14. Where is the capital of Britain situated? 15. What is the climate like in Britain? 16. There are many foggy and rainy days in Britain, aren’t there? 17. Is Britain rich in natural resources? 18. Is it a highly developed industrial country? 19. Could you name industrially important areas? 20. What is Britain’s largest shipbuilding centre? 21. What is Midlands noted for? 22. Is Britain a republic or a monarchy? 23. What are the powers of the Queen limited by? 24. What elements does the British Parliament consist of? 25. How many chambers (Houses) are there in the British Parliament? 26. What is the population of the country? 3. Express the following in English. Supply answers. 1. Из каких частей состоит Великобритания? 2. Какая это страна? 245
3. Какой город является столицей Великобритании? 4. Где расположен Лондон? 5. В какое море впадает Темза? 6. Темза такая же длинная, как Северн? 7. Какая река самая длинная в Англии? 8. Какова поверхность страны? 9. Имеются ли долины и низменности в этой стране? 10. Где находится самая высокая гора на острове? 11. Какая часть страны самая низменная (гористая)? 12. Какие моря омывают Великобританию с запада (востока)? 13. Какой пролив отделяет ее от Франции? 14. Каков климат Англии? Он такой же влажный, как и в Санкт- Петербурге? 15. Много ли туманных и дождливых дней в году? 16. Выпадает ли снег на севере страны? 17. Часто ли идут дожди? 18. Кто является официальным главой государства? 19. Кому принадлежит власть? 20. Как устроен английский парламент? 21. Какова численность населения страны? 4. Practise reading the dialogue. Then dramatize it in class. Conversation At the Map - What territory does our country occupy? - It occupies the territory of over 17 million sq.km. - Is the smaller part of the country in Europe or in Asia? - I think it is in Europe. - What mountains separate Europe from Asia? - The Ural Mountains do. - Do many rivers cross the country from north to south? - Yes, quite a number. And many canals connect various rivers and seas. - Which do you think is the most important river on which many industrial centres are situated? - It’s the Volga, the longest river in Europe. - Are there many lakes in the country too? - Yes, there are. Of all the lakes the Baikal is the deepest. - What seas are the northern and eastern coasts washed by? 246
- They are washed by the White Sea, the Barents Sea and others. - Is the surface of the country much varied? - Yes, in the south and in the east it is mostly mountainous and hilly. There are also some lowlands to the east of the Urals and to the north of the Caspian Sea. 5. Make up questions and answers according to the models. Use the words given in brackets. 1. What is the capital of Russia 1 ? The capital of Russia is Moscow. (Washington, London, Paris ['pseris], Berlin, Warsaw ['wo:so:], Tokyo ['toukjou], Edinburgh [еётЬдгэ], Madrid [ma'dnd], Dublin, Oslo, Copenhagen [koupn'heign], Stockholm ['stokhoum], Rome, Pekin [pi:'kin], Amsterdam ['gemstodsem], Sofia ['soufio], Prague [pra:g], Bucharest ['bjirkarest], Budapest ['bjirdo'pest]) 2. What do you call people who live in Italy (France)? We call them Italians (French). (Russia, Japan, China, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Denmark, Hol¬ land, Ireland, Scotland, Bulgaria) 3. Where is France situated? - It is situated in Europe. It lies to the south of Great Britain. (Melbourne ['melbsn] - Australia, Zambia - Africa, Korea - Asia, Canada - North America, Switzerland - Europe, Rhodesia [rou'di^ia] - Africa) 4. What countries does Russia border on in the west (east, north, south)? 5. Which is the highest mountain in the world (in this country)? (largest, longest, shortest, deepest, biggest, most beautiful, oldest, most southern) 6. Is Tula to the north or to the south of Moscow? (to the east or to the west) 7. What ocean (sea) is the western coast of the British Isles washed by? It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. (the eastern coast of England, the northern coast of Russia, the southern coast of France, the western coast of India) 1 Learn to pronounce the names of the countries given in the table, Ex. 1. 247
8. Are there many industrial centres in the east of our country? (lakes, seas, canals, mountains, lowlands, plains, natural resources, valleys, industrial, agricultural regions, national republics) 9. What is his (her, their) nationality? Не \ is Spanish \ 1 (a Spaniard). She 1 [ (a Spanish woman) (Swedish (a Swede), English (an Englishman, an Englishwoman), French (a Frenchman, a Frenchwoman), Irish (an Irishman, an Irishwoman) b) They are Russian(s). (German, American, Italian, Norwegian, Rumanian, Bulgarian, Hungarian) 10. Where do Dutch people (the Dutch) live? - They live in Holland (the Netherlands). (Chinese, Japanese, Danish, Welsh, Scotch, Czech) 11. What is the weather like today? - It’s warm (frosty, sunny, cloudy, gloomy, windy). It’s getting cold (hot). It’s raining (snowing, sleeting). 12. What is the climate like in Britain? - It’s mild (damp, dry, conti¬ nental, severe). 6. Render the following in English. 1. Вот краткий географический обзор нашей страны. 2. Россия занимает 17.075,4 тыс. кв. км. 3. Меньшая часть территории нашей страны находится в Евро¬ пе, а большая часть - в Азии. 4. Уральские горы отделяют Европу от Азии. 5. Многочисленные реки пересекают страну с севера на юг; мно¬ гие каналы соединяют различные реки и моря. 6. Одной из наиболее крупных рек является Волга. 7. Она впадает в Каспийское море. 8. В стране имеется много озер, из которых Байкал - самое глу¬ бокое. 9. Северное и восточное побережья нашей страны омываются Белым морем, Баренцевым морем, Охотским морем и другими. 10. Поверхность нашей страны весьма разнообразна, на юге и на востоке она преимущественно гористая. 11. Имеются также низменности и равнины (plains) к востоку от Урала и к северу от Каспийского моря. 248
12. Климат страны континентальный (continental), флора и фау¬ на разнообразны. 7. Read the text, study the new terms and speak on the topic “Russia’s Parliament”. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Russia’s Par¬ liament (or Federal Assembly) consists of two Houses: the Federation Council 0upper House) and State Duma (lower House). Each House has its Speaker. The lower House is elective. The membership of the State Duma is 490 depu¬ ties. The latter are elected from various precincts (electoral districts). Two deputies from each subject of Russian Federation are appointed to the Fed¬ eral Council. Head of the State is the President who is elected for a four years’ term. The same is true of the members of the Federal Council and State Duma. The legislative power is vested in the State Duma. The execu¬ tive power belongs to the Federal Government. The highest judicial organ is the Supreme Court of Justice. Слова 1. according to - в соответствии с 2. Houses ['hauziz] - палаты 3. the Federation Council - Совет Федерации, верхняя палата 4. lower house - нижняя палата 5. membership - членство 6. the latter arc elected - последние избираются 7. precincts (= electoral districts) - избирательные округа 8. are appointed - назначаются 9. the same is true - то же самое касается 10. the legislative power - законодательная власть 11. is vested - возлагается на 12. the executive power - исполнительная власть 13. judicial - юридический 14. the Supreme Court of Justice - Верховный суд
LESSON TWELVE Text: The Burning of Moscow, A. D. 1812 Grammar: The Infinitive. Infinitive Constructions. THE BURNING OF MOSCOW, A. D. 1812 1. The first mention of Moscow to be found in the historical records dates back to the year 1147. In that year Yuri Dolgoruky of Rostov and Suzdal, inviting Svatoslav of Chernigov, wrote: “Come to me, brother, to Moscow.” They are believed to have met in Moscow in April 1147. In 1154 the first small fortified town was known to have been built at the confluence of the Moscow and Neglinnaya rivers. In those days Moscow was merely a small frontier post of the Rostov and Suzdal principality. In 1237 it fell under the yoke of the Tatars, and for a long time after there is no reference to it1 in the records. It reappears only towards the close of2 the 13th century - this time to become firmly established as the foremost of Russian towns. In the 13th century the city was razed during the Tatar invasion, and for many years it paid tribute to the Tatar Khans, but to¬ wards the end of the 14th century it rose against those rulers, sometimes fighting, sometimes paying ransom. The 14th and the 15th centuries saw the rise of Russia as a national state with Moscow, assuming ever-growing strategic and economic importance3. As Moscow was a military as well as an administrative and economic centre, its rulers continued to erect ramparts and fortifications. The first independent Moscow ruler was the younger son of Alexander Nevsky, Daniil. His son, Ivan Kalita, received a license4 from the Tatar Khans entitling him to rule as Grand Prince. Compelled to accept the overlordship of the Tatars, Kalita, who was considered to be clever and cunning, used them for his own ends (purposes) - for strengthening Moscow principality. He is known to have founded a new fortress in the city which subsequently came to be called the Kremlin. By the middle of the 14th century Moscow had become one of Russia’s leading towns. It was said to be growing into a wealthy and bustling city where Greek and Italian merchants came to trade. Moscow’s position as the foremost city of Russia was finally consolidated in 1380, when Dmitri Donskoi led the Russian forces to a decisive victory over the Tatars at Kulikovo Field. It was Moscow that started Russia’s liberation from the Tatar yoke. The part Moscow played in uniting the people of Russia be¬ 250
came especially marked towards the close of the 15th century. From that time on the country’s whole history has been inseparably bound up with it. By this time Moscow was the largest city not only of Russia, but of all Eastern Europe. It was under Ivan III and his successor, Vassili III - early in the 16th5 century - that Moscow became the capital of the state of Moscow. There were several trials in store for Moscow6 during the so-called “Troubled Times”7 of the early 17th century when the city fell under foreign domination. The fight to set Moscow free came to be identified8 in the Russian people’s minds with the struggle for their national independence. The popular levy, headed by Minin and Pozharsky, struck a decisive blow and routed [au] the Polish invaders who had entrenched themselves in the Kremlin. Bitter tribulations came to Moscow9 with the war of 1812. But its spirit was unbroken. Russian patriots decided to set Moscow ablaze rather than10 surrender their beloved city to Napoleon. It was at the approaches of Moscow that the Russian people usually inflicted serious defeat on the foreign invaders who always suffered heavy material and moral losses. 2. When the French Emperor who expected the Russian troops to engage11 his army first came within sight of12 Moscow, he gazed long and thoughtfully on that goal of his wishes. Murat was the first to enter the gates with his splendid cavalry; but as he passed along the streets he was struck by complete solitude that surrounded him: a deserted and abandoned city13 was the prize for which such unparalleled efforts had been made. As night drew, Napoleon entered the city, and on appointing Mortier Governor14, commanded him to abstain from all pillage. “For this,” said he, “you shall be answerable with your lifel5. Defend Moscow against all, whether friend or foe.” Mortier obeyed but felt that some calamity was hanging over the silent capital. The feeling did not deceive him: at midnight when the cry of “Fire” reached his ear16, he realised that it was the burning of Moscow, but he was too tired to take action. Soon the city presented a spectacle the like of which17 had never been seen before and which baffles all description18. Flames burst on every side and were raging through the whole city until the latter became one gigantic flame waving to and fro19, one boundless sea of fire. The fire was ap¬ proaching the Kremlin when the Emperor reluctantly consented to leave. Mortier saw him descend into the streets with his staff, but the flames blocked every passage. At length, with great difficulty, Napoleon reached the palace of Petrovsky, where he took up his quarters20. 251
His army, once glorious and fearless, now stood in still terror, power¬ less and frightened. Napoleon was seen gazing at the horrible scene in silent awe [o:]. Said he, years afterwards21: “It was the most grand, most sublime, most terrific sight the world ever beheld.” In fact, it seemed to be a terrible substitute for the military triumph in Russia, so much desired and expected by the French Emperor. Notes 1 there is no reference to it - (зд.) о ней не упоминается 2 towards the close of the 13th century - к концу XIII в. 3 with Moscow assuming ever-growing ... importance - причем Моск¬ ва приобретала всевозрастающее... значение 4a license - (зд.) ярлык на великое княжение 5 early in the 16th century - в начале XVI в. Запомните также: late in the 70-s - в конце 70-х годов 6trials in store for Moscow - (зд.) испытания, которые Москве пред¬ стояло перенести 7 the so-called “Troubled Times” - так называемое «смутное время» 8 came to be identified [ai'dentifaid] with - стала отождествляться 9 bitter tribulation came to Moscow - (зд.) большое несчастье обру¬ шилось на Москву (bitter - горький) Запомните также: sweet - сладкий, sour - кислый, salty - соленый 10 to set... ablaze rather than - скорее сжечь, чем 11 to engage - (ad.) вступить в бой 12 within sight of - в пределах видимости 13 a deserted and abandoned city - покинутый, оставленный (всеми) город Запомните английские эквиваленты русского глагола оставить, покинуть', to leave (имеет наиболее общее значение), to abandon (поки¬ нуть в беде или в силу необходимости), to desert (покинуть, бросить на произвол судьбы, дезертировать), е. g. The naval officer deserted the burning ship, the helpless passengers abandoned it. He abandoned his fam¬ ily and his friends. She abandoned that idea (hope). 14 on appointing Morticr [mo:'tje] Governor - назначив Мортье губер¬ натором Следует иметь в виду, что с глаголами be, elect, appoint, become следующее за ними существительное, если оно обозначает единст¬ венное лицо, которое может занимать данный пост в данное время, употребляется без артикля, е. g. Who is Commandant (начальник) of the Institute? She was elected Chairman of the meeting. When did he be¬ come President of the Company? 252
15 you shall be answerable with your life - вы ответите своей головой Глагол shall в сочетании со 2-м лицом единственного числа упот¬ ребляется здесь в модальном значении (распоряжение, приказ, угроза). 16 the cry ... reached his ear - он услышал крик Выучите (или повторите) следующие существительные: head [е] - голова, forehead ['fond] - лоб, eyes [aiz] - глаза, eyebrows - брови, nose - нос, ears-уши, mouth [0] - рот, cheeks - щеки, lips - губы, jaw - челюсть. 17 a spectacle the like of which ... - зрелище, подобно которому ... Слово like часто выступает в качестве предлога «подобно, как», е. g. Pete is like his father, tall and handsome. Здесь the like является суб¬ стантивированным предлогом. 18 baffles all description - превосходит всякое описание 19 to and fro [frou] - взад и вперед 20 took up his quarters - расквартировался 21 Said he, years afterwards - Впоследствии, спустя много лет, он говорил... Инверсия используется здесь автором в целях эмфазы как стили¬ стический прием. Words and Word Combinations records n. летопись, записи chronicle n. хроника, летопись refer (to) v. 1) ссылаться на; 2) от¬ носиться к reference п. ссылка, упоминание firm а. крепкий, твердый ransom п. выкуп rampart п. земляной вал fortify v. укреплять, сооружать fortification п. укрепление depend (on) v. зависеть (от) (in)dependent on (of) а. (независи¬ мый от (in)dependence n. (не)зависимость abstain (from) v. воздерживаться (от) fortress n. крепость liberate v. освобождать liberation n. освобождение trouble n. беда, несчастье, неприят¬ ность bitter а. горький sight n. зрелище, вид strike v. 1) ударять; 2) поражать desert v. покидать, оставлять appoint v. назначать, определять appointment п. назначение pillage п. грабеж, мародерство foe п. недруг, враг calamity п. бедствие deceive v. обманывать earn, ухо burn v. 1) жечь, сжигать; 2) гореть mention v. упоминать; п. упоминание burst V. разорвать(ся), лопаться whole а. весь, целый scene п. сцена, место действия once adv. однажды, (один) раз 253
silence n. молчание, тишина silent а. молчаливый, тихий, без- cxpect v. ожидать, надеяться, рас¬ считывать молвный approach п. подступ, подход; v. при- enough а. достаточный; adv. доста¬ точно ближаться desire п. желание too adv. 1) тоже, также; 2) слиш¬ ком at the approaches (to) - на подступах к to pay tribute (to) - платить дань; отдать должное to assume importance - приобретать важность to be marked (by) - отмечаться to keep silent - молчать to be bound up with = to be connected with - быть связанным с to suffer heavy losses - нести тяжелые потери to make (every) effort - прилагать (все) усилия at length = at last - в конце концов early in the 14th c. = at the beginning of the 14th с. - в начале XIV в. in the late 14th c. = at the close of the 14th c. = at the end of the 14th c. - в конце XIV в. to come to a close = to come to an end - подходить к концу to be in (get into) trouble - быть в беде (попасть в беду) to be at the head = to head - возглавлять, стоять во главе to strike a blow (at) - нанести удар (по) at the sight of - при виде to inflict serious defeat (losses) (on) - нанести тяжелое поражение (потери) кому-л. Practise the following for pronunciation. Proper names: Tatar ['ta;ta], Khans [ka:nz], Alexander [,<elig'zu:ndo], Ivan ['aivan], Murat ['mjuret], Mortier [moi'tje], Polish [ou]; [э:] - first, firmly, merchant, early, deserted, burning, burst; [ou] - only, Moscow, close, own, so, Polish, approach; [a;] - Tatar, commanded, answerable, staff, army; [o:] - fortified, towards, importance, quarters, glorious, awe; Ударение на первом слоге: confluence, headquarters, strengthening, ramparts, subsequently, ranson [s], substitute; Ударение на втором слоге: entitling, compelled, administrative [э], consolidated, inseparably, inflict, successor, identified, erect, abandoned, unparalleled, calamity, gigantic, reluctantly, consented, descend, sublime; 254
Два ударения: tribulation, principality, reappears, independent, eco¬ nomic, fortification; afjhe confluence; a§_fhe foremost; injhe 13 th jeentury; towards_the_end of the 14tl\_century; wealthy and bustling [-]; towardsjhe close of the 15th_century; wasjthe largest; wasjhe prize; routed [au]jthe invaders; en- trenchedjthemselves injthe Kremlin; throughjthe whole city; reachedjthe palace; Tatarjnvasion; Cleveland cunning; with the war_of 1812. VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. Find the best way of expressing the following in Russian: her part became especially marked towards the close of the 15th c.; there were several trials in store for Moscow; the fight for liberation came to be identified with the struggle for national independence; compelled to accept the over lordship of the Tatars, Kalita the 15 th c. saw the rise of Russia; he came within sight of Moscow; he was struck by complete solitude; the prize for which such unparalleled efforts had been made; defend the city against all, whether friend or foe; a spectacle which baffles all description; he was seen gazing at the scene in silent awe; it was a terrible substitute for the military triumph so much desired and expected by the Emperor 2. Suggest the English for: в летописи, датированной 1147 годом; независимые феодальные княжества; ссылаться на источники; твердая позиция; платить выкуп; платить дань; зависеть от погоды (обстановки); быть (не)зависимым от родителей; предоставить (получать) независимость; давать назва¬ ние (право); озаглавливать; окопаться в крепости; освобождать наро¬ ды зависимых стран; объединять(ся); прекрасное зрелище; при виде наших танков; ударять(ся); покинуть родной город; воздержаться от грабежа; враг, недруг; бедствие; обманывать; первое упоминание о Москве; гореть, (об)жечь; лопнуть, прорваться, разорваться; вся Ев¬ ропа; все страны; ужасная сцена; армия, когда-то славная и бесстраш¬ ная; подойти, приблизиться к; иметь большое желание; на подступах к Лондону, подпасть под гнет (иго); приобретать значение (характер); отмечать(ся); быть тесно связанным с историей России; прилагать уси¬ лия; в конце концов; в начале (в конце) войны; подходить к концу; быть в беде (попасть в беду); возглавить ополчение; получить сокру¬ шительный удар; нанести противнику тяжелое поражение; в начале XV в.; понести тяжелые потери 255
GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1. Give various forms of the infinitive as required (see § 1, p. 354). Use the words listed below: Indefinite Passive: to translate, to receive, to trace, to defend, to reject, to punish, to reach, to treat Continuous Active: to translate, to pass, to stay, to develop, to watch, to carry, to march, to make, to translate, to discover, to seize, to buy, to sell, to consider, to find, to invade, to enter Perfect Passive: to translate, to send, to plunder, to capture, to abolish, to attract, to overthrow, to retreat Perfect Continuous: to translate, to serve, to ride, to look for, to listen to, to study, to do, to prepare 2. Read the sentences and define the functions of the infinitive. Translate the sentences. 1. To learn two foreign languages simultaneously [.simal'teinjasli] (од¬ новременно) is difficult. 2. It is dangerous to swim here. 3. Our runner was the first to come to the finish. 4. I was too tired to walk any further. 5. How to solve this problem is not clear. 6. What way to choose must be decided now. 7. I have nothing new to tell you. 8. The question to be discussed is very important. 9. Victor has come to Moscow (in order) to enter the Moscow State University. 10. The problem is how to get there in so short space of time. 11. The two parties continued to talk the matter over. 12. The delegation is likely to arrive tomorrow. 13. This article is easy to understand but difficult to translate. 14. Miss Tail, to my mind, can hardly play the part of a mother. She is too young. 15. The local authorities proved unable to settle the dispute. 16. I want you to feel at home at my place. 17. Hamilton turned out to be a specialist in such matters. 18. Mr. Lindsay is said to be writing a new novel. 256
19. Did you happen to meet such people? 20. Would you like me to tell the truth? 21. Everybody noticed Jane leave the room. 22. Bess was happy to have been offered this job. 23. You do not seem to have a good knowledge of American History. 24. I have never seen him dance Russian dances. 25. Let (have) the children gather in the hall after school. 26. Nobody, except me, heard you say that. 27. Lomonosov is known to be the father of Russian science. 28. The travellers were seen to be climbing higher and higher. 29. Who made you come here so early? 30. Some demonstrators are reported to have been arrested by the police [po'li:s]. 31. It is necessary for a student to carry out independent academic work regularly. 32. Lots of foreign athletes are expected to participate in the Olympic Games. 33. The best thing for you to do is to change the subject of specialisation. 34. I consider Jack to be a devoted friend. 35. Paul is sure to give you a call tonight. 3. Pick out from text all the sentences containing infinitives and analyse them. 4. Translate the sentences, paying special attention to different forms of the infinitive. 1. William is considered to be a good singer. 2. He is considered to have been a good singer. 3. Mrs. Lee is believed to have been working here for quite a long time. 4. Her brother is believed to be working as a driver. 5. The plane was reported to have landed in Turkey. 6. The crew of the plane was reported to have been attacked by highjackers. 7. I am sorry to have kept you waiting. 8. Mother seems to be losing patience ([’peifons] терпение). 9. The girl seems to have lost something. 10. The children are glad to be taught music and singing. 11. Robert was happy to have been offered the job. 257
12. Mr. Wagner was thought to know the city of New York very well. 13. You are not supposed to talk like that with your father. 14. Mary was heard to be quarrelling with Mike. 15. Peter is expected to return in a few days. 16. The Senate Committee was announced to have begun its session. 17. Dr. Mansfield appears to know all about it. 18. Henry happened to live in the Far East at that time. He is said to have lived in China. He is said to have been living there for a number of years. 19. She does not seem to know German. 20. Have somebody call him up. 21. Get the students bring their dictionaries for tomorrow’s class. 5. Supply the beginning by translating the Russian part of the following sentences (see § 3, p. 356): 1. (Известно, что Вильгельм Завоеватель) to have won the battle at Hastings in 1066. 2. (Известно, что спартанцы) to be celebrating a religious holiday when the Persians invaded Greece. 3. (Было известно, что древние греки) to lay precious offerings before the shrines. 4. (Говорят, что Нерон) to have participated in the Olympic Games, particularly in chariot racings. 5. (Говорили, что Дарий) to be at the Persian court in exile. 6. (Говорили, что римские императоры) to turn the conquered peoples into slaves. 7. (Сообщалось, что противник) to have finally been driven out of the country. 8. (Полагают, что самолет) to have fallen down somewhere in the Alps. 9. (Считается, что Жуковский) to be the father of Russian aviation. 10. (Оказалось, что Николай) to be using unfair means to win the games. 11. (Предполагают, что глава католической церкви) to make а statement on this issue. 6. Recast the following, using infinitive constructions. Mind the form of the infinitive. Model 1. He is (was) happy that he has (had) been helped with his English. He is (was) happy to have been helped with his English. 258
1. I was sorry that I had told her the story. 2. Miss Fleur was glad that she had been given the job of a teacher. 3. I am happy that I have a friend like David. 4. They were particularly glad that they had been working under Prof. Brook. 5. We are sorry that we interrupt (прерывать) you all the time. 6. He is happy that he has passed the examination in Latin. 7. Michael was sorry that he had accepted the invitation. Model 2. It is (was) expected that the problem will (would) be solved. The problem is (was) expected to be solved. 1. It is expected that the question will be decided tomorrow. 2. It was expected that the housing programme would be carried out ahead of time. 3. It was said that Mark Twain had burned the hospital. 4. It is announced that a new discovery has been made. 5. It was known that Dezhnev was a great explorer. 6. It is believed that the patriotic forces will seize power. 7. It was declared that the enemy had been defeated. 8. It is supposed that Bill will do it better. Model 3. It’s easy to translate the article. This article is easy to translate. 1. It’s difficult to understand his English. 2. It’s easy to study this subject. 3. It’s pleasant to hear her voice. 4. It’s impossible to explain this fact. 5. It’s hard to please (угодить) him. Model 4. Ask somebody to do it. Have somebody do it. 11. Ask somebody to fetch today’s issue of the Independent. 2. Ask Bob to make a review of the articles. 3. Ask Polly to do the room. 4. Ask someone to post the letter. 5. Ask all the students to take part in the concert. 259
Model 5. The question which will be discussed is very important. The question to be discussed is very important. 1. The article which we are going to translate is difficult. 2. Here is the material which must be studied very thoroughly. 3. I have no idea of the issues which they intend to discuss at the meeting. 4. The other day I was requested to look through the essay which will be published in our journal. 5. Here are the figures which you must mention in your report. 6. Professor Clay will make a report at the conference which will be held in Kiev. 7. The time is not far off when spaceships, which will be sent to the Mars, will have a man on board. 7. Express the following in Russian, paying special attention to the for- construction (see § 4, p. 358): 1. It’s difficult for me to translate such a lengthy article in English. 2. It’s difficult for us to decide what steps to take to save the situation. 3. We opened fire for the enemy to take the counteraction. 4. It’s natural for Mrs. Fox to act like this. 5. It’s necessary for a student of History to know how to work with historical sources and literature. 6. The court stepped aside for the King to pass. 7. The travellers waited for the river to open. 8. The best thing for her to do is to leave the place immediately. 9. Here are some letters for Barbara to type. 10. The doorman opened the door for the guests to walk in. 11. The bag is too heavy for you to carry. 12. The most important thing for them to do is to explore the possibility of starting negotiations [ni.gouji'eijnz] (переговоры). 13. Have the necessary preparations been made for the experiment to begin? 14. There is too little time for the meeting to be arranged. 15. It’s too late for the issue to be put on the agenda. 8. Make up questions and answers. Work in pairs. 1. Do you want me to help you? 2. What do you want me to help you with? 3. When do you want me to help you? 260
4. Where do you want me to come? 5. How do you want me to help you? 6. I am going to the library. Would you like me to get a book for you too? 7. What book would you like me to take for you? 8. Did you see her enter the room? 9. Did you hear me address the students? 10. You did not notice me take your book, did you? 9. a) Construct sentences according to the pattern, using the words given in brackets; b) Express the following in English: 1. a) It is (will be) difficult to get this textbook. (difficult - to find a better way; pleasant - to work with him; unpleasant - to hear this news; easy - to explain the fact; impossible - to prove it; hard - to please her) b) 1. С ним неприятно иметь дело (to deal with). 2. Ей трудно угодить (to please). 3. Трудно достать эту книгу. 4. Это невозможно доказать (to prove). 5. Объяснить этот факт довольно просто. 6. Трудно будет выучить наизусть эту поэму. 2. a) The problem is how to do it. (how - to tell them about it; how - to get there; where - to stay; when - to start the work; what - to begin with; what materials - to use) b) 1. Вопрос в том, как ей рассказать об этой истории. 2. Проблема заключается в том, какой материал исполь¬ зовать в докладе. 3. Где достать необходимую информацию - вот в чем проблема. 4. Вопрос заключается в том, когда организовать это собрание. 5. Проблема в том, что им послать взамен (in return). 3. a) The text is difficult (easy) to translate. (to memorize, to render in English; to understand, to summarize; problem - to solve; question - to decide; matter - to discuss) b) 1. Эту статью легко перевести на английский язык. 2. Ваш вопрос решить трудно. 261
3. Этот американский фильм понять нетрудно. 4. Нелегко прочитать такой большой материал. 5. Нелегко выполнить эту работу. 4. а) Не is (was) known to work (to be working, to have worked, to have been working) at this problem. (to live in Rome, to be an excellent translator, to defend his native town, to discover a natural law, to be the father of Russian science, to construct a new type of a plane) b) 1. Известно, что Амундсен был полярным (the North Pole) исследователем. 2. Было известно, что Колумб отправился в плавание в западном направлении. Известно также, что он дос¬ тиг острова Куба, который он считал восточной оконечностью (point) Азии. 3. Карл I (Charles), как известно, был обвинен в государ¬ ственной измене (high treason) и казнен в 1649 г. 4. Известно, что велосипед (bicycle) был изобретен рус¬ ским крепостным рабочим Артамоновым в 1801 г. 5. Было известно, что путешественники совершали вос¬ хождение (to ascend) на Памир в течение несколь¬ ких дней. 5. a) They are/were (reported) announced to have come. (delegations - to arrive; the foreign guests - to leave; the com¬ mittees - to start their work; the rebels - to capture some governmental buildings; the owners of the plants - to reject the workers’ demands) b) 1. Сообщается, что вы установили дипломатические от¬ ношения с Анголой (to establish relations)? 2. Как сообщается, большое количество иностранных де¬ легаций прибыло в Москву для празднования Дня Победы. 3. Объявлено, что Ассамблея возобновит (to resume) свою работу на следующей неделе. 4. Как было объявлено, бастующие (the strikers) захвати¬ ли ряд важных пунктов. 6. a) Our teacher is said to have been sent abroad. (five people - to be killed in the accident; Mr. Bay - to be appointed leader of the expedition; this law - to be abolished; the reactionary 262
regime in that African country - to be overthrown; the Tory Government -- to be completely defeated in its economic and foreign policies; the workers - to declare/call a strike) b) 1. Говорят, что его назначили руководителем (leader) экс¬ педиции. 2. Говорят, что рабочие «Дженерал Моторз» объявили 24-часовую забастовку (a 24-hour strike). 3. Говорили, что многие пытались найти кратчайший путь в Индию и Китай в течение многих лет. 4. Говорят, он пишет сейчас новый роман. 5. Г оворят, что Герцог Эдинбургский (Duke of Edinburgh) грек по происхождению (by birth). 7. a) She is/was believed (thought, supposed) to know the subject. (to be highly experienced in such matters; to be a good doc¬ tor; to complete her research work successfully; to be rendered assistance in this undertaking; to make another try to win) b) 1. Полагают, что университетская команда одержит по¬ беду. 2. Думают, что он специалист в этой области. 3. Предполагается, что наши студенты должны уметь вес¬ ти занятия по истории в разных классах. 8. a) Miss Brandy is/was considered to be a good music teacher (secretary, educator, athlete, historian, pianist). b) 1. Карамзина считают не только писателем, но и круп¬ ным историком. 2. 4 июля считается национальным праздником США - Днем независимости (Independence Day). 3. Галли Курчи считалась блестящей (brilliant) итальян¬ ской певицей. 4. Кого считают лучшим спортсменом в вашей группе? 9. a) Charles proved (turned out, appeared) to be ill. (to be away; to be in Manchester; to be a true friend; to be a good story-teller; to be pleasant to work with) b) I.XTom оказался хорошим товарищем. 2. Bbcc, оказывается, ничего не знает о нашем плане. 3. Я оказался очень занятым в тот момент. 263
10. а) Магу seems (does not seem) to feel well. (to have accepted the invitation; to have fallen in love; to have fulfilled the task; to be riding on horseback in the park; to be playing ten¬ nis; to teach history) b) 1. Вы, кажется, уронили (to drop) что-то. - Спасибо. 2. Дети, кажется, гуляют сейчас в саду. 3. Студенты, казалось, были захвачены (to be spellbound by)лекцией. 4. Мисс Диксон, кажется, не владеет русским языком. 5. Кажется, этот предмет сейчас не изучается в школе, но я не уверен. 11. a) Do you happen to know his address? Did you happen to see this film before? (to know her telephone number; to read books like these; to visit these places before; to hear this opera, to meet the Browns in Brighton) b) 1. Вы, случайно, не знаете его номер телефона? 2. Вы, случайно, не встречали там наших студентов? 3. Мне не случалось бывать на Ангаре. 4. Случилось так, что меня послали за границу (to be sent abroad). 12. a) There is (was) nothing to speak about. (nothing - to discuss here; nobody - to apply for help; some¬ thing - to tell you; nothing - to be surprised at; nothing - to quarrel about; little - to comment on; much - to be done; nothing - to lose) b) 1. Здесь не о чем говорить. Вопрос ясен. 2. Мне не с кем посоветоваться (to consult with). 3. Нам предстоит много сделать. 4. Мне не к кому обратиться за помощью. 5. Не о чем ссориться. 13. a) Nick was the first (last) to come. Nick will be the next to соте. (to leave; to finish the composition; to mention it; to reach the place; to receive our support; to notice it; to arrive at the conclusion) b) 1. Его спросили первым. 2. Она ушла домой последней. 3. Ник первым пришел к финишу. 4. Кто первым узнал об этом? 5. Пятую группу экзаменовали последней. 264
14. а) I (do not) want you to do it. Do you want me to do it? (see § 2 p. 355) (to submit; to watch the game; to make another attempt; to profit by it; to defend this point of view; to rise very early; to punish him; to start now) I would (not) like you to do it. (Would you like me to do it?) (to surrender; to trace these historical facts; to make the pro¬ posal; to apply to the tutor [ju:]; to pass these exams; to occupy this room; to explore the possibility; to sell it; to buy it) b) 1. Я хочу, чтобы вы приняли участие в концерте. 2. Вы хотите, чтобы я взял эту тему для доклада? 3. Мы не хотим, чтобы студенты теряли зря (to waste) время. 4. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы Виктор поступил на истори¬ ческий факультет. 5. Вам бы хотелось, чтобы мы присутствовали на этой встрече? 6. Мне бы не хотелось, чтобы они обсуждали этот вопрос без меня. 15. а) I have never seen her dance. Have you ever heard her sing? (to skate; to ride on horseback; to swim; to play tennis; to speak French; to play the piano; to recite poems; to sing English songs) b) 1. Никто не заметил, как появился Робин Г уд. 2. Вы когда-нибудь видели, как он стреляет из лука? 3. Вы когда-нибудь слышали, как Фред говорит по-фран¬ цузски? 4. Я никогда не видел, как вы играете в теннис. 5. Мы никогда не слышали, как Борис читает стихи (to recite poems). 6. Я почувствовал, как кто-то пошел вслед (to follow) за мной. 7. Многие наблюдали, как играла ваша команда. 16. а) I expect him to come (the question to be discussed). He is expected to come, (our team - to win the match; you - to make the necessary preparations for the meeting; she - to receive an excellent mark afthe examination; this actor - to appear on the stage again and attract everybody’s attention; this question - to be considered; the 265
opponents -- to be defeated; the dispute - to be settled; the problem - to be solved) b) 1. Я надеюсь, что эта проблема будет решена. 2. Вы надеетесь, что она успешно сдаст все экзамены? 3. Мы надеемся, что статья будет переведена в срок (in time). 4. Все надеялись, что этот вопрос будет обсужден на соб¬ рании. 5. Все надеются, что университетская команда одержит победу. 6. Все надеются, что гости прибудут завтра вечером. 17. a) Here is the letter to be typed. (the article - to translate; the document - to look through; the letter - to sign (подписать); the plan - to use; the archives material - to analyse) b) 1. Вот вопрос, который надо обсудить. 2. Дайте мне статью, которую надо перевести. 3. Материалы, которые будут использованы в докладе, довольно интересны. 4. Вот книга, которую нужно взять для домашнего чтения. 18. a) Have him do it. (she - to buy the newspaper; somebody - to clean the black¬ board; they - to bring dictionaries for the English class; the students - to translate half of the text; he - to give me a call; she - to come after classes) b) 1. Пусть студенты пойдут в библиотеку. 2. Распорядитесь, чтобы лаборантка (lab girl) принесла словари. 3. Проследите, чтобы письмо отослали сегодня. 4. Скажите, чтобы кто-нибудь помог им. 5. Пусть он придет. 12. a) Comment on these historical facts. Use the words in italics. 1. In the records referring to the early 1 Oth or the late 11 th centuries there is no mention of Moscow. 2. The existence of Moscow is first mentioned in the chronicles of 1147. 3. No exact date of birth of W. Shakespeare can be found in histori¬ cal records. 266
4. At the beginning of the 12th century our country was divided in many independent feudal principalities. 5. All of them paid tribute to the Tatar Khan of the Golden Horde [ho:d] (Золотая Орда). 6. To unite all the principalities into a single Russian state under Grand Princes of Moscow meant [ment] (означало) centralization and con¬ solidation of power. 7. For the last decade (десятилетие) several African countries have been granted independence. 8. The Dark Ages were coming to a close, and science and art were liberating themselves from the long grip of the Catholic Church. 9. When in 1912 the biggest ocean liner “Titanic” was reported to have struck an iceberg in the Atlantic and sunk, many people of England and the United States were struck by the news. 10. As Austria did not want to abandon her possessions, it was agreed to leave them under French domination. 11. Mr. Mortier was said to have been appointed Governor of Moscow by Napoleon. 12. The close of the 15th century was marked by an intellectual fer¬ ment ['foimant] (брожение). 13. In 1812 the Russians decided to burn down Moscow rather than surrender it to the French invaders. 14. The Russians firmly established themselves in California when in 1806 Nicholas Rezanov, chamberlain to the Tzar, arrived there. 15. In the early 16th c. the power of Grand Princes of Moscow as¬ sumed an autocratic character. 16. In the 14th century the rulers of Moscow went on constructing ramparts and fortifications. b) Give the meaning of the following statements: 1. A big ransom was demanded for the princess kidnapped (похи¬ тить) by the servants of the Khan. 2. Now the fate of the Russian colony at Sitka depended on the quick actions of Rezanov. 3. It was Marshall Bazain who took it upon himself to surrender the fortress to the Prussians. 4. The French hidden in the fortress were most cruelly treated by the enemy. 5. I am havirig a lot of trouble with my English. 267
6. When the bitter news that Nicholas would never return reached her ear, Senorita Arguello realised that she had been deceived. 7. Many delegates are said to have abstained from voting. The results were: 15 in favour (за), 10 against, 12 abstentions. 8. The burning aircraft fell on the ground and burst. 9. The whole house was up when Sherlock Holmes arrived at the place of the murder. 10. He was the first to make reference to this monograph. 11. During the break (перерыв) the students approached the lecturer and asked him some questions. c) Respond to the following by expressing agreement or disagreement: 1. Wealth is nothing without health. 2. Nowadays we burn candles (свечи) to get light. 3. You should give a helping hand to your friend when he is in trouble. 4. Paper does not burn easily. 5. You always abstain from voting. 6. At the sight of the famous clown one can’t help (нельзя не) smil¬ ing. 13. Express the following in a different way, using the text: 1. At the end of the 14th century the rulers of Moscow went on constructing ramparts and fortifications. 2. Under the rule of Dmitri Donskoi the city came to be known as “White Stone Moscow”, for, as the chronicle says, the Kremlin was built of white stone. 3. Ivan Kalita received a licenseg/vwg him the right to rule as Grand Prince. 4. George Washington was fighting to set America free. 5. Smoking is a dangerous thing to one’s health. 6. The German invaders kept on plundering and enslaving the local population. 7. At the beginning of the 15th century Moscow grew into a rich city. 8. In the early days of the French invasion Kutuzov decided to hold himself back from the general battle likely to be offered by Napoleon. 9. When Mortier heard the cry of “Fire”, he realized that the burn¬ ing of the city had been started. 10. Napoleon’s great wish was to crush the Russian army in the first battle and to capture Moscow. 268
11. When the French troops came up to Smolensk the Russians of¬ fered strong resistance to them, but after a fierce battle they left the city. 12. The fire of Moscow in 1812 was a great disaster (бедствие). It presented a terrific spectacle which the enemy was shocked by. 13. The fight to free Moscow was closely connected with the people’s struggle for national independence. 14. Napoleon’s army lost a great number of people. 14. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: powerless, to obey, broken, clever, important, at the beginning, early, a silent film, foe, bitter, wealthy, dependent, firm, infirm, independent, poor, sweet, friend, a sound film, late, at the end, unimportant, foolish, unbroken, to disobey, powerless 15. Use the suffix (prefix) each of these words contains to form deriva¬ tives from the words given in brackets. Translate the derivatives into Russian. formality (formal, principal, real) enjoy (joy, title, trench, rich, throne, large) historic (history, economy, terrify, hero) decisive (decide, defend, offend, oppress, suppress) lengthy (length, wealth, health) reappear (appear, write, make, take, build) 16. Give nouns corresponding to the following: a) verbs; b) adjectives. a) to fortify, to refer, to depend, to appoint, to terrify, to liberate, to invite, to invade b) desirable, terrific, approaching, mentionable, wealthy, decisive, glo¬ rious, fearless, thoughtful 17. Analyse the morphological structure of: identification, reference, uneconomically, independence, fearlessness 18. Choose the appropriate word according to the definition: the sum of money paid for the liberation of a prisoner of war part of a town protected with defensive works, a fortified place the act of plundering a record or account of events written in the order of their happening the organ of hearing the country or territory ruled by a prince 269
a family of men forced to serve in the army, navy, etc. a terrible event or a great misfortune (несчастье) a small bed for a baby freedom from the control, support or influence of others (pillage, independence, levy, ransom, principality, chronicle, fortress, ear, calamity, cradle) 19. Insert suitable words from the active vocabulary:, 1. In the 13th century Moscow was razed during the Tatar... 2. In 1156 the city was walled and fortified and became ... 3. The first ... of Moscow can be found in the historical ... which dated back to the 12th century. 4. As the city became the military and administrative centre its rulers begart to build ... find ... 5. Health ... good food, plenty of exercise, fresh air and sound sleep. 6. 800 years ago our country was a multitude of small and large ... feudal... 7. In order to ... the kidnapped boy Mr. Price had to pay ... 8. Despite Napoleon’s order to abstain from ... the French soldiers, on entering the city, started plundering and looting. 9. In Great Britain it is the sovereign who ... Prime Minister, leader of the political party that has won at the General election. 10. At the approaches to Moscow the Army ... a decisive blow at the enemy. 11. As a result of the fire the greater part of London was ... down, and the ... city was destroyed due to the ... of powder-barrels (бочки c порохом) here and there. 12. ... of the teacher approaching the classroom the children took their seats and kept... 13. I had a great... to render my service to Mr. Fox who, having got into ..., was making every ... to find a way out. 14. The Tory leaders... the British people by making election promises (обещания) of a “paradise” (рай) to come. 20. Complete the statements by choosing a word combination in brackets. 1. There is no mention of this historical event in ... (the chronicle, these written records, this book, his monograph, these archives documents). 2. From that time on the struggle ... (got closely bound up with the struggle for national independence, assumed great political importance, 270
assumed a patriotic character, was waged for national liberation, began to unite the Russian people). 3. The first mention of the town can be found in the chronicle referring to the time of ... (Ivan Kalita’s rule, Boris Godunov’s reign, the Tatar invasion, the conquest of Siberia). 4. In the battle of Moscow ... (we inflicted a decisive blow on the fascist troops, the enemy suffered heavy losses, the Germans took every effort to break through to Moscow, the enemy’s offensive was stopped, the German troops were defeated). 5. That period of time was marked by... (the unification of numerous principalities, the people’s desire to shake off the Tatar yoke, the intensifi¬ cation of the struggle for national unity, a series of peasants’ revolts). 6. Under foreign domination (the Tatar yoke) the Russian people had to ... (pay tribute to the Khans, pay ransom). 7. It was in the 14-15th centuries that Moscow ... (became a leading city, consolidated its position, played a great role in uniting the Russian people). 8. At the beginning of the 17th century (early in the 17th c.) the city ... (fell under foreign domination, was at the head of the popular levy, offered strong resistance to the Polish invaders). 9. They abstained from ... (participating (участвовать) in the match, voting (голосовать), mentioning this figure in the report, appointing him a governor, building fortifications). 21. Supply the missing articles. Sum up the contents of the story by answering the questions given below: Retreat from Moscow At ... beginning of ... 18th century Napoleon decided to advance on Moscow. For many years before that he had been at war with different nations. He had won and lost many important battles ... French fleet had been destroyed at Trafalgar, but... Emperor of France won brilliant victories at Austerlitz, Jena and other places, and he dethroned kings and placed his marshals and his relatives in their places. Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain, all fell under his domination, but Russia he had not attacked yet. He therefore advanced confidently (скрытно) through ... country, where he found but little opposition, and made his way towards Moscow. When at last he reached ... city, he saw it in flames. In ... short time all was de¬ stroyed, and his army found no means of subsistence (средство к сущест¬ вованию). ... winter came on, and he had no course but to retreat.... French 271
army suffered terribly on ... way. His men and horses died in thousands in ... snow. Of all... splendid (великолепная) army which Napoleon had led to Moscow, only ... few lived out to reach ... capital of France. 1) When did Napoleon decide to advance on Moscow? 2) How long before his advance on Moscow had he been at war with different nations? 3) Had he won or had he also lost many important battles? 4) What happened to the French fleet at Trafalgar? 5) Where did Napoleon win brilliant victories? 6) What countries fell under his domination? 7) Had Russia by that time been attacked by Napoleon? 8) Did he find strong opposition until he reached Moscow? 9) What did he see when he came within sight of the city? 10) What was Napoleon compelled to do? 11) What happened to the French army on the way? 12) Was it Napoleon’s last retreat? 22. Insert the missing prepositions or adverbs: 1. ... the battle ... Kursk the German army suffered heavy losses. 2. ... the beginning... the operation the police ['i:] abstained ... using tear gas. 3. When Russia fell... the yoke ... the Tatars and was dependent... the Tatar Khans it had to pay tribute and submit... the new rulers. 4. ... the fascist occupation the whole village lived... terror, but when the Red Army came and struck a heavy blow ... the enemy, most... the villagers joined the partisan detachment and fought... the German fascists side ... side ... the Army. 5. ... the approaches... Moscow the enemy was stopped and at length it was defeated. 6. ... the sight ... Moscow which was ... flames Napoleon realized that the burning ... the city was bound up ... the military plan ... the Russians. i 7. Though the travellers were independent... the weather, when the storm approached, they got ... trouble. 8. Describing the scene laid ... the house... Famusov and referring... the author’s quotation the lecturer said it was marked ... a great deal ... sarcasm. 272
9. "'fhe success ... your research depends ... your ability to see the problem and solve it,” said Prof. Pike when the session came ... a close. 10. Mrs. Trodwood struck David slightly ... the head saying he should be answerable ... his behaviour. 11. ... that time ... the boy had a feeling that some trials were ... store for him. 12. Dmitri Donskoi is known to have led the Russian forces ... a de¬ cisive victory ... the Tatars ... Kulikovo Field. 13. Bitter tribulation came ... Moscow ... the war ... 1812 when the Russian people made up their minds not to surrender their beloved city ... Napoleon. 14. While passing... the streets Murat was struck ... complete solitude that surrounded him. 15. Flames burst ... every side and were raging ... the whole city; ... great difficulty the Emperor reached the palace... Petrovsky, where he took ... his quarters. 23. Read the text and say what was Moscow like in the 12th, the 16th and 18th centuries. Use the words in italics. 1. As far back as the twelfth century Moscow was known as a small estate of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky; in 1156 it was walled, and became a town, or rather a fortress on the bank of the Moskva River, then an important trade route. Its subsequent economic and political development was largely due to its favourable geographical position. 2. By the end of the sixteenth century, during the reign of Boris Godunov, Moscow had three wails with towers and moats surrounding respectively the Kremlin, the Kitai-Gorod and the White City. It was also surrounded by earthworks 14 km in circumference, and guarded on the south, east and west by six fortified monasteries. From the Kremlin and Red Square, then the centre, streets radiated to the outskirts whence they continued as trade roads. The town itself was divided into 150 self-governed settlements or districts, sotni and slobodi, with irregularly scattered houses and narrow crooked [kid] streets and blind alleys. Foreigners who visited Moscow in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as trade representatives or to enter the service of the tsars as architects or military and industrial advisers usually expressed their delight with the beauty of the city, but noted the dirty streets and wretched wooden houses that they found on closer inspection. 3. At the beginning of the 18th century Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg!! which was founded by him, but Moscow continued to grow 273
as a trading city. It remained too, the favourite city of the Russian liability who liked to spend the winter in their Moscow mansions. With the invasion of Napoleon in 1812, four-fifths of Moscow was destroyed by fire but it was soon rebuilt. The city was at its height by the middle of the 19th century. 24. Test translation. 1. Учитель спросил, кем была основана наша столица. 2. Известно, что первое упоминание о Москве появилось в лето¬ писи, датированной XII веком. 3. В далеком прошлом столица нашей Родины была погранич¬ ным постом Ростово-Суздальского княжества. 4. В начале XIII века в результате монголо-татарского нашест¬ вия Москва, как известно, подпала под владычество ханов. 5. Так как Москва была военным, административным и эконо¬ мическим центром, в ней продолжали строить различные укреп пения. 6. Лектор ссылался па хронику, датированную XV веком. 7. В период колонизации жители индийских деревень должны были платить дань. 8. Получив ярлык на великое княжение, Иван Калита исполь¬ зовал это право для укрепления Московского княжества. 9. Говорили, что он основал крепость, которая затем получила название Кремль. 10. Русское войско под водительством Дмитрия Донского нанес¬ ло татарским ордам (hordes) сокрушительный удар. 11. В битве на Куликовом поле обе стороны понесли тяжелые потери. 12. Полагают, что вся история нашего государства неразрывно связана с историей Москвы. 13. Именно при Василии III, в начале XVI века, Москва стала сто¬ лицей Московского государства. 14. В период «смуты» борьба за освобождение Москвы была тес¬ но связана с борьбой за национальную независимость. 15. Мэри зависит от своих богатых родственников. 16. Москва всегда играла важную роль в объединении русского народа в борьбе с иностранными интервентами. 17. Многие африканские страны добились (gain) политической независимости, однако в экономическом отношении (economically) некоторые из них зависят от иностранного капитала (capital). 18. Когда Мортье услышал крик «пожар», он понял, что навис¬ ла беда над покинутым городом. И это чувство его не обмануло. 274
19. Противник прилагал все усилия, чтобы удержать (to hold) свои позиции па подступах к городу, который паши войска должны были (were to)освободить. 20. Г1о реформе 1861 г. в России помещики получали выкуп за землю, переданную (handed over to) их бывшим (former) крепостным. 21. Сначала Энн молчала, воздерживаясь от разговора; наконец что-то сказала и заставила всех рассмеяться. 22. Я уверен, вам понравится лекция, которая будет прочитана (to deliver) завтра. 23. Эти источники достаточно надежные (good), чтобы на них ссылаться. 24. Статья, которую надо перевести, еще не поступила. 25. Этот текст достаточно легкий, чтобы его понять. 26. Ребята слишком устали, чтобы двигаться дальше 27. Мы ждали, пока не начнется концерт. 28. Вам будет трудно изучать этот предмет. 29. Ей необходимо посоветоваться (to see) с врачом. TEXT FOR TRANSLATION 25. Translate the text with the help of a dictionary: The heart of the city is the Kremlin which was built in the shape of a triangle on the elevated left bank of the Moskva River. The Kremlin is surrounded by a high wall 2,5 km long erected by the Russian builders by order of Ivan III (1462-1505) and supervised by the Italian architects. The twenty towers of the Kremlin, which give it a unique appearance, were built for decoration and were of no military significance. They are known to have been constructed in the latter part of the 17th c. when Moscow ceased to be a fortress. Among the ancient buildings to be found in the Kremlin are the churches and a tall bell-tower which is believed to have been built under Boris Godunov. The largest cathedral, the Uspenski (Assumption) was built in 1475-1479. It was here that the Russian tsars and emperors were crowned. The Archangel Cathedral contains tombs of the Moscow princes and tsars. Blagoveshchenski (Annunciation) Cathedral (built in 1484) is notable for the unusual oil paintings done by the monk Andrei Rublev and his pupils. Facing the square is Granovitaya Palata, the palace where the Moscow tsars used to hold magnificent receptions in honour of foreign anibassadors. Among other historical monuments to be mentioned are the ' fsar Cannon (16th c.) and the Tsar Bell (18th c.), both of enormous [Yncanas] 275
size and made by Russian masters. In a large two-storied wing of the Palace is the Armoury and a Museum of Applied Art where imperial collections of utensils, furniture, weapon and garments of eastern and western workman¬ ship are on display. ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE I. Have a talk based on the text with your classmate, making use of the following questions: § 1. 1. Where is the first mention of Moscow found? 2. In what year did Yuri Dolgoruky invite Svyatoslav to Moscow? 3. In what place was the first small fortified town built? 4. What did Moscow look like in those days? 5. In what principality was it incorporated? 6. When did it fall under the yoke of the Tatars? 7. When did Moscow become firmly established as the foremost of Russian towns? 8. In what century did Moscow have to pay tribute to the Tatar Khans? 9. When did Russia rise as a national state? 10. Who was the first independent Moscow ruler? II. Was Ivan Kalita entitled to rule as Grand Duke? 12. What kind of man was he? 13. What fortress did he found? 14. When did Moscow become one of Russia’s leading towns? 15. What kind of town was it growing into? 16. What happened in 1280? What was that year marked by? 17. What part did Moscow play in liberating Russia from the Tatar yoke and in uniting the people of Russia? 18. In whose reign did Moscow become the capital of the Moscow state? 19. Did the city fall under foreign domination in the early 17th century? 20. Was the fight to set Moscow free accociated with the struggle for national independence? 21. What did Minin and Pozharsky distinguish themselves (отличи¬ лись ) by? 22. What happened in 1812? 23. Did the Russian people surrender their beloved city to Napoleon? What did they do? 276
§2. 1. Was Moscow the goal of Napoleon’s wishes? 2. Who was the first to enter the city gates? 3. What was Murat struck by? 4. Whom did Napoleon appoint governor? 5. What did he tell Mortier to abstain from? 6. Did Mortier feel that some calamity was hanging over the city? 7. Did the feeling deceive him? 8. What kind of spectacle did the city present? 9. Where did Napoleon hide himself? 10. How did his army feel now? 11. What did he say years afterwards about the burning of Moscow? 12. Did the enemy troops suffer heavy losses at the approaches to Moscow? 2. Make an outline of the text. 3. Retell the text according to the question-plan. 1. When was Moscow founded? 2. Who(m) was it founded by? 3. Where was it situated? 4. What did Moscow look like in the 12th century? 5. Who(m) was the city razed by? 6. When did it rise against the Tatar rulers? 7. Why did it become one of the leading Russian towns? 8. How was Moscow destroyed during the invasion of Napoleon? 4. Speak on the topics: 1. An episode from the history of Moscow. 2. The part Moscow usually played during foreign invasions. 3. The fire of Moscow. 4. Moscow is the cradle of the Russian state. 5. Suggest stories of your own, using the words listed below. The order in which the words are given here may be used as a guide. 1237 the Tatars invade to fall under the yoke of the Golden Horde to pay tribute to the Khans ransom to fight against the Tatar rulers 277
Dmitri Donskoi at the head in the battle at Rulikovo Field to win a decisive victory to start liberation from the Tatar yoke 1812 Napoleon to decide to advance on Mos¬ cow to invade Russia to come within sight of to see Moscow in flames to be struck to be abandoned (deserted) to be marked by at the beginning the fire of Moscow to come to a close 1941 calamity to hang over our country the German fascists to attack to occupy wealthy regions to enslave our people to burn villages to pillage to burst terror to exterminate to unite the whole to inflict complete defeat (on) the first mention in historical re¬ cords to start a national struggle against at the head of the Russian army in the battle of Borodino to receive a decisive blow to inflict heavy losses (on) to assume great political impor¬ tance to be compelled to retreat; Napoleon’s army to suffer heavy losses on the way to be completely defeated; out of 600,000 men; a few to reach Paris the whole country to unit to fight for the liberation of to make every effort to safeguard independence at the approaches of to receive the first decisive blow at length to drive the enemy out of the country to inflict complete defeat on fascist Germany
LESSON THIRTEEN Topic: “Moscuw, the Capital of Russia” THE CAPITAL Moscow became the capital of our country in 1918 when the Govern¬ ment was moved from Petrograd to Moscow. In the course of time Moscow has become a city of a new type. The appearance of the city has completely changed: old houses have been replaced by multi-storeyed buildings, narrow streets have given way1 to wide and straight avenues2. Numerous parks and boulevards make the city green and especially beautiful. Many places of interest are to be found3 in Moscow. She4 is noted for her historical places and monuments: the Kremlin with its palaces and cathedrals, Red Square, Poklonnaya Gora and others. Moscow is the centre of political life: all organs of state power and federal governmental offices are situated in the capital: Federal Assembly (Russia’s Parliament), and the Government. Moscow is considered to be a great industrial centre with highly devel¬ oped modern industries. Moscow is known to be the greatest scientific and cultural centre: the Russian Academy of Sciences and lots of schools of higher learning5 are located in Moscow. There are dozens of museums in the capital: the His¬ torical Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Tretyakov State Pic¬ ture Gallery and others. Moscow’s theatres are world-famous. Apart from the Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres there are a great many others. To complete the picture of the capital, mention should be made6 of Moscow as the country’s largest sports centre which is often the scene7 of international sports forums. Notes 1 have given way to - уступили 2 avenue - проспект 3 are to be found in Moscow - имеются в Москве, можно найти в Москве 4She = Moscow -- В отношении городов, стран, судов, планет, дру¬ гих неодушевленных предметов часто используется стилистический прием - персонификация, при котором предмет как бы наделяется чер¬ тами живого существа. В этом случае существительное, обозначаю¬ щее подобный предмет, заменяется местоимением he или she. 279
3 schools of higher learning - высшие учебные заведения 6 mention should be made of - необходимо упомянуть о 7 the scene - (зд.) место (проведения) 1. a) Practise the reading of the dialogues, then memorize and recite them: DIALOGUE 1 Asking One’s Way - Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the Houses of Parliament1 ? - Go two blocks down Victoria street, turn to the left, then go straight ahead. You’d better take a bus. It’s a pretty good way2. - Thank you very much. Is there a bus stop around here? - Sure. There it is, on the other side of the street. (in the bus) - Conductor, am I right for3 the Houses of Parliament? - Yes, madam [msem], - Will you put me down at the stop4? I am a stranger here. - Certainly, madam. DIALOGUE 2 Going to See Sights5 - Have you been to London before? - No, it’s my first time here. - Have you seen much of the city? - So far6, very little. Could you tell me what are the most interest¬ ing places to visit? - If you are interested in historical buildings and monuments, I would advise you to see the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey7, St. Paul’s Cathedral8, Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square9, the Tower10, the British Museum and perhaps Hyde Park. What would you like to see first? - It makes no difference ". Is it possible to arrange a bus tour with a guide12? - I hope so. Notes 280 1 the Houses of Parliament - здание Британского парламента 2 It’s a pretty good way. - Довольно далеко. 3 Am I right for ...? - Я доеду до ... ?
4 Will you put me down ...?-Скажи те, когда мне выходить (высади¬ те меня) 5 Going to sec sights - (зд.) собираясь осматривать достопримеча¬ тельности города 6So far - Пока, до сего времени 7 Westminster Abbey ['sebi] - Вестминстерское аббатство (место ко¬ ронации английских монархов и захоронения великих людей Англии) 8St. Paul’s Cathedral [sn'po:lz ko'Grdrol] - Собор Св. Павла 9 Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square - Колонна Нельсона на Тра¬ фальгарской площади 10 the Tower (of London) - Тауэр (в прошлом крепость, тюрьма, ка¬ значейство, оружейная палата, ныне - музей) 11 It makes no difference - Неважно. (He имеет значения.) 12 to arrange a bus tour with a guide - организовать путешествие по городу на автобусе в сопровождении гида Topical Vocabulary town (city), capital, state, centre, seat, organ of state power, the Kremlin, Red Square, the Mausoleum [.mosa'ham], appearance, house, building, avenue [’sevinju:], street, road, park, garden, boulevard ['bu:lva:], square, transport system (bus, tram, trolleybus, metro), school, institute (college), theatre, cinema (movie), concert hall, stadium, plant, factory, hotel [hou'tel], shop (store), crossing (перекресток), traffic lights (семафор), block (cidj.), recent, political, cultural, industrial, scientific, agricultural, wooden, old, narrow (узкий), (of) modern (construction), multistoreyed (много¬ этажный), wide, straight (прямой), beautiful spring up, appear, change, replace, give way (to), cross, become, be located, visit Word Combinations and Phrases places of interest - достопримечательности to take a bus - сесть на автобус to go by bus - ехать на автобусе to get on (off) a bus - сесть в автобус (сходить) to change (at) - сделать пересадку (у) to miss the bus - опоздать на автобус to go along (down, up) the street - идти (вниз, вверх) по улице to turn to the right (left) - повернуть направо (налево) to turn round the corner - завернуть за угол in the opposite direction - в противоположном направлении 281
to go sightseeing - осматривать город to make a (bus) (our of the city совершать путешествие по городу (на автобусе) Could you tell me the way to ...? - Скажите, как пройти к ...? Which is the way to ...? How do I get to ...?- Как мне добраться до ...? What is the shortest way to ...? - Как быстрее всего пройти (про¬ ехать) к...? 1 Where is the nearest bus stop? - Где находится ближайшая автобус¬ ная остановка? Docs this trolleybus go to ...? - Этот троллейбус идет к ...? What’s the fare? = How much is it to ...? - Сколько стоит проезд до ...? Is it far to ...? - It’s quite near. - Далеко до ...? - Совсем рядом. Is there a bus from here to ...? - Отсюда идет автобус до ...? I am a stranger here. - Я приезжий. b) Supply answers. Work in pairs. 1. Since when has Moscow been the capital of? 2. What kind of city has Moscow become? 3. Has the appearance of Moscow changed during the last ten years? 4. What makes the city especially beautiful? 5. Are there many places of interest in Moscow? What are they? 6. Is Moscow the centre of political life? 7. Why is Moscow considered a great industrial centre? 8. Moscow is known to be the country’s greatest scientific and cultural centre, isn’t it? Give your reasons. 9. What is Moscow famous for? 10. Is it the largest sports centre? 2. Give a brief summary of the text “The Capital”. 3. Make up a story, using the following words and word combinations: here is a description of, native town, to become, an industrial centre, plants, factories, appearance, to change greatly, old, wooden houses, to replace, many-storeyed buildings of modern construction, narrow, crooked t'km:kid] (кривой), to give way to, wide, straight, avenues, parks, gardens, beautiful, to lead, active, cultural, life, to spring up, theatres, cinemas, clubs, libraries 282
4. Speak on the topics: 1. Moscow is the political, scientific and cultural centre of our country. 2. The changes that have taken place in Moscow for the recent ten years. 3. The part Moscow played in the history of the Russian state. 4. Describe your native town, using the topical vocabulary. 5. Compose dialogues, using the following words and phrases: 1. - Excuse me, which is the way to ...? (Can you tell me the. way to ... ?; How do I get to ...?) to go straight ahead; three blocks down; to take the first turning to the right; to turn to the left 2. - What is the shortest way to ... ? to seem to be a pretty long way to take a trolleybus (to take the underground) the nearest trolleybus stop (underground station) over there, on the opposite side (of the street) 3. -Is there a bus from here to ...? (Does this bus go to ...?) Certainly; No 5; to take you right there (in the bus) Conductor, am 1 right for ...? to be afraid; to miss one’s stop; to be a stranger don’t worry [л]; to put you down at that stop How much is it to ...? (What’s the fare to ...?) 6. Express the following in English. Supply replies in part A. A 1. В каком городе вы живете? 2. Это большой город? 3. Это политический (промышленный, научный, культурный, сельскохозяйственный) центр, не правда ли? 4. Имеются ли фабрики и заводы в нем? 5. Много ли школ и институтов (музеев и театров, магазинов и отелей) в вашем родном городе? 6. В вашем городе много бульваров, садов и парков, да? 7. Ваш город молодой или старый? 8. Изменился ли внешний вид города за последнее время? 283
9. Узкие улицы превратились (to turn into) в широкие прямые проспекты, не так ли? 10. Маленькие деревянные дома сменились многоэтажными зда¬ ниями современного типа, не правда ли? 11. Чем славится ваш город? 12. Много ли исторических мест в нем? 13. Какое самое высокое здание в городе? 14. Какая самая красивая улица (площадь) в вашем городе? 15. В городе большое уличное движение (хороший транспорт)? В 1. - Скажите, как пройти к Большому театру? - Вы лучше садитесь на метро или на автобус. Это довольно далеко отсюда. - Большое спасибо. 2. -- Извините, как мне добраться до Трафальгарской площади? - Поверните направо и идите вниз по ул. Регент (Regent [i:]) до площади Пикадилли (Piccadilly), а там прямо по улице Хаймаркет (Highmarket). 3. - Скажите, отсюда идет автобус до Британского музея? -Да. - А где ближайшая автобусная остановка? - Вон там. На противоположной стороне улицы. - Сколько стоит проезд до Британского музея? (в автобусе) 4. - Кондуктор, я правильно еду по направлению к Старом} парку? - Нет, мы едем в обратном направлении. Выйдите на следую¬ щей остановке и сделайте пересадку на (for) автобус № 5. -- Спасибо. С 1. Давайте организуем путешествие по городу на автобусе i сопровождении гида. 2. Завтра мы начинаем осматривать город. Присоединяйтесь к нам. 3. Чем славится ваш город? Он знаменит своими заводами. 4. Скажите, когда будет остановка «Университет». Я не здеш¬ ний и боюсь пропустить ее. 5. Не переходите улицу на красный свет (when red lights are on) 284
7. Speak in the situations suggested: 1. You are going to visit London. Ask your friend or colleague who has been there several times what places of interest he (she) would recom¬ mend you to see. 2. You are to accompany an English tourist who is visiting Moscow. Tell him (her) something about the city. 3. You are visiting London. It’s your first time there. Ask a passer¬ by (прохожий) the way to St. Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London and other historical buildings.
LESSON FOURTEEN Text: “Long Live the Commune!” Grammar: The Gerund. The Absolute Participle Construction LONG LIVE THE COMMUNE! 1. On that day the National Assembly moved to Versailles1 where the bourgeoisie began to prepare an attack on rioting Paris The unsuccessful war with Prussia, unemployment among the workers and the impoverishment of the petty bourgeoisie, the people’s discontent against the upper classes and the government which proved incapable2 3 of protecting the Republic, and the reactionary composition of the National Assembly - all this could not but give rise to4 a tense revolutionary situa¬ tion in the country. As a matter of fact5 France was pregnant with a revolution. The immediate cause6 which provoked the workers of Paris to take up arms was the attempt made by the government troops to disarm the National Guard by removing the cannons from Monmartre1. The soldiers, however, did not succeed in doing so, they were stopped by the people of Paris which was awakened by a cannon Shot. The generals commanding the govern¬ ment troops ordered that fire should be opened on the workers, but instead of obeying the order the soldiers shot their commanders and sided with the rebels. By the evenirig, on March 18, the National Guard had occupied all Governmental buildings and other important points. Red flags were hoisted here and there. The first proletarian revolution had triumphed. Eight days, later electioqs.were held to the Council of the Commune, the supreme au¬ thority which was composed of the toiling people, workers playing the leading role in it8. Soon afterwards a new government was proclaimed. The revolutionary people celebrated the event with great rejoicing9, and when in the city square in front of the Hotel de Vine the National Guard declared that it was handing power over to the Council, everyone greeted the announcement with shouts of “Long live the Commune!” 2. The new state was confronted with a number of urgent tasks. It was necessary to do away with10 the principal force of class oppres¬ sion - the standing army and the police force, and also to smash the bour¬ geois state apparatus. The Paris Commune undertook certain measures aimed at11 organising the country’s economy and improving the living and 286
working conditions of the toiling people. 11 ensured the handing over to the workers of all the enterprises whose owners had fled from Paris. It estab¬ lished control over pay rates12 and cancelled all fines on the workers. The church was separated from the state, and an order was issued that educa¬ tion was to be free13 and compulsory. New schools and nurseries were opened and various social mass organisations were formed. In its creative work for the good of the people the Commune proved successful. Yet, it was not free of some errors. One of its weak points was that it failed to establish an alliance between the working class and the poor peasantry. Largely due to14 tire propaganda carried on by the counter-revolutionaries, the peas¬ ants did not support the workers’ uprising. Moreover, the Commune al¬ lowed the Versailles Government to have a breathing space15 and thus to collect fresh forces in the meantime. On May 20 the Government troops started the general storming of Paris. Those days have come down in history16 as a matchless example of heroism on the part of tire Communards who fiercely fought on the barri¬ cades defending every inch of the ground17. Surrounded on all sides by the enemy, and cut off from the rest of the country, the Commune remained isolated. 3. Eventually the Commune was mercilessly crushed. How did it come that18 it suffered defeat? There were several reasons for that. Strictly speak¬ ing, the conditions for the complete victory of the proletarian revolution in France were not ripe; the proletariat Was not numerous, nor did it have a revolutionary party. There was no alliance between the working class and the peasantry, the dictatorship of the proletariat was far from being complete and firm19. Practise the following for pronunciation. Proper names: Versailles ['veasai], Paris ['paens], Monmartr [man'mertr], Prussia. Ударение на первом слоге: pregnant, impact, cannon, rebels, after¬ wards, enterprises, issue ['isju:], communards ['komjunaidz], barricades, iso¬ lated [aisa], cancel, heroism. Ударение на втором слоге: commune, assembly, succeed, protect, immediate [i:], provoke, remove, awaken, instead [e], obey, supreme [i:], compose, proclaim, rejoicing, announce, confront, police [i:], improve [u:], ensure [|ua], control [ou], compulsory, creative [ei], tremendous, success(ful), alliance [aia], support, allow [au], collect, victorious ['a:], emerge, undertook, significance. 287
Два ударения: counter-revolutionaries, short-lived; Звук [э:]: nurseries, church, certain, mercilessly, urgent, emerge, workers, stirred; Связующее [r]: the future^of the republic; as a matter_of fact; other^important points; here^and there; whereJts significance lies; war with Prussia; the petty bourgeoisie; againstjthe upper classes; pro- vokedjthe workers of Paris; the soldiers shofjheir commanders; greetecl_the announcement with shouts; confronted with many urgent^tasks; onjthe part of the Communards. Notes I Versailles ['veosai] - Версаль 2rioting Paris- (зд.) революционный Париж ’proved incapable - оказалось неспособным 4 to give rise to = to bring about - вызвать 5 as a matter of fact - фактически, по сути дела 6immediate cause - (зд.) непосредственный повод 7 Momnartre - Монмартр, район Парижа 8 workers playing the leading role in it - при этом ведущую роль в ней сыграли рабочие Абсолютный причастный оборот (см. § 3, р. 361). 9 with great rejoicing - с большой радостью 10 to do away with = to put an end to = to eliminate - покончить c, ликвидировать II measures aimed at + герундий - мероприятия, имеющие целью или направленные на что-л. 12 pay rates - (зд.) оплата труда, зарплата 13 to be free (of charge) - бесплатный 14 largely due to (thanks to) - в значительной степени благодаря 15a breathing [i:] space - (зд.) передышка 16 to come down in history - войти в историю 17every inch of the ground - каждый клочок земли (букв. дюйм). Запомните основные меры длины: inch - дюйм (2,54 см); foot (12 inches) - фут; yard (3 feet) - ярд; mile - миля (1609 м) 18 How did it come that...? - Как случилось, что ...? 19 was far from being complete and firm - была далеко не полной и не прочной 288
Words and Word Combinations commune п. коммуна assembly n. собрание, ассамблея move v. 1) двигаться, передви¬ гаться; 2) переезжать movement п. движение riot 77. бунт, волнение succeed (in) v. удаваться; (to) быть преемником unemployment п. безработица unemployed а., п. безработный petty а. мелкий discontent п. недовольство (in)capablc а. (не)способный reactionary а. реакционный; п. ре¬ акционер tense а. напряженный tension /г. напряженность immediate а. непосредственный, немедленный remove v. устранять, убирать instead (of) рг. вместо, взамен point out v. указывать, выделять elect v. выбирать election п. выборы composition п. состав declare v. объявлять, провозгла¬ шать supreme а. верховный, высший hand (in) v. вручать; (over) переда¬ вать urgent а. срочный, настоятель¬ ный, крайне необходимый police /7. полиция improve v. улучшать(ся), совер¬ шенствоваться) condition п. условие ensure v. обеспечивать, гаранти¬ ровать enterprise п. предприятие council 77. совет issue V. выпускать, издавать; /7. выпуск (номер газеты) create v. творить, созидать creation п. создание collect V. собирать inch 77. дюйм crush V. (smash) сокрушать reason п. причина, повод, осно¬ вание numerous а. многочисленный ripe а. зрелый, спелый dictatorship п. диктатура significance п. значение, важ¬ ность allow у. разрешать, позволять moreover adv. более того, кроме того arouse v. вызывать, возбуждать * ♦ * to be a success - иметь успех to be of importance (significance) - иметь значение on the part of - со стороны (кого-л.) as a matter of fact - по сути дела to be faced (confronted) with - столкнуться с; стоять перед лицом (трудностей, задач и т.д.) due to - благодаря (чему-л.) to do away with (= to put an end to) - покончить c 289
to end in failure (victory) - окончиться провалом (победой) for the good of the people - па благо народа to be free of errors -- быть свободным от ошибок to be in (co)existence - (со)существовать to come down in history - войти в историю to side with smb. - перейти на чыо-л. сторону There is every reason to believe ... - Есть все основания полагать ... What’s the reason (of) ...? - Какова причина ...? Wherein lies its significance? - В чем его (ее) значение? 1. Make a gerund in the required form, using the following verbs below, a) to discover, to make, to seize, to sell, to buy, to consider, to reach, to reject, to explore, to settle b) to unearth, to agree, to colonize, to enslave, to win, to put, to organize, to meet, to find, to refuse 2. Read the sentences and define the functions of the gerund. Translate the sentences into Russian (see § 1, p. 359). 1. Swimming in cold water is unpleasant. 2. His having failed at the examination surprised everybody. 3. Do you mind my opening the window? It’s very stuffy here. 4. You cannot learn a foreign language only by speaking it. 5. Nobody liked the idea of staying in town in such hot weather. 6. I am against sailing in that direction. It’ll take us more time to reach the place. 7. In exploring the northern coast of the island the travellers found some traces of early civilization. 8. Being short of money Mr. Bass could not afford (позволить себе) buying a house. 9. There is no telling whether they will come or not. 10. My major occupation (занятие) is studying historical sources and reading historical literature. 11. Don’t leave without telling us your new address. GRAMMAR EXERCISES e. g. a) Non-Perfect b) Perfect Active doing having done Passive being done having been done 290
12. Having reached no agreement the delegates stopped discussing the question. 13. 1 had failed twice and lost all hope of ever posing that сллиШи- tion. 14. Seeing that it was not worth (while) excavating any further the archaeologists stopped unearthing the ancient settlement. 15. Mrs. Mole was surprised at hearing the news: Mr. Mole had given up smoking. 16. My little- son Uke^r being read to. 17. I hate being late. 18. After capturing the new lands the white colonizers began to exter¬ minate local tribes (племена). 19. Ted must be proud of having won the match. 20. 1 remember the document Shaving been signediby the two parties. 21. My watch needs cleaning. 22. On being told about his sudden illness I went to see him at once. His being ill is most discouraging (крайне неприятно). 23. Before going on the voyage you should consult the doctor. 24. Columbus’s going a new route did not interest the Spanish court. 3. Pick out from the text all the sentences containing the gerund and analyse them. 4. Select from the text all the sentences containing the verbal noun and state the difference between the verbal noun and the gerund. 5. Express the following in Russian, using nouns (see § 2, p. 361): the handing in of prizes, the smashing of the enemy troops, the carrying on of propaganda, the storming of Ismail, the making of a hero, the pass¬ ing of the ball, the strengthening of peace, the testing of atom bombs, the taking of the Winter Palace 6. Translate the following sentences, paying special attention to the meaning of different forms of the gerund. Mind the person to whom the action expressed by the gerund refers. 1. I insist on your taking the decision now. 2. I insist on the decision being taken immediately. 3. Do you mind giving me the book I need? 4. Do you mind being given this book later this month? 5. We object to discussing this question today. 291
6. We do not object to the question being discussed at the meeting 7. John likes reading historical novels. 8. He likes being read to. 9. Alice hates asking anybody for help. 10. She hates being asked such questions. 11. I remember seeing the film twice. 12. Mr. Hope is against giving the pupils much homework. 13. Mr. Hope is against being given this work 14. He mentioned speaking to the Dean about it. 15. He mentioned having been spoken to about it. 16. Your making such mistakes testifies (свидетельствует) to a poor knowledge of grammar. 17. The teacher was surprised at your having made so many mistakes. 18. Ann dislikes (не любит) being spoken about. 19. Ann dislikes anybody speaking about her. 20. All those present congratulated my friend on having defended the thesis ['0i:sis] (диссертация) successfully. 21. Prof. Artz doubted ['dautid] (сомневался) the vase having been unearthed in Novgorod. 22. He doubted his students having unearthed the vase there. 23. He doubted discovering such things in that area ['еэпэ]. 7. Make up sentences according to the model. Use the words given in brackets. 1. The book is (not) worth reading. Is the book worth reading? (the film - to see, the question - to discuss, the car - to buy, the route - to take, the proposal - to consider) 2. You can(not) learn to skate without skating. (to ski, to swim, to speak English, to read French, to write German) 3. It’s no use doing it now. (What’s the use of...?) (to teach her music, to talk to them, to make this proposal, to apply to the Dean’s office, to help him) 4. I don’t mind seeing the film again. (Do you mind...?) (to take part in the contest, to stay in the country for another week, to go there by boat, to have another cup of coffee) 5. Did you enjoy spending your holiday in the Crimea? (We enjoyed...) (to sail down the Volga, to watch the match, to voyage in the Black Sea, to visit the National Gallery) 292
6. I like (dislike, hate, gave up) the idea of going there. (to be sent to that tar-off place, to move to a new flat, to invite the Browns to the picnic) 7. 1 can’t (couldn’t) help smiling (when I see (saw) her). (to participate in this game, to tell you about it, to laugh when 1 see him, to raise the question at the meeting) 8. I remember hearing that opera. (to give him my notes, to attend that lecture, to support his pro¬ posal, to invite her to the party) 9. We insisted on (his) going there. (he - to make the report; to include the question in the agenda (повестка дня); she - to perform the part; Mr. Bole - to carry out the experiment; to arrange a conference) 10. Please stop (go on) reading. (to translate the text, to smoke, to quarrel, to talk, to take this medicine) 11. I am against (all for) doing it now. (to go to the stadium, to discuss the plan now, to send him a letter of thanks, to mention this fact, to publish this article) 12. Instead of going home he went to the club. (to answer my question - to ask me his; to do one’s homework - to look through magazines and journals; to stay in bed - to go out) 13. How about going to the club? (to have a bite (перекусить), to go to the circus (цирк) tonight, to take a course of French next year) 14. Excuse my keeping you so long. (to disturb (беспокоить), to come late, to interrupt (прерывать), to be late) 15. The coat needs (wants, requires) cleaning. (watch - to repair (чинить), house - to paint, essay - to edit (ре¬ дактировать), floor - to wash) 16. The bad weather prevented us from going on a picnic. (the rain - to go to the country; his illness - to take part in the competition; her poor knowledge of the subject - to get a good mark at the examination) 293
8. Translate the sentences paying attention to the perfect and non-per¬ fect forms of the gerund: 1. Victor’s refusing our help is regrettable. 2. Victor’s having refused to accept our assistance surprised us. 3. Mrs. Stone is upset at her son being constantly accused of bad conduct at school. 4. His mother was surprised at Nick’s having been accused of bad conduct at school. 5. William always apologises [o'pol9d3aiziz] for not doing his homework carefully. 6. William apologised to the teacher for not having done his home¬ work. 7. Today’s paper not commenting on this important event is most surprising. 8. Everybody was disappointed at the chairman not having com¬ mented on the reports made. 9. Sam’s having failed his examination in History was most unex¬ pected. 9. Express the following in Russian. Mind the nouns followed by gerunds. the way of studying this subject; the necessity of organising a meeting; the hope of getting a ticket for the football match; the chance of winning the prize; the method of travelling; the pleasure of seeing you; the purpose of making a special study; the idea of taking up art; the importance of learning this subject 10. Complete the sentences by using gerunds instead of infinitives. Try to remember the prepositional phrases in Part A. A В 1. I am tired of... (уставать) to settle your quarrels 2. She is always afraid of... (бо¬ to catch cold яться) to be a college student 3. He is proud of... (гордиться) to sing pop songs 4. We are fond of... to be treated like that 5. I am (not) used [ju:st] to ... to get additional information (привыкать) to organise the meeting 6. Everybody was interested in ... to kill a girl 7. Who is responsible for ...? (от¬ to become a judge вечать за) not to take part in the concert 294
8. Clyde was accused of... (об¬ винять) 9. My sister dreamed of... (меч¬ тать) 10. All were disappointed at his... (разочароваться) 11. Nobody objected to my ... (возражать) 12. You will profit by ... (полу¬ чать выгоду) 13. Do you object to her ... 14. We congratulated him on his 15. The new government was in¬ capable of... 16. The situation calls for ... (тре¬ бует) 17. Our students are able of... (способны) 18. Mary apologized [o'pobdjaizd] for... (извинилась) 19. My friend was proud of... 11. Express the following in English, using prepositional gerunds (see Ex. 10 for reference): устать от обсуждения таких вопросов; бояться опоздать; гордиться тем, что (ты) студент Московского университета; увлекаться чтением; привыкнуть (иметь привычку) рано вставать; быть заинтересованным в публикации этой работы; отвечать (быть ответственным) за пере¬ вод доклада; быть обвиненным в искажении (to distort) исторических фактов; мечтать стать космонавтом; помешать ему достичь цели; воз¬ ражать против того, чтобы она поехала за границу; добиться много¬ го, усердно работая; быть неспособным заниматься музыкой; возра¬ жать против того, чтобы они принимали участие; поздравить Ника по поводу того, что его наградили медалью; извиниться за опоздание 12. Use gerunds instead of surbodinate clauses. Mind the prepositions to go with the gerunds. 1. When you consider the question, don’t forget to use latest infor¬ mation on the subject (in). 2. When the delegation completed its tour over the country, itileft for home (on). to leave a little earlier to cooperate with them to be given this work to have been decorated with a medal to govern the country to take urgent measures to come late to win this match to have won the first prize 295
3. When I heard that Mike had been taken ill, 1 agreed to substitute for him (at). 4. Before you go to visit the Parkers, make sure they are at home (before). 5. One can impiuve one’s pronunciation it one works with a tape recorder (by). 6. You will never have a good command of a foreign language unless you learn its grammar. 7. After Prof. Lake made a few additional experiments, he obtained some new information (after). 8. The students developed their speaking skills because they prac¬ tised their English every day (through). 13. Express the following in English, using gerunds: 1. Этот фильм стоит смотреть. 2. Об этом факте не стоит упоминать. 3. Вы можете научиться ходить на лыжах, занимаясь этим еже¬ дневно. 4. Она ушла не попрощавшись (to say ‘Good-bye’). 5. Бесполезно идти туда сейчас. Уже поздно. 6. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы остаться здесь до поне¬ дельника. 7. Я получил удовольствие (enjoy), читая вашу книгу. 8. Мне нравится мысль поехать на Север и поработать там. 9. Я не мог не рассказать ей об этой истории. 10. Я не помню, что переводил эту статью. 11. Никто не настаивал на обсуждении этого вопроса. 12. Перестаньте разговаривать и продолжайте работать. 13. Она против того, чтобы гулять в такую погоду. 14. Анна пошла в кино вместо того, чтобы готовиться к докладу. 15. Как насчет того, чтобы пойти куда-нибудь сегодня вечером? 16. Извините, что я прерываю вас. 17. Мои часы нужно починить. 18. Дождь помешал нам поехать за город. ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION (see § 3, p. 361) 14. Translate the sentences. State the function of the absolute participle construction. 1. Her knowledge of English being insufficient (недостаточный), she could not understand the article. 296
2. The performance being over, everybody went home. 3. My wife having left for a couple of days, 1 had to look after the children. 4. It being very early, there were few people in the streets. 5. There l^eing no more questions on the agenda, the chairman de¬ clared the meeting closed. 6. The weather being rainy, we are not going to the country for the weekend. 7. The letter still being typed, they could not post it. 8. The weather being fine, we went to the woods to gather mushrooms and berries (собирать грибы и ягоды). 9. The tourists were walking along the streets, with the guide ex¬ plaining the history of the town. 10. 1 am sure, you'll soon master (овладеть) the language, with Miss Dixon teaching you. 11. 1 could not give you a call, with my telephone being in disorder. 12. It being late, the guests began to leave one after another. 13. It being warm, the children will go for a walk after supper. 15. Change the sentences, using the absolute participle construction instead of the subordinate clause. 1. As the text was very difficult, it took me a lot of time to translate it. 2. When classes were over, the students went to the canteen for lunch. 3. As it was a long way to the station, they decided to take a taxi. 4. When the grammar rules were explained, the children began to do various exercises. 5. As there was little time at our disposal, we had to huny. 6. If it is cold tomorrow, nobody will go for a walk. 7. As there were many people willing to attend the match, all the tickets were sold out. VOCABULARY EXERCISES 16. Suggest the English for: оказать огромное воздействие на; выйти победителем из войны; потерпеть поражение; войти в историю; быть свободным от ошибок (недостатков); на благо народа; издать указ; установить контроль над; предпринять шаги (действия); сломать государственную машину; пе¬ редать власть в руки рабочих; покончить с безработицей; благодаря 297
срочным мерам, принятым правительством; столкнуться с большими трудностями; проводить выборы; по сути дела; со стороны владель¬ цев предприятий; оказаться неспособным; создать хорошие условия жизни; переехать в Париж; вызвать недовольство; подавить контрре¬ волюционный мятеж; указать на ошибки; полиция; вместо того, что¬ бы подчиниться приказу; заявить о своей поддержке; объявить о но¬ вом составе правительства; сегодняшний номер газеты; отменить штра¬ фы (налоги); собрать свежие силы; многочисленные причины; им не удалось подавить (разгромить) революционное движение; перейти на сторону восставших; обнищание мелкой буржуазии; есть все основа¬ ния полагать; каковы причины падения Российской империи?; суще¬ ствовать; мирное сосуществование 17. a) Give the meaning of the following, paying attention to the words in italics: 1. Everybody expressed discontent against Gaviston’s not support¬ ing the interests of the barons. 2. The intention of changing the existing order failed, and the failure brought about the necessity of taking up arms and driving the enemy out of the country. 3. The peace secured by the treaty was far from being long. 4. It was during the time of deciding who should be supreme that political parties began to split. 5. Congress, offering peace, prepared for war and went on collecting an army. 6. After submitting to the conqueror he made one more attempt at en¬ suring peace, and negotiations were held very soon but they ended in failure. 7. The King, who succeeded later, could not decide whether to fight or not, but he was utterly against declaring a war. 8. They succeeded in establishing political control over the New Ha¬ ven and the Main settlement. 9. The parties proved to be contented: some nobles sided with the Duke and others with the King who, accidentally (кстати), was not the man to conduct a war successfully. 10. He appeared incapable of ruling the country and before removing him from the post the people agreed to make Robert protector of the kingdom. 11. When Charles crushed the riot, his prestige rose, and the people began to be more obedient to his orders. 298
12. The programme drawn up by the Central Committee demanded the abolition of the police, the election of officials, freedom of speech, as¬ sembly and the press. 13. The rebels insisted on handing power over to the Revolutionary Committee and issuing an appeal (призыв) to the nation. 14. The announcement that the convention (съезд) had been cancelled due to the tense situation in the country aroused a protest on the part of the people. b) Comment on the following or suggest additional information on the subject. Make use of the words in italics. e. g. In this connection I’d like to make a few remarks ... I think it’s connected with ... Some interesting facts come to my mind ... I’m afraid I have nothing to add. 11. The policy of the Government of N ational Betrayal aroused nothing but anger (гнев) among the people who demanded that France’s enemies should be done away with. 2. On capitulating to Prussia the French Government announced that elections to the National Assembly would be held immediately. 3. The reactionary forces were interested in the monarchists being elected to the Assembly. 4. The Council of the Commune was responsible for taking measures aimed (направленные) at improving the living and the working conditions of the people. 5. Instead of establishing an alliance with the poor peasants the Paris Commune found itself in isolation from the broad masses of the people. 6. Though the Commune was crushed, it’s difficult to overestimate (трудно переоценить) its historical significance. 7. The foreign invaders who attacked Russia always suffered a complete defeat. 8. The French were incapable of offering (оказывать) any resistance at Sedan. В этой связи мне хотелось бы сделать несколько замеча¬ ний ... Я думаю, это связано с ... Вспоминаются некоторые ин¬ тересные факты... Боюсь, мне нечего добавить. 299
18. Find another way of expressing the following. Use the words and word combinations from the text. 1. Elections were held to the Council of the Commune, the highest yurfer organ. 2. The new state was fined with a number of /messing Usks. 3. It was necessary to liquidate the main force of class oppression - the bourgeois state machine. 4. The Commune took some measures which were directed at better¬ ing the living and working conditions of the people. 5. The Commune’s activity appeared to be successful, yet it was not devoid of certain mistakes. 6. The peasants did not back the workers’ uprising in 1871 to a great extent on account of counter-revolutionary propaganda. 7. The proletariat сад win a victory in the struggle against its enemies only under the guidance of a revolutionary party. 8. The Paris Commune did not exist long. 9. The soldiers of the Government troops took the side of the rebels. 10. The workers demanded that the anti-trade union act be annulled. 11. The British Government’s economic policy aroused dissatisfac¬ tion among the countries of the Commonwealth (содружество). 19. According to the definition choose the appropriate word from those given in brackets. a chamber of the French Parliament; choosing by vote for any office or post; a body of men employed to keep order; an item of the British measures system; a disturbance [dis'tshsns] (нарушение) of the peace by a crowd of people, a rising; to take from one place to another, or to dismiss from office; to bring into being by making or forming something; a body of persons called together for advice, administration or legislation; a system of teaching or training people; circumstances under which people live and work; a room where meetings, conferences, parties or dances are held (education,"to create, to remove, a riot, an inch, a council, police, elec¬ tion, the National Assembly, living and working conditions, an assembly-hall) 20. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms: to arm, to move in, to succeed in doing smth, employment, content, capable, progressive, to obey, to create, ripe to allow, to forbid (ban), unripe, to destroy, disobey, reactionary, incapable, discontent, unemployment, to fail to do smth, to move out, to disarm, to be a success, to end in failure 300
21. Form nouns a) with the suffix -mail; b) with the suffix -tion from the following verbs and translate the noun combinations into Russian. Use the word combinations in sentences of your own. a) to establish an alliance between the workers and the peasants; to improve the living conditions; to announce the examination results; to de¬ velop the national economy; to settle this dispute; to disarm the National Guard; b) to create the necessary conditions; to collect new forces and funds; to declare independence; to proclaim a republic; to occupy the government¬ al buildings. 22. Complete the statements by choosing a word combination given in brackets. 1. There is every reason to believe that... (the meeting will be cancelled, urgent measures will be taken, this enterprise will be a success). 2. It couldn’t but arouse ... (a keen interest to the announcement, great discontent among the French workers, a protest of the world public opinion). 3. As a matter of fact it was necessary ... (to create good working and living conditions, to do away with the principal force of oppression, to establish an alliance between the workers and peasants). 4. He proved to be ... (a good man, a true friend, a capable student, an expert in History). 5. This newly-born African state is (was) confronted (faced) with ... (economic difficulties, numerous tasks, the problem of unemployment/edu- cation). 6. The revolutionary workers of Paris succeeded in ... (taking power into their hands, smashing the bourgeois state machine, undertaking a number of important measures). 7. The uprising ended in victory/failure (the match, the contest, the demonstration, the strike, the enemy attack, Prof. Brown’s experiment, her attempt to achieve success). 23. a) Read the following passages; b) Give the main idea of each of them. 1. The Council of the Commune which vraj elected from among the people became the supreme organ of the state. It made laws, and to ensure that they were put into effect it set up ten commissions. Each commission was headed by a member of the Council. In other words, the Council united in its hands both legislative and executive power. 301
2. Decrees of the Paris Commune (extracts) a) The Paris Commune decrees that: Conscription is abolished. No military force other than the National Guard maybe set up in Paris or brought into it. All citizens capable of military service are included in the ranks of the National Guard. b) The Paris Commune, bearing in mind that many workshops have been abandoned by their owners, who do not want to carry out their civic duty and take account of the interests of their workers, that as a result of this desertion many enterprises, extremely important to the life of the city, have come to a standstill, which has also undermined the well-being of the workers, decrees that: these workshops shall be put into operation immedi¬ ately, but no longer by the efforts of the owners who have deserted, but by those of the co-operative associations of the workers belonging to them. 24. Test translation: 1. Национальное собрание переехало в Версаль, где началась подготовка ,к наступлению на революционный Париж. 2. Когда вы переехали на новую квартиру? 3. Наши соседи давно уже выехали, а новые жильцы (tenants) еще не въехали. 4. Офицерский путч (бунт) против Гитлера окончился провалом. Гитлеру удалось быстро подавить его. 5. Война Франции с Пруссией оказалась безуспешной. 6. Безработица среди рабочих и обнищание мелкой буржуазии вызвали большое недовольство среди французского народа. 7. Правительство Франции оказалось неспособным защищать республику от внешних (external) врагов. 8. Политическая обстановка в России 1917 г. была исключитель¬ но (extremely) напряженной. Россия, по сути дела, была беременна ре¬ волюцией. 9. Никто не хотел подчиняться приказу, изданному реакционным командованием (Command); солдаты стреляли в своих командиров и переходили на сторону восставших. 10. Желая разоружить Национальную гвардию, правительство приказало убрать пушки с Монмартра. 11. Угроза миру (the threat to peace) была устранена благодаря миролюбивым усилиям (efforts) многих стран. 12. В своей речи судья указал, что законам надо подчиняться. 13. Вместо того чтобы указать на недостатки в нашей работе, он перешел (to pass over to) к другому вопросу. 302
14. После выборов, состоявшихся 24 марта, был объявлен состав Совета Коммуны, высшего органа власти. 15. Было объявлено, что новое правительство собирается принять срочные меры для обеспечения мира и создания стабильного (stable) эко¬ номического положения (situation) в стране. 16. Коммуна столкнулась с целым рядом неотложных задач, од¬ ной из которых было улучшение условий жизни и работы трудящихся. 17. Каким образом вам удалось улучшить свое произношение? - Путем ежедневной работы с магнитофоном (tape-recorder). 18. В соответствии с Декретом от 29 марта 1871 г. постоянная армия подлежала (was to be) ликвидации. 19. Более 70 стран установили дипломатические отношения (dip¬ lomatic relations) с Германией. Об этом сообщается во вчерашнем но¬ мере газеты. 20. Условия для установления полной диктатуры пролетариата во Франции в 1871 г. еще не созрели. В этом одна из причин падения Па¬ рижской Коммуны. 21. Передача предприятий в руки рабочих имела большое полити¬ ческое значение. 22. Парижская Коммуна потерпела поражение. 25. Read the text of the lesson and make an outline of it. ORAL LANGUAGE PRACTICE 1. Put the following questions to your classmate. Let him (her) do the answering. Then change your roles. § 1. Where did the bourgeoisie begin to prepare an attack on rioting Paris? What place did the National Assembly move to? What led to a tense revolutionary situation in the country? France was pregnant with a revolution, wasn’t it? What was the immediate cause which provoked the workers of Paris to take up arms? Did the soldiers succeed in disarming the National Guard? Why? What did the Government troops actually do? What had happened by the evening on March 18? What elections were held eight days later? What was the Council of the Commune composed of? When was the new Government proclaimed? What did the National Guard de¬ clare in the city square? How did the people take the event? § 2. What urgent tasks was the new state confronted with? What were the measures undertaken by the Commune aimed at? Did it ensure the hand- 303
mg of all the enterprises over to the workers? What action did the Commune take in the Held of education and the living conditions of the workers? Did the Commune prove successful in its creative work for the good of the people? Did the Commune establish the alliance between the working class and the poor peasantry? Why didn’t the peasants support the workers’ uprising? Due to what did the Versailles Government manage to collect fresh forces? When did the general storming of Paris start? Why have those days come down in history? § 3. Did the Commune suffer a defeat? Were the conditions for the complete victory of the proletarian revolution in France ripe? The prole¬ tariat was not numerous at that time, was it? Was there any alliance be¬ tween the working class and the peasantry? What has the history of the Paris Commune proved? Did it have a tremendous impact on the future struggle of the international proletariat? Wherein lies the historical signifi¬ cance of the Commune? How long was the Commune in existence? 2. Give a short summary of § 1 by answering the key questions: 1. What led to the tense revolutionary situation in the country? 2. What was the immediate cause of the revolution of March 18? 3. What was the outcome of the revolution? 3. Speak on the topics: 1. Measures undertaken by the Commune. 2. Reasons for the Commune’s defeat. 3. Historical significance of the Paris Commune. 4. Suggest situations or stories, making use of the words listed below (the sequence of these words may serve as a guide). A Protest March the British Government, to be incapable of, to solve (решить) the prob¬ lem, unemployment, to ensure permanent jobs, half a million unemployed, poor living conditions, to arouse discontent, among the people, to organise a march, to demand, to do away with, to establish control over, the police, to crush, the jobless, to fail to achieve anything, to end in failure A New Closure Fails a council of owners, to announce, to close a number of enterprises, to issue an order, the workers of the enterprises, to disobey the order, instead, to issue an appeal (призыв, обращение), to hold protest demonstrations 304
in many cities, to demand improvement of working conditions, due to, wide support, to have a tremendous impact on, to be of great political importance A First Prize Winner to hold a meeting, actors and cinema lovers (любители кино), to as¬ semble, chairman of the committee, to announce the decision, to award (присуждать, награждать) the first prize, a popular French actor, to be a success, in many films, to arouse interest in the public, to create a new character, to conquer people’s hearts, to hand in the prize, all those present, couldn’t help expressing, their delight (восторг) 5. Sum up the text in a few sentences.
LESSON FIFTEEN Text: Russia in 1917 Grammar: Modal Verbs. The Subjunctive Mood RUSSIA IN 1917 In the nineties of the 19th century the centre of the wprld revolutionary movement shitted to Russia. The revolutionary crisis assumed here an ex¬ ceedingly sharp form. Russia was burdened by the yoke of tsarist autoc¬ racy which could not cope with the military as well as other tasks the country was faced with during the war. Economic destruction, hunger and chaos in state affairs, enormous discontent of the population and the military defeat of tsarism - all this facilitated the creation of a revolutionary situation in the country. In February 1917, Russia was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak which resulted in the overthrow of tsarist autocracy and the abdication of the last monarch of the Romanov dynasty Nickolas II. The Provisional Government under Kerensky that finally took power neither wanted nor was able to meet the vital needs of the people. Lenin, who returned from exile in Switzerland, called for preparation for the armed insurrection. Under Trotsky, who was already Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, a military revolutionary committee was set up to direct the actions of the Red Guard, the sailors and soldiers. By the morning of 8 November, such strategic objectives as the State Bank, telephone exchange and post office had been-successfully captured along with railway stations and bridges. The success of the operations of 7-8 November was largely due to the cir¬ cumstance that there was virtually no opposition to them. The Provisional Government was no more. The same night the second all-Russian Congress of Soviets made a reality the slogan “All power to the Soviets” and ratified a series of decrees: the Decree on Peace, which called for an immediate arrrfisticje and invited all peoples and governments at war to begin immediate negotiations for a just and democratic peace, the Decree on Land, which abolished without compensation the private ownership of large estates. The Congress set up the Council of People’s Commissars as supreme executive authority in Russia, with Lenin at the head. In the first days of Soviet power, Lenin drew up the “Declaration of Rights of the Working and Exploited People” which later formed the basis of the first Soviet Constitution. 306
Words and Word Combinations movement n. движение shift v. перемещаться assume v. приобретать exceedingly adv исключительно sharp а. острый be burdened v. быть бременем yoke of autocracy ярмо самодер¬ жавия cope with v. справиться as well as conj. а также и be faced with v. столкнуться c проблемой destruction n. разруха hunger n. г олод chaos n. хаос state affairs государственные дела cause v. вызывать, быть причиной enormous а. огромный discontent п. недовольство defeat п. поражение facilitate v. способствовать creation п. создание outbreak п. взрыв overthrow п. свержение abdication п. отречение от престола Provisional Government Временное правительство take power захватить власть neither ... nor conj. ни ... ни meet the needs отвечать потребно¬ стям; удовлетворять(требова¬ ниям) exile п. ссылка call for v. призывать armed insurrection вооруженное восстание chairman п. председатель set up v. учредить capture v. захватить largely due to в значительной сте¬ пени благодаря circumstance п. обстоятельство slogan п. лозунг immediate а. немедленный armistice п. прекращение огня negotiations п. переговоры just peace справедливый мир abolish V. упразднить, ликвидиро¬ вать ownership п. собственность (вла¬ дение) estates п. поместья executive authority исполнитель¬ ная власть draw up (drew, drawn) v. составить Vocabulary Exercises 1. Answer the following questions: 1. Where did the centre of the world revolutionary movement shift to in the nineties of the 19th century? 2. Why did the revolutionary crisis in Russia assume an exceedingly sharp form? 3. What caused enormous discontent of the population in Russia? 4. What facilitated the creation of a revolutionary situation in the country? 307
5. What did the revolutionary outbreak in February 1917 result in? 6. Was the Provisional Government able to meet the vital needs of the people? 7. What did Lenin call for? 8. What committee was set up under Trotsky? What was its aim? 9. What strategic objectives had the Red Guard, sailors and soldiers captured by 7 November? 10. What Congress was held on the same night? 11. Did the Congress ratify a series of decrees? What decrees did it ratify? 12. What organ of executive authority (power) did the Congress set up? 13. What document laid the foundation for the first Soviet Constitution? 2. Complete the sentences by choosing a word combination given in brack¬ ets: 1. The revolutionary crisis in Russia assumed an exceedingly sharp form because of ... (the burden caused by tsarist autocracy, economic de¬ struction, hunger, chaos in state affairs, enormous discontent of the popu¬ lation, military defeat of tsarism). 2. The situation in the country was characterized by ... (the general crisis, strengthening of the opposition forces, the growth of the revolutionary movement, economic destruction). 3. On the decision of the Party Central Committee ... (Lenin went into hiding, the storm of the Winter Palace - the seat of the Provisional Government - was fixed on 25th of October, the slogan “All power to the Soviets” was to be put forward). 4. The second all-Russian Congress of Soviets ... (made a reality the slogan “All power to the Soviets”, ratified a series of decrees, set up the Council of People’s Commissars). 5. The Decree on Peace ... (called for an immediate armistice, invited all people and governments at war to begin immediate negotiations for a just and democratic peace). 3. Suggest the English for: приобрести особенно острый характер; справиться со всеми зада¬ чами; столкнуться со многими трудностями; вызывать огромное не¬ довольство; потерпеть военное поражение; способствовать созданию революционной ситуации; свержение монархии и отречение от пре¬ стола; учредить временное правительство; захватить власть; удовле¬ 308
творять требованиям народа; призывать к вооруженному восстанию; председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров; захватить основные стра¬ тегические объекты; переговоры о прекращении огня; установить спра¬ ведливый демократический мир; ратифицировать декреты; упразднить частную собственность; составить план действий. GRAMMAR EXERCISES MODAL VERBS (see § 1, p. 363) 1. Express the following in Russian, paying special attention to modal verbs: a) 1. When a schoolboy I could play various children’s games 2. I can’t speak German. Can you? - No, I can’t either. 3. Mary can’t be so careless. 4. Can he be studying this subject? He has never shown any interest in it. 5. The pupils can’t have finished writing the composition. 6. Could the students of group 7 have presented their course-papers yet? 7. He can’t be working at the same problem. 8. Can they have failed to receive our letter? 9. Unfortunately I did not know his address, I could have called on him when I was in Riga. 10. Can I come in and have a word with you? b) 1. You must attend all the lectures. 2. Must we do such exercises regularly? - Yes, you must. 3. The doctor says Betty mustn’t go out for a couple of days. 4. Where is Daddy? - He must be in the garden, watering flowers. 5. Why is little Ann crying? - She has fallen and must have hurt (ушибла) her leg. 6. One mustn’t read in the dark 7. Eve looks very happy. She must have passed the exam she was very much afraid of. 8. This vaSe must have been made centuries ago. c) 1. May I take this book home? - I am afraid you can’t. 2. The guests may arrive (at) any time now. 3. What is Sam doing now? - He may be getting ready for tomorrow’s seminar or taking a rest. 309
4. The Browns may have moved to London, but I am not sure. 5. The teacher might have fallen ill, otherwise she would have al¬ ready come. 6. This article might have been translated by one of our students. 7. Where is Grandma? - She may be in the kitchen, cooking some¬ thing. d) 1. You should pay more attention to your pronunciation. 2. Your daughter shouldn’t spend so much money on clothes. 3. Why should I pay for him? 4. The question shouldn’t have been discussed in my absence. 5. They shouldn’t have objected to their son entering this college. 6. Children ought to be attentive to their parents. 7. She oughtn’t to have done such things. 8. You oughtn’t to speak to your sister like that. e) 1. The next lecture in History is to be delivered by Prof. Shein. 2. We are to go on an archaeological expedition this July. 3. The students were to gather in the park. 4. The last train from Glasgow is to come at 9 p. m. unless the time¬ table is changed. 5. The contest in swimming was to have been held last May. f) 1. You needn’t do this exercise in writing. You may do it orally. 2. They needn’t have made a special study of the problem. 3. She needn’t worry. Everything has been perfectly arranged. g) 1. I will help them at the first opportunity (возможность). 2. The watch won’t go. 3. No matter how hard I tried (как я ни старался), the door wouldn’t open. 4. The pen won’t write. 5. I would give him a piece of good advice, but he wouldn’t follow it. 2. Have a talk with your classmate, making use of the following ques¬ tions: a) I’ve got an article to translate, and I do not understand many things in it. Can you translate from English into Russian? Can you help me? Where can we meet? Can you come to my place right after classes? Why can’t you come? At what time can you come? Y ou could do translations before enter¬ ing this faculty, couldn’t you? Could you only read and write or could you also speak English when at school? 310
b) What do you think 1 must do to improve my pronunciation? Do you think I must read out loud every day? What exercises do you think I must regularly do? Must I pay more attention to the sounds or intonation? Where do you think I must work with a tape-recorder? How often do you think I must work in the laboratory? Whose linguaphone course do you think I must use? Why do you think I must take this course? c) May I ask you a few questions about the new course of History we are going to take next term? Do you think it may appear interesting? When do you think the course may begin? How long do you think it may last? The course may prove to be difficult, may it not? What additional measures might be taken to perfect (совершенствовать) the students’ knowledge of History? d) Do you think both young and old should play sports (заниматься спортом)? What kinds of sport should one play in summer? What games do you think one should play in winter? Very soon there will be a contest in shooting here. Who do you think should take part in it? How many partici¬ pants should be recommended? Should Belov be included in the team? Why shouldn’t he? You think the whole of our group should be present at the contest, don’t you? e) When is the Students’ Conference to be held? Where is it to take place? Are you to speak at the conference? Who is to make the report? Am I supposed to attend the conference? 3. a) Tell us something you can’t possibly do. Make use of the words given below. Model: I can't ski. играть в хоккей, кататься на коньках, говорить по-французски, пи¬ сать левой рукой, рано вставать, запомнить так много слов, танцевать b) Change the following according to the models. Model 1. I’ll probably do it today. = I may do it today. Perhaps she will ring you up. = She may ring you up. It is possible that he will go there. = He may go there. It is possible that he will come tomorrow. I’ll probably give you a call tonight. Perhaps she is ill. It is possible that the Browns are in Brighton, but 1 am not sure. They will probably arrive tonight. Perhaps Ann will be sent on an archaeological expedition. 311
c) Paraphrase the following, using the verb must. Model 2. Evidently (obviously) he is busy. = He must be busy now. Evidently he is away from Moscow. Obviously she is working at this problem. Evidently John is against taking such measures. The children, obviously, are asleep. It’s very early. Evidently they are at home. d) Make up sentences, using the words listed below. Change them as required. Model 3. You are not allowed to do it. = You musln 7 do it. to come late to classes, to smoke in the children’s room, to miss tutori¬ als and seminars, to make a noise here, to talk at the lectures e) Give short answers to the following. Model 4. Yes, you must. No, you (I) needn't. Must you get up early on Sunday? Must you get ready for classes regularly? Must you work at the library till late in the evening? Must you do your homework in time? Must you go to the college if you have no classes there? f) Make polite requests and give an answer. Model 5. May I do it? Certainly. (Yes, you may. Surely, you may.) 4. Complete the sentences by translating the Russian part. Mind the form of the notional verb. 1. If you want to become a good historian (вам следует много чи¬ тать по истории). 2. Why didn’t you apply to the Dean? (Он, возможно, помог бы вам.) 3. The plan of work had already been made by the 1st of September. (Вам не нужно было (не было необходимости) его снова составлять.) 4. Nora looks very pale today. (Она, должно быть, заболела (to fall ill).) 5. Your friend is in trouble. (Вам следовало бы прийти к нему на помощь.) 6. What about visiting the Smiths at the weekend? (Мы могли бы неплохо провести там время.) 7. Children (должны слушаться (to obey)) their elders. 8. The news may have a bad effect on your mother. (Вам не следует сообщать ей эти известия.) 9. It was very kind of you to have called me up and told me about the changes in the timetable. (Я мог бы опоздать на занятия.) 312
10. Now it’s too late. (Вам следовало бы сказать мне) about it before. 11. Why did you change your mind and decided not to go to the South? (Вы могли бы гам хорошо отдохнуть.) 12. I can’t say I am very pleased (доволен) with Jack’s company. (Зря вы его пригласили.) 13. Robert can do this work himself. (С какой стати ради) я должен помогать ему?) 14. I remember sending them the letter last week. (Неужели они не получили его?) 15. She has had very little time at her disposal. (He может быть, что¬ бы она подготовила доклад.) 16. Mrs. Williamson intended (намереваться) to go on pension long ago. (Разве она все еще работает в лаборатории?) 17. I have always considered Bill to be a true and devoted friend. (He может быть, чтобы он подвел вас (to fail).) 18. I know Alice to be very much attached (быть привязанным) to her aunt. (He может быть, чтобы она была бессердечной (unkind) по отношению к ней.) 5. Practise reading the following dialogues. Then memorize and recite them in class. - Excuse me, can you tell me the time? There’s something wrong with my watch. - Certainly. It’s ten to nine by my watch. - Your watch is right, isn’t it? - I’m not quite sure. It may be two minutes fast. - I see. Thank you. * * * - Come and see me tonight. - I’m afraid I can’t. I have a lot of things to do. But if it is very urgent, I’ll come. - Oh, no. You may come any time you like. * * * - Excuse me, can I see Mr. Brown? - Sorry, you can’t. He is out for lunch. But he’ll be back very soon. - May I wait for him here? - Certainly. Will you take a seat, please? * * * -- Hallo, Bob! How are you? - Not so well, I’m afraid. I have a bad cold. It’s a pity I won’t be able to attend the lecture tomorrow. I have to stay at home. 313
- You needn’t worry. You may have my notes. - Oh, thank you very much. 6. Express the following in English. Mind the modal verbs. 1. Вы можете и должны хорошо знать историю нашей страны 2. Вы умеете кататься на коньках? - Нет. 3. Почему они не могут позвонить нам? - Я не знаю. 4. Я не мог прийти, так как был занят. 5. Вы сможете это сделать завтра? - Думаю, что да. 6. Она в самом деле больна? 7. Не может быть, чтобы он написал такое письмо. 8. Можно мне взять ваши конспекты (notes) на некоторое вре¬ мя? - Да, пожалуйста. 9. Мне нужно приходить сюда завтра? - Нет, не нужно. 10. Вы не должны опаздывать на занятия. Вы обязаны прихо¬ дить вовремя. 11. Нам пришлось долго ждать. 12. Вчера мне не нужно было идти в университет, поэтому мне не пришлось рано вставать. 13. Что делает Ник? - Он, наверное, смотрит телевизор. 14. Энн выглядит очень печальной. Она, вероятно, получила плохие известия. Вероятно, случилось какое-то несчастье. 15. Дети, наш концерт окончился. Вы можете идти домой. 16. Где Беловы? - Понятия не имею (No idea). Возможно, они уехали за город. 17. Виктор свободен сейчас? - Не знаю. Может быть, он гото¬ вится к экзаменам. 18. Этот вопрос, возможно, уже обсуждался. 19. Детям не следует поздно ложиться спать. 20. Мне предстоит поехать в Лондон на конференцию. 21. Поезд должен прибыть через пять минут. 22. Тетя Полли больна. Вам бы следовало навестить ее. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD (see § 2, p. 368) 7. Express the following in Russian, paying attention to the mood: 1. If you had worked hard enough during the academic year, you would have never failed at the examination. 2. If it were winter now, I would go skating or skiing. - As for me, I wish it were summer. I would go boating. 314
3. If their team had had enough training, it would have won the match. 4. If it stopped raining, we could go to the country. 5. If Margaret were not so busy, she might come and see us. 6. If I had been angry with Bob, I wouldn’t have invited him to my birthday party. 7. To everybody’s regret (ко всеобщему сожалению) the Browns didn’t take part in the picnic. All the guests would have been happy to be in their company. 8. Why don’t you ever apply to your brother for help? He is quite knowledgeable in the field of history and might help you. 9. If anybody should give me a call (позвонить по телефону), say I am not in. 10. Should you hear from Mike, please let me know immediately. 11. Were she well, she would certainly join us in travelling. 12. Had I spare time, I would go to the cinema or to the theatre tonight. 13. Were I in your place, I would act in the same manner (точно так же). 14. Had you warned (предупреждать) me beforehand, nothing would have happened. 15. But for the weather, all of us would go on the excursion. 16. Everybody insisted that the discussion of the report should be postponed (отложить). 17. The speaker suggested that questions, if any, be put in written form. 18. Nobody demands that you should do this job immediately. 19. I propose that a special meeting be called to discuss the matter. 20. I wish I knew Spanish. 21. I wish she could come around. 22. I wish he would be given this post. 23. It’s necessary that you should pay more attention to your grammar. 24. It’s important that the article should be published in the April issue of the journal. 25. It’s impossible that the plan should have been changed. 26. Lucy speaks Italian as if she had lived in Italy for a long time. 27. Grandma looks as though she were very sick. It’s strange that she should look so. She says she feels quite well. 28. I’ll put down your address lest I should forget it. 8. Complete the sentences using the words given below: 1. If he asked me for help, I ... 2. If she were a doctor, she ... 3. If you had told me about it, I ... 315
4. Had I much money, I ... 5. Were Kate in Moscow, she ... 6. Had we left home earlier, we ... 7. If Andrew had a good knowledge of German, he ... 8. I insist that you ... 9. The lecturer suggested, that the students... 10. They demand that the manuscript... 11. Would you go to the seaside if...? 12. But for his help I ... (to help him; to work in a hospital; to take all the necessary measures; to buy a car; to visit us; not to be late for; to work as an interpreter; to take a short rest; to solve this problem as soon as possible; to be typed in two copies; to be summer; to be discussed at the next meeting; not to carry out this task) 9. Have a talk with your classmate, making use of the iollowing ques¬ tions: a) 1. What would you do if you had much spare time now? 2. Would you go to the seaside for a short rest if you were free now? 3. Whom would you invite to join you if you went there? 4. Where would you go to spend your holiday if it were August now? 5. Would you join a students’ building team if you were offered the job of a builder in summer? 6. How long would you perform the job of a builder if you were given one? 7. Today the weather is very bad and you have to stay at home. What would you do if the weather were fine today? 8. Would you go to the river to bathe if it were not so cold? 9. What plans for the weekend would you suggest if you were asked to? 10. Where would you stay if you found yourself (оказаться, очутить¬ ся) in a strange (незнакомый) city? 11. What places of interest would you recommend me to see if I were to visit London? b) 1. Would Caesar have been killed if he had come to Rome alone? 2. Would Caesar have broken the Roman law if he had led his army into the water? 3. Would the Spartans have won the battle if the traitor from among the Greeks had not shown the enemy the way to their rear? 4. Would Columbus have discovered new trade routes if the Spanish government had not furnished him with ships? 316
5. Would Robin Hood and his fellows have been arrested by the sheriff if they had been dressed in red at the tournament? 6. Would Rebecca have been executed if Wilfred had not come to the rescue? 10. Change the sentences according to the model. Model 1. I have no spare time today. I won’t go there. If I had spare time today, I would go there. 1.1 am busy. I won’t go to the museum. 2. Bess is ill. She won’t join us. 3. Paul is not in Moscow. He won’t come and see them. 4. It is rainy. The children won’t go for a walk. 5. It is cold outside. We shan’t go bathing. 6. The students have no classes on Sunday. They won’t go to the University. Model 2. She gave me a call. I didn’t send her a letter. If she had given me a call I would (n't) have salt her a letter. 1. Mary gave me a warning (предупредить). I didn’t tell them this news. 2. Vadim was ready for the lesson. He answered all the teacher’s questions correctly. 3. These boys passed their entrance examinations successfully. They were admitted (приняты) to the Institute. 4. Fred had a good knowledge of French. He was sent to Paris to work at the exhibition (выставка). 5. Della invited me to her birthday party. I prepared a present to her taste. 6. The students were interested in the theme. They attended the lectures. 1111. Make up sentences of your own according to the models. Use the words given in brackets. 1. It is necessary that you-should do it. (to consult a doctor; to raise the question; to take part in the discus¬ sion; to make a thorough Study of the subject) 2. It’s important that the question be discussed today. (problem - to solve; telegram - to send; plan - to make) 317
3. I suggest (demand) that he should do it. (to go there immediately; to re-take his exam again; to present his diploma paper in June; to organise a team; to announce the results of the experiment) 4. I insist (propose) that the question be decided now. (materials - to publish in our journal, article - to translate into Russian; letter - to answer without delay; lecture on this theme - to deliver tomorrow; issue - to put on the agenda) 5. I wish I could (might) do it. (to take part in this work; to arrange everything to help them; to master this language) 6. I wish you (he, she, they) would do it. (to fulfil your plan; to pass your exam; to defend your dessertation successfully) 7. I wish he (she, it) were here. (to be summer; to be winter; to be in London now; to be well; to be free) 12. Say the following in English. Mind the Subjunctive Mood. 1. Если бы Пит не был занят, он бы навестил нас. 2. Если бы вы были более внимательны (careful), вы бы не сдела¬ ли так много ошибок. 3. Если бы сейчас было лето, я бы загорал (to lie in the sun) и купался. 4. Если бы она не пропустила так много занятий, она бы сдала этот экзамен. 5. Если бы не ваша помощь, я бы не выполнил эту работу. 6. Никто не настаивает, чтобы вы участвовали в этих соревно¬ ваниях. 7. Я предлагаю, чтобы они провели обсуждение этой книги. 8. Необходимо, чтобы он пересдал этот экзамен. 9. Важно, чтобы все студенты участвовали в научной работе. 10. Как мне хотелось бы знать этот язык. 11. Жаль, что Питера нет в Москве. Он мог бы помочь нам. 12. Олег говорит по-французски так, как будто он^долго жил во Франции. 13. Бесс выглядит так, как будто она больна
GRAMMAR GUIDE
LESSON 1 § 1. ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ INDEFINITE ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНОГО ЗАЛОГА (THE INDEFINITE TENSE, ACTIVE VOICE) Present Indefinite Глагол в форме Present Indefinite представляет действие как факт и употребляется для выражения обычного, повторяющегося, регуляр¬ ного действия в настоящем. Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма 1 Отрицательная форма' I (you, we, they) speak. He (she, it) speaks1 2. Do I (you, we, they) speak? Does he (she, it) speaks? Краткий ответ: Yes. I do. No, I don’t [dount]. Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t [dxznt]. I (you, we, they) do not speak. He (she, it) does not speak. Past Indefinite Глагол в форме Past Indefinite представляет действие как факт и употребляется для выражения обычного, регулярного действия, имев¬ шего место в прошлом. По форме образования Past Indefinite английские глаголы под¬ разделяются на стандартные, принимающие окончание -ed, и нестан¬ дартные, образующие Past Indefinite путем чередования звуков в кор¬ не (to leave - left, to bring - brought). Окончание -ed после гласных и 1 Вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются при помощи вспо¬ могательного глагола to do (does в третьем лице ед. числа) в настоящем време¬ ни и смыслового глагола в форме инфинитива без частицы to. 2 Глаголы, кроме вспомогательных shall, will, should, would, модальных, a также to be, to have, в 3-м липе ед. числа принимают окончание s или -es. Последнее прибавляется к глаголам, оканчивающимся на шипящий или сви¬ стящий звук (в написании на -sh, -ch, -ss, -х), а также к глаголам to go, to do. 320
звонких согласных читается [d], после глухих согласных - [t], после звуков [t, d] - [id]. Например: to play - played [d], to plan - planned [d], to ask - asked [t], to need - needed [id], to repeat - repeated [id]. Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма 1 L 1 spoke (translated). You \ They , you 1 he (she, it) 1 , , , Did ' we ‘ spoke (translated)? I you I Краткий ответ: Yes, I did. \ they / No, I didn’t. Отрицательная форма 1 1 \ You 1 He (sh e, it) 1 We / did not spoke (write). You | They / Future Indefinite Глагол в форме Future Indefinite представляет действие как факт и употребляется для выражения обычного, регулярного действия в будущем. Формы Future Indefinite образуются при помощи вспомога¬ тельного глагола will1 для всех лиц ед. и ми. числа и инфинитива смы¬ слового глагола без частицы to. С 1-м лицом ед. и мн. числа использу¬ ется также вспомогательный глагол shall. 1 2Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма 1 (we) will/shall skate. You (he, she, it, they) will skate. Shall/will I (we) skate? Will you (he, she, it, they) skate? Краткие ответы: Yes, I shall. No, I shall not. Yes, he will. No, he will not. 1 Вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются при помощи вспо¬ могательного глагола to do в прошедшем времени - did и смыслового глагола в форме инфинитива без частицы to. 2 В разговорной речи употребляются сокращенные формы. Например: I’ll [ail], he’ll [hil] ит. д.,а также won’t [wount] от will not и, реже, shun V [fa:nt] от shall not. 321
Спряжение глагола to be в Indefinite Tenses Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма Present I am. You are. He (she, it) is. Am I? Are you? Is he (she, it)? I am not. You are not. He (she, it) is not. We i You > are. They ) ( we? Are \ you? ( they? We 1 You > are not. They J Past 1 (he, she, it) was. You (we, they) were. Was I (he, she, it)? Were you (we, they)? I (he, she, it) was not. You (we, they) were not. Future 1 (we) shall be. You (he, she, it, they) will be. Shall 1 (we) be? Will you (he, she, it, they) be? 1 (we) shall not be. You (he, she, it, they) will not be. Примечание. На общие вопросы (которые обычно произносятся восходящим тоном) даются краткие утвердительные или отрицательные ответы. 'Are you ,free now? 'Yes, 1 4am. 'No, 1 am,not. 'Is he in .Moscow? 'Yes, he ,is. 'No, he ,isn’t ['iznt], 'Are they at .home? 'Yes, they ,are. ‘No, they .aren’t [a:nt]. 'Was she,well yesterday? 'Yes, she,was. 'No, she .wasn’t [woznt], 'Were they .busy last week? 'Yes, they .were. 'No, they, weren’t [want], 'Will you be 'ready by that,time? 'Yes, I.shall. 'No, 1 .shan't. Спряжение глагола to have в Indefinite Tenses Утвердител ьпая форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма Present 1 (you, we, they) have. He (she, it) has. Have 1 (you, we, they)? Has he (she, it)? 1 (you, we, they) have not. He (she, it) has not. Past 1 (you, he, etc.) had. Had 1 (you, he, etc.)? 1 (you, he, etc.) had not. Future 1 (we) shall/will have. You (he, she, it, they) will have. Shall/Will 1 (we) have? Will you (he, she, it, they) have? 1 (we) shall/will not have. You (he, she, it, they) will not have. Примечания. I. На общие вопросы (которые обычно произносятся восходящим тоном) даются краткие утвердительные или отрицательные ответы. 322 'Have you а, family? 'Yes, I. have. 'No, I. haven’t [hasvnt], 'Had you 'many 'English 'bookslast .year?'Yes, we .had. 'No, we .hadn’t [haednt]. Will you have a , lecture tomorrow? Yes, we . shall. 'No, we . shan’t.
2. Отрицательные предложения с глаголом to have образуются двумя способами: a) с помощью отрицательной частицы not - эта форма употребляется в кратких ответах на общие вопросы, а также когда существительное имеет при себе определение, выраженное количественными местоимениями any, many, much или числительными: Have you a motor-boat? - No, I have not (haven't). Has he a bike? - No, he has not (hasn’t). We have not much free time. They have not many children. I have not any French books here. b) с помощью отрицательного местоимения no, которое ставится перед сущест¬ вительными; причем артикль в этом случае не употребляется: Не has no TV-set. We had по car last year. We shall have no lecture tomorrow. § 2. УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ ФОРМ НАСТОЯЩЕГО ВРЕМЕНИ ВМЕСТО БУДУЩЕГО В УСЛОВНЫХ И ВРЕМЕННЫХ ПРИДАТОЧНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯХ В придаточных предложениях условия, вводимых союзами if (если), in case (в случае, если), provided that (если только), on condition that (при условии, что), unless (если только не), а также в придаточных предложениях времени, вводимых союзами when (когда), while (в то время как), after (после того как), before (перед тем как), as soon as (как только), until (до тех пор пока не), употребляется форма настоящего времени в значении будущего. If he comes, I shall tell him about it. They will go to the country unless it rains. We shall wait here until the doctor comes. As soon as all the guests arrive, we will begin the party. Если он придет, я ему скажу об этом. Они поедут за город, если только не будет дождя. Мы подождем здесь, пока не при¬ дет врач. Как только прибудут все гости, мы начнем вечер. § 3. ТИПЫ ВОПРОСОВ В английском языке существуют четыре типа вопросительного предложения: общий, специальный, альтернативный и разделитель¬ ный вопросы (General, Special, Alternative, Disjunctive Questions). 323
Порядок слов в вопросительном предложении I. Общие вопросы Сказуемое Под¬ лежа¬ щее Сказуемое Дополнения и обстоя¬ тельства вспомога¬ тельный или модальный глагол смысловой глагол Краткие ответы Do you speak French? Yes, I do. No, I don’t. Did she work at Lhe plant? Yes, she did. No, she didn’t. Is he skating? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t. Was he skating at this time yesterday? Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t. Are they working now? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. Were they working at 5 o’clock yesterday? Yes, they were. No, they weren’t. Have you seen this play? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t. Can she read English? Yes, she can. No, she can’t. Shall we do it tomorrow? Yes, we shall/will. No, we shan’t/won’t. Will he go there? Yes, he will. No, he won’t. Have you seen this film? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t. Общие вопросы предполагают ответ да или нет и произносятся восходящим тоном. 2. Специальные вопросы Член предложе¬ ния, к которому ставится вопрос Вопроситель¬ ное слово Сказуемое Под- лежа¬ щее Сказуемое Дополнения и обстоя¬ тельства вспомога¬ тельный или модальный глагол смысловой глагол Сказуемое What do you do in the evening? Дополнение Whom does she help? Определение Which lesson are they studying now? Whose book is it? Обстоятельство Where did he study last year? места Обстоятельство When (at what were they working? времени time) Обстоятельство How shall we get there? образа действия Обстоятельство Why can’t you do it? причины Вопросы к подлежащему или к его определению начинаются с вопросительных местоимений who! (кто?), what? (что?), whatl (какой?), which? (который?), whosel (чей?), how much? how many? (сколько?) и 324
имеют порядок слов повествовательного предложения. Если сказуе¬ мое выражено глаголом в Present или Past Indefinite, вспомогатель¬ ный глагол do (does) или did не употребляется. Например: Вопрос Ответ 'What 'helps them in their . work? Their experience does. 'Who 'helped you with your .English last year? My .friend did. 'How 'many . people went on the excursion yes ter- Ten . people did. day? 'Whose .pupils play sports? Miss .Mary’s do. Специальные вопросы - это вопросы к различным членам пред¬ ложения. Они произносятся нисходящим тоном, подобно повествова¬ тельному предложению. 3. Альтернативные вопросы Альтернативный вопрос предполагает выбор между двумя и бо¬ лее предметами (действиями), выраженными однородными членами, соединенными союзом or (или). Первая часть вопроса (до союза or) произносится восходящим тоном, а вторая часть - нисходящим. Вопрос Ответ 'Do you .work or 'do you ,study? I 4work (I .study). 'Are you .busy or ,free now? I am .busy (I am .free). 'Has she a , large or ,small family? She has a .large family. 4. Разделительные вопросы Разделительный вопрос соответствует русскому вопросительно¬ му обороту не так ли, не правда ли. Он состоит из повествовательной части и краткого общего вопроса. Если первая часть имеет утверди¬ тельную форму, то вторая - отрицательно-вопросительную. Если по¬ вествовательное предложение является отрицательным, то вторая часть имеет утвердительно-вопросительную форму. Первая часть в большинстве случаев произносится нисходящим тоном, а вторая - восходящим. Вопрос Ответ You 'live in .Moscow, .don’t you? 'Yes, I .do. Вы живете в Москве, не правда ли? She is a .doctor, .isn’t she? 'Yes, she .is. Она врач, не так ли? 325
They have 'no ^car, .have they? 'No, they , haven’t. У них нет автомашины, не так ли? Не did 'not 'come ,yesterday, .did he? 'No, he „ didn’t. Он не приходил вчера, не правда ли? § 4. ФУНКЦИИ ТНА Т OF, THOSE OF При сравнении двух однородных предметов, имеющих при себе предложные определения (с of on, in), название второго из них заме¬ няется местоимением that - для единственного числа и those - для мно¬ жественного числа. The population of India is greater than that of Japan. The articles in today’s issue of the newspaper are more interesting than those in yesterday’s (issue). Население Индии больше, чем население Японии. Статьи в сегодняшней газете ин¬ тереснее тех, которые были вс вчерашней. § 5. ФУНКЦИИ ONE One как неопределенное местоимение может выполнять функцию подлежащего в неопределенно-личных предложениях, обычно в соче¬ тании с модальным сказуемым. One must go in for sports. Нужно (необходимо) заниматьег спортом. One can’t get this thing anywhere. Нигде невозможно достать эту вещь. One mustn’t do it. Этого делать нельзя. One как слово-заместитель употребляется для замены (во избежа¬ ние повторения) ранее упомянутого существительного в единствен¬ ном числе; для замены существительного во множественном числе употребляется ones. This book is thicker than that one. I haven’t got a map of London. I must get on£ somewhere. Look at the flowers. Which ones do you like most? Эта книга толще, чем та. У меня нет плана Лондона. Мне нужно достать его (план Лондо¬ на) где-нибудь. Посмотрите на эти цветы. Какие (цветы) вам нравятся больше всего? 326
One не может заменять пеисчисляемое существительное, а также существительное, определяемое притяжательным местоимением, суще¬ ствительным в притяжательном падеже и порядковым числительным. § 6. ЭМФАТИЧЕСКАЯ КОНСТРУКЦИЯ IT IS (WAS) ... THAT (WHO) Эта конструкция служит для выделения любого члена предложе¬ ния, кроме определения. Подчеркивание того или иного члена пред¬ ложения на русский язык передается при помощи слов именно, как раз, только. It is Peter who helps me with Именно Петр помогает мне по анг- my English. лийскому языку. It is in 1990 that I met him. Как раз в 1990 году я его и встретил. § 7. ОБОРОТ THERE IS (ARE) Оборот there is (are) употребляют, когда хотят сообщить о нали¬ чии (отсутствии) какого-либо предмета (лица) в определенном месте. Предложения с этим оборотом как бы отвечают на вопрос «Что име¬ ется (кто находится) в данном месте?», и их русский перевод следует начинать с обстоятельства места (времени). Утвердительная форма There is a picture on the wall. There is some water in the glass. There are some students in the lecture-room. There is a meeting tomorrow. На стене (имеется, находится, висит) картина. В стакане (есть) вода. В поточной аудитории находятся студенты. Завтра будет (состоится) собрание. Вопросительная форма Is there a picture on the wall? Is there any water in the glass? Are there any students in the lecture-room? Краткие ответы Yes, there is. No, there isn’t. Yes, there is some. No, there isn’t any. Yes, there are some. No, there aren’t any. Отрицательная форма There is no picture on the wall. There is not any water in the glass. There are not any books on the table. There are not many (few, five) books on the table. На стене нет картины. В стакане совсем нет воды. На столе нет никаких книг. На столе не много (мало, пять) книг. 327
Отрицательные предложения с оборотом there is (are) образуются: 1) при помощи отрицательной частицы not - эта форма употреб¬ ляется в кратких ответах на общие вопросы, а также когда существи¬ тельное имеет при себе определение, выраженное any, many, much или количественным числительным; 2) с помощью отрицательного местоимения по, которое ставится перед существительным, при этом артикль не употребляется. Примечания. /.С исчисляемым существительным в единственном числе, выступаю¬ щим в функции подлежащего в указанном обороте, употребляется не¬ определенный артикль; с неисчисляемым существительным и с суще¬ ствительным во множественном числе - местоимение some (некоторое количество, несколько), которое в вопросительном предложении обыч¬ но заменяется местоимением any. Ни some, ни (ту на русский язык в этом случае не переводятся. 2. Оборот there is (иге) не употребляется, если подлежащее выражено лич¬ ным местоимением, именем собственным или существительным, опре¬ деляемым притяжательным или указательным местоимением или суще¬ ствительным в притяжательном падеже, а также существительным, оформляемым определенным артиклем. Иными словами, когда сооб¬ щается, где, в каком месте находится (отсутствует) известный предмет (лицо), употребляется конструкция to be + обстоятельство места'. Pe¬ ter is in the garden. My book is on the table. The teacher is in the room. 3. При наличии в предложении нескольких однородных подлежащих гла¬ гол согласуется с первым из них: There is a pen and some pencils in the box. 4. Следует иметь в виду, что в утвердительном предложении с оборотом there is (are) ударение в обычной речи падает лишь на подлежащее и его определение, в вопросительном предложении (общем вопросе) - на глагол to be и группу подлежащего, в отрицательном предложении - на not (по) и группу подлежащего.
LESSON 3 § 1. ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ INDEFINITE СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОГО ЗАЛОГА (THE INDEFINITE TENSES, PASSIVE VOICE) Вре¬ мена Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма Present I am helped. You are helped. He (she, it) is helped. Wc I l You > are helped. They) Am I helped? Are you helped? Is he (she, it) helped? I we | Are < you > helped? 1 they j I am not helped. You are not helped. He (she, it) is not helped. We I 1 You > are not helped. They ) Past I (he, she, it) was helped. You (we, they) were helped. Was I (he, she, it) helped? Were you (we, they) helped? I (he, she, it) was not helped. You (we, they) were not helped. Future I (we) will/shall be helped. You (he, she, it, they) will be helped. Shall/Will I (we) be helped? Will you (he, she, it, they) be helped? I (we) will/shall not be helped. You (he, she, it, they) will not be helped. Примечания. 1. Форма страдательного залога образуется с помощью вспомогательно¬ го глагола to be в соответствующем лице, числе и времени и Participle II смыслового глагола (to be asked, to be written). 2. Форма страдательного залога может быть образована от переходных глаголов, которые в действительном залоге могут иметь как беспред¬ ложное, так и предложное дополнение. Действительный залог Страдательный залог They speak much about this play. The students always listen to Prof. Brown’s lectures with interest. We sent for the doctor imme¬ diately. I am sure visitors will look at this picture all the time. This play is much spoken about. (Об этой пьесе много говорят.) Prof. Brown’s lectures are always listened to with interest. (Лекции проф. Брау¬ на всегда слушают с интересом.) The doctor was sent for immediately. (3a доктором послали немедленно.) I am sure this picture will be looked at all the time. (Я уверен, на эту картину будут смотреть все время.) 329
3. Дополнение при глаголе в страдательном залоге, обозначающее лицо, употребляется с предлогом by, который соответствует русскому тво¬ рительному падежу и в этом случае не переводится. The book will be translated by our Книга будет переведена нашим teacher. преподавателем. Who(m) was the translation done by? Кем был сделан этот перевод? 4. Предложения с глаголом в страдательном залоге переводятся па рус¬ ский язык неопределенно-личными предложениями, глаголами на -ся (не имеющими возвратного значения), краткими причастиями в соче¬ тании с глаголом выть, а также глаголами в действительном залоге. Many houses arc built in this town every year. Many houses were built in this town last year. The report was made by the Dean himself. Ежегодно в этом городе стро¬ ится много новых домов. В прошлом году в этом городе построили (было построено) много домов. Доклад сделал сам декан. Следует обращать особое внимание на порядок перевода пассивных конструкций с так называемыми послелогами (см. Примечание 2). § 2. ВОЗВРАТНЫЕ (УСИЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ) МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ (REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS) Ед. число Мн. число 1. myself [mai'self] 1. ourselves [aua'selvz] 2. yourself [joi'self] 2. yourselves [jot'selvz] 3. himself [him'self] 3. themselves [dem'selvz] herself [ha.'self] itself [it'self] Неопределенно-личная форма - Как возвратные местоимения они соответствуют в русском языке местоимениям себе, себя, собой или частице -ся (-сь) возвратных гла¬ голов. I am not pleased with myself. Look at yourself in the mirror. He will find himself another tie. The Republic defends itself. Я собой недоволен. Посмотрите на себя в зеркало. Он найдет себе другой галстук. Республика защищается (оборо¬ няется). Как усилительные местоимения они соответствуют в русском язы¬ ке местоимениям сам (сама, само), сами, самому, самим и т. д. 330
Я сам ее спрошу об этом. I will ask her about it myself. (L myself will ask her about it.) Will you invite them yourself? Вы сами их пригласите? They did not know it themselves. Они сами этого не знали. Примечания. /. Возвратные и усилительные местоимения произносятся с ударением на втором слоге. Они изменяются по лицам и числам. 2. Запомните предложные обороты by oneself (самостоятельно), /»г oneself (своими глазами). The boy made this toy by himself. If you don’t believe me, you may go and see the picture for yourself. Мальчик сам сделал эту ш р,шк/. Если вы мне не верите, вы можете пойти и посмотреть на эту карти¬ ну сами (собственными глазами). ДРУГИЕ РАЗРЯДЫ МЕСТОИМЕНИИ Личные местоимения Притяжательные местоимения Именительный падеж Объектный падеж Абсо¬ лютная форма I -я те - мне, меня ту - мой, моя, мое, мои mine Не - он him - его, ему his - его his She - она her - ее, ей her - ее hers It - оно, он, она it - его, ему, ее, ей its - его, ее its We - мы us - нас, нам our - наш, наша, наши ours You - вы you - вас, вам your - ваш, ваша, ваши yours They - они them - их, им their - их theirs Указательные местоимения Единственное число Множественное число this - это, эта, этот that - то, та, тот these - эти those - те the same - тот же самый such - такой Вопросительные (относительные) местоимения Неопределенные местоимения who - кто some - какой-то, некото- other - другой, -не whose - чей рые, немного another - другой whom - кого, кому any - какой-то (в вопрос, и both - оба what - что отриц. предл.), любой many - много, многие which - какой, ко- one - некто, некий much - много торый all - весь, все few - мало, немного each - каждый little - мало every - каждый, всякий either - тот или другой 331
§ 3. БЕЗЛИЧНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ (IMPERSONAL SENTENCES) Безличные предложения выражают: явления природы, время и пе¬ риод времени, расстояние или оценку какого-либо явления, действия, состояния. В качестве подлежащего (формального) в безличных пред¬ ложениях выступает местоимение it (так называемое безличное it). It rains in August here. Does it snow in India? It is getting frosty. It is warm today. Was it cold yesterday? It will be cool in the evening. It is 7 o’clock now. It is light. It was morning. It is not autumn yet. It’s a long way from here to Trafalgar Square. It is very gloomy in the cave. В августе здесь идет дождь. В Индии идет снег? Становится морозно. Сегодня тепло. Вчера было холодно? Вечером будет прохладно. Сейчас 7 часов. Светло. Было утро. Осень еще не наступила. До Трафальгарской площади отсюда далеко. В пещере очень мрачно. Примечание. При описании явлений природы, когда хотят показать переход из од¬ ного состояния в другое, употребляют связочный глагол to get. Пере¬ ход из одного цвета в другой передается связочным глаголом to turn (to get cold, dark) late, но to turn red, brown).
LESSON 4 § 1. ПРИЧАСТИЕ I (PARTICIPLE I) Причастие - неличная форма глагола. Обладая признаками гла¬ гола, оно имеет формы залога, относительного времени, может иметь прямое дополнение и определяться наречием. Обладая свойствами прилагательного и наречия, причастие может выполнять синтаксиче¬ ские функции, присущие этим частям речи. Различают два вида при¬ частий: Participle I (активное по значению) и Participle II (пассивное по значению). Формы Participle I Active Passive Non-Perfect discussing being discussed Perfect having discussed having been discussed В предложении Participle I может быть: 1) определением (в этой функции перфектные формы причастия не употребляются): The newcomer joined the playing children. The question being considered is of great interest. I know the boy playing chess with my son. Новичок присоединился к иг¬ рающим детям. Рассматриваемый вопрос пред¬ ставляет большой интерес. Я знаю мальчика, играющего в шахматы с моим сыном. 2) частью сложного дополнения (см. § 2, с. 355): I heard somebody talking in the next room. I saw the fence being painted. Я слышал, как кто-то разговари¬ вал в соседней комнате. Я видел, как красили забор. 3) обстоятельством времени (иногда с союзами when, while): (When, while) translating the text, 1 Переводя текст, я встретил много came across many new words. новых слов. 333
Being sent on a mission, he is always given a number of important tasks. Having discussed' all the issues the delegates went home. Having been discussed, the article was sent to the Editor-in-Chief. 4) обстоятельством причины: Being2 very busy, he had to refuse your invitation. Когда его посылают в команди¬ ровку, ему всегда дают ряд важных поручений. Обсудив1 все вопросы, делегаты разъехались по домам. После того как (когда) статью обсудили, ее направили глав¬ ному редактору. Будучи1 2 очень занятым, он был вынужден отказаться от ваше¬ го приглашения. Не понимая по-немецки, я не мог ответить на его вопросы. Not understanding German, I could not answer his questions. 5) обстоятельством образа действия и сопутствующим обстоятель¬ ством: The demonstrators passed by the palace shouting slogans. She looked at me smiling all the time. Демонстранты проходили мимо дворца, выкрикивая лозунги. Она смотрела на меня и все вре¬ мя улыбалась. 6) частью независимого причастного оборота (см. § 3, с. 361) Par¬ ticiple I в качестве определения переводится на русский язык причас¬ тием с суффиксами -ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ, -ем\ в функции обстоятельст¬ ва - деепричастием несовершенного вида с суффиксами -а, -я (крича, идя) или совершенного вида с суффиксом -в (завершив, обсудив). § 2. ПРИЧАСТИЕ II (PARTICIPLE II) Страдательное причастие (Participle II) переходных глаголов вы¬ ражает качество предмета или его состояние. Оно имеет только одну форму (3-я форма глагола), которая для правильных глаголов обра- 1 С глаголами see, hear, notice, enter, learn, come, arrive употребляется не¬ перфектная форма причастия: «увидев» seeing, «услышав» hearing, «придя» coming, «прибыв» arriving, «заметив» noticing и т. д. 2 being никогда не употребляется в качестве обстоятельства времени; русск. «будучи в Москве (на юге, в экспедиции и т. д.)» переводится when (while) in Moscow, etc. 334
|уется с помощью суффикса -ed (to discuss - discussed, to ask - asked), для неправильных - путем чередования звуков в слове (to speak - spo¬ ken, to make - made). Причастие II непереходных глаголов самостоя¬ тельно не употребляется. В предложении Participle II может быть: 1) определением (одиночным или в составе определительного при¬ частного оборота): a torn paper (разорванная газета), a broken cup (разбитая чашка), fallen leaves (опавшие листья). The letter written yesterday is very important. Surrounded by strangers, the boy felt ill at ease. 2) частью сказуемого: The translation is done. . Письмо, написанное вчера, очень важное. Окруженный незнакомыми людь¬ ми, мальчик чувствовал себя не¬ ловко. Перевод сделан. 3) частью сложного дополнения (см. § 3, с. 336): I heard the plan discussed. He wants the job done today. I have just had my hair cut. 4Я слышал, как обсуждали этот план. Он хочет, чтобы работа была сделана сегодня. Я только что подстригся. 4) обстоятельством времени (иногда - уступки, условия): С союзами: When offered the job, he refused it. Though offered a fine job, she re¬ fused it. If asked to do it again, he will not repeat his former mistake, I am sure. Без союза: Given enough time, we will manage the thing. Asked whether he would attend the conference, he said nothing. Когда ему предложили эту рабо¬ ту, он отказался. Хотя ей предложили прекрасную работу, она от нее отказалась. Если его попросят сделать это еще раз, я уверен, он не повто¬ рит своей прошлой ошибки. Если нам дадут достаточно време¬ ни, мы справимся с этим делом. Когда его спросили, будет ли он присутствовать на конферен¬ ции, он ничего не сказал. 335
§ 3. ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ Объектный причастный оборот (Сложное дополнение) представ¬ ляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или личного местоимения в объектном падеже и причастия. В предложении оборот встречается: 1) после глаголов want, wish, would like и др.: Не wants the work done today. Он хочет, чтобы работа была сделана сегодня. I would like the letter handed in im- Мне бы хотелось, чтобы письмо mediately. было вручено немедленно. 2) после глаголов hear, see, notice, watch, feel и др.: We watched her skating. Мы наблюдали, как она ката¬ лась на коньках. I saw the picture taken off the wall. Я видел, что картину сняли со стены.
LESSON 5 § 1. ВРЕМЕНА ПРОДОЛЖЕННОГО ВИДА В ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГЕ (THE CONTINUOUS TENSE FORMS, ACTIVE VOICE) Форма Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная Present I am working. You (we, they) are working. He (she, it) is working. Am I working? Are you (we, they) working? Is he (she, it) working? I am not working. You (we, they) are not working. He (she, it) is not working. Past I (he, she, it) was working. You (we, they) were working. Was I (he, she, it) working? Were you (we, they) working? I (he, she, it) was not working. You (we, they) were not working. Future I (we) will/shall be working. You (he, she, it, they) will be working. Shall/Will I (we) be working? Will you (he, she, it, they) be working? I (we) will/shall not be working. You (he, she, it, they) will not be working. Примечания. 1. Глагол в форме Continuous обозначает длящееся незаконченное дейст¬ вие, происходящее в какой-то момент; при этом действие рассматри¬ вается как процесс. 2. Present Continuous часто употребляется с глаголами движения (go, соте, leave, arrive, start и др.) для выражения действия, относящегося к бли¬ жайшему будущему. Are they coming next week? Они приезжают на следующей неделе? I am leaving tomorrow. Я завтра уезжаю. 3. С глаголом в Past (Future) Continuous часто употребляются обстоятель¬ ства времени, обозначающие момент в прошлом (будущем). Этот мо¬ мент может быть выражен точкой во временя (at this time yesterday, at 5 o'clock tomorrow) или придаточным предложением с союзом when. I was reading a book at this time yes- Я читал книгу в это время вчера terday (when you called me up). (когда вы мне позвонили). We’ll be working when you come. Мы будем работать, когда вы придете. 4. Глагол в форме Continuous употребляется для выражения двух одно¬ временных действий, протекающих параллельно. While my sister was writing a letter, Пока сестра писала письмо, я I was doing my homework. готовил уроки. 337
5. Форма Continuous не употребляется: а) для выражения действия, совер¬ шающегося постоянно, регулярно, а i дкже ряда последовательных дей¬ ствий; 6) с глаголами чувственного восприятия и умственной деятель¬ ности; в) с глаголами, которые не представляют действие как процесс. I see somebody in the window. Я вижу кого-то в окне. I don’t understand you. Я вас не понимаю. The Him consists of three parts. Фильм состоит из трех частей. § 2. СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ И ЕГО КАТЕГОРИИ Число. Английское существительное, которое может быть нари¬ цательным или собственным, имеет категорию числа. Форму множе¬ ственного числа имеют нарицательные существительные, поддающие¬ ся счету. Она образуется при помощи окончания - (e)s. В зависимости от окончания существительные во множественном числе принимают следующие суффиксы: Окончания существительных Принимаемое (читаемое) окончание Примеры Глухой согласный -Ф] map - maps Звонкий согласный ф] pen - pens Гласный звук Ф] day - days Свистящий звук (на письме -ss, -sh, -ch, -х, -ze) -es [iz] glass - glasses dish - dishes watch - watches fox - foxes size - sizes Буквыf, /е, переходящие во мн. числе в -ve* -s[z] shelf - shelves wife - wives * Исключения: chief, roof, proof, handkerchief и др. имеют во множественном числе окончание fs. Особые случаи образования Существительные латинского множественного числа и греческого происхождения Ед. ч. Мн. ч. Ед. ч. Мн. ч. men - мужчина men datum data woman -- женщина women ['wimin] stratum strata child - ребенок children basis ['beisis] bases [’beisiiz] foot - ступня, фут feet crisis ['kraisis] crises ['kraisirz] tooth - зуб teeth phenomenon phenomena goose - гусь geese [ft'nominan] [fi'nomina] mouse - мышь mice 338
Существительные, обозначающие названия веществ, материалов или абстрактные понятия, не имеют формы множественного числа: tea, sand, meat, freedom, love. Некоторые существительные имеют толь¬ ко форму множественного числа: trousers, spectacles, clothes, politics, goods. Ряд существительных употребляется только в форме единст¬ венного числа: advice, information, knowledge, money, news, permission, progress. Существительное watch (часы) и некоторые другие в англий¬ ском языке имеют форму мн. числа - watches. Падеж. Английское существительное может выступать в форме двух падежей: общего (не оформленного специальным окончанием) и притяжательного (оформляемого знаком апострофа и буквой s). Фор¬ мант s читается по правилам чтения множественного числа существи¬ тельных. Притяжательный падеж существительных во множественном числе, оканчивающихся на образуется путем прибавления только одного апострофа: these students’ bags. Существительные в притяжательном падеже обозначают принад¬ лежность предмета какому-то лицу (предмету) и в предложении слу¬ жат определением. В притяжательном падеже в основном употребля¬ ются существительные, обозначающие одушевленные предметы: Pete’s book, my brother’s room, the teacher’s table, а также слова, обозначаю¬ щие время, расстояние, название стран, городов: a fifteen minutes’ in¬ terval, an hour’s walk, today’s paper, a mile’s distance, Britain’s economy, Moscow’s underground. Притяжательная конструкция этого типа может быть заменена конструкцией с предлогом of (the economy of Britain). § 3. НЕКОТОРЫЕ СЛУЧАИ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ АРТИКЛЯ Определенный артикль (the) употребляется: 1) при обозначении предмета, известного говорящему и слушаю¬ щему; ясность предмета может также вытекать из предшествующего контекста или окружающей обстановки: 2) с некоторыми географическими названиями - водных массивов, горных цепей, отдельных стран (федераций): the Atlantic Ocean, the Don River, the Baikal Lake, the North Sea, the Alps, the USA, the USSR. The film was interesting. Close the door, please! Фильм был интересный. Закройте, пожалуйста, дверь. 2339
3) с названиями музеев, театров, библиотек, других общественных учреждений: the Tolstoi Museum, the Vic Theatre, the National Gallery 4) с любым существительным, имеющим ограничивающее опре¬ деление (часто с предлогом of): the name of the street, the Russia of 1917. 5) с любым неисчисляемым существительным при обозначении ограниченного количества: Pass me the bread, please. Передайте мне хлеб, пожалуйста. The tea is cold. Чай холодный. 6) для обозначения целого класса предметов (одушевленных и неодушевленных) в виде одного его представителя: The elephant is the biggest ani- Слон - самое большое животное, mal. The compass [л] is necessary Компас необходим при корабле- for navigation. вождении. 7) с существительными, обозначающими социальные, политиче¬ ские, национальные группы людей, партии и классы: the opportunists, the capitalists, the English, the French, the working class, the bourgeoisie, the proletariat, а также группы людей, объединенные каким-то одним признаком': the dead, the sick, the wounded. Неопределенный артикль (a/an), который, как правило, оформля¬ ет исчисляемое существительное в единственном числе, употребляет¬ ся главным образом в конструкциях назывного характера2. 1.1 have а тар. 2. We watched an interesting match yesterday. 3. There is a picture on the wall. 4. This (that) is a book. 5. I am a student and my wife is a teacher. У меня есть карта. Вчера мы смотрели интересный матч. На стене находится (висит) кар¬ тина. Это - книга. Я студент, а моя жена -- препода¬ ватель. 1 21 В этом случае артикль оформляет субстантивированное прилагатель¬ ное или причастие. 2 Когда нужно показать, к какой группе (к какому классу) предметов илг явлений относится данное существительное, когда нужно дать предмету лишь название. 340
Неопределенный артикль не употребляется: 1) с существительными во множественном числе; 2) с неисчисляемыми существительными (существительными, обо¬ значающими материал, вещество, абстрактные понятия): chalk (мел), water (вода), gold (золото), brightness (яркость; способность), love (лю¬ бовь), literature (литература), painting (живопись); 3) с существительными, имеющими определение, выраженное ука¬ зательным, притяжательным местоимениями или другим существи¬ тельным (именем собственным) в притяжательном падеже: this (that) book, my pen, Peter’s bag; 4) с существительными: advice (совет), news (новости), information (сведения, сообщение), progress (прогресс), money (деньги), weather (погода), permission (разрешение), work (работа)'. которые в англий¬ ском языке являются неисчисляемыми существительными. Ни тот, ни другой артикль не употребляются: 1) с названиями улиц, площадей, городов, стран (исключения: the USSR, the USA и др.), континентов (исключение: the Antarctica - Ан¬ тарктида); 2) с существительными, имеющими при себе определение, выра¬ женное номером: Exercise 5, Room 10, Page 7, House 3, Apartment 2; 3) с существительными, входящими в состав ряда обстоятельст¬ венных оборотов, в том числе выражений, обозначающих способ пе¬ редвижения: at home (дома), in order (в порядке), by bus (на автобусе). работа как физический или умственный труд
LESSON 7 § 1. СЛОЖНОПОДЧИНЕННОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ. ТИПЫ ПРИДАТОЧНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ (COMPLEX SENTENCES. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES) Дополнительные придаточные предложения вводятся союзами и союзными словами that, whether (ли), who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, why, how1. She said that she was ill. Она сказала, что больна. Не asked me where I lived. Он спросил меня, где я живу. Определительные придаточные предложения вводятся союзными словами who, whom, whose, which, that (который), when, where, why, how. The man who is reading the newspaper is our teacher. The house (which) he lives in is of modern construction. The girl (whom) you see there is my neighbour. Мужчина, который читает газету, наш преподаватель. Дом, в котором он живет, совре¬ менной конструкции. Девушка, которую вы видите там, моя соседка. Примечание. Часто встречаются случаи бессоюзного присоединения оп¬ ределительного придаточного предложения к главному, когда союз¬ ное слово опускается, а предлог, если таковой имеется, ставится в кон¬ це придаточного предложения. The house in which I live is high. = The house I live in is high; The boy about whom you spoke is here. = The boy you spoke about is here. Союзное слово не опускается, если оно является подлежащим или его определением в придаточном предложении: The man whose name is Bob is here. Обстоятельственные придаточные предложения; а) времени вводятся союзами as (когда), when, while, before, after, till {until), since (с тех пор как), as soon as (как только), as long as (до тех 1 При помощи указанных союзов (союзных слов) присоединяются к глав¬ ному предложению придаточные предложения подлежащие и сказуемые: How he did it is not clear. The question is why he is absent. 342
пор пока), hardly when, по sooner... than1 (едва только ... как, неуспел... как). I’ll stay here until (till) he comes. Я побуду здесь, пока он не придет. Hardly had I gone to bed, when He успел я лечь спать, как зазво- my telephone rang. нил телефон. б) условия вводятся союзами if, unless (если не), provided (при ус¬ ловии, что), in case (в случае, когда). You’ll never speak English cor¬ rectly unless you know gram¬ mar well. If it does not rain tomorrow, we’ll go to the country. Вы никогда не будете правильно говорить по-английски, если не будете хорошо знать грамматику. Если завтра не будет дождя, мы поедем за город. в) причины вводятся союзами because, as (так как), since (посколь- ку),for (ибо). Since it was late, we returned Так как было поздно, мы верну- home. лись домой. г) цели вводятся союзами so that, in order, so as2 (для того чтобы), lest (чтобы не); после so that употребляются модальные глаголы may {might), can {could), после lest - форма сослагательного наклонения с should. Give me your address so that I Дайте мне ваш адрес, чтобы я мог can (could)/may (might) отправить вам письмо, send you a letter. I’ll put down your telephone Я запишу номер вашего телефона, number lest I should forget чтобы мне его не забыть, it. д) уступительные вводятся союзами though, although (хотя), whoever (кто бы ни), whatever (что бы ни), however (как бы ни) и др. Whoever calls me up, tell them Кто бы мне ни позвонил, скажи- I am not in. те, что меня нет дома. 1 21 С этими союзами в придаточном предложении необходимо соблюдать инверсию; при этом глагол придаточного предложения употребляется как правило в форме Past Perfect. 2 Союз so as употребляется перед инфинитивом с отрицательной части¬ цей not: 1 took a taxi so as not to be late. 343
§ 2. СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ И НАРЕЧИЙ (DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS) 1. Односложные прилагательные и наречия и некоторые дву¬ сложные образуют сравнительную степень с помощью суффикса -ег, превосходную степень - суффикса -est. При прибавлении указанных суффиксов могут иметь место орфографические изменения, например: big - bigger - biggest; easy - easier - easiest. 2. Многосложные прилагательные и наречия, оканчивающиеся на -1у, образуют сравнительную степень при помощи слов тоге (более) или less (менее), а превосходную - при помощи слов most (более все¬ го), least (менее всего) в сочетании с положительной степенью: difficult - more (less) difficult - most (least) difficult easily - more (less) easily - most (least) easily 3. Ряд прилагательных и наречий образуют степени сравнения от разных основ: 1- better - best ^аС] ^ - worse - worst } - less - least well ) badly) little) much, many) _ more _ most ^ar \ _ farther/further - farthest/furthest much ) far) old - older/elder - oldest/eldest Примечания. 1. Формы farther, farthest употребляются в буквальном смысле, т. е. при¬ менительно к расстоянию; формы further, furthest употребляются в пе¬ реносном смысле: Т live far. Не lives farther. «Я живу далеко. Он живет дальше.»; His further attempt. «Его последующая, дальнейшая попытка». Формы older, oldest употребляются применительно к возрасту, elder, eldest - по отношению к старшим по положению в обществе, семье. 2. Существительные, определяемые прилагательными в превосходной степени, имеют определенный артикль: The Baikal is the deepest lake in Siberia. Of all the countries Russia is the largest (country). 3. В сравнительных предложениях употребляются союзы: as... as (такой/ так же, как) - при сравнении одинаковой степени качества; not so as (не такой/так, как), than (чем) - при сравнении разной степени качества. She writes as slowly as I do. My bag is larger than yours. This text is not so long as that one. 344
§ 3. СОЧИНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СОЮЗЫ Сочинительные союзы and (и, a), or (или), but (но, л, идпако), for (ибо, так как), nor (и не, также не), as well as (а также), not only... but also (не только ..., но и), both ... and (как ... так и; и ... и) either ...or (либо ... либо), neither ... nor (ни ... ни), yet (однако) связывают, как правило, однородные члены предложения. Иногда они (кроме союзов as well as, both... and) связывают однородные предложения, имеющие сочинитель¬ ную связь. Not only the children but also the grown-ups enjoyed the film. Both old and young play sport in our country. Neither Bob nor Ann came to see us last Sunday'. They are not at home either in the morning or in the evening. § 4. НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ И НАРЕЧИЯ (INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS) В утвердитель¬ ных предложе¬ ниях В вопроси¬ тельных пред¬ ложениях В отрицательных предложениях В предложе¬ ниях всех типов Употребляет¬ ся, когда речь идет some any not... any no every something что-то что-нибудь anything not... anything ничего nothing ничего everything всё о пеодушев- леииых предметах somebody кто-то, кто-нибудь anybody anyone not ... anybody (one) никто nobody, no one, none никто everybody everyone все об одушев¬ ленных предметах somewhere где-то, где-нибудь, куда-то, куда-нибудь anywhere not...anywhere нигде, никуда nowhere нигде, никуда everywhere везде всюду о месте ' Поскольку союз neither ... nor является отрицательным, глагол-сказуе¬ мое предложения употребляется в утвердительной форме. Кроме этого сою¬ за, в качестве отрицания могут выступать: наречие never, отрицательное ме¬ стоимение по (и его производные) и частица not. 345
Например: There is something new in your information. Was there anything interesting in the club yesterday? There is nothing funny in it. Somebody wants to see you. Has anybody come? I did not meet anybody (I met nobody) there. Nobody called me up yesterday. We will go out somewhere tonight. Do they live anywhere in the Urals? You cannot get this book anywhere. (You can get this book nowhere.)
LESSON 8 § 1. ВРЕМЕНА СОВЕРШЕННОГО ВИДА В ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГЕ (THE PERFECT TENSE FORMS, ACTIVE VOICE) Форма Present Past Future Утверди¬ тельная I (you, we, they) have come. He (she, it) has come. I (you, he, she, it, they) had come. I (we) will/shall have done it. He (she, it, you, they) will have done it. Вопроси¬ тельная Have you (we, they) done it? Has he (she, it) done it? Had you (he, she, it, they) come? Shall/Will I (we) have done it? Will he (she, it, you, they) have done it? Отрица¬ тельная I (you, we, they) have not done it. He (she, it) has not done it. I (you, he, she, it, they) had not come. I (we) will/shall not have done it. He (she, it, you, they) will not have done it. Примечания. 1. Глагол в Present Perfect обозначает действие, предшествовавшее мо¬ менту речи в настоящем и связанное с этим моментом определенным результатом или указанием периода времени, который еще не закон¬ чился. 2. Present Perfect употребляется: а) при наличии обстоятельств незакон¬ ченного периода времени today, this week (month, year, term); б) с наре¬ чиями неопределенного времени never (никогда), ever (когда-нибудь), just (только что), yet (еще не), already (уже), lately (за последнее время), а также с since (с тех пор как; с). We have read many books this year. Have you ever been to London? I have never heard this opera. He hasn’t attended English classes since last Monday. Мы прочли много книг в этом году. Вы когда-нибудь были в Лондоне? Я никогда не слушал эту оперу. Он не присутствует на уроках анг¬ лийского языка с прошлого по¬ недельника. 11 Имеются в виду обстоятельства типа yesterday, last week, two days ago, on Monday, at 5 o’clock, in 1998. 347
3. Present Perfect не употребляется: а) с обстоятельствами точпого време¬ ни в прошлом1, а также в вопросах, начинающихся с when!, at what time! Present Perfect также не употребляется, когда обстоятельство вре¬ мени выражено придаточным предложением, вводимым союзом when, б) при выражении ряда последовательных действий, следующих одно за другим. В указанных случаях употребляется Past Indefinite, When (at what time) did you finish your work? He came in, took off his hat and greeted us. Когда (в какое время) вы закон¬ чили вашу работу? Он вошел, снял шляпу и поздо¬ ровался с нами. 4. Глагол в Past Perfect обозначает действие, законченное к определенно¬ му моменту в прошлом или ранее начала другого действия. Указан¬ ный момент может быть выражен обстоятельством с предлогом by или придаточным предложением с союзом when. I had done my homework by 5 o’clock yesterday (by this time yesterday; by last Monday; by the end of the week; by the time you came), I had finished my work when you called me up. Я выполпил домашнее задание к 5 часам вечера (к этому време¬ ни вчера; к прошлому понедель- пику; к концу недели; к тому вре¬ мени, когда вы пришли), Я закончил свою работу, когда вы мне позвонили. На русский язык глагол в Present и Past Perfect переводится глаголом прошедшего времени совершенного вида, а если действие еще не за¬ кончилось (в отношении Present Perfect), то глаголом в настоящем вре¬ мени. I have known him since 1970 (since Я зпшо его с 1970 г, (с тех пор, как I entered this faculty). я поступил на этот факультет). 5. Глагол в Future Perfect обозначает действие, которое закончится к оп¬ ределенному моменту в будущем. Этот момент может быть выражен обстоятельством с предлогом by или придаточным предложением с союзом when. Не will have finished the work by this Завтра к этому времени (когда вы time tomorrow (when you come), придете), он (уже) закончит эту работу. § 2, ВРЕМЕНА ПЕРФЕКТНО-ПРОДОЛЖЕННОГО ВИДА (THE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE FORMS) Глагол в Present Perfect Continuous обозначает действие, начав¬ шееся до момента речи и продолжающееся в момент речи в настоящем времени. Период времени, в течение которого продолжается дейст¬ вие, выражается обстоятельством с предлогом since (с) или for (в тече¬ ние). Г лагол в Present Perfect Continuous переводится глаголом настоя¬ щего времени несовершенного вида. 348
I have been working since the morn¬ ing He has been working for two hours. Have you been waiting long? How long have you been learning English? Since when have you been living here? He has not been working here since 1990. Я работаю с утра. Он работает в течение двух часов. Вы уже давно ждете? Сколько времени (как долго) вы изучаете английский язык? С какого времени вы живете здесь? Он не работает здесь с 1990 года. Глагол в Past Perfect Continuous обозначает действие, начавшее¬ ся до какого-то момента в прошлом и непрерывно продолжавшееся вплоть до этого момента. Последний может быть выражен обстоя¬ тельством с предлогом by или придаточным предложением времени, вводимым союзами when, before. Глагол в Past Perfect Continuous пе¬ реводится глаголом прошедшего времени несовершенного вида. I had been working for two hours when you came (by 5 o’clock yes¬ terday, by the time you came). Had you been working long before I came? How long had you been working be¬ fore I came? I had not been working long by the time you came. Я работал в течение двух часов, когда вы пришли (к 5 часам ве¬ чера; к тому времени, когда вы . пришли). Вы долго работали до того, как я пришел? Сколько времени вы работали до того, как я пришел9 Я работал недолго до того време¬ ни, как вы пришли. § 3. СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН (SEQUENCE OF TENSES) В английском языке, если сказуемое главного предложения нахо¬ дится в форме прошедшего времени, то глагол дополнительного при¬ даточного предложения стоит в одной из форм прошедшего времени. 1) Если действие дополнительного придаточного предложения происходит одновременно с действием главного, то глагол придаточ¬ ного предложения употребляется в форме Past Indefinite (Past Contin¬ uous) и переводится на русский язык глаголом в настоящем времени. Не said (that) he lived in Moscow. Он сказал, что живет в Москве. Не didn’t know (that) I was prepar- Он не знал, что я готовлю доклад. ing a report. 349
2) Если действие придаточного предложения предшествовало дей¬ ствию главного, го глагол в придаточном предложении употребляет¬ ся в форме Past Perfect и переводится на русский язык глаголом про¬ шедшего времени. Не said (that) he had lived in Mos- Он сказал, что жил (раньше) в cow. Москве. 3) Если действие придаточного предложения последует за дейст¬ вием главного, т. е. совершится в будущем, то глагол придаточного употребляется в форме Future-in-the-Past (should/would + инфинитив без to). I was sure (that) you would help him. Я был уверен, что вы поможете ему. She knew (that) we would соте. Она знала, что мы придем. § 4. КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ (REPORTED SPEECH) При переводе прямой речи в косвенную необходимо соблюдать правила согласования времен, соответственно изменяя личные и при¬ тяжательные местоимения, а также слова: this на that these на those now на then today на that day Прямая речь Peter said, “I will translate this article tomorrow.” tomorrow на the next day yesterday на the day before ago на before here на there Косвенная речь Peter said he would translate that article the next day. При переводе прямого вопроса в косвенный он становится до¬ полнительным придаточным предложением, которое вводится сою¬ зами if/whether (ли), если это общий вопрос, или союзными словами who, which, whose, when, why, how many и др., если это специальный вопрос. Порядок слов в косвенном вопросе прямой. She asked me, “Do you still remem- She asked me if (whether) I still re- ber me?” membered her. He asked me, “When did you enter He asked me when I had entered the the History Faculty?” History Faculty. 350
Глагол в повелительном наклонении (в побудительных предло¬ жениях) заменяется в косвенной речи инфинитивом. Если в прямой речи выражалось приказание, глагол say заменяется глаголом tell; если в прямой речи выражалась просьба, глагол say заменяется глаголом ask. She said, “Will you help me?” He said, “Go there immediately.” She asked me to help her. He told me to go there immediately.
LESSON 10 § 1. ВРЕМЕНА ПРОДОЛЖЕННОГО ВИДА В СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГЕ (THE CONTINUOUS TENSE FORMS, PASSIVE VOICE) Форма Present Past Утверди¬ тельная lam ) You(we’ 'being asked, they) are j He (she, it) is ) I (he, she, it) was \ being asked at 1 this time yes- You (we, they) were f terday (when 1 you came in). Вопроси¬ тельная Are you being asked? Js the letter being typed? Were you (we, they) I , . , Was he (she, it) J being asked? Отрица¬ тельная You are not being helped. The article is not being translated. I (he, she, it) was not being asked. You (we, they) were not being helped. Примечания. 1. Глагол в форме Continuous Passive обозначает действие, которое ис¬ пытывает подлежащее со стороны другого лица (предмета) и которое происходит в какой-то момент в настоящем (Present) или прошедшем (Past) времени; при этом действие рассматривается как незаконченный длящийся процесс. 2. В форме Continuous Passive не употребляются глаголы, которые не упот¬ ребляются в Continuous Active. 3. Для выражения будущего действия в Continuous Passive используется Future Indefinite Passive: The letter will be typed when you come (at this time tomorrow). - Письмо будут печатать, когда вы придете. 352
§ 2. ВРЕМЕНА СОВЕРШЕННОЕО ВИДА В СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОЕЕ (THE PERFECT TENSE FORMS, PASSIVE VOICE) Форма Present Past Future Утверди¬ тельная I have just been told about it. He has already been asked to do it. I had been told about it by this time yesterday. He had been asked to do it when you came. I’ll have been asked by this time tomorrow. He’ll have been exam¬ ined when you come. Вопроси¬ тельная Has this article ever been translated? Had the article been translated by the time you came? Will the article have been translated by 12 o’clock tomor¬ row? Отрица¬ тельная I haven’t yet been told about it. The letter hadn’t been sent by this time yes¬ terday. The article won’t have been translated by 12 o’clock. I won’t have been ex¬ amined by this time tomorrow. Примечания. 1. Глагол в Present Perfect Passive обозначает действие, законченное к мо¬ менту речи с определенным результатом, которое испытывало подле¬ жащее со стороны другого лица (предмета). С глаголами в этой видо¬ временной форме часто употребляются наречия неопределенного вре¬ мени just, yet, already, ever, never, since (см. примечание 2 к § 1, с. 347). Present Perfect Passive не употребляется при указании точного времени в прошлом (см. примечание 3 к § 1, с. 348) и переводится на русский язык глаголом прошедшего времени совершенного вида в составе не¬ определенно-личного предложения: I have just been told about it. - Мне только что сказали об этом.; The article had been translated by this time yesterday. - Статью перевели вчера к этому времени.; The letter will have been sent when you come. - Письмо отошлют к вашему приходу. А так¬ же кратким причастием в сочетании с «быть» (Статья была переведе¬ на..., Письмо будет отослано...). 2. Глагол в Past Perfect Passive обозначает действие, законченное к опре¬ деленному моменту в прошлом. Последний может быть выражен об¬ стоятельством времени с предлогом by или придаточным предложе¬ нием с when. 3. Глагол в Future Perfect Passive обозначает действие, которое будет за¬ кончено к определенному моменту в будущем; последний может быть выражен обстоятельством с предлогом by или придаточным предло¬ жением с when. 353
LESSON 12 § 1. ИНФИНИТИВ (THE INFINITIVE) Инфинитив - это неличная форма глагола. Обладая признаками глагола, он имеет категорию залога, относительного времени, может иметь дополнение и определяться наречием. Инфинитив обладает именными свойствами: он может выполнять синтаксические функции существительного, прилагательного, наречия. Инфинитив обычно употребляется с частицей to, однако после вспомогательных и модальных глаголов (исключение составляет гла¬ гол ought), а также в сложном дополнении после глаголов see, hear, watch, feel, make (заставлять), let (позволять, разрешать) и в некото¬ рых оборотах (had better, would rather) частица to не употребляется. Формы Active Passive Indefinite to ask to be asked Continuous to be asking - Perfect to have asked to have been asked Perfect Continuous to have been asking - В предложении инфинитив может быть: 1) подлежащим, частью сложного подлежащего: То listen to such music is very \ pleasant. I Приятно слушать такую музыку. It is very pleasant to listen to such / music. J He is said to live here. Говорят, что он живет здесь. 2) вторым компонентом сказуемого: We shall go there at once. Мы поедем туда немедленно. You must do this work now. Вы должны выполнить эту рабо¬ ту сейчас. The children continued to play. Дети продолжали играть. 354
I am glad to see you. Рад видеть вас. She is pleasant to look at. На нее приятно смотреть. I am sorry to have kept you waiting. Извините, что я заставил вас ждать. 3) дополнением, частью сложного дополнения: We hope to see them next week. Мы надеемся увидеть их на сле¬ дующей неделе. I saw him leave the room. Я видел, как он ушел. 4) определением: She gave me a book to read. The question to be discussed at to¬ morrow’s meeting is very impor¬ tant. Она дала мне почитать книгу. Вопрос, который нужно обсу¬ дить (будет обсуждаться) на завтрашнем собрании, очень важный. 5) обстоятельством (чаще всего дели и следствия'): I have entered this faculty to take a thorough study of history. She is too old to do the job. He is rich enough to have a car of his own. Я поступил на этот факультет, что¬ бы глубоко изучить историю. Она слишком стара, чтобы выпол¬ нять эту работу. Он достаточно богат, чтобы иметь свою собственную машину. § 2. ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ инфинитивным оборот Объектный инфинитивный оборот (сложное дополнение) пред¬ ставляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или лич¬ ного местоимения в объектном падеже с инфинитивом. Он употреб¬ ляется: 1) после глаголов want, wish, should (would) like и др. I want your students (them) to come Я хочу, чтобы ваши студенты tomorrow. (они) пришли завтра. Would you like me to do it? Вам бы хотелось, чтобы я это сде¬ лал? 11 В функции обстоятельства следствия инфинитив употребляется после слов too, enough. 355
2) после глаголов feel. hear. see. watch, причем инфинитив упот¬ ребляется без частицы to. I have never heard her sing. Я никогда не слышал, как она поет. Have you ever seen him dance? Вы когда-нибудь видели, как он танцует? Примечание. После глаголов этой группы инфинитив в страдательном залоге не употребляется. Если действие осуществляется не подлежащим, а дру¬ гими лицами, используется причастие. Я слышал, как упомянули мое имя. I heard my name mentioned. 3) после глаголов expect, believe, suppose (полагать, предполагать), think, consider (считать) и др. I expect her to take part in the Я ожидаю, что она примет учас- concert. тие в концерте. They consider him to be a specialist Они считают его специалистом в in this field. этой области. 4) после глаголов таке1 (заставлять), order, ask, let', allow (позво¬ лять, разрешать), get, have1 (распорядиться, позаботиться о том, что¬ бы) и др. I couldn’t make her do it. She doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in her room. Have Nick look after the dog. (Get Nick to look after the dog.) He asked me to come. Я не мог заставить ее сделать это. Она никому не разрешает курить в своей комнате. Сделайте так (распорядитесь), чтобы Ник присмотрел за со¬ бакой. Он попросил меня прийти. Примечание. Следует иметь в виду, что глагол ask (просить кого-нибудь) употреб¬ ляется с двумя дополнениями: Не asked me to come. § 3. СУБЪЕКТНЫЙ ИНФИНИТИВНЫЙ ОБОРОТ Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (сложное подлежащее, или «именительный с инфинитивом») представляет собой сочетание суще¬ ствительного в общем падеже или личного местоимения в именитель¬ ном падеже с инфинитивом. Он употребляется: 11 После этого глагола инфинитив употребляется без частицы to. 356
1) после глаголов know, say, report, announce (объявлять), declare, state (заявлять), expect, believe, suppose, consider, think и других глаго¬ лов, стоящих в форме страдательного залога. При этом сам инфини¬ тив может иметь различные формы (см. § 1, с. 354): Инфинитивный оборот Не is known to translate into many languages. Many Russian books are expected to be translated into English in the near future. This writer is supposed to be trans¬ lating Gamzatov’s works. He was announced to have tr ana- lated that book. This book is reported to have been translated into many languages. She was believed to have been trans¬ lating this set of poems for sev¬ eral years. Ann is considered to be an excellent translator. Перевод1 Известно, что он переводит на многие языки. (Он, как извест¬ но, переводит на многие языки.) Ожидают (ожидается), что мно¬ гие русские книги будут пере¬ ведены на английский язык в ближайшем будущем. Предполагают, что этот писа¬ тель переводит сейчас произве¬ дения Г амзатова. Было объявлено, что он перевел эту книгу (он, как было объяв¬ лено ...). Сообщают, что эта книга переве¬ дена на многие языки (как со¬ общают ..., сообщается, что ...). Полагали, что она переводит этот сборник стихов уже в те¬ чение нескольких лет (она, как полагали,...). Анну считают (Анна считается) отличным переводчиком. 2) после глаголов prove, turn out, appear (оказаться)2, seem (казать¬ ся), happen (случаться) в форме действительного залога: Не proved to be a good chap. Он оказался хорошим парнем. She appeared to be in the know. Она оказалась в курсе дела. They seem to be working in the gar- Они, кажется, работают сейчас в den. саду 1 21 При переводе предложений, содержащих субъектный инфинитивный оборот, следует обращать внимание на форму инфинитива. 2 После глаголов prove, turn out, appear чаще всего следует инфинитив to be, который иногда опускается. 357
He doesn’t seem to know the sub¬ ject. Mary seemed to have fallen in love with the man. Tom and L happened to study in one and the same group. Do you happen to know his tele¬ phone number? Кажется (Похоже на то, что ...), он не знает этого предмета. Казалось, Мэри влюбилась в этого человека. (Было похоже на то, что Мэри влюбилась в этого человека.) Случилось так, что я с Томом зани¬ мался в одной и той же группе. Вы, случайно, не знаете номер его телефона? 3) с глагольными сочетаниями be likely, be unlikely, be sure, be certain'. The weather is likely to change. He is unlikely to come. She is sure to give us a call. They are certain to pass their ex¬ amination. Погода, вероятно, изменится. Маловероятно, что он придет. Она обязательно нам позвонит Они наверняка сдадут экзамен. § 4. ИНФИНИТИВНЫЙ ОБОРОТ С ПРЕДЛОГОМ FOR Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом for (for-Complex) представ¬ ляет собой сочетание этого предлога с существительным (местоиме¬ нием) и инфинитива и может выступать в предложении в функции раз¬ личных его членов: 1) подлежащего It’s important for a student of his¬ tory to be well-read in this field. 2) дополнения The travellers waited for the river to open. 3 43) определения The best thing for him to do is to leave this place. 4) именной части сказуемого It is for him to take the final deci¬ sion. Студенту-историку важно быть хорошо начитанным в этой об¬ ласти. Путешественники ждали, когда вскроется река. Самое лучшее, что ему нужно сделать, - это уехать отсюда. Это он должен принять оконча¬ тельное решение.
LESSON 14 § 1. ГЕРУНДИЙ (THE GERUND) Герундий-это неличная форма, называющая действие. Герундий обладает признаками глагола: имеет категорию залога и относитель¬ ного времени, может иметь дополнение и определяться наречием. Он также обладает признаками существительного: ему могут предшест¬ вовать предлоги, он может определяться притяжательным местоиме¬ нием или существительным в притяжательном падеже, выполнять син¬ таксические функции, присущие существительному. Формы Active Passive Non-Perfect translating being translated Perfect having translated having been translated В предложении герундий может быть: 1) подлежащим Reading is useful. Читать полезно. There is no denying it. Этого нельзя отрицать. 2) частью сказуемого после глаголов to start, to finish, to stop, to go (keep) on, выражений can’t help (нельзя не), to be for (выступать за), to be against (быть против), to be worth [9] (стоить, например, затраченно¬ го времени) и др. The boy started running. Мальчик побежал. The book is worth reading. Книгу стоит почитать. 3) прямым дополнением после глаголов to like, to need, to want (нуж¬ даться), to prefer, to remember, to mind (в вопросит, и отрицат. предло¬ жениях), to enjoy и др. I don’t mind seeing the film again. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы еще раз посмотреть этот фильм. или предложным дополнением после ряда прилагательных, причастий, глаголов (с определенными предлогами): to be fond of (очень любить, 359
увлекаться чем-л.), to be interested in (интересоваться чем-л.), to be sur¬ prised at (удивляться чему-л.), to object to (возражать против чего-л.), to prevent from (мешать, препятствовать чему-л., не давать сделать что-л.) идр. I am fond of reading. Я очень люблю читать. 4) определением (всегда с предлогом) после ряда существитель¬ ных: idea, way, hope, pleasure, necessity, purpose (aim). What’s the purpose of your coming Какова цель вашего прихода сюда? here? I don’t like the idea of spending my Мне не нравится мысль проводить holiday there. там каникулы. 5) обстоятельством времени (всегда с такими предлогами, как upon, on (по завершению), in (в процессе), after, before, at и др. In reading the book I came across many new words. On coming home he took a short rest. Когда я читал эту книгу, я встре¬ тил много новых слов. Придя домой, он немного отдох¬ нул. 6) обстоятельством образа действия или сопутствующим обстоя¬ тельством - с такими предлогами, как through, by (посредством), instead of (вместо), without (без того чтобы). She left without saying ‘goodbye’. The students must improve their pronunciation by working in the lab every day. Она ушла не попрощавшись (не сказав «До свидания»). Студенты должны совершенство¬ вать свое произношение, еже¬ дневно работая в лаборатории. Герундий на русский язык переводится отглагольным существи¬ тельным, инфинитивом, деепричастием, глаголом в личной форме, придаточным предложением. Следует обращать особое внимание на перевод сложных форм герундия и герундиальных оборотов. Последние всегда переводятся при помощи придаточного предложения. Герундиальный оборот Пример перевода His having made so many mistakes To, что он сделал так много оши- in the test translation was unex- бок в контрольном переводе, pected. было неожиданным. 360
I don’t mind Ann (Ann’s, her) being invited to my birthday party. Everybody got surprised at their having been sent to the Far East. Do you object to us (our) staying there for another week? Я не против того, чтобы Анну (ее) - пригласили на мой день рожде¬ ния. Все удивились тому, что их по слали на Дальний Восток. Вы не возражаете против того, чтобы мы остались там еще на одну неделю? § 2. ОТГЛАГОЛЬНОЕ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ (THE VERBAL NOUN) Герундий совпадает по окончанию -ing не только с причастием I (Participle I), но и с так называемым отглагольным существительным. Последнее обладает всеми свойствами отвлеченного существительно¬ го и отличается от глагольных форм на -ing наличием артикля, пред¬ лога, стоящего после отглагольного существительного, и формой мно¬ жественного числа на -.у. Английское отглагольное существительное обычно переводится на русский язык существительным. the teaching of Marx - учение Маркса the taking of Carthage - взятие Карфагена § 3. НЕЗАВИСИМЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ (THE NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION) В английском языке имеются причастные обороты1, в которых перед причастием стоит существительное в общем падеже или место- имение в именительном падеже, являющиеся субъектом действия, вы¬ раженного причастием. В предложении независимый причастный обо¬ рот выступает в функции обстоятельства времени, причины, условия или сопутствующего обстоятельства и переводится придаточным пред¬ ложением с союзами так как, когда, после того как, если и др. Причас¬ тие (которое может иметь любую форму) переводится личной формой 1 Они называются независимыми, так как не привязаны к подлежащему или дополнению предложения и выступают самостоятельно. 361
глагола в функции сказуемого, а стоящее перед ним существительное (местоимение) - подлежащим. Независимый причастный оборот от¬ деляется запятой. Му wife being ill, I had to run the house. Time permitting, we will discuss two more questions. All the questions having been dis¬ cussed, the chairman declared the meeting closed. Так как моя жена была больна, мне пришлось заниматься до¬ машним хозяйством. Если позволит время, мы обсу¬ дим еще два вопроса. После того как все вопросы были обсуждены, председатель объя¬ вил собрание закрытым. Если причастный оборот стоит после предложения, он переводит¬ ся самостоятельным предложением с союзами а, и, причем. She went out into the street, her dog Она вышла на улицу, а ее собака running after her. бежала за ней. Самостоятельный причастный оборот может вводиться предло¬ гом with. В этом случае предлог with не переводится. She went out into the street, with her dog running after her.
LESSON 15 § 1. МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ (MODAL VERBS) Модальность, т. е. отношение говорящего к действительности, по¬ мимо других средств, может выражаться модальными глаголами сап, could, must, may, might, need, should, shall, will, would, ought to, have to, be to. Модальные глаголы употребляются в сочетании со смысловым гла¬ голом в форме инфинитива без частицы to (кроме глагола ought). Они не имеют формы инфинитива, а также личных окончаний. can (could) 1) обозначает физическую возможность совершения действия, способность или умение: Не can do it. Он может это сделать. Ann can skate. Энн умеет кататься на коньках. 2) обозначает сомнение в том, что действие имеет место или име¬ ло место (в сочетании с глаголом to be, продолженной или перфект¬ ной формой инфинитива - в вопросительном предложении): Can she be so busy? Неужели она настолько занята? Can they be still travelling in the Неужели они все еще путешеству- Caucasus? ют по Кавказу? Can (could) he have said it? Неужели (разве) он